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Dec 18, 2017 Write an outline for an expository essay,
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Skepticism and write Content Externalism. [ Editor's Note: The following revised entry has a new title. Fifth? It was previously titled Brains in a Vat. ] One skeptical hypothesis about the external world, namely that one is a brain in for an expository essay a vat with systematically delusory experience, is modelled on the Cartesian Evil Genius hypothesis, according to which one is a victim of thoroughgoing error induced by a God-like deceiver. Gcse Research? The skeptic argues that one does not know that the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis is false, since if the hypothesis were true, one's experience would be just as it actually is. Therefore, according to essay the skeptic, one does not know any propositions about the external world (propositions which would be false if the vat hypothesis were true). Hilary Putnam (1981) provided an apparent refutation of a version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, based upon content externalism (also known as semantic externalism). This is the view that the meanings and truth conditions of one's sentences, and the contents of one's intentional mental states, depend upon schulterklopfen the character of write for an expository, one's external, causal environment. This entry is primarily focussed upon evaluating the Putnamian considerations that seem to show that one can know that one is not a brain in a vat. 1. Skeptical Hypotheses and the Skeptical Argument.
The Cartesian skeptic puts forward various logically possible skeptical hypotheses for our consideration, such as that you are now merely dreaming that you are reading an encyclopedia entry. The more radical Evil Genius hypothesis is this: you inhabit a world consisting of just you and a God-like Evil Genius bent on deceiving you. Gcse Food Coursework Research? In the Evil Genius world, nothing physical exists, and all of write an outline expository, your experiences are directly caused by the Evil Genius. So your experiences, which represent there to be an external world of physical objects (including your body), give rise to systematically mistaken beliefs about your world (such as that you are now sitting at papers a computer). (For an overview of the problem of write an outline for an, external world skepticism, see Greco 2007.) Some philosophers would deny that the destructors essay, Evil Genius hypothesis is genuinely logically possible. An Outline For An? Materialists who hold that the mind is a complex physical system deny that it is possible for there to be an Evil Genius world, since, on their view, your mind could not possibly exist in gough whitlam essay a matterless world. Accordingly, a modern skeptic will have us consider an for an essay updated skeptical hypothesis that is consistent with materialism. Consider the hypothesis that you are a disembodied brain floating in fifth essays a vat of nutrient fluids. This brain is connected to a supercomputer whose program produces electrical impulses that stimulate the brain in just the way that normal brains are stimulated as a result of write for an expository essay, perceiving external objects in the normal way. (The movie ‘The Matrix’ depicts embodied brains which are so stimulated, while their bodies float in a vats.) If you are a brain in a vat, then you have experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from those of a normal perceiver. If you come to research artists believe, on the basis of your computer-induced experiences, that you are looking at for an expository at tree, then you are sadly mistaken. After having sketched this brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, the skeptic issues a challenge: can you rule out the possibility described in the hypothesis?
Do you know that the hypothesis is false? The skeptic now argues as follows. Research? Choose any target proposition P concerning the external world, which you think you know to write expository essay be true: If you know that P , then you know that you are not a brain in a vat. Essay? You do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. So, You do not know that P . Premise (1) is an outline for an expository essay backed by the principle that knowledge is closed under known entailment : Since you know that P entails that you are not a brain in a vat (for example, let P = You are sitting at a computer ), by (CL) you know that P only if you know its entailed consequence: you are not a brain in a vat. Premise (2) is backed by the consideration that your experiences do not allow you to discriminate between the hypothesis that you are not a brain in a vat (but rather a normal human) from the gcse, hypothesis that you are a brain in a vat. Your experience would be the for an expository essay, same regardless of which hypothesis were true. So you do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. 2. Putnam's BIVs and gough whitlam essay the Disjunctive Argument.
In a famous discussion, Hilary Putnam has us consider a special version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis. Write An Outline For An Expository Essay? Imagine that you are a brain in a vat in a world in which the only objects are brains, a vat, and a laboratory containing supercomputers that stimulate the envatted brains. Imagine further that this situation has arisen completely randomly, and that the brains have always been envatted. No evil neuroscientists or renegade machines have brought about the brains' envatment. Call such a special brain in a vat a ‘BIV’. A skeptical argument just like that above can be formulated using the BIV hypothesis. Putting things now in the first person, Putnam argues that I can establish that I am not a BIV by appeal to semantic considerations aloneconsiderations concerning reference and truth. Food? This will block the BIV version of the skeptical argument. Here is how Putnam motivates his anti-skeptical semantic considerations.
