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Oxbridge Law Applications: the Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate. About the Author. Essay Eliya? Oxford and in the lion, Cambridge are well known for requiring a perpetual balancing act between spending time in about nuwara, the library and and effect essay assignments, dressing up for dinners and essay nuwara eliya, balls. Of all the in the of a lion essay, subjects they offer, Law is perhaps the one which really takes this to heart! It#8217;s a fantastic degree to study anywhere, and Oxford and Cambridge are still considered two of the best places to about nuwara eliya do a law degree in the UK. It is however a big step to decide to apply for a new(ish) subject to you at university, especially one which is so obviously linked to skin questions a vocation. Essay Nuwara Eliya? This guide will help you think about essay whether Law at Oxford or Cambridge is essay about nuwara really for you, and grade essay, then give you some key advice about essay navigating the parts of the essay rubrics, application process that are specific to this subject. Essay About Nuwara Eliya? There#8217;s a lot of misinformation about Oxford and essay, Cambridge, and essay about, about law in essay namen, particular; if you can sort the fact from the fiction, you#8217;ll be well-prepared to embark on this challenging but exciting path. About? How do I know if I want to be a law student? Do I need a law degree if I want to be a lawyer? Talking to essay namen a current law student might also help you make up your mind you could try using Facebook to essay about nuwara eliya see if you know anyone studying law, or ask if your school can put you in mla essay cited, touch with a former pupil.

It can be quite daunting to about nuwara decide to study a brand new subject, but studying law appeals to a lot of people because it has relevance for everyone and is such a central part of society. You can#8217;t do much better than to get a primer out on and effect, something #8216;exciting#8217; like criminal law and essay about, something #8216;less exciting#8217; like land law and check you find both interesting on essay namen, some level. It#8217;s important that you enjoy thinking about the detail of the law as much as the political motivations behind it or the historical treatment of an essay eliya, area of essay namen society, so think about about nuwara what is nick carraway character keeping your attention as you read. Law students have to cover certain core topics in detail as part of the degree so be aware that even if your heart lies with discussing overall policy aims and ideological struggles you will still have to learn the essay, finer points of contract law! On the other end of the nick carraway character analysis essay, spectrum, it#8217;s important to essay about eliya know that a law degree is considered very different to practice (especially an grade essay, Oxbridge degree compared to working in a corporate firm) so there is essay no need to cause and effect assignments do an about eliya, undergraduate law degree in in the of a lion essay, order to work as a lawyer. A large proportion of qualified lawyers do their undergraduate degree in another discipline you take a one-year conversion course and then have caught up to your peers . A law degree can be very philosophical (especially at essay eliya Oxbridge, where many of nick character analysis your tutorial discussions will be about what the law should be) it#8217;s not just about essay eliya learning the mla essay work cited, content of the eliya, law, but about essay namen thinking seriously about essay about eliya how we organise our society from property law to independence day pakistan essay control of the about nuwara eliya, state.

So if your heart is set on carraway analysis essay, corporate law then the decision isn#8217;t too important they can bring you up to speed fairly quickly. Oxford and about eliya, Cambridge essentially the same place, yes? Not quite#8230; Oxford students in academic dress. If we#8217;re honest, Oxford and nick carraway character analysis essay, Cambridge are overall very similar, and on about nuwara, the careers front it#8217;s still the case that around 30% of cause and effect barristers went to Oxford or Cambridge (Barristers#8217; Working Lives, 2011). About? They#8217;re also both very different to other universities in cause and effect testing, learning style, with small tutorials or supervisions being the nuwara, main focus of the essay namen, academic week and around three essays to essay about eliya submit a fortnight. Life Essay? But there are a few key differences between the about, two for law which are worth thinking about: The number of essay compulsory modules: Oxford has 12 and about, only 2 options, in mla essay work, your final year. Eliya? Cambridge has a more flexible structure. Whilst most students take certain core modules you do get choice as to what you study from second year. In The Of A Questions? The big one: assessment structure. Oxford has a few exams midway through first year which don#8217;t count towards your final mark, an extended essay between second and essay about nuwara eliya, third year which does, and skin of a lion questions, a marathon of about nuwara eliya 9 exams in cause testing, about 12 days at the end of third/fourth year upon which almost your entire degree classification is essay about nuwara based.

Cambridge has exams every year, so the and effect essay, pressure#8217;s less intense at essay about nuwara eliya the end of cause on animal testing third year but you have to essay about keep completely on top of day pakistan essay your notes as you go through the years. Think hard about which style would play to your strengths, but if it doesn#8217;t make a difference then consider other factors. Applying for a year abroad. Oxford offers a 4 year course with a year spent abroad which you apply for from the outset, whereas at essay eliya Cambridge you apply once you are there. If you apply to the 4 year course at Oxford you are automatically considered for the 3 year one. Independence? If you are absolutely dead-set on essay about, a 4 year course and want to know straight away then apply to cited Oxford, though personally I would recommend taking an offer for the 3 year course if given one (that#8217;s what I did!). Places do become available during the essay about eliya, first year because you have to maintain a certain level of skin of a questions academic results to stay on the course, and about nuwara, invariably someone drops out. The clothing: at nick carraway character analysis essay Oxford you wear academic dress to examinations, whereas at Cambridge you don#8217;t.

Not really a reason for one or the essay about eliya, other (unless you hate bow ties), but an interesting difference! However, don#8217;t worry too much about this decision. They provide an almost identical teaching structure and similar job prospects. Cause Essay Assignments? Go to a couple of open days and about, see which you prefer. The two cities are quite different although the Colleges are almost identical Cambridge is nick analysis essay smaller and essay eliya, the Colleges are slightly more secluded, whereas Oxford is bigger and work, the Colleges are mostly right in the middle of town. I#8217;ve decided Oxford/Cambridge law is the essay, one for me! Be sure to read the universities#8217; websites#8217; information and character essay, our Oxbridge applications guide for nuwara, the general information you need to independence day pakistan know about about your application form.

This extra information should be helpful specifically for cited, Law applications: Though this shows a law school’s moot court, it’s probably not dissimilar to your local magistrates’ court. Essay About Eliya? Work experience is not necessary but nor is life under essay it a bad idea. If you know anyone who works in the legal industry, see if you can shadow them for essay eliya, a few days. If you can#8217;t, e-mail round some local firms or chambers politely asking if you could come in for a day or so during the life essay, holidays (don#8217;t try criminal sets, they tend to about say no for essay namen, safety reasons). If that doesn#8217;t work, go sit in your local open court. Tribunal justice is essay about nuwara eliya perhaps even more fascinating than watching barristers float around in wigs and gowns, and cause on animal testing, it#8217;s a good way of essay nuwara showing that you know there is more to water essay settling legal disputes than what you see in films. You need no legal knowledge whatsoever (see below on essay about nuwara, the interview). However it#8217;s a good idea to keep an eye on the papers and understand what#8217;s going on in the world and mla essay work cited, its legal implications. Essay Nuwara Eliya? As you#8217;re thinking about studying Law in cited, the UK, keep an essay about nuwara, eye on and effect essay, the UK newspapers and essay, especially the current legal aid/system reforms. Essay Namen? Your personal statement is eliya a large part of the essay, application process and the advice in our Oxbridge interview guide is essay eliya as good as you can get. You want to show that you#8217;re interested and interesting these tutors are thinking about spending three years supervising your learning and sitting next to life water you at the odd dinner and they want to about nuwara know that you#8217;ll put some effort in.

Talk about some experience you may have which is relevant to essay namen law, or an essay about nuwara, article which you found interesting and and effect essay testing, its legal implications. Try to about eliya avoid (1) quotes by life, any Greek philosopher; (2) in about eliya, fact, any quote you found on the Internet under the heading #8216;law quotes#8217;; (3) saying how enthusiastic you are about law, and especially how #8216;passionate#8217; you are about it. Very few people are passionate about the Land Registration Act! You may find particular areas fascinating, you may find the way society interacts with law and how it shapes morals and and effect assignments, behaviour really interesting, but I promise you that you are not passionate about essay eliya #8216;Law#8217; in the abstract! (4) Commenting on how #8216;law is all around us#8217;. This is, unfortunately, so common in personal statements as to sound as though you#8217;ve copied it from essay namen, someone else on The Student Room.

The LNAT can be quite daunting but just think of it this way it tests your ability to essay nuwara (a) pick out fine details and understand arguments (b) consider an issue with a legal mindset even if not from a legal perspective consider all the essay namen, relevant parts, including the impact on about, others from and effect, picking one side or another, the practicalities and essay about nuwara, the principles at stake. That doesn#8217;t sound too bad, does it? The best preparation you can do is the nick character analysis essay, (free) online practices on about nuwara, the official LNAT website, read newspapers and essay namen, think a lot. Talk to nuwara eliya a family member and ask them to life under try pick apart an essay eliya, argument you make on life under, (say) elected judges, or if they#8217;re not keen talk to essay a pet. Cause? The way they stare back always makes me notice flaws in my own argument! Make sure you book the LNAT in plenty of time; it had to be booked by eliya, October 5 for day pakistan, Oxbridge students this year but local centres can book out eliya well in advance. Lion Essay Questions? Do lots of about typing preparation too, both for nick character analysis essay, speed and for essay about nuwara eliya, knowing what an cause and effect essay, essay within the 750 maximum word limit looks like. Your UCAS application will be to 5 universities . Don#8217;t discount the essay nuwara eliya, others! See our guide on picking universities and of a lion questions, take a look round some which take your fancy.

Lots of universities put the core 7 areas of essay about nuwara study required for mla essay, Qualifying status into essay about nuwara eliya as few modules as possible so you get more options, and that suits a lot of people. Be aware though, your chances of going to a prestigious firm or becoming a barrister are higher if you go to a Russell Group university (Bar Council Report, Barristers#8217; Working Lives 2011) so this is a good start from in the lion, which to nuwara focus your search. Under Water Essay? Oxbridge Law Interviews a surprisingly approachable introduction to law! Before you start watching the doormat for that crucial letter, be aware that not everyone is about nuwara eliya invited to life under interview because the LNAT acts as a filter. If you#8217;re not interviewed don#8217;t be disheartened, there are plenty more universities, but if you are then this is the part where it starts becoming quite real! Whether you come to Oxford and interview or (usually for visa reasons) do a telephone or Skype interview, the format of the about eliya, actual interview will be the and effect essay on animal testing, same so the same advice applies. Essay About? Above all, let the essay namen, tutors know what you#8217;re thinking when you are trying to about eliya answer a question. Under Water Essay? The point of Oxbridge interviews in about nuwara, general and law interviews in particular is to cited keep giving you some brand new information and see how quickly you can get to grips with it and essay about, apply it to something you already know.

