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How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation. Phillip C. H. Shon. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating is widely practiced by students and poses a serious problem across college campuses. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to thesis on business, cheating, but how students actually cheat has often been overlooked. Using in-depth narratives from 119 students enrolled in an introductory criminology class, this paper examines the variety of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations. Findings indicate that students manipulate variables such as the dissertation psychological and behavioral profiles of on business coaching, their professors, unwitting accomplices, technology, peers, spatial environments, and their own bodies, to negotiate the contingent intricacies and dialectics of academic dishonesty. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating by college students is a pervasive phenomenon (Aiken, 1991; McCabe and Bowers, 1994; McCabe and Trevino, 1996; Spiller and Crown, 1995). The literature on academic dishonesty provides a structural framework for understanding exactly what constitutes cheating. It also documents the social and personal characteristics of cheaters, their motives, where they are most likely to cheat, and when they are most likely to a critical art essay, cheat; but where the coaching literature is less thorough is when it comes to documenting what the students do to cheat—that is, how they cheat. Essay For Inherit. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and on business coaching, tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed rather than thoroughly examined. This paper examines the varieties of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations.

Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to cheat: the possibility of essay questions, detection, surveillance from proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and minimization of thesis on business, culpability. Cheating during in-class examinations is mediated by certain variables which are part of the student's decision to cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and processes themselves. Based upon fail dissertation this study of thesis on business, how students cheat, specific techniques for enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to new world, the emotional and moral attractions of academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on thesis coaching, college campuses today must account for its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and the situational and essay, environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of thesis coaching, research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). Masters. However, aside from the attitudes about cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is thesis on business, a suitable topic for researchers within disciplines such as sociology and criminology.

From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an illegitimate means of dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in fail the pursuit of a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of higher education, that goal is a college degree—seen by many students to be a pre-requisite for upward mobility. A college education might seem to be within reach of most students today, yet the reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the cultural emphasis on success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of positive goals (i.e. loss of on business coaching, scholarship), and who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).

However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the claims of dying essay, general strain theory, and the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to cheat. [1] In some cases, attempts to on business coaching, address prevalent cheating have had to grapple with an absence of standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to what behaviors count as cheating—especially on exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of cheating on tests/exams as: copying from another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from dissertation, someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Trevino, 1996, p. Thesis On Business. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of differentiating and classifying cheating on tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an exam. Happiness Essays. This leads to a logical question that is not addressed in thesis the current literature: what type of a critical, innovative and creative tactics do students use to cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to destroy the evidence of their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to receive or communicate answers to on business, and from others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the fail masters only way that cheating occurs?

How do students avoid the obvious possibility of drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of coaching, communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and execute the intricacies of importing the top resume 2012 crib notes to the exam and then use it while eluding detection from proctors—a situational and routine activities approach to rule breaking—has not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and on business, Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and writing a critical art essay, the varieties of methods they employ for on business coaching, illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. First, the novel methods that students use to cheat have not been rigorously and cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of information, the use of happiness essays, Forbidden Materials (FM), and on business, Taking Advantage of the Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and lack thematic coherence and specificity. Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the processes that precede cheating. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.

This type of stance overlooks the sequential and progressive aspects of cheating that might illuminate how it is dying essay, actually carried out. This paper attempts to remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and collating the innovative methods that students use to adapt to their perceived strain in the pursuit of scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the on business innovative methods students use to cheat on brave new world, in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and on business coaching, coding schemes, students were instructed to be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.

The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into dying heroism, recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to coaching, let the masters dissertation students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from a medium-sized regional university in on business the Midwest (MU) and art essay, a medium-sized regional university in the South (SU) in coaching the spring of 2003 and fall of 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to use their responses so they were excluded from the fail masters dissertation analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on any exam, so their responses were not included in the substantive portions of the paper.

While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of both universities; hence, students from a broad range of majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. On Business. [2] The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and cheat sheets during an exam.) If students answered yes to 1, they were directed to a second question which asked them to write a detailed narrative as to how they cheated—the specific tactics they used to writing services, cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to several pages; for the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in on business descriptions and top resume 2012, representative of the analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and rationalizations for cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to thesis on business, avoid the surveillance of services, professors and teaching assistants. Thus, in addition to completing the exam, students who decide to cheat must first determine their potential for success; to on business, this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the how long a college uconn person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavioral parameters of permissible illicit action—how much they can get away with. This process is similar to the way police detectives size up a suspect in an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of their professors, and conjure up ways to on business, dupe them.

In the following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the course, her pressing need to pass, and the physical limitations of the teacher: One summer I decided to take the hardest class of my college career. I was terrified of this class for how long a college be for, a long time, so I put it off to the very end. I had heard horror stories of different teachers but I had never heard anything about the particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an F after studying practically the whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an old lady dying of cancer. She was in thesis coaching a wheel chair and she never moved from the spot her husband put her in. I knew that we would have to take the second quiz on loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of everything but a sheet of paper I took out should a college be for, a blank sheet and put it over my answers.

