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2. What the journals don’t tell you. Why were you chosen as a reviewer? There are several possible reasons. An article of yours may have been cited in the manuscript to be reviewed. You may have submitted an article to the journal yourself. President. The editor may know you or know of you from other sources. You may have been recommended to sine thesis, the editor by president characteristics essay someone else.

Do you have to essay, be an expert in characteristics, the subject of the article? No. You have to have enough expertise in of music, related areas to president characteristics, be able to make sense of product manager, it, at president characteristics, least at of a research paper apa, a general level, but you don’t necessarily have to be knowledgeable enough to, say, reproduce the president characteristics, research yourself. It is up to the editor to management, ensure that the president characteristics essay, set of reviewers covers enough areas of expertise. If there are aspects that you are unable to of a, evaluate (e.g. you don’t understand the statistical technique used) advise the editor of this when you submit your review. Do you have to agree to do the review? No, but you should attempt to, especially if you have published in the journal. If you just can’t fit it in, decline politely , as early as possible . President Characteristics. What degree of quality control do reviewers provide? As much as can reasonably be expected of reviewers, within a reasonable time frame, and with the information provided. Essay. But not more than that.

Reviewers are not asked to guarantee that the information in the article is president, correct. They are not asked to reproduce the sine thesis, research, which is the only way that some errors could be detected. They are asked to assess whether it appears to president, be correct, judging with the best of sine thesis, their ability. Characteristics Essay. Plenty of published articles have been found to management, contain errors. President Characteristics Essay. This is obviously better avoided if possible, but sometimes the reality is administrative theory essay, that it is characteristics essay, impossible. Why should you review articles? You should review articles be cause it is part of the culture of research that we all contribute to sine thesis, this essential service.

It is likely that in characteristics, the long run the amount of reviewing you are asked to do will be roughly proportional to administrative management, the number of articles you submit to president characteristics, journals. Reviewing is also good for you. Apa Dissertation Research. It helps develop your critical faculties so that you can improve your own papers. It helps you to essay, anticipate what reviewers (or thesis examiners) might say about your own work. Apa Dissertation Research. Here is characteristics, a strategy that I have found works for manager cover, me. Work from a printed copy. Characteristics Essay. This makes it easier to make notes on essays, it as you go, and to read it in characteristics essay, places where you would not take a computer. Apa Dissertation. Read through the essay, paper, making notes at the level of detail that is appropriate for that paper. Sine Thesis. The better the paper, the president characteristics, finer detail you should go to. For a paper that is of a research paper apa, excellent and needs only president characteristics essay, very minor revisions to manager letter, be accepted, you might even note problems with punctuation and spelling, if they are not too numerous. Essay. For a paper that is slang term, terrible, you would only note major issues, or even major groups of issues.

Sometimes I get hooked into rewording sentences. You should only do this if the paper doesn’t need too much of essay, it. If bits need rewriting, say so in your review. Paragraph Essay Outline Thesis. If the president, decision is really obvious and pharmaceutical product manager letter, you are confident about characteristics essay, your ability to judge the paper, you could write your review immediately after your first reading. Otherwise, leave it a few days or a week and come back to it. Sine Thesis. Read it again, or read problem sections again, and then write your review. When selecting your recommendation, consider the essay, prestige of the journal and the usual standard of sine thesis, articles it includes. President Characteristics Essay. The highest prestige journals typically reject 90% or more of cover letter, submitted articles. You are unlikely to be asked to characteristics, review for such a journal early in your publishing career, unless you have managed to publish in outline thesis, one yourself.

The least selective journals probably accept somewhere around 50-70% of president characteristics, submitted articles (after revision of course), but most journals probably accept between 20 and 50% of apa dissertation, submissions. Characteristics. If you are not going to african essays, reject the paper, obtain a copy of a recent issue of the journal, or a paper from a recent issue, to check on formatting of headings, tables, figures, references. Note any problems in president, these areas in your review. You might also check the african american essays, journal’s instructions to authors at president characteristics, that stage, although I rarely find that useful. Write the manuscript reference number and manager cover, title at the top of your review. Always number your comments. President. If you have multiple related comments, number them separately. This allows the editor and the authors to easily refer to essay, your comments in further correspondence. Start by saying something positive about the paper, no matter how difficult this is. Say as many positive things as the essay, paper deserves (or one more than that if it doesn’t deserve any) before you get into criticisms. Some reviewers provide an sine thesis, overview of the paper.

Personally, I don't think this is worth doing. Essay. The editor will read the paper too and pharmaceutical product manager, the authors already know what’s in it! Next, note any concerns or problems at the big picture level. e.g. Essay. relating to the overall approach, the statistical methods, the interpretation of apa dissertation, results, the quality of president characteristics, presentation or writing. Then, start presenting specific comments on the paper. Essay Of Music. Note the page number and president characteristics essay, the line number for each comment if possible. Apa Dissertation. Start with most important or serious of the specific comments, and then include any minor issues. There is no need to characteristics essay, write a conclusion to your review. Persuasive Essay. Just stop when you run out of comments.

If you have cited any literature, provide complete reference details. Respond as quickly as you can manage. President Characteristics. Delays in the publishing process are often very long, so it’s nice not to contribute to african, that more than necessary. Reviews are often between one and two pages single spaced. The longest I've written was about five pages, and president characteristics essay, the shortest was about 10 lines. Pannell, D.J. Management. (2002).

Prose, psychopaths and persistence: Personal perspectives on publishing, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics , 50(2): 101-116. Full paper (66K) Charry AA, Murray-Prior R and Parton KA (2004). President. The process of standardised refereeing of professional publications: a reference framework for the panel of referees of the pharmaceutical manager cover letter, AFBM Journal, AFBM Journal 1: 6-13.

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resume wizord Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale. Her poignant performance and sweet delivery of Over The Rainbow , which became her signature song, earned Judy a special juvenile Oscar statuette on 29th February 1940 for Best Performance by a Juvenile Actor. Though Judy Garland was some peoples first choice to characteristics play Dorothy other executives wanted Shirley Temple because of her star power. At the time Shirley Temple was under contract to 20th Century Fox. MGM tried to borough her but Darryl Zanuck refused. A year later 20th Century Fox starred Shirley Temple in their own fantasy film, Maeterlinck's The Blue Bird , which was a failure and marked the begining of the end of administrative, Shirley Temples career. Unable to acquire Shirley Temple the studio began promoting Judy Garland via tours and stage performances.

She was given top billing in 1938's Listen, Darling over president better known actors of the time such as Mary Astor, Gene Lockhart and Walter Pidgeon. On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead by her last husband, Mickey Deans, in the bathroom of her rented Chelsea, London house. Coroner Gavin Thursdon stated that the cause of death was accidental overdose of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of administrative management theory, ten 1.5-grain Seconal capsules. Garland had turned 47 just over a week prior to her death. Frank Morgan as Professor Marvel, the president essay Doorman, Cabby, Guard, and The Wizard of Oz (Salary $1500.00 per week) Frank Morgan (June 1, 1890 – September 18, 1949) was an body research paper apa American character actor best known for his portrayal of the title character in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz . Frank Morgan was not the first choice to play the Wizard, nor was he the second or third choice, he went after the role after it was offered and turned down by both Ed Wynn and W. President! C. Fields. The role was conceived in different ways for each actor as a boisterous con man for Fields, emotional and zany for Ed Wynn and finally as the familiar frightened and befuddled humbug of a Wizard played by Frank Morgan. The befuddlement was genuine as Morgan was known to be a drinker.

Because of the success of his role, which only amounts to a few minutes of actual screen time, Frank Morgan was given a lifetime contract with MGM and went on to make sixty eight films before dying in his sleep after suffering from a heart attack at the age of fifty nine. Ray Bolger as Hunk and The Scarecrow (Salary $3000.00 per week) Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and body apa, screen, best known for his portrayal of the president Scarecrow (and the sine thesis farm worker Hunk) who was Dorothy's favorite in the 1939 film, The Wizard of Oz . Ray Bolger was originally cast in the role of the Tin Woodsman but he was dissatisfied. Bolger saw himself in the more fluid role of the Scarecrow, the part played by Fred A. Stone in essay, 1902, an idol of his from the time he saw him in Jack O' Lantern at a theater in Boston. The role of the Scarecrow had originally been given to management theory essay Buddy Ebsen who had begun costume fittings and dance rehearsals for the role before Ray Bolger's insistence finally wore down the studio heads.

Ray Bolger died of bladder cancer on January 15, 1987 (five days after his 83rd birthday) in Los Angeles, California. Jack Haley as Hickory and The Tin Man (Salary $3000.00 per week) Jack Haley (born John Joseph Haley, Jr.; August 10, 1898 – June 6, 1979) was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of the Tin Man and farm worker Hickory in The Wizard of Oz . Ray Bolger was originally cast as the characteristics essay Tin Woodsman but after convincing the studios to essays switch him to the role of the Scarecrow it was given to fellow contract actor Buddy Ebsen who was originally cast as the Scarecrow. President Characteristics! Buddy Ebsen was not opposed to the switch as his only body of a research apa, concern was to be in a major production, unfortunately this was not fated for the actor. Two weeks after production began he had an almost fatal from president characteristics inhaling the cover letter aluminum powder makeup. Though he recovered and went on president, to out essay live all of the president characteristics essay major actors in The Wizard of Oz his career went into a slump until 1956 when he appeared in Disney's Davey Crocket . Jack Haley was given the role as the Tin Man after Ebsen was hospitalized and the studio quietly change the make up to a paste, to administrative essay avoid risking the same reaction by Haley. The new makeup did cause an eye infection which caused Haley to miss four days of filming, but he received treatment in time to prevent permanent damage.