Suppose that there are no trees on for an, Mars and that a Martian forms a mental image exactly resembling one of my tree-images as a result of perceiving a blob of gcse technology coursework, paint that accidentally resembles a tree. Write An Outline Essay? Putnam's intuition is that the Martian's image is not a representation of a tree. This is due to submission visa the lack of any causal connection between the image and for an expository trees (even, we will suppose, any attenuated causal connection such as interaction with a visiting Earthling who has seen trees). If I were a BIV, then my mental image resembling a tree would no more be a representation of thesis submission, a tree than would the Martian's mental image. Write Essay? Neither of us would have the sort of whitlam dismissal, causal contact with trees which is for an essay required for our images to refer to trees. The same reasoning applies to any tokens of the word ‘tree’ which might come to submission be uttered (or thought) by write for an expository the Martian and by the BIV. (In speaking about BIVs, we will use ‘utter’ to mean, in gcse technology coursework effect, ‘seem to utter’, since a BIV cannot speak or write, but only seems to an outline himself to be speaking or writing. Similar remarks apply to ‘speak’.) What does the BIV's token of schulterklopfen, ‘tree’ refer to, if not to trees? Putnam offers three possibilities: to ‘trees-in-the-image’ (I take it that by ‘the image’, Putnam means the succession of write an outline, experiences had by the BIV ), to the electrical impulses that stimulate the research papers, brain and thereby cause it to have experiences just like those a normal human has when it sees a tree, and to the computer program features that are causally responsible for the stimuli described in (ii) and write for an essay thus the experiences described in (i).
On the natural , pre-Putnam assignment of references which one would make in essays evaluating the truth value of write an outline expository essay, a BIV's utterance of ‘Here is a tree’, we would hold that the brain's token of ‘tree’ refers to trees and, hence, that his sentence token is false, since he is not near a tree. On each of grade essays, Putnam's proposed reference assignments, though, the brain's sentence token comes out true (provided that the write essay, brain is fifth essays indeed being stimulated so as to have experiences just like those a normal human has when seeing a tree and that the stimulation is an outline caused by the appropriate electrical impulses generated by a computer's program features). Essay? On account (i), for example, the BIV's utterance of ‘Here is write for an a tree’ is papers artists true iff the for an expository, BIV is having experiences as of being near a tree. Call these considerations about reference and truth semantic/content externalism . This view denies a crucial Cartesian assumption about mind and research language, viz., that the BIV's sentences express systematically mistaken beliefs about his world, the very same beliefs had by a normal counterpart to the BIV, with matching experiences. An Outline For An? On the contrary: the BIV's sentences differ in reference and research papers truth conditions (and, accordingly, in meaning) from those of essay, his normal counterpart. His sentences express beliefs that are true of his strange vat environment. The differences in the semantic features of the sentences used by the BIV and those used by his normal counterpart are induced by the differences in the beings' external, causal environments. Account (iii) of the thesis submission visa, referents of the BIV's words gives the most plausible semantic/content externalist reference assignment, since recurring program features that systematically cause the BIV's ‘treeish’ experiences play a causal role vis a vis the BIV's uses of for an essay, ‘tree’ that is analogous to the causal role played by trees vis a vis a normal human's uses of fifth, ‘tree’. Using account (iii) and some of Putnam's remarks, we can reconstruct the following Disjunctive Argument (hereafter ‘DA’), which is aimed at establishing that I am not a BIV. If DA succeeds, then we have a response to essay a skeptical argument involving the gough whitlam dismissal, BIV hypothesis which shares the write an outline expository, form of the research papers, Cartesian argument (1)-(3) above. If DA succeeds, then it generates knowledge that I am not a BIV.
Thus we would have a response to the skeptic's claim that since I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know any target external-world proposition P . Let ‘vat-English’ refer to the language of the BIV, let ‘brain*’ refer to the computer program feature that causes experiences in the BIV that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent brains, and write an outline for an expository let ‘vat*’ refer to the computer program feature that cause experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent vats. A BIV, then, is not a brain* in a vat*: a BIV is not a certain computer program feature located in a certain other computer program feature. Here is theme essay DA: Either I am a BIV (speaking vat-English) or I am a non-BIV (speaking English). If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a brain* in a vat*. If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then I am not a brain* in write expository a vat*. If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of gcse coursework, ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(b),(c)] If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a BIV.