I could see the answers through the blank sheet of paper. Thesis. Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in the class no one would look that hard to see pencil through a sheet of dying essay, loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the on business coaching outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and happiness brave new world essays, department chairs, assuming that the courses taught by department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and on business, strict—hard (she would not play any games). That assumption is a college, initially confirmed when the student fails the thesis first quiz, despite the student's assiduous morning study. New World. In this narrative, the difficulty of the exam is thesis coaching, formulated as an extreme case, and offered as an implicit justification of her decision to fail dissertation, cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to say, the thesis on business coaching student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to remain stationary, hence, limited in fail masters her field of vision. Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and normative contours which affect the feasibility of thesis coaching, her illicit action during the in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in a predictable way, and relies on her knowledge of fail dissertation, situational routines to mobilize and on business coaching, execute her illegitimate plans. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of her surveillance, and typifications of test administration and uses them to her unfair advantage; consequently, she is able to successfully cheat without detection. Uconn. In the next narrative, a student elaborates in considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:

How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. You won't just bust down the banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to on business coaching, do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the risk of being caught. The first way is by knowing the professor. What I mean by that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is a college essay be for, human so his daily plan or the thesis on business way he does things is by repetition and are usually the same. The way he goes to work, goes to the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.

If you see him reading something on campus, notice what it is and masters, how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and forget what they are supposed to be doing and in about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to thesis, do. After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to brave new world, a test and he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and you know about how often he'll look up at the class. Say he looks up about every 3 minutes. You know you have at least 2 minutes to cheat so now you got him. He is unaware of his thought less routines or habits so the chance of getting caught in virtually gone.

Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. Thesis On Business Coaching. So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to writing a critical art essay, learn. This is very effective. The first noteworthy—and impressive—point about the way this student sizes up the professor is the rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of intelligence through systematic observations. Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the on business coaching student does not just observe the teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.

47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. In this narrative the student notes the teacher's favored reading materials, and dying heroism, brings a stopwatch to calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and thesis, routines, the student is able to delineate the situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. In other words, the student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. 271). For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of a lesson before dying heroism, interest and class participation, is thesis on business, a gratifying experience and questions, an enduring source of motivation.

The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the student usurps by establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for on business coaching, a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and have decided to top resume writing 2012, cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and thesis, painstakingly premeditated. It is a lesson before heroism essay, erroneous to believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at all, and only require minimal vigilance from instructors to deter—and catch—students from cheating. Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. In this section, some of the recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to cheat in conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to the strategic ways that students position themselves in relation to on business coaching, others; this method requires students to be situated in a zone of maximal surveillance in the proximity of brave new world essays, someone who has studied for the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Usually, this person is considered the smart one in the class, and those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the one closest would copy we would copy off of him.

Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on several parties in an auditorium setting. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. On Business Coaching. You need a few people in happiness brave new world essays order to on business coaching, make this procedure work. A person who studies or is a lesson before essay, a scholar is on business coaching, needed for this procedure. What happens is the scholar sits in questions the wind front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening. Two people sit in front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening.

Two people sit in coaching the next row over his shoulder in a formation and compare or copy the test from him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over fail masters, and the on business right over and copy the happiness new world essays test. When looked from above the students sit in a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to the south. This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is easier to look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. Thesis On Business Coaching. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederate—one who actually studies for masters dissertation, the exam—is necessary (see Cizek, 1999). On Business Coaching. Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in the scheme. Art Essay. The person who allows his/her work to be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and coaching, format of a critical art essay, examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in on business prior research (Houston, 1976).

In the writing art essay second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and thesis coaching, the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and dying essay, strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. But what is noteworthy here is the incremental and sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an unfair load of the dishonest work; each participant's role in the scheme is on business coaching, compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of group detection and mitigating the culpability of the involved parties. The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for another—something standing for something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is brave essays, inter alia communicative; and similar to thesis coaching, any communicative system, the how long a college essay be for uconn relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and the signified (e.g., meaning) is coaching, arbitrary; that relationship is a critical, established through usage and convention, sometimes by collusion. A notorious case of on business, this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Students rely on similar methods to fail masters dissertation, signal answers to one another. Consider the thesis following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. This would work in the classes that had students facing each other.

For example, I would watch a student and he or she would signal me the answer by touch the nose for A, touch the chin for B, the ear for C, and the wind, finally touch the top of the head for answer D. This method was harder so we had to pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and had no time to study. So I devised a plan with a friend in that class. The plan was to cheat on the exam through silent communication. The way we decided to do this was to on business coaching, give each object on our desk a certain letter meaning. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and D would be the actual test. When either one of us didn't know the should essay answer to one of the questions we would knock the number of the question out on business coaching, lightly on the desk and wait for the other to pick up the object with the letter of the right answer assigned to it.

It worked beautifully and writing, the teacher never knew what happened. We both passed the test and were never caught. Coughing once for A, twice for B and so on, or varying the pitch, duration, and intensity of coughs—coded coughs—to signal answers runs into an obvious problem: it is likely to engender suspicion from professors and coaching, proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of such coughs might be inductively deduced by an astute observer, as evidenced by the cheating scandal on the television game show. Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. One respondent in the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to convey answers to one another from across the room. In the two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to themselves; this is accomplished by using banal objects—objects that have no inherent meaning—to assign a letter value. This semiotic cheating is top resume 2012, facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinary—harmless—behaviors such as rubbing and coaching, scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to writing, stand for coaching, corresponding answers. Should the teacher suspect something and essay questions for inherit the wind, confront a student about repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and a disadvantage of this type of coaching, cheating; the essay cheaters rely on already available academic accoutrements to thesis coaching, establish a coded meaning.

Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and the actual exam are items that do not have to be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for school work in general; thus, this method is art essay, advantageous in that it eliminates from the outset the leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). The only possible shortcoming of this technique is that the questions themselves must also be communicated to the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and repetition have the potential of on business, raising a professor's suspicions. If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to deflect attention from test-takers, as in the next method, it is precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to happiness new world essays, committing a crime, is a function of opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is thesis on business coaching, arranging seats far apart, and the presence of highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). Top Resume Services 2012. However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a different—innovative—method of thesis on business coaching, collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. The most frequent cheating method we would use was the distraction method. One of us would go to the front and distract the teacher, while the others would get the notes out of a critical art essay, their booksacks. Each one of us would go up to distract the teacher, to make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over solitary cheating in that by thesis coaching distracting the professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to retrieve and place the before dying essay crib notes in a strategic location without the fear of surveillance and detection.

By distraction, we refer to cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and ask questions about the questions, seeking clarification on a ridiculously obvious point, and on business, feigning confusion about the wording of questions/answers etc. A group of conspirators who do this is less likely to a lesson before dying, raise suspicion since each students' role is compartmentalized; should the coaching professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the burden of proof is placed squarely on the teacher. By distracting the professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to a college essay uconn, academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the wherewithal to get involved in such complicities because they lack the deviant social capital in the first place; those who face the thesis on business monetary and writing a critical art essay, cultural pull of academic achievement without bosom friends, and decide to thesis coaching, adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of writing art essay, cheating in a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is thesis coaching, mentioned in virtually all of them, as is peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the answers on the bottom of one's shoes, on top of desks, and hands are part of academic folklore. In this section, I delineate the resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in strategic ways in relation to a lesson before, smart confederates; if the smart person is not an accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is not a passive cheater but a victim—a victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).

Consider the following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Thesis Coaching. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. I hope I do not get caught. All I have to do is scoot my desk a little to the side when I get into class and nobody will ever know. Fail Masters Dissertation. Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and on business, nobody is in class yet. This is where she sits so I am going to fail masters dissertation, sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Yes she sat there, it's all over now, I'm going to make at thesis coaching least a B now but I'll hope for a A.

This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. Fail Masters Dissertation. First answer is D. One down and ninety-nine to go. This is too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to comprehend course content and its level of difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to cheat in this case, however, is neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is premeditated the night before, the plan of illicit action well rehearsed in on business the cheater's mind. Fail Masters. The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. Thesis. She already knows what she will do to cheat in the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and as a result, she is the heroism first one in class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the crook of the smart girl's arm.

This student cheater chooses as victim the person who possesses the thesis valued commodity, and situates herself to the immediate left/right and rear. In other words, to know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the good students sit. This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and practice in writing a critical the classroom since there is a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to thesis, the corner and in the back—where the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to a critical, pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.

So you need to participate and thesis on business coaching, ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. This student cultivates the professor into thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Happiness New World. Being considered one of the thesis good students not only reaps rewards when on the borderline of a higher grade, but it also averts the suspicious gaze of writing a critical art essay, professors. It must be stated that relying on this tactic requires a certain amount of faith—that the smart ones will in fact be smart on test day, and will in fact show up, or sit in thesis coaching the same spot. Happiness Essays. That is, this method of on business coaching, cheating leaves too many variables to chance; for students who seek to impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.

Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to the examination site, with the intention of defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for a lesson before dying heroism, personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. Thesis On Business. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by parameters of feasibility (Cizek, 1999). For Inherit The Wind. In this section I classify the innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of illegal goods has been well noted in criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and regurgitate them upon sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). On Business Coaching. Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and how long should essay, opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to the police station (Jacobs and Miller, 1998).

When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimate—sometimes untouchable—repositories of on business, illegal goods. Consider the following narrative: Instead of writing the answers in my hand, I would write them on the side of my fingers. Essay. If I were asked to present my hands for on business coaching, inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. When the writing services teacher would scan for cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in frustration and read the answers from between my fingers. On Business Coaching. This was a sure way to writing art essay, conceal the evidence and I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on coaching, a rather elementary method of cheating, she adds a slight variation to the method. Instead of writing on the most visible parts of her hand (palms), she writes the answers on the sides of her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is writing art essay, frustrated, placing her hands across her face—staged performance—in order to get a glimpse of the notes during the exam.

Even in on business a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the possibility of preventive patrol by happiness new world a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the evidence of the crime as she exits the room, thereby eliminating another step in the cheating process that may be a liability. This is one of the primary advantages of writing the answers on one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on on business coaching, your hand and arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the desk.

Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to walk around class looking to see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on 2012, his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and coaching, they are used to project a normal appearance during the course of their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to happiness essays, her head—a rather common sight—to dupe the professor into thinking she is dazed and confused when in actuality she is sneaking a peek at her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on thesis coaching, it to cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and a lesson before heroism, execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into thesis on business, the plan. There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the professor—male or female—decide to investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for them. Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.

Before every test I would write all the answers on my thiegh. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to take my test, my skirt came up a little. I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on my leg. If he passed by top resume writing 2012 my desk I would uncross my legs and thesis coaching, I was good to fail masters dissertation, go. This female student uses her body as an unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the answers on her hands and arms, she writes them on on business coaching, her legs; and similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the writing services 2012 plan well: she wears a skirt that is of a particular length and style so that the thesis on business answers become accessible and before dying, under her complete control—when she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at the answers on thesis, her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is that it utilizes a body part that is a lesson before, unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by writing the coaching cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the art essay cheater from trenchant surveillance and detection. The reality of the academy inhibits—or ought to inhibit—confrontation by male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to on business coaching, sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the cheater has at her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in the first place? By countering an accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the encounter in a way that now puts the professor on the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusation—an accusation that emanates the pungency of sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is a valuable resource that is employed as an innovative tactic for the sake of dissertation, a passing grade, a tactic that is uniquely and thesis coaching, culturally available primarily to female students. [3]

An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is that the evidence of essay questions for inherit the wind, misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to on business, concern themselves with the disposal of incriminating evidence. Before Dying Heroism Essay. A similar point can be made of thesis, clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of clothing on top resume writing, the day of the exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and thesis on business, hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the following narrative: Now cheating in basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the top of the head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for essay questions the wind, cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for peeking at a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.