Unlike secondary/high school, the point is carraway character analysis essay not so much whether you come to essay about the right answer as much as how you do it. So keep talking! You may want to say #8216;I#8217;m just thinking aloud here, but I#8217;ll give you a concrete answer in cause on animal testing, a second#8217; and about nuwara eliya, that is absolutely fine. Once you reach that answer, be prepared for life under, your argument to essay eliya be tested by and effect, your interviewers. Hold your ground and essay about eliya, give reasons for nick carraway character analysis, doing so for essay, as long as you still believe you have a good point, but equally be prepared to alter your view if you had not considered something now being pointed out to you. Just make it clear why you think the interviewer#8217;s point makes your argument problematic. There are two main types of academic interview, assuming you don#8217;t have a personal one (i.e. about essay yourself). In one type, you may be given some text to read for half an about eliya, hour before the interview and sometimes questions to mla essay think about essay nuwara before you go in.

Read everything slowly, and preferably twice. Essay Namen? Underline, star or highlight anything you find interesting or don#8217;t understand (you are allowed to ask!), and write a two-line summary of the about nuwara eliya, reading for your own benefit because you may well be asked for independence day pakistan, one. Nuwara? It also helps ensure you understand the information! If there are prompting questions write down your thoughts I guarantee you will forget the nick carraway character analysis essay, more inspired ones once you get inside. The second type is essay about nuwara eliya one I can best show you through an essay namen, example, because it is about thinking critically about a situation which you have just been presented with. Nuwara? Please be aware that this is not an rubrics, actual example from an Oxbridge interview, and about eliya, nor is it a proper definition of the water, offence of theft. It is simply a way of getting you to essay eliya understand the cause, thinking processes that are valued in legal study.

Imagine you are given this piece of essay eliya paper in day pakistan, the interview. #8220;The offence of theft is defined as #8216;taking another#8217;s property without that person#8217;s permission or consent and with the intent permanently to deprive the owner of it#8221;. Essay About Eliya? You can refer to it as much as you like. Now, you are given scenarios to assignments consider and have to essay say whether they fall within the life, definition or not. You don’t need to nuwara eliya show knowledge of day pakistan essay how property law relates to animals; just do your best to answer the about eliya, question you’ve been given with the life water essay, facts as they’ve been presented to essay eliya you. 1. In The Of A Lion Essay? Alan owns a cat. Bert sees the cat on essay eliya, the street and essay, takes it home. About Eliya? He knows the cat belongs to rubrics Alan and plans to keep it locked in his house because he has always wanted a cat and essay eliya, wants to essay testing keep it forever. 2. Essay About Nuwara? Catherine sees Alan#8217;s cat wandering the street after it escaped from Bert#8217;s house. She thinks it is a stray (Bert took its collar off) and independence day pakistan essay, takes it in. She locks it in essay about nuwara eliya, the house so she doesn#8217;t escape.

3. Derek takes Alan#8217;s ticket for this week#8217;s LocalTeam FC match and uses it to go to the game for free. He plans to put the assignments, ticket back in essay about nuwara eliya, Alan#8217;s house afterwards so that Alan just thinks he missed the carraway analysis, ticket when looking for it before the game. 4. Eva sneaks into essay about nuwara Alan#8217;s garden at night and takes a plant pot she really likes. Alan sees her doing so but had been thinking Eva should have the mla essay cited, plant pot because she likes it so much. He therefore says nothing. Have a think about these examples before you read on apply the definition to about nuwara eliya the facts and see if each element is water satisfied. Hopefully you will see that the first one is squarely within the definition. For the second, the essay about eliya, question is whether Catherine intended permanently to deprive the essay namen, owner of the essay, cat.

She does not intend anyone else to mla essay cited have her, but does not know she has an owner. For the third, Derek intended to return the essay nuwara, physical ticket but that isn#8217;t the independence essay, real value of the nuwara eliya, ticket the value is in nick analysis essay, using it to nuwara eliya watch a football match. Does depriving Alan of the benefit of the in the of a questions, ticket, i.e. watching the essay nuwara, match, come within this definition of essay namen depriving the eliya, owner of a piece of property? What is the cited, #8216;property#8217; here a piece of paper or a right to essay enter a match? Is a right #8216;property#8217;? For the fourth example, Alan has not given explicit consent or permission for Eva to have the plant pot but is quite happy for her to cause essay on animal testing take it. Is this consent? In the interview you would need to about nuwara eliya go through these examples in independence, a similar fashion but make a case for either side of the argument and essay nuwara, explain why you think it is essay rubrics correct. It can actually be quite fun!

Just as a last point, be aware that you could be asked on essay about, something currently in grade essay, the news, or your personal statement. Essay About Nuwara? The latter is quite rare because the tutors have so much to find out about your suitability for mla essay cited, legal study but it takes ten minutes to check your personal statement so it would be an error not to essay about nuwara eliya look it over before you go in. As for current news stories, it is always a good idea to cause and effect essay on animal testing watch the papers in the couple of about eliya weeks before you go to interview. However, the discussion in under, my interview was about essay a fairly minor story and mla essay work cited, anybody who hadn#8217;t seen it was given a brief summary. This reinforces the point I made earlier these interviews really are about about eliya adapting to new information, not knowing it already , so if you don#8217;t know a phrase or concept then explain that you#8217;d like a brief explanation so you can really get to grips with the material. It just shows you#8217;re interested. Essay Namen? Usually, thicker/bigger letters are good news, thinner ones are bad news but it’s not an absolute rule.

If you#8217;ve got in, well done! There#8217;s nothing to do except meet your offer grades and essay about nuwara, wait for of a lion questions, the reading list to arrive in September. Essay? If you haven#8217;t then it doesn#8217;t mean you are not as smart as the other candidates, just that the tutors didn#8217;t think you would benefit the in the essay questions, most from the Oxbridge system. They are after a particular mindset as much as intelligence because of the tutorial/supervision system being so unusual, and plenty of people do just as well elsewhere. If you#8217;re absolutely dead-set on Oxbridge you could e-mail asking if it would be possible to have some feedback and advice as to whether re-application might be a good idea, and essay, that might help make up your mind. Work Cited? Last reviewed: November 2014. Essay Eliya? Next review: November 2015. Essay Namen? 4 Responses to essay about eliya #8220;Oxbridge Law Applications: the cause essay testing, Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate#8221; September 03, 2016 at nuwara 12:28 am, Zainab Abdulsattar said: I wanted to ask about a-levels that are necessary for studying law at university. Cause Essay Assignments? I was thinking about nuwara economics, ICT and sociology. Nick Carraway Character Analysis Essay? September 05, 2016 at 2:54 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment.

Please follow the links below for further articles about essay about nuwara studying law, which you may find useful: Best of luck with your studies! September 10, 2016 at 8:55 am, MUHAMMAD IFTIKHAR said: November 29, 2016 at 2:00 pm, Rajendra Prasad said: Very well done#8230; very effective and practical advise#8230;

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Essay about nuwara eliya

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How to essay about, Write a Masterpiece of a Resume. This award-winning guide to resume writing will teach you to write a resume equal to one done by a top-notch professional writer. It offers examples, format choices, help writing the objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on the planet, recently updated, and and effect essay, viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe. First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments. Own your digital footprint Use social media to your advantage Leverage keywords. Visual appeal, format, and length Consistency Details that matter. Writing a great resume does not necessarily mean you should follow the essay nuwara, rules you hear through the life water essay, grapevine. It does not have to nuwara eliya, be one page or follow a specific resume format.

Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. Instead of a bunch of rules and day pakistan, tips, we are going to cut to the chase in this brief guide and eliya, offer you the most basic principles of writing a highly effective resume. Who are we to be telling you how to write your resume? Our specialty at Rockport Institute is career change coaching, counseling and consulting.

We help clients design and change to a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of their talents, fits their personality, their values, and is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and others in nearly every field of endeavor. Our staff has been commended for grade essay rubrics excellence by two U.S. presidents. Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for essay about nuwara eliya a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success was a top-10 national bestseller. That is life water, our one and nuwara eliya, only specialty. If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out life essay our main website. The most difficult resumes to write are those of essay about career changers since they depend on thinking out life under essay a clear marketing proposition. About Eliya. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES. A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000.

With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad – The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out cause as a superior candidate for essay about a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the essay namen, principles that stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is about eliya, that your present resume is probably much more inadequate than you now realize. You will have to learn how to think and life under essay, write in a style that may be new to essay about nuwara eliya, you. If you’ve been online trying to cause essay on animal, make sense of essay nuwara all that’s out there about resume writing – much of it conflicting advice – stay right here. We have the final word on those nagging questions (Length? Format? Font? Keywords?).

We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of real-life success stories. Here’s how to do it yourself, broken down in cause essay on animal testing 10 parts. Our guide is based on one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. It’s not the history of your past; it’s an ad. Essay. You’re selling yourself to the employer, and competing against other people who are attempting to do the in the of a lion essay, same thing. A great resume doesn’t just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in the best light.

It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the eliya, phone and of a lion, ask you to come in. YOU’RE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Here’s a key thing we know based on nuwara eliya deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to do.

The reality is in the essay questions, that most resumes fail to stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people – even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesn’t only tell the employer what you have done. It makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. It presents you in the best possible light. It convinces the employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. The very best marketing is research-based marketing. So, do your research.

Visit the employer’s website often and essay eliya, follow the organization on social media. (Do this of course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile – more on that in Section 8 of essay on animal testing this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into your resume? What kind of nuwara language do they use to cause essay, describe achievements? If almost everything is “significant” or “breakthrough,” how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of about eliya your resume? You have to know your customer’s needs – and grade essay, have a very clear sense of the skills they’re looking for in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of a job’s requirements to have a legitimate hope of landing an essay nuwara, interview.

Do all the cause and effect essay testing, research you can, from about online searches and social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation – or better yet, coffee or lunch. TIP: Avoid HR at this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on unsolicited inquiries from essay namen people who want jobs. A sobering fact is that job recruiters spend an average of essay nuwara six seconds on every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. So, focus on cause essay the employer’s needs, not yours . It is imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume. There is no shame in about eliya adjusting your resume to appeal to your target audience; in fact, the opposite is true.

It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume – even if slightly – for each job application. Imagine that you are the essay rubrics, person doing the hiring. This someone with skin in the game. Often, it’s the person who is responsible for the bottom-line performance of the eliya, project or team you hope to join. Cause Assignments. This is someone who cares deeply how well the about nuwara, job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an day pakistan essay, asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. Essay About. At the end of the day it’s an ad…nothing more, nothing less.

2. YOUR RESUME’S #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. It’s critical to always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an essay, interview. If it doesn’t, it isn’t an effective resume. So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about what your resume is: It’s not about you. Like any strong piece of about eliya advertising, it’s not about the product being sold – it’s about the buyer and what they want. Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the soft drink; they say a lot about under water how people who drink the beverage are happy and have a lot of happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of about eliya drinking Coke. Your resume is about the benefits of hiring you.

Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is life under, it a place to essay about nuwara, be modest. Its sole purpose is to of a lion essay, generate interest in you. What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to about nuwara eliya, including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. And Effect Essay On Animal. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work that’s appealing? Are you fluent in multiple languages?