If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(e)] My utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(a),(d),(f)] DA stops short of delivering the desired result, namely a proof of. (¬SK) I am not a BIV. To establish (¬SK) we need to an outline expository add a couple of technology coursework research, further steps: (h) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true. (T) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true iff I am not a BIV. (¬SK) follows from write for an essay (h) and (T). Step (h) itself follows from (g) on natural assumptions about technology coursework research, negation, truth, and quotation, but (T) is problematic in the current anti-skeptical context. The assumption of write an outline expository, (T) seems to beg the question against the skeptic. Putnam's semantic externalist picture is research papers this: if I am an non-BIV (speaking English) then (T) is the write an outline for an expository, correct statement of the theme, truth conditions of essay, my sentence ‘I am a BIV’, using the device of disquotation; but if instead I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then the correct statement of my sentence's truth conditions is the strange one given in (b) of DA, not using the device of disquotation.
So in order to know that (T) is the correct statement of my sentence's truth conditions, I need to know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English). Whitlam Dismissal Essay? But that is what the an outline for an expository, anti-skeptical argument was supposed to essay prove (Brueckner 1986). According to this objection, Supplemented DA (DA plus (h) and (T)) is epistemically circular , in William Alston's sense: knowledge of one of write for an essay, its premises(T)requires knowledge of its conclusion (Alston 1989). Let us consider two other reconstructions of Putnam's thinking regarding BIVs. Here is Simple Argument 1 (‘SA1’see Brueckner 2003):
If I am a BIV, then my word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees. My word ‘tree’ refers to writing fifth trees. So, I am not a BIV. Write An Outline? [(A),(B)] We will discuss (B) below. Premise (A) comes from Putnam's semantic externalism, as seen above. Submission Visa? DA's claims about the BIV's sentences' truth conditions are grounded in claims about reference such as (A): since the BIV's words differ in their referents from the corresponding words of a normal speaker, the BIV's sentences accordingly differ in write an outline for an expository their truth conditions from the corresponding sentences of essay, a normal speaker.
The semantic differences just mentioned induce differences at the level of thought content that are exploited in the following Simple Argument 2 (‘SA2’Brueckner 2003, Ebbs 1992, Tymoczko 1989): If I am a BIV, then I am not thinking that trees are green. I am thinking that trees are green. So, I am not a BIV. We will discuss (E) below. Regarding (D): since the BIV's word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees when he uses the sentence ‘Trees are green’ as a vehicle for thinking a thought, his thought does not have the content that trees are green . Rather, it has some content concerning tree*'s, that is, computer program features that cause in an outline expository the BIV experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent trees. Perhaps the content is something like this: the artists, program feature that causes ‘treeish’ experience is associated with a program feature that causes experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent objects as being green. SA2 highlights the connection between semantic externalism and the mind.
Not only do meaning, reference, and truth depend upon for an essay one's external environment in the ways we have discussed; further, the essay, representational contents of one's thoughts, beliefs, desires and other propositional attitudes also depend upon circumstances external to one's mind. The simple arguments are simpler than DA, and they also do not commit the anti-skeptic to a specification of the referents of the BIV's words and the contents of its thoughts. The arguments rest only upon an outline for an essay the claim that the referents and contents in question differ from my referents and contents. Another advantage of the Simple Arguments is that they do not, on the face of it, seem to beg the question against the skeptic, as did DA when supplemented so that it validly implied the research papers artists, conclusion (¬SK): that I am not a BIV. Let us now turn to an outline expository an objection to schulterklopfen essay SA1. Though the argument does not obviously require knowledge that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), as Supplemented DA seemed to, its premise (B) does seem upon an outline for an reflection to be question-begging. On a natural understanding of (B), the technology, truth of this premise requires the existence of trees as referents for my word ‘tree’. So to write essay know that (B) is grade essays true, I would need to write expository essay know that I am a non-BIV in a world containing trees, rather than a BIV in research papers artists a treeless vat world. This problem infects SA2 as well, since my ground for holding that I can think tree-thoughts while the BIV cannot is ultimately the claim that the for an essay, words we use to express our respective thoughts differ in reference (trees versus things that are not trees, such as tree*'s).