Haley softened his normally gruff voice which he used for the Hickory character. For the character of Tin Man he spoke in the tone of voice he used when reading stories to his children. Haley died of characteristics, a heart attack on June 6, 1979 in Los Angeles, California at the age of 80. Buddy Ebsen outlived him by pharmaceutical product letter, twenty four years. Bert Lahr as Zeke and president essay, The Cowardly Lion (Salary $1500.00 per week)

Bert Lahr, born Irving Lahrheim, (August 13, 1895 – December 4, 1967) was a Tony Award-winning American comic actor. Born in New York City, he is best remembered today for his role as the Cowardly Lion (and the sine thesis farm worker Zeke) in The Wizard of Oz , but known during his life for a career in burlesque, vaudeville and Broadway. Before Burt Lahr was chosen for the role of the president essay Cowardly Lion the character was intended to be that of an enchanted prince. When the sine thesis character was rewritten to be that of an ordinary lion (at least ordinary for Oz) it was believed that Burt Lahr with his gentle sweetness and enormous comic energy had the ability to carry the president essay figurative and american, literal weight (it weighed 70 pounds) of the lion costume. The role of the president characteristics Cowardly Lion was one of the few on screen chances that Burt Lahr had to research paper apa fully exploit his immeasurable talent. Though perfect for the role it took a month for president characteristics the studio to agree to Burt Lahr demand for a guarantee of five weeks work. Body Paper Apa! Initially MGM would only agree to three weeks but finally they relented.

Burt Lahr ended up working on The Wizard of Oz for six months with five weeks alone being spent on the Jitter Bug scene that was cut from the final release of the film. In 1967, Lahr died of pneumonia in essay, New York City in the middle of filming The Night They Raided Minsky's , forcing producers to use a double in several scenes. Fittingly, this last role was as a burlesque comic. Margaret Hamilton as Miss Gulch, The Wicked Witch of the West. (Salary $1000.00 per week) Margaret Hamilton (December 9, 1902 - May 16, 1985) was an American film actress best known for her iconic portrayal of The Wicked Witch of the West and Miss Gulch in essays, The Wizard of Oz . Gale Sondergaard was originally cast in the role of The Wicked Witch.

Mervyn LeRoy had envisioned her as a glamorous, seductively wicked witch wearing a black sequined dress and hat, a character similar to that of the wicked queen in Disney's Snow White . Outside pressure forced a change in president, character from the glamorous witch to the evil and of music, ugly witch famously portrayed by Margaret Hamilton who took the role when Sondergaard refused to have herself made ugly. Margaret Hamilton's name was passed along for consideration since she fit the characteristics essay character and the budget for the role. After a screen test negotiations began for the role but as with Burt Lahr initially MGM was only slang definition essay, willing to guarantee three weeks work and not the six demanded by president characteristics, her agent. Margaret herself begged her agent to product manager cover letter give in and not lose her the role but he held fast and the studio relented. She worked on The Wizard of Oz for four months. During a second (and unused) take of president characteristics essay, her fiery exit from Munchkinland, in which the african american essays trap door's drop was delayed to eliminate the brief glimpse of essay, it seen in sine thesis, the final edit, Margaret Hamilton suffered severe second and third degree burns. She had to recuperate in a hospital and at home for six weeks after the accident before returning to the set to president characteristics essay complete her work on the film.

When she returned Hamilton refused to have anything to do with fire or to do the scene where she flies a broomstick billowing smoke. The directors chose to have a stand-in perform the scene instead and the stand-in was herself severely injured doing the scene after a malfunction occurred during filming. Hamilton lived in New York City for most of her adult life. Her Gramercy Park apartment building also claimed James Cagney as one of its tenants. She later moved to Salisbury, Connecticut, where she died in 1985 following a heart attack. She was 82 years old. Billie Burke as Glinda the Good Witch of the essay North. (Salary $766.67 per week) Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an essay Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to administrative theory essay modern audiences for her role as Glinda the president characteristics Good Witch of the North. Billie Burke was everyone's first choice from persuasive among the contracted character actresses suitable for the role. Characteristics! It was felt that she had a quality that would play well against the menacing character of Hamilton's wicked witch, treating the threat as a more of an annoyance.

The ethereal nature of the character was very much a part of Billie Burke's own somewhat flighty personality. Billie Burke died in Los Angeles, California of dementia, thought to sine thesis be Alzheimer's and natural causes, aged 85, in 1970. Charley Grapewin as Uncle Henry (Salary $750.00 per week) Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869 – February 2, 1956) was an American vaudeville performer and a stage and film character actor, perhaps best known for his portrayal of Uncle Henry. Though he was the first choice to play Uncle Henry Charley Grapewin initially turned the role down. He had already appeared in essay, more than 70 films, including Listen, Darling with Judy Garland the administrative management essay year before, and he was looking to retire from show business. President! Several months later, though, Charles Grapewin agreed to postpone his retirement and african american essays, accepted the role. The filming of the Kansas scenes took just one week but Grapewin still worked to make his portrayal of the old Kansas farmer authentic. According to The Making of The Wizard of Oz by Aljean Harmetz, Grapewin wore the characteristics underwear that was standard for Westerns, two-piece balbriggan underwear with five buttons on the side. It was felt that balbriggan underwear added character to the clothes worn over it. Grapewin died in Corona, California at product cover letter, age 86.

Clara Blandick as Auntie Em (Salary $750.00 per week) Clara Blandick (June 4, 1880 – April 15, 1962) was a twentieth century American actress best known for her portrayal of Auntie Em. MGM went outside the studio for the character of Auntie Em because they felt that the part was too minor for one of there contract actors. Clara Blandick landed the part which was her most memorable minor role. Although it was a small part lasting just one week Auntie Em was a symbol for Dorothy's quest to return home. President Essay! The character's of Auntie Em and Uncle Henry are the only ones that don't have alter egos in the land of oz though it's thought that Auntie Em's character was to be reflected in the character of The Good Witch of the North. Even though the character of Auntie Em as portrayed by persuasive essay, Clara Blandick is well known her name wasn't as it was not listed in the opening credits and characteristics, listed last in the closing credits. Blandick's health began to administrative theory fail during the 50's. She started going blind and began suffering from severe arthritis.

On April 15, 1962, Clara Blandick returned home from Palm Sunday services at president essay, her church. She began rearranging her room, placing her favorite photos and memorabilia in prominent places. She laid out her resume and a collection of press clippings from her lengthy career. She dressed immaculately, in an elegant royal blue dressing gown. With her hair properly styled, she took an overdose of sleeping pills. She lay down on term definition, a couch, covered herself with a gold blanket over her shoulders and tied a plastic bag over her head. Clara left the following note: I am now about to make the great adventure. I cannot endure this agonizing pain any longer. President Characteristics! It is paper apa all over my body. President Characteristics! Neither can I face the impending blindness. Pharmaceutical Manager Cover! I pray the Lord my soul to take.

Amen. Terry the Dog as Toto (Salary $125.00 per president characteristics essay week) Terry the Dog was a Cairn terrier trained by Carl Spitz who also trained the St. Bernard that starred with Clark Gable And Loretta Young in The Call Of The Wild . Though referred to as a male in the film Terry was a female terrier acquired by essay, Spitz four years before the making of the Wizard of Oz. The search for a dog that resembled Toto as drawn by W.W.

Denslow in the original book took longer then the search for any other actor. Spitz had been hired to train Terry who was so shy that she hid under a bed for essay three weeks. It took seven weeks to product cover train Terry but when her breeder could not come up with money to pay for the training Carl Spitz decided to keep her. When Spitz heard about the president characteristics essay search for Toto and essays, saw the illustration he recognized the breed and brought Terry to the studio. Unfortunately for Carl he stopped at the Property Department before meeting with the writers and producers and had already agreed to a salary of president essay, $125.00 per week. Had he realized earlier how desperate MGM was for the dog he could possibly have gotten up to $500.00. Like other members of the persuasive essay of music cast Terry was also injured during production when one of the Winkie guards jumped on her and sprained the dogs paw. Directors. President! Now You See Them Now You Don't.

Richard Thorpe (directed for two weeks) Richard Thorpe began directing The Wizard of Oz on October 12, 1938 and body, was fired two weeks later because it was felt that he did not have the sensibility to direct a fantasy film. He is credited with the decision to dress Judy Garland in a curly blonde wig and make-up that made her appear to be in her late teens and not as an innocent young farm girl. All the film that was shot during Thorpe's direction, which centered around the witch's castle and Dorothy's rescue was thrown out when the president essay studio changed directors. The actors were disheartened by the studio's reaction to their work during this time as they were berated for their performance though they were only following direction. With each change of director came the fear of being replaced. George Cukor (directed for three days) Though George Cukor was the director for only three days (he was scheduled to direct Gone With The Wind ) and of music, shot no film footage he made some notable changes to the characters.

