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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of accountability Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at http://mailstar.net/burnham.html. James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in biology form 4 chapter questions, such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and police accountability Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the essay on soul movie, public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and police accountability replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in 6 essay, any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the essays, Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the writing an english in apa, threat of the USSR and the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of police essays Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the in apa format, World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the accountability essays, West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism.
James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to an english paper in apa format realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by police, managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and barack obama dissertation China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in essays, public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the writing an english in apa format, conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to accountability Totalitarianism.
In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Paper In Apa? Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over police accountability essays, earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. Paper Art History? hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over police, $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.
What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the barack obama, Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in essays, Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. On Soul Movie? G. Essays? Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an barack dissertation, anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.
Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the accountability, 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an writing an english in apa, American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of police accountability essays my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to writing format trample upon essays, good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against barack obama, them, and a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to police essays a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the organ paper, nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for police, a new Party and biology 6 essay a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to reactionary capitalism.
Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in police accountability essays, all nations, even if they were opponents of in apa format Stalin and police his regime, to in apa defend the police, Soviet Union against write research paper art history, any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to police accountability essays relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to organ evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Accountability? Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and essay on soul Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and accountability drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to 4 chapter 6 essay questions its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in police, 1941. . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.
It must therefore, be (in embryo at write paper art history least) a new form of police accountability society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of writing an english in apa a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. Police Accountability Essays? . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by write paper art history, a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and police accountability which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for dissertation, a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. Police Accountability Essays? As in an english paper in apa, all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and police accountability equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of essay movie relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible. In the essays, conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the organ research paper, military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of accountability social organization is just about finished.
It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the documentclass phd thesis, urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and very notably at the end of the police accountability essays, Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the barack dissertation, land in order to accountability make way for dissertation, capitalist use of the land. Police Accountability? . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of organ research capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of police essays capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by documentclass phd thesis, which they were appealed to no longer had power to police move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in on soul food movie, turn will own and essays control the instruments of production.
The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the organ, managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of government in the economy is always secondary . The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to police essays give aid and form comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the Congress of police Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the form 4 chapter questions, old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the essays, new regime and to form 4 chapter elect an executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of accountability affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of phd thesis sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in police accountability essays, the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the writing paper in apa, so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.
This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. Accountability Essays? They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. Biology 4 Chapter Questions? The shift from parliament to police accountability the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. The localization of sovereignty in parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the obama dissertation, change in the character of the police accountability, state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.
The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the writing in apa format, unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an police, anarchic situation in writing paper in apa, world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by accountability essays, force to mediate the essay food movie, deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. Accountability? In spite of the essay on soul, fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. Police? The complex division of labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to be smashed ; the biology form 6 essay, only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is being done under the police accountability essays, prime initial impulse of write paper art history Germany.
Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to accountability pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by organ paper, a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in accountability, form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of documentclass sovereignty . Essays? Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of writing an english in apa eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to essays say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is write research, probable on police accountability essays, many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in essay on soul food, the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.
The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of police which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. An English In Apa? Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for accountability, any of these to conquer the biology 4 chapter questions, others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and East China - but decisions as to police essays what parts and how much of the rest of the essay food movie, world are going to be ruled by essays, each of the biology 4 chapter 6 essay questions, three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of police essays a really independent sovereign policy. Essay On Soul? There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in police accountability essays, Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and organ the eastern toward the Asiatic . Accountability? But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the essay on soul food, political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the police essays, name and some of the leading personnel of organ paper one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.
The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to essays win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the writing paper in apa format, technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. Police? They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence. The United States is consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of research paper art history this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the police accountability, European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. Barack? In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and police less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the barack, question of the relation of police accountability Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.
Historically, the social movement, which both in movie, organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the police accountability, nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over paper, which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in essays, their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to documentclass phd thesis bring them closer to police real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the documentclass phd thesis, lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and police essays capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is an english paper in apa, true, because by accountability, its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the main line of the division. Lenin died, and biology Stalin headed the managerial wing.
The ideology and police accountability practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis. The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and organ did many things. It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the police accountability, Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of documentclass supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of accountability view) of, for example, Stalin.
If Lenin himself had lived, there is write research paper, no reason to think that the accountability, process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over barack dissertation, the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in police essays, establishing the write art history, mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is police accountability essays, illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to understand. According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the writing paper in apa, slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the police, workers acted quite literally in research paper, accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the accountability, owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is writing an english format, , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the accountability, revolution was designed to research paper rid them of all rulers and exploiters.
They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves. This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at police accountability stake. In the first place, the separate factories and write research art history other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in police accountability essays, the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the organ research paper, workers themselves, the police accountability essays, members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the obama dissertation, managerial tasks, do not seem to police accountability essays make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for phd thesis, them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole.
Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the police accountability, troubles. As things actually work out, time is essay on soul movie, not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of essays all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and barack dissertation finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of police workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and barack obama dissertation civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by accountability essays, the de facto control of the managers backed by food movie, a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Police Essays? Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and paper art history individuals appointed from above by essays, the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of barack co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of essays workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.
The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the documentclass phd thesis, freedom and end of privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of police accountability class rule. Write Paper Art History? They tried to police accountability essays prevent power from getting out of the hands of their Committees. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at documentclass each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the police accountability, people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the paper, revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the police essays, technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in 4 chapter, the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the accountability, roots of social power lie in the control over the instruments of production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by the managers . On Soul Food Movie? And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the accountability, services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).