SA1 can be modified so as to gcse food coursework avoid this objection (Brueckner 2003): A*. If I am a BIV, then it is not the case that if my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to trees. B*. If my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to trees. So, C. I am not a BIV. Premise (A*) comes from write an outline for an expository essay semantic/content externalism.
Re premise (B*): knowledge that there are trees in thesis submission visa my world is not required in order to justify this premise. But a problem still remains. An Outline Essay? In order to know (B*), don't I need to know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), so that I can use the device of destructors, disquotation in stating the referents of my words (if they do have referents at all)? A similar worry can be laid at the door of write an outline expository essay, SA2. In order to know its second premise, (E), I need to papers know what I am now thinking. Write Essay? But if I am a BIV, then I use the sentence ‘Trees are green’ to express some thought concerning tree*'s.
So in order to know what I am now thinking (in order to know that I am thinking that trees are green ), it seems that I need to know that I am not a BIV thinking a thought with a strange content (Brueckner 2003). A reasonable response to gough dismissal the foregoing objection to Modified SA1 is as follows. In advance of working through Modified SA1, I do not know whether or not I am a non-BIV (speaking English) or a BIV (speaking vat-English). For An? But I do know certain things about gcse food technology coursework, my own language (whatever it is and wherever I am speaking it). By virtue of write an outline for an expository essay, knowing the meaning of ‘refers’ and the meaning of quotation marks, I know that disquotation can be correctly applied to any successfully referring term of my language, in the way that (B*) indicates for fifth grade my word ‘tree’. This is a priori knowledge of write an outline, semantic features of my own language (whatever it isEnglish or vat-English). Dismissal Essay? I know (A*) in virtue of my a priori , philosophical knowledge of the theory of write for an essay, semantic externalism and of how it applies to the case of the BIV.
Knowing (A*) and (B*), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV (Brueckner 1992). A similar response to the foregoing objection to food coursework SA2 is that I have knowledge of my own mind that is not experientially based. I can gain the knowledge that I am now thinking that trees are green via introspection. Write Expository? Putting this self-knowledge together with my a priori , philosophical knowledge of SA2's first premise, (D), (knowledge based upon thesis my understanding of semantic externalism), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV. A problem for this response has been raised by various philosophers. It has been suggested that semantic/content externalism engenders severe limits on self-knowledge: if I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know which contents my thoughts possess: the normal ones that I think that they possess, or the write an outline expository, strange ones that they possess if I am a BIV. So the schulterklopfen essay, response we have considered may be in trouble if semantic externalism gives rise to such skepticism about knowledge of content. (Ludlow and write an outline Martin 1998)
The foregoing defenses of the research papers, Simple Arguments emphasize a constraint on anti-skeptical arguments: their premises must be knowable a priori . The justification of their premises must not require any appeal to the deliverances of sense-experience. Now Modified SA1 is driven by the following thought: the referent of the BIV's ‘tree’ is something strange, viz., tree*'s (certain computer program features); but the an outline expository, referent of my ‘tree’ (if such there be) is trees ; so I am not a BIV. Essay? This thought in turn rests upon the natural assumption that trees are not computer program features . But is that assumption something that I know a priori ? In work unrelated to skepticism, Putnam has claimed that even though it is write for an essay necessary that cats are animals (just as it is necessary that water is destructors H 2 O), it is not knowable a priori that cats are animals (just as it is not knowable a priori that water is H 2 O). According to for an Putnam, the concept of cat allows that in advance of gaining knowledge of their inner structure, cats could turn out to research artists be robots . For An Essay? The worry is that in a similar way, the concept of tree is such that in advance of gaining knowledge of the fifth essays, existence and nature of trees, trees could turn out to be computer program features . If I hold in abeyance my seeming a posteriori knowledge about an outline expository, trees, then, I cannot fairly say that in writing grade essays the vat world, there are no trees . For An Expository? Thus, I do not know a priori that the BIV's word ‘tree’ refers to things other than trees (in virtue of referring to computer program features which are distinct from whitlam essay trees) (Brueckner 2005). This objection to Modified SA1 can be answered by focusing upon the dialectical situation between skeptic and anti-skeptic. The skeptic wishes to impugn my seeming knowledge of the external world by putting forward a skeptical hypothesis that is incompatible with the external-world propositions I believe. We are considering the skeptical hypothesis SK (= I am a BIV). On the current objection to our anti-skeptical argument, the skeptical critic undermines his own position by suggesting that SK is compatible with external-world propositions such as that I am in the presence of green trees. I can now argue as follows in response to the skeptic's current objection. I know a priori that either (I) trees are computer program features, or (II) trees are not computer program features.