After viewing the film shot by Thorpe he was appalled by Judy Garland's appearance and performance. It was his decision to remove the blonde wig and most of the make-up that she wore. He also directed her to be herself and president characteristics essay, not to term act in an overly cute fashion. Victor Flemming (directed for four months) Victor Flemming took over characteristics essay as director after George Cukor left to direct Gone With The Wind . He was hesitant to direct The Wizard of Oz as he had never before directed a fantasy film. His immense affection for his two young daughters Victoria and Sally is what swayed his final decision. Flemming directed the sine thesis majority of the film, all except the president characteristics essay Kansas scenes.

As far as actual directing and contributions to the film it was Flemming who brought in persuasive of music, writer John Lee Mahin. Flemming wasn't happy with the opening scene of The Wizard of Oz which had Dorothy barely concerned about Miss Gulch and characteristics, her threat against Toto. Mahin changed the scene to show a more realistic agitated and frightened Dorothy. He also came up with the body of a story line of the damaged incubator in order to explain Uncle Henry's and Aunt Em's dismissal of Dorothy's concerns. Victor Flemming couldn't do much to change or direct the president essay Oz characters as most of the acting was physical and the actors were left to themselves but he could direct Judy Garland and he did. He followed Cukor's direction and kept the cuteness out of administrative theory, her performance. Dorothy's performance is what drives the film and president characteristics essay, grounds tethers the administrative theory essay fantasy to keep it believable.

Flemming left The Wizard of president, Oz to again replace George Cukor when he was fired from Gone With The Wind . He is credited with directing both films though he completed neither. King Vidor was going to take over directing Gone With The Wind but he was saved from the african american undertaking when Selznick made a deal with MGM to get Victor Flemming, which left Vidor the finish directing The Wizard of characteristics, Oz . He worked for ten days and filmed the sepia footage for the Kansas scenes. His contribution to the film was in the directing of Judy Garland during the singing of Over The Rainbow . Sine Thesis! People normally stood still when singing but he had Judy walk around as she sang the now well known ballad. He did not take public credit for his part in the film until after Victor Flemming's death. Premiers, Re-releases and Television Broadcasts of the Film.

The Wizard of Oz premiered in August of 1939 at the Strand Theater in Wisconsin, Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood and Loew's Capitol Theater in New York. For the president essay first week Judy Garland performed live with Mickey Rooney after each screening. The nation wide opening was on african essays, August 25, 1939. The Wizard of Oz earned 3 million dollars and cost 3.8 million to president essay make. The film was nominated for administrative management theory several Academy Awards upon its release, including Best Picture and Academy Award for characteristics Visual Effects. It lost the award in the Best Picture category to Gone with the Wind (another MGM release), but won in the category of Best Song (Over The Rainbow) and Academy Award for Best Original Score, which went to, not the songwriters, but Herbert Stothart, who composed the african american essays background score. Re-released ten years later in 1949 The Wizard of Oz earned another 1.5 million finally showing a profit.

From 1949 until 1990 the characteristics essay Kansas scenes were shown in black and white rather then the original sepia which was restored for the VHS release. In 1955 the film was again released, this time in an artificial wide screen format achieved by removing portions from the top and bottom of the film. This format was used again in the 1998 release but the film was restored for persuasive essay the VHS and DVD releases. CBS televised The Wizard of Oz for characteristics essay the first time on November 3, 1956. Though the film was shown and advertised as being in black and slang, white and president essay, color most people viewed the movie in black and management theory, white since color televisions were not as common then. President Characteristics! It is estimated that forty five million people viewed the apa original broadcast. Three years later the film was shown again as a Christmas special and president characteristics, was viewed by an even larger audience which started. The Wizard of Oz was televised as a Christmas special for manager cover letter the next three years until 1962. In 1964 the film was shown early in the year and president, continued to product manager be shown once a year for essay the more then two decades. The film is persuasive now shown several times a year on president characteristics essay, various stations.

The Wizard of Oz was released on VHS in 1980, on laserdisc in 1989 and on DVD in 1997. For more information visit Wikipedia's The Wizard of Oz (1939 film), or read The Making of slang term essay, The Wizard of Oz by Aljean Harmetz, (November, 1977) ISBN 0-7868-8352-9. Site design and original content Copyright2007 Amanda Jean Lopez Designs.

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Viktor Frankl – an Overview of Logotherapy Essay. The term ‘Logotherapy’ can be described as taken from the president characteristics essay, Greek meaning of ‘logos’ and ‘therapy’. ‘Therapy’ is the treatment which is given to heal a disorder. Slang Definition Essay? Having looked into the meaning of the term ‘logos,’ I was very surprised that the description was linked to Jesus! According to Wikipedia, John’s Gospel identifies the ‘Logos’ as the one through which all things are made, and president characteristics essay, further to this describes Jesus as being the ‘incarnate Logos’ (incarnate meaning to be embodied in flesh or taking on slang term definition essay, flesh)(1) The Greek word ‘logos’ traditionally meant ‘word’, ‘thought’, principle, or speech. Two main paths can be followed from this- the first being ‘human reason’ (the ability of the human mind to understand the world in a rational manner) and, as already mentioned above, ‘universal intelligence’-the sense of the ‘Divine’.(2) For Frankl the description of his work seems to point to the former- this being ‘human reason’- an individual needing to find a ‘meaning’ for being. In his book ’The will to meaning’(3), Frankl is trying to describe the essay, way psychologists/psychiatrists might try to understand the many facets of a human expressing or finding meaning in the world.

He is expressing the different ideas given by psychoanalysis; Adler; and other individuals. The dimension (he speaks of humans as having many dimensions- and that by body of a research apa trying to embrace these one is able to get a full picture of who they are), of ‘logos’ in the scope of president characteristics logotherapy, implies ‘meaning’, and also implies ‘spirit’ (as mentioned above). Frankl says this is without any primary religious connotation. He states that ‘logos’ means the humanness of the human being- plus the meaning of being human.(3) So what I gather from his writings; Frankl desired his ‘logotherapy’ to embrace all of what it means to be human and also the management essay, meaning of being human. (my own understanding) Introducing Dr Viktor Frankl. Viktor Frankl was the president, founder of persuasive essay logotherapy In ‘Mans search for meaning’(1959) the president essay, introduction describes it as the ‘third Viennese school of psychotherapy’- after Freud’s psychoanalysis and Adler’s individual psychology(4). Frankl was born in Vienna to a Jewish family whose working background was in the civil service. Frankl took another path- he studied medicine at the University of Vienna, where he specialized in neurology (a study of disorders of the african essays, nervous system) and characteristics, psychiatry. The topics he was most interested in were depression and administrative theory, suicide.

During his time as a medical student, he organised a special counselling program for high school students (this was between 1928 1930). One well known psychologist, Charlotte Buhler, was involved. The success of this program resulted in no students committing suicide in Vienna in 1931. His completed his neurology and psychiatry training in Vienna in 1937 and essay, afterwards set up a private practice. When the essay of music, Nazi’s first occupied Austria, Viktor had the president essay, opportunity to flee to America, as he had been granted an immigration visa. He couldn’t decide whether to go and pursue his work in logotherapy, or to remain with his parents and face the Nazi regime.

He explains in ‘Man’s search for persuasive essay of music, meaning’ (1992) ‘It was then I noticed a piece of marble lying on a table at home … (his father) had found it on the site where the National Socialists had burned down the largest Viennese synagogue..…..One gilded Hebrew letter was engraved on the piece; my father explained that this letter stood for one of the commandments…’Honour thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon president characteristics the land.’(p13) This was the moment that he decided to remain in Vienna with his parents and let his visa lapse. Experiences of pharmaceutical product manager cover letter life in concentration camp. Although Frankl had already begun to formulate ideas of logotherapy before the war, it was the president, time that he spent in term definition concentration camps that really cemented his ideas together and characteristics, persuaded him that his ideas had a very practical use . His experiences of this time are described vividly in slang his book ‘Man’s search for characteristics, meaning; the classic tribute to hope from the Holocaust’. This was first published in German in 1946 and later in sine thesis English as ‘From Death-Camp to Existentialism’.

When I was beginning to think about my research paper, I first read this book. It gave me such insight into the basis of his work and president characteristics essay, also of the power that it had to alter the course of an individual’s life. That he continued to term definition essay find meaning during this time; despite losing his wife, brother, mother and father in characteristics the Holocaust; I think is a testament, both to his strength of character, and to the value of his work. The only surviving member of his family was his sister Stella, who had managed to immigrate to Australia. The major theme, I took from his book; was in the struggle found by individuals as they tried to survive prison camp life, both within the confines they found between each other (as fellow prisoners) and when facing the Capos (prisoners who were given special privileges), and finally the SS guards. What stood out to me was that Frankl found – despite the Capos being Jewish prisoners, that they were comparable to the SS guards and the camp wardens, on a psychological basis. (5). I took from the book that, the american, reality of prison life seemed, not only a war against the Nazi’s; but against president characteristics essay individuals, and about the slang term definition essay, resources that could be found within and between each other to characteristics essay survive the environment. The situation crossed over normal boundaries and meant that people were placed in situations that meant they were stretched three ways: emotionally, physically and psychologically. Essay? Those that survived, were those that managed to tackle all these: and yet remain.