A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to remove her hat she complained to the professor that she was embarrassed to thesis coaching, expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at others' answers. Sometimes, the essay questions for inherit crib notes are pasted onto the brim of thesis on business coaching, hats so that students who cheat in this manner only how long should be for uconn, have to glance up to view the answers. Thesis. Others in the sample noted turning the answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against this type of cheating, having the students—male and female—remove their hats is all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is used as a way to cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of essay for inherit, my shirt. While taking the test I could turn the thesis on business bottom of my shirt up and get the formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is heroism essay, not tucked in is used in a resourceful way.

The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to being used as deviant resources for students. Consider the following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. The brilliant thing about these calculators is thesis coaching, that they can send information back and forth using an a college essay be for, infared light. Thesis On Business. We never got caught but now in chemistry classes you are not allowed to use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in masters dissertation the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and thesis on business, mathematics admitted to cheating using a calculator. They would do so by programming formulas and equations into writing art essay, the calculators themselves. Thesis On Business Coaching. In addition to calculators, students also made extensive use of the latest communication devices such as cellular phones and a college, pagers.

Students confessed to transmitting answers to and from a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to their colleagues for on business coaching, storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to banish communication devices from classrooms in addition to their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the most innovative methods of masters, academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the thesis on business cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in the corner of the frame of his glasses, and peeked at a college be for uconn it during the exam, a tactic that is difficult to envision, but not impossible to thesis, undertake. Essay For Inherit The Wind. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by using a rubber band: Basically, the night before the test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and stretch it.

While stretched, write the coaching answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from about a foot away. How Long Should Uconn. Write the answers as close together as you can. When the thesis on business rubberband is unstretched it will just appear to be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the answers. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of top resume writing 2012, a rubberband. When the test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. If you keep stretching and unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to on business, look for how long a college be for uconn, an answer.

The trick is on business, that you need to keep a steady pace of a lesson before dying, stretching + unstretching the rubberband, and you can't break that pace when you look for an answer. Writing the thesis on business answers on a rubber band, so that it reveals the should answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on on business coaching, in-class examinations. There are other features of this technique that make it noteworthy. First, note the level of should a college essay be for, calculation that is involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of thesis on business coaching, viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and for inherit, he writes the answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to the test so as to feign normalcy. On Business Coaching. By engaging in such behaviors prior to the exam, the writing a critical student cultivates the professor as a victim since the student manipulates a harmless and thesis coaching, ordinary object in innovative ways to dupe the professor into new world essays, a false sense of on business, normalcy.

Another highly creative method of cheating involves using an ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is he doing? He wrote his answers on before dying essay, two small pieces of paper with very small print. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. Thesis On Business Coaching. He has one of those Bic pens.

You know the ones you can see through. Well what he did is he took off the cap of the pen and brave new world essays, actually put the thesis on business coaching cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is top resume writing 2012, that the thesis on business coaching possibility of suspicious attention is diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to social and writing, environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to thesis on business coaching, adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. That is, students use what is already available to them—an unwitting smart student who happens to be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the culturally prescribed symbols of success (i.e. a college degree) and the absence of legitimate opportunities for their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of happiness new world, extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). This paper supplements the established findings on academic dishonesty by thesis on business coaching delineating the innovative techniques that students use to respond to essay for inherit the wind, perceived strains and frustrations encountered within the context of pursuing a college degree.

Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to circumvent the surveillance of vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of coaching, their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of a critical, their strains and on business, frustrations. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is influenced by the attitudes of top resume writing services 2012, their peers. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in on business the cheating processes, in the way academic dishonesty is manifested. Moreover, the variety of tactics used to cheat illustrates the fail creativity and ingenuity of students today (that is, the ones who decide to cheat).

Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Traditional criminological thought suggests that the severity and swiftness of sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Thesis Coaching. Some institutions have adopted honor codes to deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to writing, crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Felson, 1979); the first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is conducted (see Wright and Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is thesis coaching, either done solitarily or collusively. In the services 2012 latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in thesis spotting cheaters. Teachers may want to be especially alert to recurring patterns of behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from before dying heroism essay, students during in-class examinations. Thesis On Business Coaching. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and where they sit in order to cast a vigilant eye on the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43). [4] As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the top resume writing services 2012 good students. It may also be practical to inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannot—for obvious reasons—be visually inspected.

It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the social, cultural, and perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by on business limiting the opportunity for academic fraud in the first place is no small task, but it is one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the test; multiple versions of new world, exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and thesis on business coaching, fixed space seating. While fixed seating flies in the face of student autonomy, and reeks of professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for unprepared students to cheat from the beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student. Questions For Inherit. [5] It robs potential cheaters from victimizing an unwitting student, a student who has—ideally— diligently toiled for the grade. Finally, I speculate as to thesis, why cheating may be so attractive to a lesson before dying, college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of responding to thesis coaching, a perceived frustration in fail masters dissertation the pursuit of a valued goal. As critics of strain theory have noted, however, explaining the prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an overly instrumental view of human behavior, and neglects the moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and thesis coaching, frustrations are irrelevant to the psychological and social reality of the writing 2012 consequences which may result. The result of having an on business, overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to masters, devote the thesis on business coaching necessary study time, is a highly stressful and anxiety producing condition.

Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and stress in one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to see the non-material allure of cheating. As outlined in this paper and a lesson essay, evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of coaching, physical action prior to and during the exam. That is, students have to top resume 2012, sift through their assigned readings and notes and determine which ones they will place in coaching the cheat sheet; not only that, they must expend great care and cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to fail masters dissertation, devise where and how they will store their unauthorized notes and how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is possible to spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and preparing to cheat. And during this process they actively—physically and mentally—become engrossed in coaching the task at hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an individual senses the tingling sensations of hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of a critical, danger (O'Malley and on business, Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for before dying heroism, students to transform their impotent and frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of being in the planning, preparing, and execution of their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and possibly, expulsion.

Thus, the risks associated with cheating are very real. Yet, despite such formal and informal sanctions, research indicates that an thesis on business, astounding 60-70% of college students admit to cheating. I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to their studies. Essay Questions For Inherit The Wind. A simple answer would be to say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. Coaching. However, to view cheating as an essay questions for inherit, impulsively conceived and executed form of academic dishonesty, and conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and thesis on business coaching, national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). The cheating act itself is suffused with an unmistakable tinge of existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Dying Heroism. Thus, a more troubling—and theoretically titillating—answer would be to explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for coaching, those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Marckese, 1993). As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and before dying heroism essay, situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and even their sexuality. It is perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and gains through illegitimate means that is perhaps even more worthy of further investigation than the allure represented by the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. On Business Coaching. Lesko and the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.

The author also wishes to thank Shannon Barton, Jim Cassell, Amy Craddock, Lori Guevara, Dragan Milovanovic, and Jeff Schrink for their insightful comments on earlier drafts. The author alone is responsible for any errors. Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of writing a critical art essay, delinquency. Social Forces, 64, 151-167. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for on business coaching, a general strain theory of crime and delinquency.

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Circumstances surrounding cheating: A questionnaire study of college students. Research in on business Higher Education, 36 , 687-704. Gottfredson, M. R. and T. Essay. Hirschi. (1990). A General Theory of Crime . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Graham, M. A., J. Monday, K. O'Brien and S. Steffen. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student and faculty attitudes and behaviors. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 255-260. Haines, V. J., G. M. Diekhoff, E. E. Labeff and R. E. Clark. (1986).

College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education, 25, 342-354. Halleck, S. (1971). Psychiatry and on business coaching, the Dilemmas of Crime . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Hetherington, E. M. and S. E. Feldman. (1964). Art Essay. College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 212-218. Hollinger, R. C. and L. On Business. Lanza-Kaduce. (1996).

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Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. and J. Miller. (1998). Crack Dealing, Gender, and Arrest Avoidance. Social Problems, 45, 550-566. Johnson, R. Thesis Coaching. E. and M. S. Klores. (1968).

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Katz, J. (1999). How Emotions Work . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kelly, J. Fail. A. and L. Worrell. (1978). Personality characteristics, parent's behaviors, and on business coaching, sex of subject in relation to cheating. Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 179-188. LaBeff, E. E., R. E. Clark, V. J. Haines, and G. M. Diekhoff. (1990). Situational ethics and college student cheating. Sociological Inquiry, 60 , 190-198. Leo, R. A. (1996).

Miranda's revenge: Police interrogation as a confidence game. Writing Art Essay. Law and Society Review, 30 (2), 259-288. McCabe, D. L. 1992. The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62, 365-374. McCabe, D. L. and W. J. Bowers. (1994).

Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective. Coaching. Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 5-10. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. Writing. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64 , 522-538. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. On Business. (1996). Fail Masters. What we know about cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments. Change, 28 , 28-33. Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and thesis coaching, anomie.

American Sociological Review, 3 , 672-682. Michaels, J. A Lesson Before Dying Heroism. W. and T. D. Miethe. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 870-885. Newstead, S. E., A. Franklyn-Stokes and P. Armstead. (1996). Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 229-241. O'Malley, P. and S. Mugford. (1995). Crime, excitement, and modernity. In Varieties of thesis coaching, Criminology (pp. Happiness Brave New World Essays. 189-211).

Westport, CN: Praeger. Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. Adolescence, 26, 61-69. Smith, T. (2000). Challenging Academe's Mystique: Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating.

Ph.D. Dissertation. University at Albany, State University of thesis on business, New York: School of Criminal Justice. Spillar, S. and D. Fail Dissertation. H. Crown. (1995). Changes over time in academic dishonesty at thesis the collegiate level. Psychological Reports, 76 , 763-768. Ward, D. A. and W. L. Beck. (1990). Gender and dishonesty.

The Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 333-339. Whitley, B. E. Jr., A. B. Jones and C. J. Jones. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and 2012, classroom cheating behavior: A meta analysis. Sex Roles 41 (9/10), 657-680. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1997).

Armed Robbers in Action: Stickups and thesis on business coaching, Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Questions For Inherit The Wind. Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.

1. Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the greatest predictive power. This study finds encouraging support for the theory's ability to thesis coaching, explain another form of misconduct among the heroism essay many that have already been investigated. Thus, the predictive breadth and scope of self-control lends further credence to its claims of theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to identify only their gender to examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. When I initially mentioned this technique to thesis on business, colleagues, they seemed to be genuinely impressed. Essay For Inherit The Wind. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of it when they were in coaching school. But more importantly, when they were asked—both male and female—what they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to check for answers) would be nothing short of sexual harassment. Practically, I am not sure what can be done to prevent such cheating except to institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the the wind same to female professors; but in on business my data, I encountered no such creativity on essay, the part of the male students. One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.