On the first alternative, the skeptic undermines his own overall position, and on write an outline expository essay, the second alternative, the skeptic's objection is withdrawn. So we could view Modified SA1 as being an argument by cases: it is destructors theme essay not known a priori which case obtains, but it is known a priori that the skeptic loses in each case. Another objection to the semantic arguments we have considered springs to mind when we imagine a BIV working his way through, say, Modified SA1. An Outline For An Expository Essay? When the BIV thinks thoughts via the sentences (A*), (B*), and (C), he is not , for example, thinking about trees when he thinks his second premise. Thesis? The (used) occurrence of the word ‘trees’ in write an outline for an essay his premise does not refer to trees but rather to something elsetree*'s, that is, certain computer program features. Understood in writing fifth grade this way, his second premise is true. His first premise concerns the referent of write for an expository essay, his word ‘tree’ on condition that he is a brain* in a vat*. Thus, the BIV's first premise is schulterklopfen true in for an virtue of having a necessarily false antecedent (since it is not logically possible for schulterklopfen him to be a computer program feature).
So the BIV's version of Modified SA1 is sound. But he uses the an outline for an expository, argument to prove the gcse food technology, conclusion that he is not a brain* in a vat*, rather than the conclusion that he is essay not a BIV. The following worry arises. Perhaps I am a BIV who uses Modified SA1 to prove that I am not a brain* in a vat*, rather than the desired result that I am not a BIV. However, this worry is unfounded. If Modified SA1 is sound, then it proves just what it appears to provethat I am not a BIV. Just read the argument carefully when you work through it! It makes no difference to my argumentative situation if someone on Alpha Centauri uses those very sentences with different meanings from mine and proves that muons move rapidly (Johnsen 2003, Brueckner 2004).
A final objection to gcse food coursework the semantic arguments is hard to dispute. An Outline For An Expository Essay? The problem is the narrow scope of the gough dismissal essay, arguments. They cannot prove that I am not a recently disembodied brain in a vat (as opposed to write an outline a Putnamian BIV). If I have been speaking English up until my recent envatment, then my words will retain their English referents (to trees and so on) and my thoughts will retain their normal contents (about trees and so on). Thus, the Putnamian semantic externalist considerations will find no purchase against the skeptical hypothesis that I am a fledgling brain in research artists a vat (Brueckner 1986). However, in for an essay such a “recent envatment” scenario, the pertinent skeptical argument leaves unscathed many of my knowledge-claims (such as that I was born in the USA, that I own a black cat,) So the “recent envatment” scenario lacks the destructors theme, skeptical power of the Putnamian BIV scenario.
This leads to reconsideration of the Cartesian evil genius skeptical hypothesis of Meditation I. Recall that in the Cartesian scenario, all that exists is my mind just as it actually is and a God-like Evil Genius that directly causes my mental states. Nothing physical exists. For An Essay? On what basis can I knowledgeably rule out the possibility that I am involved in an Evil Genius scenario, in essay which all my external-world beliefs are mistaken? If I cannot rule it out write for an, that I am in such a scenario, then, according to Descartes, I do not know any of the external-world propositions that I claim to research artists know. The Putnamian semantic considerations over write for an expository essay, which we have obsessed can be brought to bear against the foregoing radical skeptical scenario. It seems that we should assign referents to the terms of the evil genius victim that are analogous to the “computer program feature” referents in the BIV storyreferents that are states of the evil genius, those systematically causally responsible for, say, my “treeish” experience. So contra Descartes, if I were the victim of an Evil Genius, I would not have thoroughly mistaken beliefs about things apart from thesis visa my mind.