It was within these confines, that Viktor Frankl managed, not only to survive, and to remain sane; but also to write down his experiences; operate as a doctor, and to bring together his therapeutic ideas- into ‘logotherapy.’ I want to bring into this paper a fundamental element of his experiences in the concentration camps- as to me it was such powerful reading; it spoke strongly of what Frankl followed on to focus his work on. It also has a clear message for anyone who faces suffering. The beginning of the book clearly says that it was not meant as an account of facts or events – but that it was an attempt to make sense of the experiences that were faced by the prisoners that Frankl was a part of. (6). I translate this to mean that it is president not important to look into the detail of the book, but to take from it the very essence of the reality of living in such extreme conditions as a German run concentration camp in the 1940’s. .Frankl describes the fight for survival when people are facing being taken to another camp- or facing the gas chambers. The first vivid description of trying to survive, was in the face of the decision between those who were considered as worthless (not fit to work; weak or ill) – who would be sent directly to major camps to the gas chambers) and those who tried to appear well and able to sine thesis carry on.

In his book, Frankl explains that the fight was major, and that prisoners tried all sorts of methods to stay alive- even arranging for another person to take his place in the transport. Frankl concludes that the best of the people did not remain alive. (7) Frankl tries to characteristics explain that he cannot place his story as an objective description of what happened; he also tries to explain that many people, who had experienced such awful, atrocious times in a death camp, would not want to relive them. He says that he wanted to publish the book anonymously, but realised that this would mean it lost most of its value- so he agreed to all of it being published, even though he didn’t want any of the credit. (8) Existentialism and logotherapy. Frankl began to use the term ‘Existenzanalyse’ as early as the 1930’s. American papers translated this term as ‘existential analysis’ ; but they also translated the work of slang term definition Ludwig Binswanger in the same way- in German his work was called ‘Daseinsanalyse’. The American Heritage Dictionary defines ‘existentialism’ as.

‘A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of characteristics essay one’s acts.’(8b) An alternative definition is. ‘Existentialism is a philosophical way of thinking that is very different from other philosophical ideas. It sees humans, with will and consciousness, as being in african essays a world of objects which do not have those qualities. The fact that humans are conscious of their mortality, and president essay, must make decisions about their life is what existentialism is all about.’[8c] My own understanding of ‘existentialism’ is that as human beings, as individuals, we need to deal with life, and this results in the need to make choices.

It recognises the slang essay, moral dynamic and essay, the need to rationalise actions and their consequences. Because Frankl’s work embraced the concept of existentialism, initially the essay, same definition was given. However Frankl did not feel that his theory was as such: he explains in the introduction of his book ‘Psychotherapy and president characteristics essay, Existentialism’ (1967), why he uses the essays, term ‘logotherapy’ rather than ‘existential analysis’. ‘Logotherapy represents one of the characteristics essay, schools in the field of psychotherapy, and, more specifically, is considered by of a paper various authors to fall under the category of ‘existential psychiatry….they (American writers) used the same term to cover the teachings of the characteristics, late Ludwig Binswanger…Thus existential analysis became an slang term essay, ambiguous notion. President Essay? In order not to add to the confusion…I decided to use only the term ‘logotherapy’ and to refrain as much as possible from using its synonym, existential analysis, as a translation of Existenzanalyse.’(Foreword viii) What is the basis of Logotherapy? In his paper ‘The Philosophical Foundations of african american Logotherapy’ (1963) (9) Frankl discusses the basis of president essay Logotherapy. African American Essays? He explains that logotherapy goes further than existential analysis because it is not only concerned with being or reality (the Greek term- ‘ontos’), but also ‘logos’ or meaning. It is not just an analysis of characteristics a subject, but it also has an application as a therapeutic technique.

The roots of administrative Logotherapy rely upon a particular philosophical look at life; Frankl describes this philosophy as having ‘three fundamental assumptions’ (10). • Freedom of will. • Will to president characteristics essay meaning. • Meaning of life. Freedom of Will. This assumption can be explained in terms that a person has the freedom to think or believe what they choose to.

One exception to this is the schizophrenic patient who experiences delusions and voices that can overcome their mind, and sense of of a paper apa reality. A person is characteristics essay free to think; but this is limited by the conditions in which they live- whether this is biological, sociological or psychological. The freedom that is always available however is the choice a person is able to make about his attitude to the circumstances or situation he faces. (11) Will to meaning. Frankl distinguishes between ‘instinctual drives’ or ‘needs’ described in Freudian terms and ‘meaning’: the desire of man to reach out to other people and attempt to sine thesis find meaning. If meaning was a ‘need’ (as instincts are), then it will result in essay the individual trying to satisfy them.

The difference with ‘meaning’ to life is that it is product cover achieved when a person finds a purpose through relationship with others. The distinction here is that the focus is on the other person and not on the individual seeking meaning. In simpler terms, the first one is selfish and the second is unselfish. Frankl considers self- actualisation as being a good thing, but only in that it can be achieved in characteristics essay terms of how much a person finds meaning and purpose in life. It is another ‘side-effect’. In ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), Frankl gives a valuable description of human existence. After being given the definition essay, gift of a boomerang, he realises the symbolic nature it held:

‘Generally, one assumes that a boomerang returns to the hunter; but actually I have been told in Australia, a boomerang only president essay comes back to the hunter when it has missed its target, the prey. Well man also only returns to himself, to body of a apa being concerned with his self, after he has missed his mission, has failed to find meaning in his life.’(p9) He explains further that man finds identity only essay as long as he is pharmaceutical cover letter working for some cause or purpose, which is beyond himself, or greater than himself. To highlight this point, he uses the Bible story of when the Israelites were travelling through the desert. God’s glory went before them as a cloud, and showed them the way to go. If the cloud had been among the people, they would have been blinded and got lost.

In the same way, if meaning is sought after within a person, then it will be clouded; whereas if meaning is separate or greater than a person, then it can provide direction. President? (12) In logotherapy, a person is confronted with the meaning of their life, and as such, who or what they are responsible to/for. This can be society, God, his conscience, humanity. This is the next step in helping him to find meaning to life. The Meaning of Life.

What is meaning? Having considered ‘freedom of will’ and then ‘will to meaning’, this leads us to think about ‘meaning’ and what it entails. Frankl describes life as meaningful in three ways. • In what we can give to life (our creativity) • In what we take from the world (experiencing value) • In the attitude we take in facing something we cannot change (such as a fatal disease, loss, in fact any suffering) All humanity faces pain, death and guilt, and Frankl believes that logotherapy can help us face these and still find meaning. (13)

Following on administrative management theory, from this, we can sometimes face what Frankl describes as ‘meaning frustration or existential frustration’ (14). He finds that this presents itself in people who feel that their life has no meaning, especially when they experience a void which he describes as an essay, ‘existential vacuum’. This he finds present in many students who have committed suicide. At the end of his paper, Frankl referred to Goethe and body of a research, stated that he was the sort of realist that agreed with the following statement: “If you treat an individual as he is, he will remain how he is.

But if you treat him as if he were what he ought to be and could be, he will become what he ought to be and could be.” ? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. What is characteristics essay different about sine thesis Logotherapy to other theories? In his book ‘Man’s search for meaning’(2004) Frankl explains one of the main differences of president characteristics logotherapy to psychoanalysis. ‘logotherapy in comparison to psychoanalysis, is sine thesis a method which is less retrospective and characteristics, less introspective.’(p104) In contrast to psychoanalysis, which deals with a person’s past and of a paper apa, possible explanation for how they are; logotherapy concentrates a person on president, their future and seeks to sine thesis find a sense of meaning or purpose for their life in the present.

Psychoanalysis is characteristics essay based on african american, the principle that man will ‘seek pleasure’- that is his fundamental drive in existing. Individual psychology (as described by Alfred Adler) is based on the principle that man will strive for ‘power’ or a sense of ‘superiority’ (as opposed to feeling inferior). Logotherapy focusses on president, a ‘will to meaning’; the belief that man’s main drive in existing is to find meaning and of a paper, purpose. In the paper ‘Beyond self-actualisation and self-expression’(1959)(15) Frankl discusses why human existence is much more than just trying to meet needs and president, achieve satisfaction/equilibrium. He explains that if all humans were just trying to sustain their existence, then they would end up viewing everything in the world around them as just a means of satisfying their needs. Sine Thesis? Frankl uses the term ‘monadologistic’(16) to describe this level of relationship. In this paper he considers two common issues- the seeking of characteristics pleasure, and seeking peace of mind. Sine Thesis? If a person were to strive purely for pleasure, Frankl sees that it is almost always going to president fail. He considers that this is because pleasure is term a side effect of achieving a task. It is president characteristics essay almost as if the term definition, pursuit of pleasure alone actually destroys it (the pleasure) in the process.

In the same way he sees that a person gains peace of mind as a side effect of his lifestyle, and not by making it a goal. ‘It is a tenet of logotherapy that the more one aims at pleasure, the more he misses it’(17) Logotherapy and my own ‘way of working’ The more I have studied logotherapy, the more I feel drawn to the concept of president essay people needing to have a meaning for ‘being’. Having faced severe depression and suicidal thoughts; it has always been the desire for me to focus on sine thesis, why my life is worthwhile. Even during times when I couldn’t ‘feel’ worthwhile, the knowledge that I was needed and mattered to others, always spurred me on to continue living. It is from this basis, that I feel the president essay, ideas behind logotherapy are very important.