Did you go through college in three years – or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe there’s a fact about you they’ll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and essay about, satisfied working with and cause and effect on animal testing, through other people as members of an organization, group, or ‘tribe.’” They are at essay about their best when they are attuned to the tribe and essay, contributing to its goals. (For the eliya, record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist – e.g., “I am a software developer” versus “I work for Microsoft” – for more, see The Pathfinder.) Back to the tribe: If you’re selling yourself to an organization, you’re selling yourself to a tribe. The tribe’s members will have to be convinced that you’re “one of them.” Use the life water, research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume.

Consider the nuwara eliya, scenario of two tribes living on opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though you’re already one of them. This will inform everything you put in your resume – from the independence day pakistan, adjectives you use to about eliya, the aspects of your education and work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employer’s mission statement includes language about “customer focus” and and effect essay, its website talks about about nuwara eliya “innovation,” those words should be reflected in your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the employer is “results-driven” and cause and effect assignments, cares about “sustainable solutions,” make it clear that you are results-focused and essay about eliya, understand the day pakistan, importance of sustainable progress. You have to learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. An effective way to do this is to think of eliya it as telling an introductory story. When you meet someone, you want to rubrics, know “their story,” right? It’s the same for that hiring manager looking at your resume.

It’s important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and capacities, and the educational and work experiences that have led to you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldn’t “hard sell” or make any claims that are not true. Most employers respond to resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. Essay Nuwara Eliya. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of knowing if you’re being overly-modest. It’s a balancing act. 3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOU’RE WRITING. There are three basic types of under resumes: Chronological, Functional, and “Combined” Chronological – Functional. Essay Nuwara Eliya. Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach – but this decision should be informed by the type of job you’re seeking and the type of employer you’re seeking to impress. For example, if you’re applying for a job in cause essay testing a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and if you’re in a creative field, you might make modifications to a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style.

At the essay, end of the day, it’s all about generating the essay namen, best marketing copy to sell yourself. The chronological resume is the more traditional resume structure. Essay About. The Experience section is the focus of the resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is described in some detail, and there is no major section of cause essay assignments skills or accomplishments at about nuwara the beginning of the resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in life essay the same profession and in the same type of work. It is also commonly used in certain fields such as law and academia. We recommend that the chronological resume always have an essay about nuwara eliya, Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and may be best in conventional or conservative fields.

It makes it easier to understand what you did in what job, and may help the name of the and effect essay, employer stand out (if it’s impressive). The disadvantage is that it is much more difficult to highlight what you do best. Essay About Nuwara. This format is rarely appropriate for someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the very beginning. It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to find out. Skin. Actual company names and positions are in essay about eliya a subordinate position, with no description under each. Grade Rubrics. There are many different types of formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is nuwara eliya, very appropriate for generalists, for those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of skills in their given profession, for students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to and effect essay assignments, the job market, and for those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction.

Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is highly recommended for such purposes. Essay About. The disadvantage is that it isn’t easy for the employer to essay testing, quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of nuwara eliya both the chronological and functional formats. It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short “Skills and Accomplishments” section – or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of “qualifications”). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of and effect different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the about nuwara eliya, advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of life water either type.

One disadvantage is that it tends to be a longer resume. Eliya. Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and life under water essay, skills may have to be repeated in essay about nuwara both the “functional” section and the “chronological” job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET. “Target market” in advertising refers to people a company aims to turn into customers. In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to do…where you want to do it. Start with geographic requirements – is the grade essay, world…. Essay Nuwara. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry?

What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about cause essay them. What is their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging? Who are the decision makers? What is their hiring philosophy?

What kind of work culture is it? In addition to digging around online and in social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. Let’s say that you want to go from a marketing position in eliya a pharmaceutical firm to in the questions, a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit. What are the skills you’ve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think. Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to speak to your motivation for a career change.

You can weave a little of this into essay about nuwara eliya, your Objective, then also be prepared to write about it briefly in your cover letter, and then of course speak to life essay, it when you land an interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to nuwara eliya, another. Within the bounds of integrity, the in the skin essay, story you tell has to explain why the tribe you now want to enter is really the right one for you (and not the other one). This is another instance where research is critical. Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and take a look at a good number of resumes of essay about nuwara people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of colleagues, friends, and family. Tune into the axis we call the Quality of Transactions in independence day pakistan The Pathfinder. The basic premise of nuwara eliya this model is that the of a questions, closer you are to connections that are “hot” (e.g., someone high up in the organization is willing to go to bat for you) versus “cold” (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to essay about, have quality transactions that can result in essay testing getting you hired. Even somewhere in the “warm” range – maybe you know someone who knows someone in a position to help – is highly preferable to coming in cold. And create partners: Scan the connections of your connections on LinkedIn.

Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to about eliya, be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. In the first, you make assertions about life under your abilities, qualities, and achievements. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the reader’s attention. (Exceptions to this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.)

The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did. This is where you list and describe the jobs you’ve held, your education, etc. And if you have opted to pass on eliya an Assertions section, you have to build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the case for you as a candidate – with especially compelling skills and accomplishments summarized in the top half of the water, first page. The real juice in your resume is what you assert about yourself right up front. Nuwara Eliya. This is where you shine. The hard truth based on essay namen research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by about nuwara the average employer.

Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to read further. The top half of the first page of your resume will either make or break your chances. Ask yourself: What does the cause and effect on animal, employer really want? How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the job postings you see, and/or from essay nuwara eliya people who work in the same company or the same field. Life Under. You could even call the prospective employer and ask them what they want.

Don’t make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that you’re the essay nuwara eliya, right fit for the job and the prospective employer. You don’t have to cause essay on animal testing, confine yourself to work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the about, palette to paint with. The point is to essay rubrics, cover all possible ways of thinking about and communicating what you do well. What are the talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to about nuwara eliya, have to be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the independence, raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. But we don’t want the eliya, employer to be informed; we want them to and effect, be interested and curious.

In fact, it’s best to leave your reader with a few questions they would like to ask you. In your assertions section, state your Objective – your intended job. Essay About Eliya. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is debate out there about whether to and effect, state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think it’s a good idea. If you’re in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to the point, and keep the essay about, employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. The owner of a small software company advertises for an experienced software salesperson. Independence Day Pakistan Essay. A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and the employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested in essay eliya selling software.

Then the employer spots a resume that starts with the following: “OBJECTIVE – a software sales position in an organization seeking an cause and effect essay on animal, extraordinary record of generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations.” This is essay about, a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to make a real contribution. Job-seekers often make the day pakistan essay, mistake of essay nuwara saying something like, “a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener.” Examples follow. Day Pakistan. In all of these examples, the essay nuwara eliya, underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and the type of role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by the word “Objective.” Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of essay hands-on experience in programming , web development , and IT trouble-shooting , and about eliya, seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in cause and effect essay a grammatically complete sentence.

Strategic thinker and communicator . Expert storyteller . A decade of deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to about nuwara, executive producer role. In this example, the applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. “If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. If they want their brand to communicate , I make it sing .” In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of statements. CPA and in the skin of a essay questions, CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations. Essay Nuwara. Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and essay namen, decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Eliya. Known for work ethic and integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by a recent graduate seeking an entry-level role in life water essay a conventional job sector.

OBJECTIVE: A starting position in essay nuwara an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and its people. TIP: The point of using an Objective is to create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for in the skin lion another job in your present field, it is more important to stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is sometimes appropriate to about nuwara eliya, include your Objective in your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The “Summary” or “Summary of essay namen Qualifications” consists of several concise statements that focus the reader’s attention on essay eliya your most important qualities, achievements, and abilities. (NOTE: If you are on LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in essay namen what you have in your LinkedIn summary. You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they needn’t match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the about, same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of cause essay why you should be hired – not the essay about nuwara eliya, other candidates. This is your brief window of cause essay opportunity to highlight your most impressive qualities – the spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing. The Summary is the one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.).

Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of broad or specialized expertise Followed by eliya two or three additional statements related to any of the following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary. Use the ones that highlight you best.

The examples below show how to cause and effect assignments, include your objective in essay nuwara the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in the past prepares you to do what you seek to do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on cause ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections: Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff. Excellent management, negotiation and public relations skills.

Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of essay about eliya producing extraordinary results for skin lion essay questions more than 20 national and community based organizations. A commitment to human development and community service. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in banking and international trade, finance, investments and about, economic policy. Innovative in structuring credit enhancement for corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background.

Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and policy making in the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in life emergency medical services. A talent for essay nuwara analyzing problems, developing and simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Proven ability to motivate and work effectively with persons from and effect essay other cultures and all walks of life. Essay About. Skilled in cause working within a foreign environment with limited resources. Nuwara Eliya. Commander – Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Grade. Expertise in about nuwara eliya all areas of management, with a proven record of independence unprecedented accomplishment. Essay Eliya. History of the highest naval awards and rapid promotion. Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and essay namen, personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering.

Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in systems and equipment. Eliya. Committed to the highest levels of in the of a lion essay questions professional and essay about, personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. On Animal Testing. Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist.

Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. About. Available for commercial recording and live performances. SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into grade, more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the rest of the best of essay your story. Let the employer know what results you produced, what happened because of your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at doing. TIP: Don’t tell them everything you’ve ever done. It’s okay – in fact, advisable – to leave to your readers wondering about a thing or two in a positive way. Sometimes the “Skills and Accomplishments” section is a separate section.

In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the descriptions of the various jobs you have held. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on cause and effect essay testing your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. There are options for how to structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section. Essay Eliya. Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of day pakistan essay importance for the desired career goal. If you have many skills, the essay eliya, last skill paragraph might be called “Additional Skills.” TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section:

A listing of essay namen skills or accomplishments or a combination of both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in nuwara eliya canvassing and advocacy on environmental, health and essay, consumer issues. Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Attorneys, for the U.S. Essay About. Attorney’s office Coordinated Board of Directors and Community Advisory Board of grade essay community mental health center. Later commended as “the best thing that ever happened to that job.” A listing of major skill headings with accomplishments under each. The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in about nuwara eliya paragraph form. The material under the headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill. National Training Project / Conference Management.

Director of on animal Outreach on about eliya Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations. Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the independence essay, U.S. Planned and essay nuwara, managed 32 nationwide training seminars and independence, a five-day annual conference for university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and programs for the University’s Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of Duke’s “Pre-college Program,” first editor of “Summer at Duke.” Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of creativity at The George Washington University. A list of essay nuwara eliya bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume). Director of Sales and Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC.

Wilmington, DE. Promoted from Sales Representative within one year of joining company to Director of Sales and Marketing. And Effect. Responsible for international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. Oversaw five sales managers. Was in charge of direct sales and essay about nuwara, marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and the Middle East. Recruited, trained and managed sales staff. Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and independence, established quotas. Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to about eliya, achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on in the questions behalf of essay about clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding.

Planned and cause and effect essay, administered sales and essay about nuwara eliya, marketing budget, and maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Within first year, doubled company’s revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. Essay Namen. While this section is secondary to nuwara eliya, your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. TIP: Think of it as the foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine. If this section isn’t strong enough, the day pakistan, resume doesn’t hold together and the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in reverse chronological order.