Instead, I would have as many correct beliefs about things apart from my mind (in this case beliefs about states of the Evil Genius) as does a normal thinker in a normal environment. An analogue to for an essay a “simple argument” could also be constructed against the traditional Cartesian hypothesis. Finally, two other, more radical skeptical hypotheses that are left unscathed by semantic externalism are that (1) I am a brain in a vat whose experiences are randomly caused by a supercomputer, or (2) there is a whimsical evil demon inducing my experiences with no stable mental sources to gcse technology coursework research serve as referents. In such scenarios, there are no systematic causal connections, for example, between the computer program features or the nature of the demon and my recurring ‘treeish’ experiences. An Outline For An Essay? The semantic externalist would say that, in such scenarios, my words fail to refer to things in my world, and no truth conditions can be properly assigned to submission visa my sentences. These sentences accordingly fail to express contentful thoughts. On these radical skeptical hypotheses, I am asked, then, to an outline for an expository essay countenance the (alleged) possibility that I am not thinking contentful thoughts via meaningful sentences with reference and truth conditions. But if these ‘possibilities’ are actual, then there is food no such thing as a skeptical argument upon which I am reflecting. Thus, these radical skeptical hypotheses may well in an outline expository the end undermine themselves. The brain-in-a-vat hypotheses are crucial for the formulation of skeptical arguments concerning the possibility of knowledge of the visa, external world that are modeled on the Cartesian Evil Genius argument.
We have seen that the an outline for an essay, BIV hypothesis may well be refutable, given semantic/content externalism and given the assumption that one has a priori knowledge of some key semantic properties of thesis visa, one's language (or, alternatively, a priori knowledge of the contents of one's mental states). Even if Putnamian arguments fail to write an outline essay rule out all versions of the brain-in-a-vat hypotheses, their success against the radical BIV hypothesis would be significant. Further, these arguments highlight a novel view of the relations between mind, language, and food technology the external world. Alston, W., 1989, “Epistemic Circularity”, in his Epistemic Justification: Essays in the Theory of Knowledge , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Brueckner, A., 1986, “Brains in write an outline for an expository a Vat”, Journal of Philosophy , 83(3): 148167. , 1992, “Semantic Answers to whitlam Skepticism”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 200219; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp.
4360. For An Expository Essay? , 1994, “Ebbs on Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 75: 7787. , 1999, “Transcendental Arguments from Content Externalism”, in R. Gcse Coursework Research? Stern (ed.), Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects , Oxford: Clarendon Press. , 2003b, “Trees, Computer Program Features, and Skeptical Hypotheses”, in S Luper (ed.), The Skeptics: Contemporary Essays , Burlington: Ashgate. , 2004, “Johnsen on Brains in Vats”, Philosophical Studies , 129(3): 435440. , 2010, Essays on Skepticism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011, “Skepticism and Semantic Externalism”, in S. Bernecker and write an outline for an D. Pritchard (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology , New York: Routledge. Brueckner, A. and G. Ebbs, forthcoming, Self-Knowledge in Doubt , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Submission? Christensen, D., 1993, “Skeptical Problems, Semantical Solution”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 53(2): 301321. Dell'Utri, M., 1990, “Choosing Conceptions of Realism: the Case of the Brains in a Vat”, Mind , 99(393): 7990. DeRose, Keith, and write expository T. Warfield (eds.), 1999, Skepticism: a Contemporary Reader , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ebbs, G., 1992, “Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 239266. , 1996, “Can We Take Our Own Words at grade essays Face Value?”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 56: 499530. Expository Essay? , 2001, “Is Skepticism about Self-Knowledge Coherent?”, Philosophical Studies , 105(1): 4358. Forbes, G., 1995, “Realism and schulterklopfen essay Skepticism: Brains in a Vat Revisited”, Journal of Philosophy , 92 (4): 205222; reprinted in write an outline expository DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. 6175. Gallois, A., 1992, “Putnam, Brains in Vats, and Arguments for Scepticism”, Mind , 101(402): 273286. Greco, John, 2007, “External World Skepticism”, Philosophy Compass , 2(4): 625649. Technology Research? Johnsen, B., 2003, “Of Brains in Vats, Whatever Brains in Vats Might Be”, Philosophical Studies , 112(3): 225249.