The dilemma I am still facing is of music whether I include this perspective in my work as a counsellor. It then follows that if I do decide to; then how do I work it in, as an president characteristics essay, approach which sits comfortably with the core conditions. In one sense I think being aware of concept of ‘existential meaning’; it gives me awareness of the issues my clients may face. African American? If this issue is characteristics raised then I could explore it in definition essay a very person centred way; always focussing on what they find meaningful. To give an example; if a client was facing trauma from difficult relationship issues, I would work with them; this may or may not touch on their ‘meaning for living’, unless it linked into their ‘conditions of worth’, that they only felt worthwhile by remaining in president characteristics the relationship at whatever cost to themselves. This might touch on their own feelings of what they saw their purpose in sine thesis life was- and so by staying focussed on what they were bringing into the room; it might lead into them exploring their feelings around what they felt they desired for their own life , and what they felt was most important. I guess by understanding Victor Frankl and his whole theory, it will forever help me to see the essay, need in my clients to realise their meaning and sense of slang definition purpose.

As a Christian, I very much sign up to this, as the very nature of being a child of God means that I am valued, not only because I am unique, but because He has created me to fulfil only those roles and situations that I am best designed to fulfil- this is essay what gives me meaning in my life. Logotherapy- an persuasive essay of music, added meaning to president characteristics essay psychoanalysis. In his book ‘The Will to sine thesis Meaning’(18); Frankl describes in detail the different ways of looking at theories and ideas of well-known psycho-analysists and psychologists. Throughout his work he is extremely respectful of the work of Freud; of Adler and of other well known theorists of his time. President Essay? He uses very simple images of a cylinder- (see figure 1) He explains that the image of the cylinder can be seen in 1 2 dimensional way as either a rectangle or a circle.

Neither of african these images gives a complete picture of the cylinder. This Frankl likens to our own concept of human existence. We are made up of body, mind and soul. In Freuds terms we are seeking to find pleasure in our existence. In ‘Adlers terms we are seeking power. Frankl uses the illustrations to president show that , yes we have these points of slang existence, but unless we look at the whole picture, we do not see humans in the whole sense. The missing sense for Viktor Frankl is that as human beings , we need to feel a sense of characteristics meaning or purpose for being; this is different to american essays other theories, because by seeking meaning, it almost gives the other purposes ‘life.’

He goes on to describe the importance of being aware that man has different dimensions- especially when treating a person for a neurosis. He explains three different types of essay neurosis (which are likened to the three circles on the figure 2). The first being a neurosis caused by a clinical disorder (brain chemistry); the second being caused by a physical disorder, such as hyperthyroidism and finally the management theory essay, third he calls ‘noogenic neurosis’ caused by spiritual/moral dilemmas. Frankl likens these as being the result of president essay ‘existential vacuum’ or life feeling meaningless. The main symptoms of this type of vacuum are boredom and apathy. Using the example of the three circles, Frankl explains that the reasons behind a neurosis, will not always be known- the pharmaceutical product cover letter, important point is for characteristics, the therapist/psychiatrist to be aware that there are other dimensions to a human.(19) University/College: University of essay Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 October 2016.

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essay flower garden Below are all other entries received for the Children’s Essay Contest. For quick access, click a name on the table below: Roses make a Girl Smell Good. I love roses.

They are very pretty. I love all types of roses. President Characteristics? Some roses are thorny. Body Paper? Some roses are very fragrant and many perfumes are made from the oil in characteristics essay, roses. There are over 100 types of roses. Roses form a group of plants that can be shrubs. Stems are often armed with sharp prickles.

Roses are mostly in Asia. Of A Paper? The leaves are borne alternately on the stem of a rose. The rose hip is the fruit of a rose. Rose perfumes are made of rose oil and essential oils. There are several ways that perfumers, which are people that make perfume, extract oils out of the roses.

They use methods such as steam distillation solvent extraction, enfleurage, expression, and maceration. Steam distillation uses steam to president essay transform the of music essential oils into gas that is then liquified. Boiling plants in water works is in this method, too. Solvent extraction depends on the benzene, or petroleum, to extract the oils. Flowers are spread onto greased sheets, which absorbs the president characteristics essay oils, while maceration is similar but uses warmed fats to soak up the scents. The fats are then dissolved to leave the persuasive essay essential oils behind. Expression is the oldest and simplest method, which simply uses pressure to president squeeze the oils out. It takes a lot of time to perfect the scent, and when it is sine thesis, done, the fragrance is mixed with alcohol and water.

The scent roses give off depends on president characteristics essay the rose’s color. Roses with the best scents are dark with thick petals. Body Of A Paper? Red and pink roses usually give off the strongest scents. White and yellow roses smell like lemon and violets. Orange roses smell like fruit and clove. Essay? The scents are strongest in early morning. Definition Essay? This is when the rose oil is characteristics, harvested. The oils in body research paper apa, fragrances of roses have been valued since the Romans. Cleopatra even used rose petals to fill up her room over a foot deep because of the fragrance.

Even today, roses are very important to fragrance perfumes. I appreciate roses because the rose oil is in many of the characteristics perfumes I use. Roses really do make a girl smell good. The colors of roses and body paper, their symbolism have a big impact on most relationships these days. President? It goes without saying that roses are one of the administrative management theory best ways to help express the emotion of love. So, let’s find out the various colors of roses and what they mean to characteristics essay understand their dynamics better. Roses have been the symbol of love and affection since times immemorial. They are the perfect example for many things like love, life, feelings, and identity. They work as metaphors in poems and silent words in love stories. The importance of paper, a rose cannot be left ignored.

They cannot be replaced or underrated. So, now that we know how important they are, let’s check out their colors and what they mean. A red rose is the president exhibitor of love and passion. Giving a red rose to someone also stands for honesty and administrative, courage, as that is what it takes to express your true feelings to a woman. More so, it stands strongly for passion and desire. A dark shade of president, red is used for expressing that the essay of music recipient is unconsciously beautiful. A bouquet of white and red roses stands for unity. Red and yellow roses together symbolize celebration and happiness. Giving a person rose buds is a way to express that the receiver is youthful and president characteristics, beautiful.

Nowadays, however, only a thorough romantic would use such a method of proposing. Roses are important in literature and lifestyle. They are extremely important when it comes to communication methods, as well. When I think of roses, I think of those prickly things on the stem, called thorns. Actually, there are all sorts of different ones and they smell excellent. Roses are a type of shrub or vine that belongs to essay the Rosa plant genus and the Rosacea plant family. Roses are noted for having large, attractive flowers that can be white, red, pink, yellow, or orange.

Natural rose flowers have five petals, while cultivated roses usually have quite a few extra petals. My dad says bush roses grow into a large bush that can reach up to 6 feet tall. Well, that is only one of the types. Climbing roses have long stems that need to attach to a trellis or post. Shrub roses grow vertically and can reach up to 12 feet tall, while ground cover roses grow horizontally over the ground… Old garden roses are those varieties that were cultivated before 1863, and president, modern day roses are those that were crated after 1867.

Then, I talked to my grandma, and term definition essay, her look at roses was completely different. President Characteristics? She thinks they are beautiful, and stand for essay of music, love and peace. She has them planted in only one spot at characteristics essay, her home, under a statue of the Virgin Mary in her front yard. Grandma has a lot of sine thesis, different kinds of flowers, but when the first rose bud starts to open it brings a smile to her face that no one can start to characteristics describe. My grandma gets roses from my family every year for her birthday.

I like roses because they smell good and they seem to make people smile when the receive them from someone they like or love. Research Paper Apa? Mom says red stands for love and white stands for friendship, but I want the other colors mean. I am so glad that roses are still around, after all these years. I am also glad for roses, so people can still give them to their loved ones. It feels like roses have been a big part of my life and, my family’s life for generations and generations to come. Roses remind me of characteristics, love. Theory? I see people give their wife, husband, and essay, boyfriend, or girlfriend, etcetera bouquets of roses to show their love or friendship. Roses come in many different colors, like red, pink, white, violet, blush, mauve, black, melon, pale yellow, light blue, blue, and berry. Roses mainly grow on slang thorny bushes. The reason roses have thorns is to protect the delicate flowers.

Roses usually don’t grow in the winter; they grow in the summer or the spring. I love the roses’ sweet fragrance. My favorite types of president characteristics essay, roses are the blue roses. They can be used for many things. You could use them for definition essay, decorations, like in weddings or just for the center piece on the table. I love picking flowers in the spring or in the summer, mainly roses because of their sweet fragrance. Roses are usually easy to find because of their colors and because they stand out from behind all of the green bushes. They are special flowers because they symbolize a lot of characteristics, things, not just love or friendship, but they can show a sign of african, new life or a life that has just ended. People give roses to a mother that has just given birth or you can lay roses by a tombstone. Roses remind me of a lot of things that I listed and even more.

I love roses no matter what color they are. Roses are fun to use. You can use the roses to put in your hair as long as you take out the thorns, or you can sprinkle the petals into a warm bath water to president characteristics essay help you relax. I never really tried these examples, but they sounds like they would be fun, easy, and effective. Management Theory? I love giving roses to characteristics my mother because the blue rose is sine thesis, her favorite type of rose, too! Even though we don’t have blue roses, I can still pick other colors of roses for characteristics, her like the persuasive essay of music red, white, or even the pink. Picking roses can be a fun activity if you make it fun by president essay, maybe listening to american essays music or even bring a friend along with you.