4. I am aware that this recommendation leads to another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the exams will not be administered in a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. H. Shon is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.

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Morgusson fired her. Not even a single soul from the happiness brave new world personnel believed her and she was left completely alone with her agitation and thesis on business headache. How Long Essay Be For Uconn! My mother had a fever owing to this nervous situation! However, I love my mom and thesis on business coaching will keep her safe forever, because she taught me everything I knew. I wish I could accomplish a similar task, a My Dad Is My Hero essay, but, unfortunately, it is not possible. This story, though, is a good lesson for me, according to essays, which there is a constant need to thesis coaching, withstand evil-minded people and unmask the liars. My Mom Is My Hero essay : the writing a critical art essay analysis of the example. As far as the essay proofreading expertise goes, the on business coaching author of a school essay (like a My Dad My Hero essay or a My Mom Is My Hero essay ) should make sure he or she is able to answer several necessary questions after the essay is finished, namely:

How do you understand the top resume writing services 2012 wording of the title (for instance, in a My Father Is My Hero essay )? What were your initial aims and can you see them fulfilled in thesis, the accomplished work? Have you tried to step into the reader’s shoes and follow the essay questions for inherit the wind plot and the line of thesis arguments? Do you see the subject clearly explained and fully revealed? Can you imagine yourself writing a profile essay or any similar assignment? What is the happiness brave new world essays difference between descriptive and personal writing techniques? By what means the author can describe things and thesis processes as if he or she were the main hero? What are sections a school essay has to include? How the how long should essay uconn number and thesis coaching quality of these sections differ from the similar characteristics in an academic essay or any other written assignment (such as a personal statement )? Does the essay have a proper beginning/mid-section/conclusion? Is the style of the essay appropriate and does its length meet the questions requirements?

Therefore, only on business, after answering those questions the author can proceed to the editing and proofreading procedures. The editing process includes rewriting, finding additional materials and refinement. Fail! Check carefully whether your written piece does not lack in needful literary sources and meet all the requirements given to you by thesis on business coaching the teacher. If it is the essay questions for inherit case that you need to thesis on business coaching, work over a lesson, some ponderous sections and study special questions (for instance, how to understand a thesis methodology ), you always can visit the nearest library and thesis on business coaching ask a librarian for advice and information. For the top resume writing services proofreading stage you will need powerful grammar checking software; sure thing, for on business, high-quality results the proofreading process also should be done manually and in several repetitions.

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Alaric King of the Visigoths and the Sack of Rome in A.D. 410. On Business Coaching? Alaric was a Visigoth king, a barbarian who has the distinction of having sacked Rome. It was not what he wanted to do: In addition to being a king of the Goths, Alaric was a Roman magister militum #39;master of soldiers,#39; making him a valued member of the Roman Empire. Despite his allegiance to fail Rome, Alaric knew he would conquer the eternal city because it had been prophesied: You will penetrate The City. Despite or to avoid his destiny, Alaric tried to negotiate peacefully with the rulers of thesis on business coaching Rome. Far from being the enemy of a critical Rome, Alaric worked as king-maker, installing Priscus Attalus as emperor, and keeping him there despite policy disagreements. It didn#39;t work.

Ultimately, Rome#39;s refusals to accommodate a barbarian led Alaric to sack Rome on August 24, A.D. 410. Gothic troops destroyed most of thesis on business coaching Rome and took prisoners, including the fail masters dissertation, Emperor#39;s sister, Galla Placidia. #34;But when the appointed day had come, Alaric armed his whole force for thesis on business the attack and was holding them in readiness close by the Salarian Gate; for a lesson heroism essay it happened that he had encamped there at the beginning of the siege. Thesis Coaching? Aug. 24, 410 A.D. Services? And all the youths at the time of the day agreed upon came to this gate, and, assailing the guards suddenly, put them to death; then they opened the gates and received Alaric and coaching the army into the city at their leisure. And they set fire to the houses which were next to the gate, among which was also the house of Sallust, who in ancient times wrote the history of the Romans, and the greater part of this house has stood half-burned up to my time; and after plundering the whole city and destroying the essay, most of the Romans, they moved on.#34; Procopius on the Sack of Rome. What Alaric Did After Sacking Rome. Following the sack of Rome, Alaric led his troops south to Campania, taking Nola and Capua along the thesis, way. How Long A College Essay Uconn? Alaric headed towards the Roman province of Africa where he intended to provision his army with Rome#39;s personal breadbasket, but a storm wrecked his ships, temporarily blocking his crossing.

Before Alaric could re-outfit his naval forces, Alaric I, King of the Goths, died at Cosentia. In Alaric#39;s place, the Goths elected his brother-in-law, Athaulf. Instead of heading south to Africa, under Athaulf#39;s leadership the Goths marched north across the Alps, away from Rome. But first, as an en route parting shot, they devastated Etruria (Tuscany). Thesis On Business Coaching? That#39;s the a critical art essay, gist of it. The following two pages contain more, but still abbreviated details on how Alaric tried not to sack Rome, but ultimately felt he had no alternative. On Business Coaching? More on the Goths and Rome.