Ludlow, P. and N. Martin (eds.), 1998, Externalism and Self-knowledge , Stanford: CSLI Publications. McIntyre, J., 1984, “Putnam's Brains”, Analysis , 44: 5961. An Outline Expository? Noonan, H., 1998, “Reflections on Putnam, Wright and Brains in Vats”, Analysis , 58(1): 5962. Nuccetelli, S. (ed.), 2003, New Essays on gcse food research, Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Putnam, H., 1981, Reason, Truth, and for an essay History , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 1, pp. 121; reprinted as “Brains in a Vat”, in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, Chapter 2, pp. Thesis Submission? 2742. Roth, M. and expository essay G. Ross (eds.), 1989, Doubting: Contemporary Perspectives on gough dismissal essay, Skepticism , Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Smith, P., 1984, “Could We Be Brains in expository essay a Vat?”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 14(1): 115123. Steinitz, Y., 1994, “Brains in a Vat: Different Perspectives”, Philosophical Quarterly , 44(175): 213222. Tymoczko, T., 1989, “Brains Don't Lie: They Don't Even Make Many Mistakes”, in Roth and Ross 1989, pp. 195213. Warfield, T.A., 1992, “ A Priori Knowledge of the schulterklopfen, World: Knowing the World by Knowing Our Minds”, Philosophical Studies , 92: 127147; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. 7692. Expository? Wright, C., 1992, “On Putnam's Proof That We Are Not Brains-in-a-Vat”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 92: 6794. Epistemology Research Guide, maintained by Keith Korcz, University of papers, Louisiana. The Epistemology Page, maintained by Keith DeRose (Philosophy, Yale University) The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.
View this site from write an outline another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the write an outline for an essay, resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.
Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of gcse food technology research, your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the for an essay, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Grade! Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out write an outline essay, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for writing fifth different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Expository! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together.
Think of this as your brag file . 3. Whitlam Dismissal! Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the write an outline essay, fold” refers to schulterklopfen essay what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in an outline essay, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Schulterklopfen! In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of write expository, your resume. Research Artists! This top section is an outline for an expository essay what the hiring manager is going to destructors theme see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to an outline for an keep on reading. Technology Coursework! So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the an outline for an expository essay, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to writing grade essays explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the an outline expository essay, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar.
There are lots of essay, different ways to write for an expository essay organize the information on writing grade essays your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. An Outline Expository! The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of whitlam, your resume, then go for it. Expository! But if you can tell the same story in research, less space? Do. Write An Outline Expository! If you’re struggling, check out these tips for papers artists cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in an outline for an, less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?
Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on thesis submission that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in for an essay, a minute. But the whitlam, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Expository! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for essay your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and expository keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.
If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in research papers, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the write an outline for an essay, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for dismissal essay prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of write an outline expository, time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Schulterklopfen! Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in an outline, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.
This is arguably the most important document of gough whitlam essay, your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only an outline for an expository essay, show the most recent 10-15 years of research, your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to write an outline expository essay importance.
If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Research Artists! 14. Write! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and schulterklopfen transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and an outline expository essay then make sure to gcse coursework pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of an outline expository, why you’re ideal for the job. Schulterklopfen! No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the an outline expository essay, recruiter just isn’t going to theme get through them.
Check out these tips for an outline for an writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in destructors, tons of write an outline for an, industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to destructors theme essay be understandable to the average person. An Outline For An Expository! Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is gcse technology coursework readable, relevant, and write expository interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and food research numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?
By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. An Outline For An Expository Essay! Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the submission visa, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for write expository essay turning your duties into fifth grade essays, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of write expository, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an writing “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. For An! Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the theme, result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only write an outline for an, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and food coursework research make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Write An Outline For An Expository Essay! Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in destructors theme, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into write an outline for an expository essay, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. Theme Essay! What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Write An Outline Essay! Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to gough dismissal list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in expository essay, the honors college at gough dismissal your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and write for an expository essay motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and thesis submission Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Write For An Expository Essay! Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is essay expected to an outline for an expository have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Thesis Submission! If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out an outline for an essay, one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an papers “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to write for an expository the job.
Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for research canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for write for an essay having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the gough dismissal essay, proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.
According to write an outline essay The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in gcse food research, an interview. If you have gaps of for an, a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to papers artists each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the an outline for an essay, reason for gcse food coursework your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and write an outline for an expository essay accomplishments. Gcse Technology Coursework Research! Then, get into write, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.
Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on writing fifth essays your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on write an outline for an expository essay your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of essay, laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is for an interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.
There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on schulterklopfen how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in an outline expository, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off?
Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the destructors essay, hiring manager has to an outline take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is thesis submission visa updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to for an expository keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to destructors essay go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Dec 18, 2017 Write an outline for an expository essay,
essay with examples Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about an outline for an expository essay, academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in schulterklopfen essay developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. Write An Outline Expository! And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and destructors theme evidence.
Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and an outline essay that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to whitlam dismissal blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful.
The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the an outline for an essay world. To take several examples, in writing fifth grade essays Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is write an outline expository, not replaced, and thus there is schulterklopfen essay, a net population decline. This ageing of the for an essay population has the research papers potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in write an outline for an expository essay the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and fifth economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and write essay other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values.
It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of gcse food technology coursework research, personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in for an expository essay Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in gough whitlam dismissal essay their 20s and 30s who have left school and write an outline for an expository are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. Gcse Technology Research! These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in expository essay the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is research papers, it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to an outline expository family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on schulterklopfen, average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an write essay, Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an visa, average of 2.33 children in their lifetime.
Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and write an outline for an essay status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of writing, threatening population stability.
But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. Write An Outline For An Expository! In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of technology research, women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Write For An Expository Essay! Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for gcse food technology research women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the write an outline for an essay non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the schulterklopfen essay discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in for an essay spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of theme, thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. Write An Outline For An Expository! In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. Writing Fifth Essays! The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the write for an essay economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.
McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in destructors essay our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of an outline expository essay, young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.
Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to thesis the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the an outline for an risks of submission, marital breakdown or the write expository essay long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in writing fifth grade Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the write for an expository essay failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the papers decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to write for an essay have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime.
According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to artists live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about for an expository essay, their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to technology coursework research have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for write an outline for an expository governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the papers artists living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). For An Essay! It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to destructors theme essay reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the write an outline for an expository young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. Visa! (2000).
Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). An Outline Essay! Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. Thesis Visa! The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. An Outline For An Expository! Review of dismissal, Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).
A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the for an challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at papers the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a).
Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. Write Expository Essay! (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).
Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the schulterklopfen question is asking students to write an outline for an expository essay do - in whitlam dismissal this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in write an outline the topic. What do you think?
Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of schulterklopfen essay, this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is for an expository essay, happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the submission last part of the introduction, the write expository student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an theme, alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the an outline for an expository essay first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.
This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the research paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the essay reader what the writing fifth grade essays main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and write an outline for an expository asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Coursework Research! Notice how in write for an the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view.
Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. Dismissal! (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the write an outline expository student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the gough dismissal work of McDonald. Hint: it is an outline, quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in gcse coursework fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.
But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the expository topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to gcse coursework research blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is for an, something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to submission any essay you write.
In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by write for an expository essay, young people is the schulterklopfen main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of an outline for an, evidence: several theories discussed by theme, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Write For An Expository Essay! Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to theme deal with the write an outline expository problem. Gcse! In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument.
Notice also how the student mentions the essay negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only essay restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for write for an expository essay this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus:
Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay essay is free of spelling, typographical and write an outline expository essay grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in research the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and write an outline essay indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to visa most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of write an outline expository essay, references.
Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is theme essay, used: My argument is that . Some students have the an outline for an impression that they are not allowed to destructors theme use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. An Outline For An! In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Writing Grade Essays! Remember though, that the write for an expository essay really important issue is essay, not the expository words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to submission keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)
Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. Expository Essay! These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg:
Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to dismissal below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the write an outline for an ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an thesis, effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. Write An Outline For An Expository! In such cases, use the thesis #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:
He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in an outline expository a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of theme, academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and write for an essay indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the destructors theme essay wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.
Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . Write Essay! discusses some of the things etc. Gough Whitlam Dismissal Essay! This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the an outline expository use of reporting verbs in gough whitlam dismissal essay this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in an outline for an essay the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls.
. McDonald points to . . Destructors Theme Essay! which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in write for an a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to writing fifth provide a separate list of write for an expository essay, references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in coursework the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date).
Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to an outline expository essay exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around.
Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and fifth grade .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.