I love roses more than a lot of things like candy or other sweets. That is everything roses remind me of. Beginning as a seed, Becoming a beauty indeed. All around the universe,

A flower so diverse. Yellow, red, pink, white, An endless color sight. Expressing a romance so sweet, Nothing willing ever defeat. A mystery within each petal, Their sentiments are several.

With thorns to protect, Roses gather respect. Having stories to say, Especially on Valentines Day. Always one of a kind, Forever on your mind. Priyanka A. Characteristics Essay? Fayson. What’s Your Rose-anality? Roseville is a town where only roses grow.

Roseville smells like nuts and lavender. Administrative Essay? It’s very colorful – like thousands of crystals. It has the nicest weather. It’s always sunny and warm. It’s the best place for beautiful roses to president characteristics essay grow. The roses went to go to Rosegarden Elementary. They had decorated flowerbeds in the classrooms. Each rose had their own flowerbed filled with dirt and their own watering can. The principal was Mr.

Rudy Roseaville. The teacher was Mrs. Rose Roseplot. Rugosa was a mean rose. Term Essay? She had lots of thorny stems, and essay, liked living far from the body apa other roses. In class, she sat next to Black Baccara, who just moved to Roseville from France. She was born on president Valentine’s Day; the best birthday every for a rose! She was different from all the body of a apa other roses because she was black and she spoke French.

“Hey, weird looking rose, I don’t think you’re cool. I think you are ugly because you’re a black rose,” said Rugosa. Black Baccara did not understand, so she just walked away. Damask, a rose with big thorns and essay, a very strong smell said to Rugosa, “Why are you being so mean to the new rose?” Rugosa replied, “I’m not being mean! I’m just telling her about herself!” Damask shook her head, and her strong perfume shimmered all over Rugosa, making her upset. Rugosa rolled her petals and stomped away. Bermuda Rose was hiding behind the watering cans and saw what happened. Manager Cover Letter? She was a mysterious rose and no one knew where she came from.

She thought, “Is this something I should tell Mr. Roseaville?” She was wondering if that would make her a tattlerose. Grandiflora Rose, a tall rose who did not have a sweet smell, was behind the characteristics watering cans, too. She shyly said, “Bermuda, you should tell – that was bullying.” Later that day, Mrs. Roseplot had a meeting on the rose carpet. She said, “we are all different in our looks, smells, and culture.

That’s what makes us unique and administrative theory, the world so pretty. Characteristics Essay? You shouldn’t tease other roses because they have a different rose-anality!” Afterwards, they played “Guess That Rose” to administrative learn more about each other, and Rugosa won! Ruben Thomas Flores. Why I Love Roses. Because they have my favorite colors: orange, yellow, red, and I like working at the Bidwell Mansion with mama Julie and I like how it is a circle and essay, the circle is my favorite shape and mama Julie has a lot of flowers and roses and mama Julie is kind of a master at body of a, roses and flowers and my grandma has two roses and we have tomatoes and lettuce and it is good for bugs, like butterflies and bees, and mama Julie plants mix plants and she plants artichokes, poppies, thelrictrum borage, violets, and president essay, forget-me-nots. Plants are very good for nature and are useful for cakes when you get married and it’s useful for t-shirts. Roses are a good thing for our country and for our bugs and insects and it is very good for of a research paper, our world and it is good for the soil and it is president characteristics, good for the summertime and of a, mama Julie plants with boney manure and chicken manure, but manure roses are a good thing, America.

Once upon a time when I was little my mommy would take me to rose gardens and see a lot of president essay, plants. There were roses and flowers. My mommy likes roses because they’re from my mommy’s birth month in June and she likes them because they are pretty. Research Paper? I like roses because they’re pretty and they’re lovely and gorgeous. My little sister likes roses because they are gorgeous. My daddy likes roses because he thinks they’re beautiful. I even love roses because I have Rose in my name. My name is president characteristics essay, Taylor Rosemarie Fochs. My favorite food to eat is a lot of african, things like ice cream, milk, hot dogs, carrots, and cucumbers.

I’m from Stark Elementary School. In my opinion, roses are one of my favorite flowers. I was born into a flower loving family. We always have beautiful roses in our gardens. We have had climbing roses, hybrid tea roses, and old fashioned roses.

All of president essay, these flowers have also stuck me before with their thorns. Climbing roses are one of my favorite types of roses for one main reason. That reason is product, that they bloom a lot, and in result it makes a garden look pretty. Climbing roses might look nice, but hybrid tea roses blow them out characteristics essay of the cover letter water when it comes to president characteristics looks and smell. Hybrid tea roses are my favorite types of roses. In fact, I’m shopping for them right now. Old fashioned roses are also really cool for one reason. The reason is body of a research paper apa, that old fashioned roses look and smell good without being a hybrid rose, (a rose being specifically grown for a certain purpose).

The climbing roses, hybrid tea roses, and old fashioned roses are all beautiful roses. If I had to characteristics choose a favorite, it would be a three way tie. Persuasive? Well, at least that’s what I think. Nobody has the same opinion; well, at least I think so. Another really pretty rose is a floribunda rose, especially a ‘Day Breaker’. President? ‘Day Breakers’ are my favorite floribunda because on the outside of it it is pink and on the inside of letter, it is orange. Floribundas are really pretty roses. Another really awesome rose is the grandiflora rose.

Out of all the grandiflora roses, my favorite is the ‘Candelabra’. The ‘Candelabra’ rose is a light orange rose that smells fantastic. The last type of rose that I like is the miniature rose, now don’t get me wrong, I love all roses, it’s just these are the ones I really love. Anyways, I love miniature roses because they are very easy to grow. If you know what I mean. Miniature roses also don’t have big thorns to prick you, but that is another story. Roses are beautiful flowers, and they also are a florist’s dream come true. Characteristics? Thank you for reading my essay. Why I love Roses. I love roses! Roses are so beautiful.

My favorite colors of roses are the pink and red roses. Slang Term Definition? I love the president characteristics roses’ scent. Product Cover? they relax me when I smell them. My favorite type of president characteristics, rose is the sine thesis American Beauty rose. There are roses everywhere. I love roses. Characteristics? They can be in trees, shrubs, and term definition, herbs. Most of the fruits belong to roses. My two favorite things. the rose petals are so smooth and president characteristics, soft. There are 100 species of roses. I love that.

Roses can be in perfume, which will make me smell good. Roses are also easy to theory essay grow. This will be good so you can plant a lot. President Characteristics? Roses can grow tall and fat, which is really cool. It’s really cool that the rose is the National Floral Emblem of the United States, which makes me like it more. Pharmaceutical Product Cover Letter? The rose is president characteristics, also the pharmaceutical manager cover state flower selected in Georgia, Iowa, New York, North Dakota, and District of Columbia, which is essay, awesome. You know what, George Washington was our first rose breeder. I bet when I get older I will buy a lot of roses. Guess what: over 1,200,000,000 roses were purchased by the U.S. flower buyers. Amazing! The rose is a native to the United States.

About 60% of the administrative management theory roses grown in the U.S. are produced in California. California is so lucky. The most popular rose holidays in the U.S. are Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, and Christmas. Did you know that Columbus discovered America because of a rose? Amazing! Do you know what is cool? In the Middle Ages, it was usual for president essay, the wealthy to put rose petals and rose oil in their baths.

It’s really cool that the rose was first honored by the U.S. Postal Service in 1978 with its very own stamp. Guess what! There are 4,000 songs that have been written about roses. Did you know that the rose is called the ‘Queen of the Flowers’? Did you know that the largest rose bud is nearly six feet around? When it is fully bloomed, it has more than 200,000 blossoms. Roses are flowers. and flowers bloom. Roses are red, yellow, green, blue, and black to white. Some are big some are small.

Some are high and some are low. All roses are cool. I love them because they come in slang definition essay, so many different colors. They come in red, white, yellow, and lavender. Another reason is there are so many different kinds of roses. They come in shrubs, climbers, grandifloras, mini, hybrid teas, floribundas, and hybrids. I also love them for president characteristics, their sign of peace and love. The roses are one of the of a research prettiest flowers. That is also why I love them. I love them for characteristics, their two-thousand species of roses.

I love the pattern the petals make. One more reason is body research paper, you can grow or regrow them with others or by yourself. President Characteristics? I love them because you can pick them for others. Roses remind me of spring and Easter with Jesus rising from the dead. I love roses so you can sniff them and say spring is finally here. I love roses because they are my favorite kind of flower and my family’s favorite kind of flower. I love roses and watching them bloom and becoming the flower it is.

I love roses because it only takes five petals for persuasive essay of music, it to make the design. I love roses because it is the most plant written about it poetry. Roses are one of the most important religious symbols. President Characteristics Essay? I love roses because they are a symbol of many things. They are symbols of love, death, virginity, peace, the spill of blood of innocents, socialism, and desire. Definition? I love roses because they are a national flower of four states. The states of Georgia, Iowa, North Dakota, and New York. I love roses because 60% of roses are produced in California. I love roses because 85% of president characteristics essay, Americans love roses as their favorite flower. I love roses because four-thousand songs have been about roses. I love roses because it is an artistic image for artists.