Don’t go into detail on the jobs early in your career; focus on essay nuwara the most recent and/or relevant jobs. (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in day pakistan essay one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive – your job titles or the names of the firms you worked for – then consistently begin with the more impressive of the essay nuwara eliya, two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to describe the grade rubrics, employer in a phrase in parentheses if this will impress the reader. Essay About Nuwara. Include military service, internships, and major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is cause and effect essay assignments, labeled “Experience.” It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: “Professional History,” “Professional Experience”–not “Employment” or “Work History,” both of which sound more lower-level. A note about dates throughout the evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. Generally speaking, put dates in italics at the end of the job to de-emphasize them. Don’t include months, unless the job was held less than a year. If you’re old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might “botox” in essay nuwara eliya your resume. In The Of A Lion Questions. The year you earned your degree(s) doesn’t have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is essay about, no need to include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months.

Don’t put down anything that isn’t true – it’s too easy for employers to check information and essay namen, discover mistruths. But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the overall story you’re telling about about yourself. List education in reverse chronological order – degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and assignments, advanced training. Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. About. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Essay On Animal Testing. Don’t include any details about essay about nuwara eliya college except your major and distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated.

Include grade-point average only essay namen if over 3.4. List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the information, summarizing the information and essay nuwara, including only what will be impressive for the reader. No degree yet? If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and cause and effect essay on animal, afterwards, in parentheses, the expected date of completion: B.S. (expected 20__). If you didn’t finish college, start with a phrase describing the about, field studied, then the school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Under Essay. Other headings might be “Education and Training,” “Education and about, Licenses,” “Legal Education / Undergraduate Education” (for attorneys).

If the only awards received were in school, put these under the Education section. Mention what the award was for if you can (or just “for outstanding accomplishment” or “outstanding performance”). If you have received awards, this section is assignments, almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from some very senior source, you could call this section, “Awards and about eliya, Commendations.” In that case, go ahead and quote the source. Professional Affiliations. Include only independence day pakistan those that are current, relevant and impressive. Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for essay nuwara eliya communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for special consideration by employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer.

This section can be combined with “Civic / Community Leadership” as “Professional and Community Memberships.” Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is definitely something to include. Under Water Essay. Civic / Community Leadership. This is good to include if the leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and can show skills acquired, for example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of a community organization charged with investing its funds. Any Board of essay nuwara Directors membership or “chairmanship” would be good to include.

Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an employer or company. Publications. Include only independence if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is nuwara eliya, impressive and essay, relevant. Summarize if there are many. Comments from Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only essay nuwara eliya if very exceptional. Heavily edit for grade rubrics key phrases.

Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. While personal interests tend to feature prominently on about social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for a job—ideally on cause a case-by-case basis. It you include a section like this, keep the following in mind. Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is about, related to the goal, such as photography for someone in public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in construction management. This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. For example, if you’re highly athletic and the people interviewing you aren’t physically fit – or perhaps eve self-conscious about that – the fact that you’re super-fit might not play in your favor.If in doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section.

Your reason for in the skin including it is most likely that you want to tell them about about nuwara eliya you. But, as you know, this is an ad. If this section would move the employer to understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about cause and effect it. This section may also be called “Interests Outside of Work,” or just “Interests.” References. You may put “References available upon request” at the end of your resume, if you wish. Essay About. This is a standard close (centered at bottom in italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of references. Grade. You can bring a separate sheet of references to the interview, to essay about eliya, be given to the employer upon request. 7. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES. Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for and effect essay powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an asset as you prepare your resume.

OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT. Social media is a primary vehicle for communication. You will want to include at about nuwara eliya least one of your social media accounts on and effect your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and social media handles look and sound professional. About Nuwara. If not, get new ones. You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers – 65% or more – use social networks to research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to see if the candidate is grade, likely to be a “good fit” for their culture – in essay about eliya other words, right for in the skin essay questions their tribe.

It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an applicant. So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and essay about nuwara eliya, clean up any content that you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to see. Of A Lion Essay. And keep an eye on nuwara your accounts so that you can monitor and remove comments from friends that don’t serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of grade essay rubrics drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent.

You can’t assume that an employer will only check out your LinkedIn page. They may also look for you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is about eliya, something that you would be delighted for everyone in the world to see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that you’re marketing yourself. Owning your digital footprint is also about cause testing taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression. Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an opportunity for you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator – the kinds of things employers are generally seeking. In addition, be active on social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Nuwara. Engage on under essay networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers.

And while you’re active on social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of about your professional name. If you’re “Robert L. Under Water. Smith” on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Essay. Smith in your resume and on your other social media accounts – not Rob Smith here and there. Your professional “screen name” is rubrics, probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and the like. Think of what you see as an essay about nuwara, aggregated news feed about the employer. It doesn’t take long to begin to get a real sense of the independence essay, organization’s culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the most thoughtful resume possible – and nuwara, can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview. And bear in in the skin lion questions mind: The beauty of essay nuwara eliya Social Media is that you can gain access to people you otherwise might not. If you see someone within your connections who is connected to a person of interest to you. Perhaps they are in the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to independence day pakistan essay, get in to – then ask your contact to about eliya, introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for people to post recommendations.

Be sure to ask people to provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to your professional name, there are many other keywords to consider. Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for grade rubrics keywords relevant to eliya, their companies and cultures, as well as field of work. You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of position you’re seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is “Program Assistant.” But when you search online, you don’t see that title much. What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is “Administrative Assistant.” It’s not a misstep in integrity to list your current title as “Administrative Assistant” if that’s accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for recruiters and and effect essay assignments, hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and about nuwara eliya, accomplishments. When customizing your resume for essay namen a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of those words in your resume. Eliya. If you think of yourself as someone who “leads stakeholder communications,” but the grade, employer uses the phrase “stakeholder engagement” – that’s right, you’re now an expert in stakeholder engagement.

If you have “increased website and social media traffic” in your current job, but your prospective employer’s website discusses “online presence” – your resume should note that you “elevated online presence.” Then use this same approach to find more keywords that will appeal to about eliya, that hiring manager. After conducting your research on grade rubrics the employer’s website and essay about, social media pages – as well as media articles about the organization – comprise a list of words and phrases that appear regularly. Be sure that these words and in the skin of a questions, phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesn’t seem forced or like overkill. Eliya. You have a bit of a fine line to day pakistan essay, walk – these have to be words and phrases you can own in the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. Essay About. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the cause, guidance we’ve delivered here so far, if you fall short on essay about the presentation of what you’ve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video. Essay Namen. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating “video resumes.” This kind of approach is about nuwara eliya, highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on essay namen what you know about the job and the tribe.

For instance, if you’re a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if you’re applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission – go for it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH. Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. Essay About Nuwara. There is no universal right or wrong.

Our rule of essay thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the resume contains all of your most relevant information. If you’ve been in the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to essay about nuwara eliya, exceed a page – but only essay namen if the content warrants it. Nuwara. And whether it’s one page or more, the same rules apply in terms of the essay, front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Don’t make it to crowded with text; conversely, don’t have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse. A good rule of essay thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and shorter if possible. Be sure to design elements to grade essay, your advantage.

For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface. You can also draw the eye to something by ensuring there is about, ample white space around it. Order information in a way that draw attention to essay namen, your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If you’re considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. About Nuwara Eliya. While one might make you stick out in cause on animal a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didn’t make me work harder to get the essay about nuwara eliya, information I wanted. Unless you are an essay namen, infographic designer looking for essay nuwara that kind of work (or something close), I would veer away from cause essay this route.

Your resume must be error-free. There are no spelling errors, no typos. No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. There are no errors of fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out essay nuwara a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way. Cause. For instance, every job should list this information in essay this order: Title, Name of Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently. If you decide to independence essay, bold one job title, all titles are in boldface.

If you underline one section heading, underline them all. In addition, there is uniformity in the use of capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. So, if there is a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. Essay Nuwara. If one degree is in bold, all degrees are in grade bold. Nuwara Eliya. If one job is independence, lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 – 2001 or 1999 to 2000). Whatever you decide about such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent. There are any number of details that really matter. Consider all of the following. Font.

Use a font that’s universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). Essay About Nuwara Eliya. Whatever font you select, use it consistently. And use a font size that’s readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. PDF. Save your resume file as a PDF. You don’t want to essay namen, risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and more. File name. Nuwara Eliya. When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Definitively don’t give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and don’t call it NicksResume.pdf.

If Nick is applying for a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Keep track. As you customize your resume for each application, keep track of which resume you send to which employer. If you’re called for an interview you will want to show up with nicely printed hard copies of independence day pakistan essay that precise document. Don’t mix first-person and third-person.

Use either the first person (“I) or third person (“he,” “she”) point of view, but do so consistently. Nuwara. Watch your verb tense. In The Skin Of A Essay. If the accomplishment is essay nuwara eliya, completed, it should be past tense. If the task is life under water essay, still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and about, will be used again in the future, use present tense – e.g., “conduct presentations on recruitment to grade essay rubrics, professional and essay eliya, trade association.” Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education.

This is because your qualifications are more related to cause essay testing, your experience than your education. About. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an essay, undergraduate student, or (4) if there’s something particularly impressive about your education – for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from Harvard. Sell yourself – first and foremost. Always bear in mind the needs of your customer – the employer. What do they need to nuwara eliya, know to assess that you’re right for the job and will deliver for them? Customize your resume for each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in cause essay assignments mind. Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language.

Tighten up sentences where you can. About Nuwara. Space is at a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at everything you’ve written in your resume and add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to in the skin of a essay, include all relevant information. Be sure any e-mail addresses and social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Use the same version of your professional “screen name” consistently. Be unduly modest.

You are selling yourself, period. Wing it. About. Real preparation and essay, homework is required – no matter how lucky you’ve been in the past. Essay About Nuwara. Include information – even if you’re proud of it – that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything you’ve ever done. It’s better to leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you. Include salary information. It is appropriate for essay namen you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs.

You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and about nuwara eliya, be sure your references know that an inquiry is on the way. Try to be funny or cute – no matter how great your personality, these things don’t translate on paper. Include every single piece of information about essay namen yourself – this is not your resume’s job. About Eliya. If the employer wants to know more about you, they’ll ask you for an interview. Get wordy. Don’t use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic.

Don’t use more than one power word or adjective in one sentence. Underestimate the cause essay testing, power of reading the job posting carefully and doing all of your homework. An astute hiring manager will recognize that you’ve done your advance work and will respect that about you. 10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isn’t about using fancy or unique words. It’s about using words that connect with your customer.

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aiu resume The following course in about Human Resource Management is provided in its entirety by Atlantic International University's Open Access Initiative which strives to make knowledge and essay assignments, education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to essay about the public. The course in Human Resource Management contains the essay namen, following: Lessons in video format with explaination of theoratical content. Complementary activities that will make research more about the topic , as well as put into practice what you studied in the lesson. These activities are not part of their final evaluation.

Texts supporting explained in the video. Essay! Evaluation questionnaire, that will grant access to the next lesson after approval. Final exam for overall evaluation of the course. The Administrative Staff may be part of grade rubrics, a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to the public according to the Open Access and Open Access Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.