Books on the Fall of Rome | Rome - An Era-by-Era Timeline. Essay For Inherit The Wind? Alaric Needed a Home for the Goths. Alaric, a King of the Goths and leader of other barbarians, tried means other than sacking Rome to get his way with Honorius, the Roman Emperor of the West from c. 395-August 15, 423. Twice before he ultimately sacked Rome, in 410, Alaric had entered Italy with his troops, intending to fulfill his destiny, but talks and Roman promises kept the barbarians at bay. Alaric first invaded Italy in 401-403. Previously, Alaric and thesis on business the Goths were settled in the province of New Epirus (modern Albania) where Alaric held an imperial office. J.B. Bury says he may have served as Magister Militum #39;Master of Soldiers#39; in Illyricum [See Map Sect. Brave New World? fG.] Bury thinks that during this time Alaric refitted his men with state-of-the-art weaponry. It isn#39;t known what made Alaric suddenly decide to on business invade Italy, but he seems to have determined to find a home for the Goths in services 2012 the Western Empire, possibly in the Danube provinces. In 401, Radagaisus, another barbarian king (d. August 406) who was possibly in conspiracy with Alaric, led his Vandals across the Alps into Noricum.

Honorius sent Stilicho, the son of a Vandal father and Roman mother, to deal with the Vandals, leaving a window of opportunity for Alaric. Alaric picked this moment of distraction to lead his troops into Aquileia, which he captured. Alaric then won cities in Venetia and coaching was about to march on Milan where Honorius was stationed. However, by this time Stilicho had suppressed the Vandals. He converted them to auxiliary troops, and he took them with him to march on Alaric. Alaric marched his troops westward to the river Tenarus (at Pollentia) where he told his hesitant troops about the vision about his conquest.

Evidently this worked. Alaric#39;s men fought against Stilicho and his Roman-Vandal troops on April 6, 402. Although there was no decisive victory, Stilicho captured Alaric#39;s family. So Alaric made a treaty with Stilicho and art essay left Italy. In 403, Alaric crossed the border again, to attack Verona, but this time, Stilicho clearly defeated him. Instead of pressing his lead, though, Stilicho came to an agreement with Alaric: the Goths could live between Dalmatia and Pannonia. In return for land to live on, Alaric agreed to support Stilicho when he moved to on business coaching annex Eastern Illyricum.

Early in 408, Alaric (following the agreement) marched to Virunum, in Noricum. From there he sent the emperor a demand for the salary of his troops. Stilicho urged Honorius to agree, so Alaric was paid and continued in service to art essay the Western Emperor. That spring Alaric was ordered to thesis on business coaching take back Gaul from the usurper Constantine III. On August 22, A.D. 408, Stilicho was beheaded for treason. Top Resume Writing Services? In the aftermath, Roman troops started killing families of barbarian auxiliaries in Italy. 30,000 men fled to join Alaric, who was still in Noricum.

Olympius, the magister officiorum , succeeded Stilicho and faced two unresolved issues: (1) the usurper in Gaul and (2) the on business, Visigoths. Alaric offered to withdraw to Pannonia if the hostages taken earlier ( remember: in questions the wind the indecisive battle at Pollentia, members of Alaric#39;s family were captured ) were returned and if Rome paid him more money. Coaching? Olympius and Honorius rejected Alaric#39;s offer, so Alaric crossed the writing, Julian Alps that fall. This marked Alaric#39;s third entry into Italy. Alaric was going to Rome, so, although he traversed Cremona, Bononia, Ariminum, and the Flaminian Way, he didn#39;t stop to destroy them. Stationing his troops behind the walls, he blockaded the Eternal City, which led to on business hunger and how long should a college essay be for uconn disease within Rome. The Romans responded to the crisis by sending ambassadors to Alaric.

The king of the on business, Goths demanded pepper, silk, and enough gold and silver that the Romans had to strip statues and melt ornaments to pay the ransom. A peace treaty was to be made and writing art essay the hostages would be released to Alaric later, but for the moment, the Goths broke the blockade and left Rome. The Senate sent Priscus Attalus to the Emperor to urge him to satisfy Alaric#39;s demands, but Honorius again refused. Instead, he ordered 6000 men from Dalmatia to come defend Rome. Attalus accompanied them, and then escaped when Alaric#39;s troops attacked, killing or capturing most of the soldiers from Dalmatia. In 409, Olympius, having fallen from favor, fled to Dalmatia, and was replaced by the duplicitous Jovius, a guest-friend of Alaric.

Jovius was praetorian prefect of Italy and had been made a patrician. Coaching? Continued on Next Page. Acting on happiness brave essays behalf of Emperor Honorius, the praetorian prefect Jovius arranged peace talks with Alaric, the Visigoth King, who demanded: 4 provinces for Gothic settlement, an annual allotment of grain, and money. Jovius relayed these demands to Emperor Honorius, along with his recommendation to approve. Thesis On Business Coaching? Honorius characteristically rejected the demands in insulting terms, which Jovius read aloud to fail Alaric. The barbarian king was outraged and determined to march on Rome. Practical concerns -- like food -- kept Alaric from immediately implementing his plan. He reduced from 4 to coaching 2 the number of settlement provinces his Goths required. He even offered to fight for a lesson before dying essay Rome. Alaric sent the Roman bishop, Innocent, to negotiate these new terms with the Emperor Honorius, in Ravenna. This time, Jovius recommended that Honorius reject the offer.

Honorius concurred. Following this refusal, Alaric marched to Rome and blockaded it for a second time at the end of 409. When the Romans yielded to him, Alaric proclaimed Priscus Attalus western Roman Emperor, with the approval of the Senate. Alaric became Attalus#39; Master of the Foot, a position of power and on business influence. Alaric urged Attalus to capture the writing a critical art essay, province of coaching Africa because Rome depended on its grain, but Attalus was reluctant to use military force; instead, he marched with Alaric to Ravenna where Honorius agreed to split, but not cede the how long a college essay be for, Western Empire. Honorius was ready to flee when the Eastern Empire sent 4000 soldiers to his aid.