I love roses because there is sine thesis, one rose in Germany that is one-thousand years old. I love roses because florists send millions of president characteristics essay, roses to the United States. Grandparents are the people who are always there for you. You can spend the night at their house. They even get you presents when you don’t. But they still love you no matter what.

So, every now and then, you can get some flowers at a nearby flower shop. Pharmaceutical Product Cover? They deserve more than a picture to essay remind them of you. It also helps them feel happy about themselves. If they feel happy about themselves, they will be nicer to management theory you and other people. Then they could laugh more and have more fun with you.

You could even feel better, too, because you both could play games and essay, do fun stuff together. And so you won’t be bored and say, “There is nothing to body research paper do here.” Roses could also make your grandparents feel loved and not ignored. President Characteristics? Then they will probably not get mad or yell at anyone. And if that happens, it could most likely make it a better time for you and african american, your grandma or grandpa. Then they could feel more at ease and not be worried about upcoming things. They could also get more work done because they aren’t worried or upset. So, if they manage a business, they might be nicer and not as hard to their employees. They also might like getting them for decoration in their house. Roses could fin in because they are brightly colored.

Also, some roses smell good, like Hybrid Tea Roses. Hybrid Tea Roses smell like fruit or tea. But, they come from China, so they are rare to find in the United States. Hybrid Tea Roses are white, so they look really beautiful. And they also grow few petals on each flower. You have to be careful because some roses have thorns. And I don’t think your grandparents would like to get cut by a thorn on a rose. Roses might remind the of their wedding day and how great it was. They also remind them of essay, any other relationship, which could be good or bad. Then it could remind them how much they love their spouse, children, and grandchildren. A lot of people in administrative management, my family grow roses.

My mom grows a rose bush in president essay, our backyard. There are yellow roses on of a research apa my mom’s rose bush. President Essay? My grandma grows roses all over her yard. She really loves roses. My other grandparents grow a rose bush by persuasive essay of music, their mailbox.

The roses on president characteristics essay their rose bush are red. When I grow up, I want to term grow roses to keep the characteristics essay family tradition going. When my brother grows up he should grow roses, too. I love roses because they are pretty. They smell good and when a rose is given to someone they can make the person’s day. I think roses are pretty because they come in all colors and have a swirl at the top.

I like roses because they can go with all seasons and occasions. Persuasive Essay Of Music? I like the little swirl at the top because it makes the rose look very elegant. Characteristics? I like the way roses smell because roses give off such a clean, fresh scent that smells good every day. I like how roses make people’s day, because giving someone a rose can make someone know that another person cares about them. It can brighten up their whole day. It is funny how such a simple gift can make someone so happy. I like like that roses are used in different products. Administrative Essay? When roses are used in body sprays and perfumes, you smell really good. Roses can also be used to make rose jelly.

Someone gave rose jelly to my parents as a gift once and characteristics essay, my parents said it did not taste very good. They said it tasted like roses smell. I think roses are given to people the most at Valentine’s Day. I think this is because certain roses are a sign of love and essay of music, Valentine’s Day is a holiday you tell someone how much you love them. After my dance recital, my parents gave me lavender roses for essay, doing such a great job. The roses smelled really nice and stayed alive for about a week. Essay? They looked really pretty sitting on top of the piano. Whether you have one rose or one dozen, they are beautiful and president characteristics essay, meaningful. Roses, Roses everywhere.

Rose petals in pharmaceutical product manager cover letter, the air: Roses, Roses on the ground. Roses, Roses all around. Roses, Roses in the sky. Rose petals go dancing by. Roses can be big and tall. Or they can be short and small. Roses are pretty indeed. They look nothing like a weed.

Oh how pretty they are at night. It is just quite a sight. Why I love roses. Why I love roses is because they’re pretty. They smell good. I like all colors of president, roses. My favorite colors are red and management theory, blue. I don’t like pink roses. Sometimes I don’t like roses because they have thorns. Sometimes I don’t like how they smell.

Sometimes they are ugly if you don’t water them. President Characteristics? Why they have thorns is to keep the animals away. I wish I had roses in pharmaceutical manager cover, my backyard. Characteristics? My favorite color rose is red. What roses I want in my backyard are all the colors, except pink. My sister likes white and african essays, yellow. President Characteristics? My mom likes blue and red.

My grandparents like yellow and red. American Essays? I don’t like the color yellow, but I do on flowers. Sometimes I like yellow roses if they smell good. I don’t like the color orange, but I do on flowers. The blue roses are the president characteristics essay color of the sky.

White roses are the color of the clouds. Body Of A Paper Apa? There’s tie die, too! Sometimes roses come up from the ground. Orange is the color of the president essay sunset. Purple is the color of the rainbow. Yellow is the color of the body of a paper sun. Lots of them come up in president characteristics, summer. And sometimes spring, too! Sometimes the thorns will hurt.

I LOVE purple roses. Some roses match my jeans. Sometimes you can put it on your hat. You maybe can put the petals in essays, hot water and they drown. President? I think they do that in Hawaii.

I have never been to Hawaii. I’ve never put my feet in water with rose petals. But I guess it makes your feet smell good. You can even make a necklace if you can get the thorns off. Maybe you can do a bracelet and sine thesis, maybe earrings. Characteristics? But I have rose earrings and a rose necklace. But they’re not real roses. The Woodland Fairies. So there I was, in a place called Woodland. The people there made a lot of research paper, stuff out of wood. From the stuff they made, they gave half to humans and half for themselves.

They were very nice and president characteristics, playful. They were like humans except for one thing: they were fairies. The fairies liked to have races in their free time. Mostly, they kept themselves busy by harvesting wood. They liked to eat nuts, nuts, and more nuts. They drank water from a nearby stream. The wood fairies’ leader was “Birch Wood”. Birch Wood organized The Wood and Nut Festival every year.

This is the only time of year that the fairies gather in the town square and have games. The town square has only three buildings: one tall building and two very small buildings. Sine Thesis? The two small houses are the homes of president, Birch Wood and pharmaceutical product manager cover letter, Birch’s general, General Alders. The fairies at The Wood and Nut Festival like to fly from Birch’s house to characteristics the large building where the fairies keep their water, wood, and nuts. Birch announces the beginning of the festival from the persuasive essay of music top of this building. The wood fairies’ population was very small. There are about ten wood fairies in all, including Birch and Alders. Their names are Oak, Cypress, Evergreen, Pine, Laurel, Holly, Dogwood, and Firewood. Oak, Cypress, and Firewood gathered the wood. Characteristics Essay? Evergreen, Alders, and Pine gathered the nuts. Holly, Dogwood, and Laurel gathered the management theory essay sticks for the fires.

The wood fairies were at president characteristics essay, war with the flower fairies. The flower fairies had ten fairies, also. Their names were Rose, Daisy, Tulip, Carnation, Tea Rose, Daffodil, Gardenia, Magnolia, Buttercup, Orchid. Rose was the african essays leader of the characteristics essay flower fairies. Each fairy had a small garden in which she planted flowers. After the festival, the wood fairies stayed in the town square while Birch and Alders gathered birds to make the flower fairies surrender, for slang essay, they were terribly frightened of characteristics essay, birds. In the end, all the fairies learned to get along as the birds would not help the wood fairies.

I enjoyed by time in Woodland and loved seeing the beautiful flowers. My favorite flower is the rose and my favorite fairy was Rose. Long ago, I tried to grow a rose. I planted the seeds in my little pot. Longing to see the sine thesis seedlings,

I watered and watched them each day. One day, after many weeks, I saw a sprout. I hopped around the house telling my family, “I can’t wait for the roses to bloom!”

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essay on speciation Every individual alive today, the highest as well as the lowest, is derived in an unbroken line from the first and lowest forms. - August Frederick Lopold Weismann, German biologist/geneticist (1834-1914) From the president essay, remotest past which Science can fathom, up to body paper the novelties of yesterday, that in which Progress essentially consists, is the transformation of the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. - Herbert Spencer, English philosopher/psychologist (1820-1903) What is biological evolution? How are theories of microevolution and macroevolution related? What is a species, and what are the different ways it can be defined? What are the limitations of each definition? How is president, reproductive isolation important to speciation, and what forms can it take?

Why should natural selection reinforce reproductive isolation? Can species be formed in ways other than geographic isolation? The word evolution does not apply exclusively to biological evolution. The universe and our solar system have developed out of the explosion of matter that began our known universe. Chemical elements have evolved from pharmaceutical product manager cover, simpler matter. Life has evolved from characteristics essay, non-life, and slang definition essay, complex organisms from simpler forms. Languages, religions, and political systems all evolve. Hence, evolution is an characteristics appropriate theme for sine thesis a course on global change. The core aspects of evolution are change and the role of history, in that past events have an president characteristics influence over body of a research paper what changes occur subsequently.

In biological evolution this might mean that complex organisms arise out of simpler ancestors - though be aware that this is an over-simplification not acceptable to essay a more advanced discussion of evolution. A full discussion of evolution requires a detailed explanation of genetics, because science has given us a good understanding of the genetic basis of evolution. It also requires an investigation of the administrative essay, differences that characterize species, genera, indeed the entire tree of characteristics essay life, because these are the phenomena that the theory of evolution seeks to explain. We will begin with observed patterns of similarities and slang term definition essay, differences among species, because this is what Darwin knew about. The genetic basis for evolution only began to be integrated into evolutionary theory in the 1930's and 1940's. President. We will add genetics into persuasive essay, our understanding of evolution through a discussion activity. Definitions of Biological Evolution. Changes in the genetic composition of president essay a population with the passage of each generation.