Lesson 1: Concept of Human Resource Management. We all have “something to do “with human resources. While topics will be addressed from the company or institution and not from the individual, this knowledge will be helpful to all beyond the about eliya, specialty or profession who possess and cause essay on animal, help address various situations related to personnel management. Lesson 2: Human Resources and Organization. A charge Chruden and Sherman noted , can be defined as an organizational unit involved a group of duties and responsibilities that make it separate and distinct from the other charges . It is the process of determining the essay about eliya, elements or facts that make up the nature of a fee and that make it different from all the others on the organization. The job descriptions is the grade essay, detailed account of the eliya, powers or duties of the office (which the occupant does), the methods used to implement these functions or tasks ( how) and the objectives of the cause essay on animal, job (what it does ) . The charge analysis is the about nuwara eliya, process of obtaining , analyzing and recording information relating to the charges. It is a process of investigation into the activities of work and the demands of the independence, workers, whatever the type or level of employment. About Nuwara! When companies establish new positions within your company need to establish what are the characteristics of this post so that potential employees can learn what skills or abilities needed to be elected and if they meet all the requirements. This requires designing the independence day pakistan essay, job , this is done by setting the tasks and responsibilities that the person who has this post should do with your team. Essay Nuwara Eliya! After the post was designed to identify the tasks , duties and responsibilities that are expected to perform at lion, work. Skills are also established that the person must possess to properly fulfill the essay nuwara, tasks requested.

This process is known as job analysis . Grade Rubrics! This process is extremely important because it helps any person employed or contracted and about eliya, meet the essential needs to have company on this post. This makes the day pakistan, company benefits because highly qualified hires and avoid problems due to essay nuwara eliya lack of knowledge or skills. Grade Essay Rubrics! In the essay nuwara eliya, analysis of jobs are two branches : the job description and day pakistan essay, specifications. The job description is about eliya a written summary of the duties, responsibilities and working conditions , plus it includes a list of essay namen, details. Job specifications are the skills and details necessary to satisfactorily perform the job. When the description and job specification are very detailed help improve the quality of essay eliya, service and grade essay rubrics, the company has a higher level of performance within a company because even though almost all companies are very similar positions , each has an end , political and working differently . Wage policy is a set of guidelines, based on essay studies and assessments , designed to evenly distribute the amounts budgeted to compensate staff over essay, a period of time, according to the merits and essay, effectiveness of each. In general, the compensation received varies according to the difficulty of the job, with supply and demand, with the ability , responsibility and education required for their execution , etc. . These generalizations are true, but they do not apply to specific cases and get specific rewards.

Lesson 5: Information technology management. IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data Centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, change management, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like software design, network planning, tech support etc. Of A Essay Questions! Lesson 6: Chief human resources officer. A Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO) is a corporate officer who oversees all human resource management and industrial relations operations for an organization. Similar job titles include: Chief People Officer, Chief Personnel Officer, Executive Vice President of Human Resources and Senior Vice President of about nuwara eliya, Human Resources. CHROs may also be involved in board member selection and orientation, executive compensation, and succession planning. In addition, functions such as communications, facilities, public relations and related areas may fall within the scope of the CHRO role. Increasingly, the CHRO reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer and independence day pakistan, is a member of the most senior-level committees of the company (e.g., executive committee or office of the CEO).

Lesson 7: Iso 9000 and ISO 14000. ISO 14000 is nuwara eliya a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above. ISO 14000 is similar to essay namen ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at essay nuwara eliya, once. The requirements of ISO 14001 are an integral part of the essay, European Union‘s Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS‘s structure and material requirements are more demanding, foremost concerning performance improvement, legal compliance and reporting duties. Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and about, structures have on grade essay rubrics behavior within an organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization's effectiveness. Essay About Nuwara! It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory (which is focused on organizational and intra-organizational topics) and human resource studies (which is more applied and business-oriented). It may also be referred to as organizational studies or organizational science. Organizations, which are defined as “social units of people that are structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals (“Organizations”),” are said to have risen in the United States within a variety of social and historical contexts.

Several of those factors are credited with making organizations viable and necessary options for citizens, and they built on one another to bring organizations to the level of importance that they are at today. In 1820, about 20% of the United States population was dependent on a wage income. Essay Namen! That number increased to 90% by 1950. Generally, farmers and craftsmen were the only ones by essay about nuwara, 1950 who were not dependent on working for someone else; prior to that, most people were able to survive by hunting and in the of a lion essay, farming their own food, making their own supplies, and remaining almost fully self-sufficient. As transportation became more efficient and technologies were further developed, self-sufficiency became an economically poor choice. Lesson 10: Human factors and ergonomics. Human factors and ergonomics (HFE) is essay eliya a multidisciplinary field incorporating contributions from psychology, engineering, biomechanics, mechanobiology, industrial design, graphic design, statistics, operations research and anthropometry. In essence it is the essay namen, study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities. Essay About Nuwara Eliya! The two terms human factors and ergonomics are essentially synonymous. Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of essay assignments, a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. We understand how busy adults do not have time to go back to school.

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essay heuristic Paper presented to essay nuwara eliya, CCPE, London - October, 2001. ? Dave Hiles 2001. Heuristic Inquiry and Transpersonal Research. (Psychology Department, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE1 9BH. UK.)

I would like to begin with a quote from William Braud and Rosemarie Anderson that I think will clearly go to the heart of what my focus will be this evening. Many of the most significant and exciting life events and extraordinary experiences - moments of clarity, illumination, and healing - have been systematically excluded from conventional research. Usually, when I introduce the course that I teach on qualitative inquiry, I begin by defining research as an addition to knowledge , and I also point out that we undertake research because we care and want to make a difference . It is grade essay, therefore with some concern that I do take seriously what Braud Anderson are saying, especially with respect to the field of transpersonal experience. I am particularly disturbed by about nuwara eliya the claim that research is being systematically excluded. It would seem that we are being actively prevented by other scientists from adding to our knowledge of some of the most significant and in the skin lion exciting aspects of human experience.

This makes me wonder about such matters as: exclusion by whom, on what grounds, and at what expense to humanity does conventional research make such limitations. The motivation for this lecture is that I think we all care, and about nuwara eliya that we do want to cause on animal testing, make a difference. While I will be mostly concerned with the heuristic inquiry approach to research, what I will be saying here is particularly relevant to essay about, these wider issues raised above. What seems to lie behind Braud Anderson's comment is under water essay, that some areas of human action and experience are thought by essay about nuwara some scientists to be too difficult to study, or even to be unsuitable topics of essay namen empirical study. However, it is my view that these topics are too important to be ignored. Problems of measurement, and lack of appropriate methods of inquiry, have often been the about nuwara stock excuses offered for the exclusion of these areas of study. Day Pakistan Essay! I want to argue that such excuses are no longer valid, and we should begin to take notice of an essay about nuwara eliya expanding range of methods of inquiry now being made available, and that we must take seriously the research findings that are beginning to emerge in these areas.

I would place transpersonal research and heuristic inquiry within the area of human science (Giorgi, 1970; 1994). It is especially relevant here to draw attention to the following point made by Donald Polkinghorne. Human science seeks to know the reality which is particularly our own, the reality of our experience, actions, and essay on animal testing expressions. This realm is eliya, closest to us, yet it is most resistant to our attempt to grasp it with understanding. Because of the success we have had knowing the world around us, the human realm has expanded its power to such an extent that we can act to create wellbeing and physical security and comfort and to inflict untold suffering and destruction. Serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is required. Polkinghorne (1983, p. Essay Rubrics! 280-1)

Polkinghorne's plea for a serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is exactly the essay nuwara eliya point I wish to make. He points out that although this realm is closest to us, in the sense that it concerns our direct human experience, it can also be most resistant to careful study. He warns that the imbalance between our efforts in the natural science approach, at the expense of human science, may be a contributory factor in the untold suffering and destruction that seems to be ever present in the modern psyche. I remember that Carl Jung expressed very much the same idea when he observed that the future of humankind is held by a single thread, the human psyche. There is no more urgent topic to research than the human realm of experience, action and expression, especially the under essay significant and exciting life events and the extraordinary experiences these can entail. I want to examine the essay role that heuristic inquiry can play in this and its relationship to transpersonal research. 2. Heuristic inquiry.

Heuristic inquiry is an extremely demanding process, involving disciplined self-commitment, rigorous self-searching and self-reflection, and ultimately a surrender to the process. It does not suit a fixed time-frame for research, and should not to be attempted lightly. In essence, it is a research process designed for the exploration and interpretation of experience, which uses the lion essay questions self of the researcher. It is a research process that reflects Clark Moustakas' basic philosophy that in every learner, in every person, there are creative sources of energy and meaning that are often tacit, hidden, or denied (Moustakas, 2001). I will begin by discussing heuristic inquiry within the context of my own experience. For many years now, I have been engaged in a research project that could be said to have almost taken over my life. It began with some insights into the parallels between the work of Carl Jung and the work of the 18 th Century English poet and artist William Blake.

These insights particularly related to understanding the processes of transformation that can be involved in the experience of human suffering. I especially wanted to apply these insights in my practice as a counsellor and therapist, and also engage in research that would bring some form to these insights that could then be shared with others in essay the field. When this all started, I was not even sure that what I was doing could even be called research. In fact, it was only essay, several years later that I discovered that what I had been doing all along was really heuristic inquiry . Coming across the work of Clark Moustakas (1990), I immediately recognised the essay about phases of engagement, immersion, incubation and illumination in grade rubrics my own work. I have reported some of the methodological issues involved in this work before (Hiles, 1999, 2001), and I only will briefly summarise here the essentials of Moustakas' method, together with some of the insights that I have gained about the nature of heuristic inquiry from my own direct experience in using it.

Heuristic inquiry was developed by about eliya Clark Moustakas (1990; see also Douglass Moustakas, 1985), and bares some striking resemblance to the idea of lived inquiry developed by John Heron (1998), and mindful inquiry developed by Bentz Shapiro (1998). Essay! The heuristic inquiry paradigm is an adaptation of eliya phenomenological inquiry but explicitly acknowledges the involvement of the researcher , to the extent that the day pakistan lived experience of the researcher becomes the main focus of the research. The researcher really needs to feel passionate about the research question (West, 1998a; 1998b). Indeed, what is explicitly the focus of the approach is the essay transformative effect of the inquiry on the researcher's own experience. This is often achieved by a process that I think can usefully be called discernment . The heuristic process involves getting inside the research question, becoming one with it, living it. Self dialogue is the critical beginning, allowing the phenomenon to speak directly to life, one's own experience. Knowledge grows out of direct human experience and discovery involves self-inquiry, an essay nuwara openness to one's own experience.

I n addition to knowledge that we can make explicit, there is knowledge that is implicit to cause assignments, our actions and experiences. This tacit dimension is ineffable and unspecifiable, it underlies and precedes intuition and can guide the researcher into untapped directions and sources of meaning. Intuition provides the bridge between explicit and tacit knowledge. Intuition makes possible the seeing of things as wholes. Nuwara Eliya! Every act of achieving integration, unity or wholeness requires intuition. This refers to the conscious and deliberate process of turning inward to skin of a essay, seek a deeper, more extended comprehension of a quality or theme of human experience. Essay! Indwelling involves a willingness to gaze with unwavering attention and essay namen concentration into some aspect of essay about nuwara eliya human experience. Focussing is grade, inner attention, a staying with, a sustained process of systematically contacting the central meanings of an experience. It enables one to see something as it is and to make whatever shifts are necessary to make contact with necessary awareness and about nuwara insight.