These reinforcements forced Attalus#39; retreat to Rome. There he found suffering because, since the thesis on business coaching, African province supported Honorius, it had refused to send grain to rebellious Rome. (This was precisely why Alaric had urged him to writing a critical capture Africa.) Alaric again urged military force against Africa, but Attalus still refused even though his people were starving. Clearly, Attalus was a mistake. So Alaric successfully turned to Emperor Honorius to thesis on business arrange for the removal of writing a critical Attalus from office. Leaving his army at Arminum, Alaric then went to Honorius to discuss the terms of his people#39;s peace treaty with the Western Empire. While Alaric was away, an enemy of Alaric, although also a Goth in thesis on business service to Rome, Sarus, attacked Alaric#39;s men. Alaric broke off negotiations to march on Rome. Once more Alaric surrounded the city of Rome. Once more the inhabitants of for inherit Rome came close to starvation. Thesis Coaching? On August 24, 410, Alaric entered Rome through the Salarian gate. How Long Should A College Essay Uconn? Reports suggest someone let them in -- According to Procopius, either they had infiltrated in Trojan Horse style by sending 300 men disguised as slaves as gifts for the senators or they were admitted by Proba, a rich matriarch who pitied the starving people of the city who had even resorted to thesis coaching cannibalism.

No longer feeling merciful, Alaric let his men wreak havoc, burning the Senate house, raping and pillaging for 2-3 days, but leaving the church buildings (but not the art essay, contents) intact, before setting off for Campania and thesis coaching Africa. They had to heroism essay leave in a hurry because there was not enough food and because they needed to cross the sea before winter. Africa was Rome#39;s breadbasket, so they started out for it along the Appian Way towards Capua. They plundered the city of Nola and perhaps Capua, as well, and then on to the southern tip of Italy. By the time they were ready to set sail, the weather had turned; the ships that headed out on business coaching sank.

When Alaric fell ill, the Goths moved inland to Consentia.

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the on business Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in a lesson essay Early Modern Academic Drama at thesis coaching, the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and fail masters dissertation, contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good.

In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isn’t met with the thesis coaching lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. How Long A College Essay? The grade your teacher has scrawled at coaching, the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. And the essays comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the on business coaching question!’. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to art essay, you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is thesis on business, – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the fail dissertation exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on thesis the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance.

What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about top resume services, or to pop in if it could be made to on business coaching, fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of questions for inherit the wind a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about thesis coaching, Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is fail masters, wrenching. Thesis? Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the writing a critical art essay same points. If you recognise yourself in on business the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of before dying ideas so that an on business examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. Before Dying Heroism Essay? And it’s a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and thesis on business coaching, knowledge to questions, really answer a question.

It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over – in thesis every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the question here , and here , and happiness, here. Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to thesis on business coaching, share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the essay questions for inherit number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for thesis coaching, some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked.

It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to essay uconn, figure out thesis, exactly what they’re expected to before dying, do – instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out coaching, a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of heroism essay essay you’re going to on business, write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into the wind more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and thesis coaching, phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of any points that do answer the question.

If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. ‘Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on essay questions the wind the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and thesis, importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the happiness witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to on business coaching, believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to essay, understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and thesis, whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material. However, the detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay.

You would draw on similar material to address the dissertation following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in coaching Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is brave, profound ambiguity about the on business coaching actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss. I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to art essay, set the on business scope of the essay. Essay Be For? You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay.

The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Thesis Coaching? Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are: The witches are the questions most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of thesis on business coaching his wife. Fail? We are not supposed to believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is thesis on business coaching, his own doing. How Long Be For Uconn? The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. It’s fine to on business coaching, conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to find these sorts of questions the most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the title does most of the work for top resume writing services, you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay.

The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the thesis coaching witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and how long should a college essay uconn, terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for coaching, example, is asking exactly the same thing as the essay for inherit other questions. The trick here is thesis on business, making sure you respond to writing a critical art essay, all the different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the King of thesis coaching England and Scotland at happiness new world essays, the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out thesis coaching, exactly what the question is asking, write out a lesson before, a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to on business, be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph.

Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to dissertation, believe in the three witches in thesis coaching Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in happiness brave essays Macbeth’s downfall is on business, deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to before, exorcise evil demons from coaching, people who were ‘possessed’. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to new world essays, exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in thesis on business red) shows how the fail masters material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to clarifying your ideas, is thesis, a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings.

This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to new world essays, making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. Thesis On Business? This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. Writing Art Essay? To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and thesis on business coaching, then tell them how you’ve answered the brave question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and thesis, how it answers the question. The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this:

Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and essay for inherit the wind, also what I’m going to thesis coaching, use those contexts to essays, show. I’d then slot in all my facts and on business coaching, examples in the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to for inherit the wind, the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and on business, exorcisms, is crucial to the wind, our understanding of the witches in thesis coaching Macbeth. Questions The Wind? To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and on business coaching, terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at writing, making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph.

You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and on business, give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, it’ll be free from red-inked comments about questions for inherit, irrelevance, and thesis, instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to a lesson before dying, see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to “Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on on business better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at fail masters dissertation, 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is on business coaching, a huge amount available online – the Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps.

January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said:

A ‘to what extent’ essay question is effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to essay, break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of coaching what sort of answer is expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for services 2012, a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of on business coaching giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay.

We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an happiness brave essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an thesis on business essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on essay the ORA website that may be of use to you.

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