The gradual change of living things from one form into slang term, another over the course of time, the origin of characteristics species and lineages by descent of management theory essay living forms from ancestral forms, and the generation of diversity Note that the first definition emphasizes genetic change. It commonly is referred to as microevolution . The second definition emphasizes the appearance of new, physically distinct life forms that can be grouped with similar appearing life forms in a taxonomic hierarchy. President Characteristics. It commonly is referred to as macroevolution . A full explanation of evolution requires that we link these two levels. Can small, gradual change produce distinct species? How does it occur, and how do we decide when species are species? Hopefully you will see the connections by the end of manager cover these three lectures. Today we will discuss how species are formed. But to do this, we need to define what we are talking about. Mimicry complexes supplied further evidence against president characteristics essay, the concept, as organisms of the same species can look very different, depending upon where they are reared or their life cycle stage (some insects produce a spring brood that looks like one host plant and a summer brood that looks like another). The morphological species concept was replaced by another viewpoint that puts more emphasis on the biological differences between species.

Biological species concept: This concept states that a species is american, a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals who are reproductively isolated from president characteristics essay, other such groups. This definition was attractive to biologists and persuasive essay of music, became widely adopted by the 1940's. It suggested a critical test of species-hood: two individuals belong to characteristics the same species if their gametes can unite with each other under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring. This concept also emphasized that a species is an sine thesis evolutionary unit. Members share genes with other members of their species, and not with members of other species. Although this definition clearly is attractive, it has problems.

Can you test it on museum specimens or fossil data? Can it explain the existence of species in a line of descent, such as the well-known lineage of fossil horses? Obviously not. In fact, one cannot apply this definition easily, or at all, with many living organisms. What if species do not live in the same place? What about the hybrids that we know occur in zoos? These problems are serious enough that some biologists recently argued for a return to characteristics essay the morphological species concept. So what is the best way to sine thesis define a species? Most scientists feel that the biological species concept should be kept, but with some qualifications.

It can only be used with living species, and cannot always be applied to species that do not live in the same place. The real test applies to species that have the potential to interbreed. Most importantly, the president, biological species concept helps us ask how species are formed, because it focuses our attention on the question of management theory essay how reproductive isolation comes about. President Essay. Let us first examine types of reproductive isolation, because there are quite a few. This suggests a simple and useful dichotomy, between pre-mating or prezygotic (i.e., pre-zygote formation) reproductive isolating mechanisms, and definition, post-mating or postzygotic isolating mechanisms. Remember that a zygote is the cell formed by the union of two gametes and is the basis of president a developing individual. Ecological isolation: Species occupy different habitats. The lion and tiger overlapped in India until 150 years ago, but the lion lived in open grassland and the tiger in forest. Sine Thesis. Consequently, the two species did not hybridize in nature (although they sometimes do in zoos). President Characteristics. Temporal isolation: Species breed at sine thesis different times. In North America, five frog species of the president characteristics, genus Rana differ in the time of their peak breeding activity.

Behavioral isolation: Species engage in distinct courtship and mating rituals ( see Figure 1 ). Mechanical isolation: Interbreeding is prevented by structural or molecular blockage of the formation of the product manager letter, zygote. President Characteristics. Mechanisms include the inability of the sperm to bind to the egg in animals, or the female reproductive organ of a plant preventing the wrong pollinator from landing. Persuasive Of Music. ** All of the above prevent the formation of hybrid zygotes. ** ** Post-zygotic mechanisms are those in which hybrid zygotes fail, develop abnormally, or cannot self-reproduce and establish viable populations in nature. ** So species remain distinct due to reproductive isolation. But how do species form in the first place? An abbreviated illustration of meiosis, by which reproductive cells duplicate to form gametes. This question is characteristics, critical, because it is what produces many species from few, and results in evolutionary trees of administrative theory essay relatedness. The most common way for president essay species to split, especially in animal species (we will talk more about the administrative management essay, origin of new plant species later), is when the population becomes geographically isolated into essay, two populations. This is referred to research as allopatric (geographic) speciation ( see Figure ). Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation. President Characteristics Essay. Once two populations are reproductively isolated, they are free to follow different evolutionary paths.

They are likely to differentiate for two reasons: Different geographic regions are likely to have different selective pressures. Temperature, rainfall, predators and competitors are likely to differ between two areas 100's or 1,000's of kilometers apart. Thus, over time, the two populations will differentiate. Even if the environments are not very different, the populations may differentiate because different mutations and genetic combinations occur by chance in each. Thus, selection will have different raw material to act upon in slang definition each population. In short, physical isolation turns a single population into two, which, because of their lack of connectedness, may follow different evolutionary paths. President Characteristics Essay. What happens next? The fate of the administrative management theory, populations depends upon time and characteristics essay, factors related to their different environments. If the two populations are soon rejoined, they may not differ very much, and likely will become a single population again. Differentiation also depends upon the strength of selective pressures.

Strong selection can cause rapid change. Given time and selection, the two populations become two species. They may, at some later time, spread back into contact. Then we can ask, are these two good biological species? The real test of the biological species concept is when two populations, on the threshold of becoming two species, come back into contact.

They may simply merge. They may be so different that they do not even recognize one another as species. Often, though, species may come into contact when not yet fully reproductively isolated. Cover. In that event, natural selection should reinforce the characteristics essay, reproductive barriers. Essays. Why? Because individuals that waste their reproductive effort -- their gametes -- on individuals with whom they will produce inferior offspring are less likely to pass on their genes to the next generation.

Natural selection should reinforce reproductive isolation. Probably, species that are isolated only by post-zygotic barriers will subsequently evolve pre-zygotic barriers. Why should that occur? To review: allopatric (geographic) speciation is the differentiation of essay physically isolated populations to the point that reunion of the two populations does not occur if contact is re- established. If speciation is a gradual process, species may not yet be fully separated. Essay. A continuum must exist from species that are in characteristics essay the process of splitting into two, to species that are fully formed.

Surely we only expect the latter to behave as good species. We still haven't fully explained the speciation process. In our next lesson, we will examine the theory of natural selection, which helps to explain how localized populations become adapted to local conditions. By adapting to local conditions and accumulating genetic differences, isolated geographic races start down the sine thesis, path to becoming separate species and creating another pair of branches on the tree of life. But now I want to point out president that there are alternative models of species formation, and finally I want to conclude by linking the administrative management, concept of species formation to the hierarchical structure of life. Alternative Models of characteristics Species Formation -- Hybridization and of music, Polyploidy.

Even if hybrids are unable to undergo sexual reproduction because their chromosomes do not sort out properly in meiosis, they may reproduce vegetatively. The total chromosome number also may double by president characteristics essay combining the chromosome sets of a single species. Of the 260,000 known species of plants, as many as half may have originated in body of a this way. Many commercially important plants are examples of polyploidy (e.g. bread wheat, cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, bananas, potatoes). Polyploidy is an example of sympatric speciation defined as species arising within the same, overlapping geographic range. Conclusion: Species Formation and the Hierarchy of Life. There are two ways to construct a phylogenetic tree ( see Figure ). We can use a perfect fossil record to characteristics trace the sine thesis, sequence from beginning to end, or we can use similarities and differences among living things to reconstruct history, working from the endpoint toward the characteristics, beginning.

In this course, we will not consider these two methods in detail. I introduce them to make the point that, ultimately, we want to understand how evolution produces not just two species from one but the entire tree of life. This requires that we make the sine thesis, transition from essay, microevolution to macroevolution. Term Essay. To Darwin, and to modern evolutionary biologists as well, the answer simply is time. Given enough time and successive splittings, the processes that produce two species from one will result in the entire diversity of life.

In reality, deducing the historic record of branching is very difficult. Essay. Data are incomplete, scientists debate the essays, pace of change, and sometimes species separated by many branching steps look more similar to president one another than those separated by one or a few branches. Slang Term Definition Essay. Molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities to address these issues, by looking at similarities and differences in DNA sequences. From here we will turn away from the macroevolutionary view and president essay, look more closely at how small changes occur and accumulate, by the processes of natural selection and genetic change. The definition of a species is debatable. Most scientists adhere either to the morphological species concept (members of slang term definition essay a species look alike and can be distinguished from other species by their appearance), or to the biological species concept (a species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals who are reproductively isolated from other such groups). Both definitions have their weaknesses. Reproductive isolating mechanisms are either prezygotic or postzygotic. These mechanisms ensure that species remain distinct in nature. Species formation can occur either through allopatric (geographic) speciation or through sympatric speciation.

We can construct phylogenetic trees that show the evolutionary relatedness among living things, though the building of such trees is as yet an imperfect science. Futuyma, D.J. 1986. Evolutionary Biology . Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Wessells, N.K. and J.L. Hopson. 1988. Biology . New York: Random House. Chapter 43. Rosenzweig, M.L. 1995.

Species Diversity in Space and Time . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Copyright Regents of the essay, University of african essays Michigan unless noted otherwise.