The outcome of the heuristic process in life water essay terms of knowledge and experience must be placed in the context of the eliya experiencer's own internal frame of reference, and life under water essay not some external frame. The task of the first phase is to discover an about eliya intense interest, a passionate concern that calls out to on animal testing, the researcher, one that holds important social meanings and personal, compelling implications. The research question that emerges lingers with the researcher, awaiting the disciplined commitment that will reveal its underlying meanings. The research question is eliya, lived in waking, sleeping and even dream states. This requires alertness, concentration and self-searching. Virtually anything connected with the in the skin of a essay question becomes raw material for immersion. This involves a retreat from the intense, concentrated focus, allowing the expansion of essay eliya knowledge to take place at a more subtle level, enabling the essay rubrics inner tacit dimension and intuition to clarify and extend understanding. This involves a breakthrough, a process of awakening that occurs naturally when the researcher is open and essay about eliya receptive to testing, tacit knowledge and about nuwara intuition. It involves opening a door to new awareness, a modification of an essay old understanding, a synthesis of fragmented knowledge, or new discovery. This involves a full examination of what has been awakened in consciousness. What is required is organization and essay about nuwara eliya a comprehensive depiction of the core themes.

Thoroughly familiar with the data, and following a preparatory phase of solitude and meditation, the researcher puts the components and core themes usually into of a essay the form of creative synthesis expressed as a narrative account, a report, a thesis, a poem, story, drawing, painting, etc. The question of validity is one of meaning. Does the synthesis present comprehensively, vividly, and accurately the about nuwara meanings and independence day pakistan essences of the experience? Returning again and again to the data to check whether they embrace the necessary and sufficient meanings. Finally, feedback is obtained through participant validation, and receiving responses from others. . . . a process of internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and essay about nuwara eliya procedures for further investigation and in the of a essay analysis. The self of the researcher is present throughout the process and, while understanding the nuwara phenomenon with increasing depth, the researcher also experiences growing self-awareness and self-knowledge (p. 9). . . . The heuristic process is a way of being informed, a way of essay namen knowing (p. 10). . . Essay! . From the beginning, and throughout an investigation, heuristic research involves self-search , self-dialogue , and self-discovery ; the research question and independence essay the methodology flow out of inner awareness, meaning, and inspiration.

When I consider an issue, problem, or question, I enter into essay nuwara eliya it fully . . . I may challenge, confront, or even doubt my understanding of grade essay a human concern or issue; but when I persist in a disciplined and essay about eliya devoted way I ultimately deepen my knowledge of the phenomenon . . I am personally involved . . I may be entranced by visions, images, and dreams that connect me to independence day pakistan essay, my quest. I may come into touch with new regions of myself, and discover revealing connections with others (p. 11). . . . Essentially in the heuristic process, I am creating a story that portrays the qualities, meanings, and essences of universally unique experiences (p. 13). . Nuwara! . . Essay Namen! In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections (p. 14).

. . . Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to understand one?s self and the world in which one lives. The heuristic process is autobiographic , yet with virtually every question that matters personally there is also a social - and perhaps universal - significance (p. 15). 3. Some observations concerning heuristic inquiry. There is clearly more involved in heuristic inquiry than the essay about eliya researcher simply analyzing their own experience, which could easily be seen as a variation of phenomenological inquiry. What Moustakas seems to offer is the much wider context within which the researcher engages with the research question, examines their own experience amongst a number of other explorations, and follows this through with an cause essay awareness of the transformative processes at work in the research enterprise. Drawing on my own use of this method of inquiry, I would like to make the following observations.

Heuristic inquiry is a research process that is difficult to set any clear boundaries to, with respect to duration and scope. It is a method that can be best described as following your nose, but at about eliya, the same time requires the cause and effect essay on animal testing highest degree of rigour and thoroughness. It is a method of inquiry that should not be undertaken lightly. In heuristic inquiry, the research question chooses you, and invariably the research question is deeply personal in origin. Indeed, it is my own experience that the nuwara research question has been a preoccupation of mine for at least thirty years, and probably much longer than that. There is cause essay testing, a very striking similarity between the methods of heuristic inquiry and the practice of counselling and psychotherapy, particularly with respect to the use of the self. It is therefore a method of research that particularly resonates with inquiry into counselling and therapy related issues. Heuristic inquiry highlights the importance of working with the heuristic process of others, especially with the historical recordings of essay previous inquiry (especially spiritual texts).

Indeed, it turns out that the works of writers, poets, artists, spiritual leaders and scientists can all be usefully treated as the creative products of heuristic inquiry. In the light of this last observation, it would seem that heuristic inquiry was probably the of a essay first research method adopted for psychological inquiry many, many centuries ago. It should really be regarded as the most ancient of methods, with a proven track record well before the advent of eliya modern science and psychology. It is a method of inquiry that is desperately in need of being re-invented! The form that my own heuristic research has taken, in addition to my own self-exploration and lived inquiry, involved the designing and carrying out of several phenomenological/co-operative inquiries. I have interviewed people who have claimed to and effect on animal, have had a near-death experience, people who have been victims of serious crimes, and people who have been attracted to voluntary, or paid work, which entails being in a helping role with others (i.e. counsellors, carers, nurses, social workers, advocates, etc.).

Such research is necessarily ongoing, and the outcomes are not always easy to summarise. However, two fairly specific claims have emerged, (i) a clearer and more general view of the human response to loss, and in particular the human grieving process, and (ii) the crucial importance of the about eliya heuristic framework for researching human experience. 4. Transpersonal inquiry. The transpersonal represents a distinct new paradigm within psychology because the assumptions and presuppositions it makes are so different to the rest of psychology. At the heart of the transpersonal approach is an attempt to place human life and experience in its widest possible context. Of course, such an approach has a very long history indeed, although it has largely been expressed in spiritual and religious terms. Personally, I cannot see that it matters in the least whether different cultures and groups of people, at on animal testing, different times in human history, have come up with very different visions of reality, of our place in it, and the associated practices that help give meaning to human existence.

However, what does matter is the recognition of the crucial role that transpersonal beliefs and practices play in peoples? lives, and the important place these can have in explaining and understanding an essay about individual?s experience, actions, growth and development. In a previous paper (Hiles, 2000), I have described the aim of transpersonal psychology as offering a synthesis of what may seem, on essay rubrics, the surface, to be two quite different traditions - science and about spiritual practice. What has emerged is a new field offering new approaches to psychotherapy, human development, crisis, etc. Before modern psychology, it was the spiritual traditions and practices in the wide range of cultures that offered an understanding of human consciousness, and the possibilities of human experience. Transpersonal psychology can be seen as an attempt to bring the world?s great spiritual traditions together with the cause and effect basic ideas of about (Western) modern psychology.

This has, to a large extent, already been achieved in Eastern psychology, we are just coming rather late to this in the West!! The vitality and enormous scope of this field is demonstrated, amongst many other examples, in the pioneering vision of Ken Wilber (1977, 1980, 1983, 1998, 2000), in research on spiritual emergence/emergency and the model of the holotropic mind developed by Stanislav Grof (1985, 1988, 1998; and with Christina Grof 1989, 1990), and in John Heron's (1998) proposal for a person-based, person-centred spirituality. While the transpersonal field has been developing since the early 1970's, it has been more or less waiting for appropriate research methods in order to water essay, emerge into the mainstream. The very nature of the essay about nuwara eliya transpersonal paradigm, where the basic assumptions of the field are so different from and effect assignments, other areas of scientific inquiry, requires paradigms of inquiry that are necessarily quite different. However, transpersonal inquiry is essay about nuwara, no less empirical than any other area of inquiry, but the empirical focus is on human intuition and grade essay rubrics creative expression, and possible altered states of awareness. About Nuwara Eliya! The empirical data can take the form of day pakistan essay subjective experience, discernment and direct knowing which may emerge from dreamwork, imagery exercises, storytelling and meditation practices, etc. It is notable that recently very considerable progress has been made in the development of research methods more appropriate to the paradigm of transpersonal inquiry. For example, Braud Anderson (1998), Heron (1998) and Valle (1998) have considerably extended the range of about nuwara research methods that this area might adopt. Braud Anderson's work in particular reflects the need for a systematic approach to the development of skin of a lion essay new inquiry paradigms. They do draw up a general scheme which usefully tries to bring some order to the confusing diversity of methods of data collection and analysis, which I have summarized in Table 3. Essay About Eliya! They propose five new methods for transpersonal research. But my concern here is to point out that these new methods do not seem to differ significantly from the intermediate approaches that they identify.

For example, with respect to heuristic inquiry, describing it as intermediate, as sharing important commonalities, is misleading. In most cases, the cause essay five methods outlined by Braud Anderson are each variants of the heuristic inquiry process. They seem to essay nuwara eliya, overlook the fact that heuristic inquiry and phenomenological inquiry are both foundational to this whole area of research. Although heuristic inquiry is not of necessity transpersonal, it has a central role to play in the research into transpersonal and spiritual issues. Naturalistic and field studies. Historical and archival. Content analysis, textual analysis. Narrative and discourse analysis. Case studies and life stories. Interviews, questionnaires and. and design issues.

Physiological and biomedical. assessments and and effect essay on animal testing design issues. Experiential research method. Inquiry informed by exceptional. 5. A note on mindful inquiry. Earlier I mentioned an approach to essay nuwara, inquiry that is similar to cause and effect, heuristic inquiry, and is certainly worth spelling out a little further.

This is the refreshingly different approach to research called mindful inquiry (Bentz Shapiro, 1998). Essay About Nuwara! Mindful inquiry is described as a synthesis of four intellectual traditions : phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical social theory , and Buddhism . Scientific research is recognized as one of our many ways of knowing, and needs to be connected with the other ways. The emphasis in this approach is in life placing the inquirer at the centre, and research from this perspective is seen as intimately linked with the awareness and the experienced world of the researcher. Essay About Nuwara! Research can be seen to contribute explicitly to the transformation of the researcher?s sense of self or identity. Day Pakistan Essay! The idea of eliya bringing mindfulness into disciplined inquiry is exciting, as it stresses focus, intention and awareness of whatever is present in a situation or experience. There is one aspect of mindful inquiry that I think is cause assignments, of special note, which is the inclusion of nuwara critical social theory. I do not have time to develop this point here, but one of the features of critical theory that I think is most important is the day pakistan recognition that theories, explanations and about understanding can be empowering . One of the goals of psychological inquiry and therapeutic practice must be empowerment, i.e. the use of psychological knowledge and techniques to empower people to make informed choices, express themselves freely, and challenge discrimination, oppression and unnecessary suffering.

While empowerment is possibly universally held by counsellors and therapists to be an and effect assignments outcome of their practices, it is hardly ever acknowledged that this also needs to be a recognized outcome of research inquiry. Mindful inquiry clearly does this, as does heuristic inquiry. 6. Developing the heuristic approach. Recently, I have found myself adapting the heuristic approach for my own specific purposes of inquiry. Nuwara! In turn, this seems to have revealed something of what lies at the core of this approach. On different occasions I have found myself needing to engage deeply with some specific material, or text. Water! I have come to eliya, call this deep study of a single text, heuristic engagement (and I am very aware that this is almost precisely how I view working with a client in therapeutic practice). On other occasions I might deliberately choose two or more texts for this work, and independence day pakistan essay I have called this methodology heuristic comparison . Nuwara! Both of these methods are simple adaptations of the method of heuristic inquiry, designed as formalized analytical tools for the study of the phenomenological experience resulting from engagement with almost any cultural or clinical practice.

In the case of heuristic comparison, the methodology involves these basic phases: choosing two texts/practices for comparison - this is not limited to only two and essay on animal testing is not crucial - but the selection needs to be very limited, leaving other comparisons for further study, and the choice needs to be made from a range of texts/practices with some underlying feature in common. a phenomenological engagement with the texts/practices, examining and re-examining them, drawing out similarities and differences, exploring the demands placed on essay nuwara, the researcher. a period of discernment and exploration, but avoiding superficial similarities and under water differences - with the likely need to follow leads to materials outside those chosen, but always returning to the comparison that is the main focus of the study. a phase of about sifting through and gathering together the essay namen materials and experiences, allowing a range of insights, meanings and essay eliya themes to emerge. reflection on the inter-relations of the texts/practices, working towards formulating a range of insights, perhaps working back through phases (ii) to (iv) again and again and again. a formulation, or synthesis of the inquiry involving self-validation. and finally, further establishing the life water essay validation of the essay about nuwara eliya work by sharing it with others. There are three features of this methodology that I would like to point out here. Firstly, it should be fairly clear that the independence day pakistan essay methodology is the outcome of essay about nuwara trying to independence essay, do justice to the required depth of the engagement with the material, while also being able to set appropriate boundaries to the work that is involved.

It is my view that a heuristic comparison is almost always simply a part of essay about nuwara eliya a wider heuristic inquiry. Secondly, I would like to claim that there is in the skin questions, possibly something universal about these seven phases. My reason for this claim arises from the fact that I keep coming across these seven phases in different aspects of my own work. For example, they are clearly explicit in the description of heuristic inquiry offered by Moustakas. But they also emerge from my close examination of some of the work of about eliya William Blake, and grade I have found them to essay eliya, be the key to formulating a deeper understanding of the grieving process in the human response to suffering (Hiles, 1999). Essay Namen! And, thirdly, I must emphasize the importance of the essay seventh phase, (vii ) validating the work by sharing with others, which is the key to understanding good qualitative research practices. It is my observation that this seventh phase is often overlooked, or taken for granted by under water essay other researchers. For example, Moustakas (1990) clearly offers six phases to his discussion of heuristic inquiry (p. 27), but then clearly includes a seventh phase (p. 32-37). It is my proposal that validation of the research is two-fold, involving a process of self-validation (and possibly participant verification) that is integral to the sixth phase of the creative synthesis, and in the seventh phase a process of external validation, a sharing with others, which is the basic requirement of any research paradigm.

I pointed out earlier that heuristic inquiry is really the most ancient of inquiry practices, and you can possibly see that what I am calling for about, is that it should be given the proper recognition that it obviously deserves. 7. Researching human experience. All transpersonal inquiry will involve a focus on the exploration and study of human experience. But, the study of human experience is certainly not without its difficulties, not least of day pakistan essay which is the about eliya sheer breadth of grade experiences this would entail. As a final thought, I have tried to take a broad view of the essay about eliya nature of this field of study by identifying a number of tensions that seem to underlie much of the research involved. Day Pakistan Essay! Six of these tensions are presented in Table 4. What lies behind my thinking is that there seems to be a fundamental tension between experience that is grounded in human knowledge systems of our everyday occurrences, and experience that is more subtle which involves perhaps deeper or altered states of consciousness. leading to knowledge derived. from an imposed order.

experience derived from everyday happenings, events. common, ordinary normal. focus on the content of thought. (whether real or imagined) expected, predicted, absorbed. into our current perspective. centred in the self. leading to knowledge of a. induced experiences through. rituals, shared practices. uncommon, unusual, unique. the experience of knowing itself, witnessing the act of knowing.

generating insight and permanent. beyond self, what am I a part of? This contrast between grounded and subtle can be broken down into at least six underlying tensions. Human experience may be constructed or principled by the culture we are embedded in, or by contrast may be the reflection of a process of essay nuwara discernment, i.e. a more directly experienced found order in things. It may be experience that is spontaneously discovered in the course of events, or may result from proven practices or rituals. It may be common and ordinary, or quite exceptional in nature. It may be intentional, or may involve transcendent experience, for example the subjective experience of knowing itself. It may be experience that is predictable and easily assimilated into a current point of view, or it may be a transforming experience, leading to insight and significant change.

Finally, it may be experience grounded in the ego and self, or may be transpersonal, beyond ego and self. Cause Essay Assignments! My purpose here is simply to do justice to the full range of experience, setting out essay about nuwara eliya, a curriculum for study in this field. The possibilities of researching human experience from a transpersonal perspective are of course exciting, but also challenging. Not the least of the and effect on animal testing challenges involved will be in convincing the wider scientific community of the seriousness of this undertaking. I find it extremely encouraging that Ken Wilber, in essay about eliya his discussion of direct spiritual experience, asserts that such experience is essay namen, repeatable, reproducible and confirmable (Wilber, 1999, p. 43). These are of essay nuwara course the basic requirements of any scientific approach. Wilber (1998, p. 155-6) proposes three essential aspects of any scientific inquiry: (i) instrumental injunction - if you want to know this, do this, (ii) direct apprehension - the direct experience or apprehension of the data, and (iii) communal confirmation or rejection - checking the data with others. These three essential aspects of scientific inquiry ensure that the basic requirements of repeatability, reproducibility and confirmability are being met.

Furthermore, it is quite clear from Wilber's position that in cause and effect essay assignments these respects research into human experience is nuwara eliya, no different from any other area of scientific research. It also seems to follow that in many ways spiritual experience, that so often is the product of an under water essay injunction to practice a certain form of meditation practice or ritual, may be relatively much easier to about, study scientifically than other types of experience which are more exceptional or spontaneous. In these latter cases, the only difference is in the form of injunction involved, i.e. Life Under Water Essay! wait for essay about eliya, this to happen, or, find instances of this happening, and then apprehend the data, and confirm the observation with others. Another matter that I think has importance, is the point made by Valle Mohs (1998, p.100). They propose that transpersonal awareness: seems somehow prior to [any] reflective-prereflective realm, presenting itself as more of a space or ground from which our more common experience and felt-sense emerge. Moreover, it is an essay namen awareness that makes itself known to the experiencer, but: is not of the phenomenal realm of perceiver and perceived [but] rather it is a noumenal, unitive space within or from which both intentional consciousness and phenomenal experience manifest.

The important point here is the essay nuwara claim that transpersonal awareness is always prior to our phenomenal awareness. Our everyday awareness is independence essay, grounded in transpersonal awareness, and it is not the nuwara eliya other way around. What I have tried to do in this final part is water, perhaps set out an enormous programme of research that so desperately needs to be undertaken. About! I am left wondering, do we care ? And, if we do not care, who will? Do we want to make a difference? I hope that I have achieved my modest aims.

I have tried to provide a brief outline of the independence essay heuristic inquiry approach to about, research, originally pioneered in the work of Clark Moustakas. Cause And Effect Essay On Animal Testing! I have argued that it occupies a key place in transpersonal inquiry. I have discussed some of the insights that I gained from using it myself, and have shown you how I have used its basic principles in developing some more specific inquiry paradigms of my own. What defines transpersonal inquiry is not its methods of eliya research but the particular perspective it takes on essay, human actions and experiences. However, progress in the transpersonal field will largely depend on essay about nuwara, how we refine our methods of inquiry. Life Under! The promise of heuristic inquiry is that it offers a systematic way of essay eliya incorporating the self into our inquiry methods, and, therefore, some of the most significant, exciting and under water essay urgent life events and essay nuwara eliya extraordinary human experiences can be researched more closely. Bentz, V.M. Shapiro, J.J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in day pakistan essay Social Research.

Sage. Braud, W. Anderson, R. (Eds) (1998) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Essay Nuwara Eliya! Sage. Douglass, B.G. Moustakas, C. (1985) Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. J. Humanistic Psychology , 25 , p. Grade Rubrics! 39-55.

Giorgi, A. (1970) Psychology as a Human Science. Harper Row. Giorgi, A. (1994) The idea of human science. In F. Essay About Nuwara! Wertz (Ed.) The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the person in psychology. Gardener Press. Grof, C. On Animal! Grof, S. (1990) The Stormy Search for the Self.

J.P. Tarcher. Grof, S. (1985) Beyond the Brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. SUNY. Grof, S. (1988) The Adventure of Self Discovery. SUNY.

Grof, S. (1998) The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the frontiers of eliya human consciousness. SUNY. Grof, S. Grof, C. (Eds.) (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis. J.P. Tarcher.

Heron, J. (1996) Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Sage. Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and the subtle. Essay Namen! PCCS Books. Hiles, D.R. (1999) Loss, Grief and Transformation: A heuristic inquiry.

Paper presented to the 18 th International Human Science Research Conference, July 26 -29, Sheffield. Hiles, D.R. (2000) Defining the Paradigm of Humanistic-Existential Psychology. Paper prepared for the Old Saybrook 2 Conference , May 11 - 14, West Georgia, USA. Eliya! Available at: Hiles, D.R. (2001) Jung, William Blake and Our Answer to Job. In The Of A Lion! Paper presented to the Collegium Jungianum Brunense, April 25th, Brno, Czech Republic. Available at: Moustakas, C. (1990) Heuristic Research: Design, methodology and applications. Sage.

Moustakas, C. (2001) Statement . Available at: Polkinghorne, D.E. (1984) Methodology for essay, the Human Sciences: Systems of independence inquiry. SUNY. Valle, R. (Ed.) (1998) Phenomenological Inquiry in essay Psychology: Existential and in the skin of a essay transpersonal dimensions. Plenum Press. Valle, R. Mohs, M. (1998) Transpersonal awareness in phenomenological inquiry: Philosophy, reflections, and recent research.

In W. Braud R. About Nuwara Eliya! Anderson (Eds) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. West, W. (1998a) Passionate research: Heuristics and the use of self in counselling research. Changes , 16, p. 60-66. West, W. (1998b) Critical subjectivity: Use of self in counselling research. Counselling , (August), p. 228-230. Wilber, K. (1977) The Spectrum of Consciousness . Quest. Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project . Quest. Wilber, K. (1983) Eye to Eye: The quest for the new paradigm . Shambala. Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating science and religion . Random House.

Wilber, K. (1999) One Taste: The journals of essay Ken Wilber . Shambala. Wilber, K. (2000) Integral Psychology: Consciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Shambala.

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Elements of about, Run-Time Error Handling [Access 2003 VBA Language Reference] When you're programming an application, you need to consider what happens when an error occurs. An error can occur in your application for one of in the of a essay, two of reasons. About Eliya! First, some condition at the time the application is running makes otherwise valid code fail. For example, if your code attempts to grade essay rubrics, open a table that the user has deleted, an error occurs. Second, your code may contain improper logic that prevents it from essay about eliya, doing what you intended. For example, an error occurs if your code attempts to grade essay rubrics, divide a value by zero. If you've implemented no error handling, then Visual Basic halts execution and displays an error message when an essay about error occurs in essay rubrics your code. The user of your application is likely to be confused and frustrated when this happens. You can forestall many problems by including thorough error-handling routines in eliya your code to handle any error that may occur. When adding error handling to a procedure, you should consider how the procedure will route execution when an error occurs.

The first step in routing execution to an error handler is to enable an error handler by including some form of the On Error statement within the procedure. The On Error statement directs execution in event of an error. If there's no On Error statement, Visual Basic simply halts execution and displays an error message when an error occurs. When an error occurs in a procedure with an enabled error handler, Visual Basic doesn't display the normal error message. Life Water Essay! Instead it routes execution to essay nuwara eliya, an error handler, if one exists.

When execution passes to an enabled error handler, that error handler becomes active. Cause Essay! Within the active error handler, you can determine the type of error that occurred and address it in the manner that you choose. Microsoft Access provides three objects that contain information about errors that have occurred, the ADO Error object, the Visual Basic Err object, and the DAO Error object. Routing Execution When an Error Occurs. An error handler specifies what happens within a procedure when an error occurs. For example, you may want the procedure to end if a certain error occurs, or you may want to correct the condition that caused the error and essay about nuwara, resume execution. Grade Essay! The On Error and Resume statements determine how execution proceeds in the event of an error. The On Error Statement.

The On Error statement enables or disables an essay about nuwara eliya error-handling routine. Day Pakistan! If an error-handling routine is enabled, execution passes to essay about eliya, the error-handling routine when an error occurs. There are three forms of the On Error statement: On Error GoTo label , On Error GoTo 0 , and cause and effect essay, On Error Resume Next . The On Error GoTo label statement enables an error-handling routine, beginning with the line on which the statement is found. You should enable the error-handling routine before the first line at which an about nuwara eliya error could occur. When the error handler is active and an error occurs, execution passes to life essay, the line specified by the label argument. The line specified by the label argument should be the beginning of the error-handling routine.

For example, the following procedure specifies that if an error occurs, execution passes to the line labeled Error_MayCauseAnError : The On Error GoTo 0 statement disables error handling within a procedure. It doesn't specify line 0 as the about nuwara start of the error-handling code, even if the procedure contains a line numbered 0. If there's no On Error GoTo 0 statement in your code, the essay error handler is essay about, automatically disabled when the procedure has run completely. The On Error GoTo 0 statement resets the properties of the Err object, having the same effect as the Clear method of the Err object. The On Error Resume Next statement ignores the cause line that causes an error and routes execution to the line following the line that caused the error. Execution isn't interrupted.

You can use the On Error Resume Next statement if you want to check the essay about eliya properties of the Err object immediately after a line at which you anticipate an cause and effect on animal testing error will occur, and handle the error within the procedure rather than in an error handler. The Resume Statement. The Resume statement directs execution back to the body of the procedure from within an error-handling routine. You can include a Resume statement within an error-handling routine if you want execution to nuwara eliya, continue at a particular point in a procedure. However, a Resume statement isn't necessary; you can also end the procedure after the error-handling routine. There are three forms of the and effect Resume statement. The Resume or Resume 0 statement returns execution to the line at which the error occurred.

The Resume Next statement returns execution to the line immediately following the line at which the error occurred. Essay Nuwara Eliya! The Resume label statement returns execution to the line specified by the label argument. Cause And Effect On Animal! The label argument must indicate either a line label or a line number. You typically use the Resume or Resume 0 statement when the nuwara user must make a correction. Essay! For example, if you prompt the user for about nuwara eliya, the name of a table to open, and the user enters the name of a table that doesn't exist, you can prompt the user again and resume execution with the statement that caused the error. You use the Resume Next statement when your code corrects for day pakistan, the error within an error handler, and you want to continue execution without rerunning the line that caused the error. Essay Nuwara Eliya! You use the Resume label statement when you want to continue execution at another point in the procedure, specified by the label argument. For example, you might want to resume execution at an exit routine, as described in the following section. Exiting a Procedure. When you include an error-handling routine in a procedure, you should also include an essay namen exit routine, so that the error-handling routine will run only if an error occurs. About Nuwara! You can specify an cause and effect testing exit routine with a line label in the same way that you specify an error-handling routine.

For example, you can add an exit routine to the example in the previous section. If an error doesn't occur, the exit routine runs after the body of the procedure. If an error occurs, then execution passes to the exit routine after the code in the error-handling routine has run. The exit routine contains an Exit statement. Handling Errors in about nuwara Nested Procedures. When an error occurs in life essay a nested procedure that doesn't have an about nuwara enabled error handler, Visual Basic searches backward through the calls list for an enabled error handler in skin essay questions another procedure, rather than simply halting execution. This provides your code with an essay about nuwara opportunity to correct the error within another procedure. For example, suppose Procedure A calls Procedure B, and Procedure B calls Procedure C. If an skin of a essay questions error occurs in nuwara eliya Procedure C and there's no enabled error handler, Visual Basic checks Procedure B, then Procedure A, for an enabled error handler. If one exists, execution passes to that error handler. Essay Assignments! If not, execution halts and an error message is displayed.

Visual Basic also searches backward through the calls list for an enabled error handler when an essay eliya error occurs within an active error handler. You can force Visual Basic to independence, search backward through the calls list by raising an error within an about eliya active error handler with the Raise method of the Err object. This is useful for handling errors that you don't anticipate within an error handler. If an unanticipated error occurs, and you regenerate that error within the error handler, then execution passes back up the calls list to find another error handler, which may be set up to handle the error. For example, suppose Procedure C has an enabled error handler, but the error handler doesn't correct for in the skin lion, the error that has occurred.

Once the error handler has checked for all the errors that you've anticipated, it can regenerate the original error. Execution then passes back up the calls list to the error handler in essay about eliya Procedure B, if one exists, providing an opportunity for essay namen, this error handler to correct the error. If no error handler exists in Procedure B, or if it fails to correct for the error and regenerates it again, then execution passes to the error handler in essay about eliya Procedure A, assuming one exists. To illustrate this concept in another way, suppose that you have a nested procedure that includes error handling for a type mismatch error, an error which you've anticipated. Grade! At some point, a division-by-zero error, which you haven't anticipated, occurs within Procedure C. If you've included a statement to regenerate the original error, then execution passes back up the calls list to another enabled error handler, if one exists.

If you've corrected for a division-by-zero error in another procedure in the calls list, then the error will be corrected. If your code doesn't regenerate the error, then the procedure continues to eliya, run without correcting the division-by-zero error. This in turn may cause other errors within the set of nested procedures. In summary, Visual Basic searches back up the essay namen calls list for about nuwara, an enabled error handler if: An error occurs in a procedure that doesn't include an enabled error handler. An error occurs within an active error handler. If you use the Raise method of the Err object to raise an error, you can force Visual Basic to essay, search backward through the calls list for an enabled error handler.

Getting Information About an Error. Once execution has passed to the error-handling routine, your code must determine which error has occurred and address it. Visual Basic and Microsoft Access provide several language elements that you can use to get information about a specific error. Essay About Nuwara! Each is suited to in the of a lion questions, different types of errors. Since errors can occur in different parts of essay about eliya, your application, you need to determine which to use in your code based on essay, what errors you expect. The language elements available for error handling include: The Err object is provided by Visual Basic.

When a Visual Basic error occurs, information about that error is about, stored in the Err object. The Err object maintains information about only cause essay on animal one error at a time. About Eliya! When a new error occurs, the Err object is updated to include information about that error instead. To get information about a particular error, you can use the properties and methods of the Err object. The Number property is the default property of the Err object; it returns the identifying number of the error that occurred. The Err object's Description property returns the descriptive string associated with a Visual Basic error. The Clear method clears the current error information from the Err object. The Raise method generates a specific error and skin lion, populates the about properties of the Err object with information about that error.

The following example shows how to use the Err object in a procedure that may cause a type mismatch error: Note that in the preceding example, the Raise method is day pakistan essay, used to regenerate the original error. If an error other than a type mismatch error occurs, execution will be passed back up the calls list to essay eliya, another enabled error handler, if one exists. The Err object provides you with all the information you need about Visual Basic errors. Skin Lion! However, it doesn't give you complete information about Microsoft Access errors or Microsoft Jet database engine errors. Microsoft Access and Data Access Objects (DAO)) provide additional language elements to assist you with those errors. The Error Object and Errors Collection. The Error object and about, Errors collection are provided by cause and effect essay assignments, ADO and DAO.

The Error object represents an ADO or DAO error. A single ADO or DAO operation may cause several errors, especially if you are performing DAO ODBC operations. Each error that occurs during a particular data access operation has an associated Error object. All the Error objects associated with a particular ADO or DAO operation are stored in the Errors collection, the lowest-level error being the first object in the collection and the highest-level error being the essay nuwara eliya last object in the collection. When a ADO or DAO error occurs, the Visual Basic Err object contains the error number for essay rubrics, the first object in the Errors collection. To determine whether additional ADO or DAO errors have occurred, check the Errors collection. The values of the ADO Number or DAO Number properties and the ADO Description or DAO Description properties of the about nuwara first Error object in the Errors collection should match the values of the Number and Description properties of the Visual Basic Err object. The AccessError Method. You can use the Raise method of the Err object to and effect essay, generate a Visual Basic error that hasn't actually occurred and essay nuwara, determine the descriptive string associated with that error.

However, you can't use the Raise method to generate a Microsoft Access error, an essay namen ADO error, or a DAO error. To determine the about nuwara eliya descriptive string associated with a Microsoft Access error, an ADO error, or a DAO error that hasn't actually occurred, use the AccessError method. You can use the Error event to essay namen, trap errors that occur on a Microsoft Access form or report. For example, if a user tries to enter text in a field whose data type is nuwara, Date/Time, the Error event occurs. If you add an Error event procedure to an Employees form, then try to enter a text value in the HireDate field, the Error event procedure runs. The Error event procedure takes an integer argument, DataErr. When an essay Error event procedure runs, the DataErr argument contains the number of the Microsoft Access error that occurred. Checking the value of the DataErr argument within the event procedure is the about nuwara eliya only way to determine the number of the error that occurred. The Err object isn't populated with error information after the Error event occurs.

You can use the value of the DataErr argument together with the AccessError method to determine the number of the error and independence essay, its descriptive string. Note The Error statement and Error function are provided for backward compatibility only. When writing new code, use the Err and Error objects, the AccessError function, and the Error event for getting information about an error.