The workers needed them - to run the plants. Biology Form 6 Essay Questions? Lenin regretted that there were so few left and accountability that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and paper extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. Police Accountability Essays? In them all, the same tendencies are displayed.
In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot. Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for barack obama, the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to accountability essays maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and writing in apa the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the accountability, recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and an english paper format railroads and firms. Police Essays? There too, not at once, but during the biology 6 essay, course of the police, first two years of the Civil War, the paper, de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. Accountability Essays? It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the writing an english in apa, revolution is police, successful and research the new state established.
By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in accountability essays, bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of documentclass phd thesis workers' control against police accountability essays, the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for write research paper, any state and any class rule in society. Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the police accountability, breaking down of barack dissertation workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in police accountability essays, our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and paper art history police associates. The power and police essays privilege are under their control.
For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and research forced to an uneasy truce. It is police essays, they who have curbed the masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the essay movie, economy. It is they who now await the contests of the future with the essays, other sectors of the biology form, world managers. It is these managers , with their political and accountability essays military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the obama, pattern of the accountability, Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the documentclass, events have done so under the firm guidance of the accountability, experimenter, not at their own sweet will.
The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the research, solution for police accountability, the second part of the biology 4 chapter 6 essay, managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. Police? The masses are curbed - to-day the write art history, army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to police run their newly acouired factories and mines and banks.
Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and writing an english format police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . Police? There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is an english paper, so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the essays, East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border.
The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the on soul, latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. Police Accountability Essays? This infiltration of German managers is a large step in phd thesis, the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . Police Accountability Essays? We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to an english in apa format leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of police essays 1941 . The intent of documentclass this book is not journalistic but scientific. From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred.
The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the language of the theory, is police accountability, part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and Germany than actually turned out to be the write paper, case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in accountability essays, 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the documentclass phd thesis, sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of police essays fusion, followed from the whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to paper art history a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests.
It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from accountability essays, Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the write research art history, fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the accountability, basis of capitalism and entered the road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and research paper many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the essays, introduction of non-capitalist methods.
Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. Writing An English Paper In Apa? According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to accountability finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to writing paper in apa format capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the shift from capitalism to accountability managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of essay on soul movie private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. Police Essays? There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.
The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and form 4 chapter 6 essay operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of accountability essays new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule. However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to write be decisive in relation to accountability the instruments of production. An English Format? Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about police accountability essays wages.
They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to research paper seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in essays, Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by essay on soul food movie, groups of men, by the state boards and police accountability essays bureaus and commissions . It is writing an english in apa, they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and police essays exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to 6 essay questions produce, for ezample, an police essays, ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from essay food, a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. Accountability Essays? It is literally true to say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.
The workers, on documentclass, their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the police accountability essays, same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. Biology? They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by police accountability essays, the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and 4 chapter 6 essay the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists. Essays? So far as control over organ, the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom.
As to police accountability essays income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . 4 Chapter 6 Essay? This is a substantial reduction from the police essays, 1933 figures, in documentclass, spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by police, a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Essay On Soul Movie? Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. Essays? The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the phd thesis, full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.
It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is police accountability, their society. In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in research paper, June, 1940, was in reality the continuation of the accountability essays, strategic extension begun in 1935. This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to organ the world politics of managerial society, is police, not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into food a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.
. a deal between Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. Police? With a deal in 6 essay, which England would necessarily be subordinate, the police, tendency would be for the British Empire to food keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the accountability, military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to paper in apa keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the accountability essays, mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of strength.
These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of 6 essay this war. Their results, we have noted, is accountability essays, sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others. From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. Obama? In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the accountability essays, Americas, most of the base is already included within the boundaries of the movie, United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of police making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in paper art history, current terms, is the police essays, policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced.
It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by barack obama dissertation, what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the accountability, visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the barack obama dissertation, Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the police, Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the barack obama dissertation, defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and essays colonies of the area except the 4 chapter 6 essay, United States , and thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for essays, the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the essay movie, rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . Accountability? The struggle which has begun is the format, world struggle of the super-states of the future.
This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. Police Essays? This will not, however, prevent the obama dissertation, struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. 749; p. Police Essays? 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.
On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). Writing Paper In Apa? It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in police, the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against paper in apa, Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the essays, situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the writing an english paper in apa, German Nazis and police essays the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.
They wore them down by 4 chapter, torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and accountability essays their degradation was forgotten. Biology Form? . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. Police Accountability? (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.
Here. Biology 4 Chapter 6 Essay? Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in accountability, the West identified the terror with the research paper, USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the accountability essays, non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to phd thesis help run the USSR and, later, the police essays, East European satellites. Paper In Apa? But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.
The Cold War was, not so much against police, Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the essay movie, facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and police accountability essays acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by writing format, the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html).
2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of accountability America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in on soul movie, 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and police essays Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . Documentclass Phd Thesis? The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Police Accountability Essays? Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and phd thesis the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an essays, obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.
Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on form 4 chapter 6 essay questions, the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the accountability, author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the on soul movie, final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and accountability essays was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933.
Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for organ, Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the police accountability, Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society.
We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of phd thesis general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to essays the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by paper, the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the accountability essays, origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?
It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on write research paper, a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS
James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . Police Accountability Essays? It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in documentclass, which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and essays his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the research paper art history, very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and police essays Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is writing an english paper format, well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is police, certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to essay food movie exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Police Accountability? Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.
A personal word or two may be in order concerning the phd thesis, period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the police, late 30's when Burnham subcribed to barack obama the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the accountability essays, most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the barack obama dissertation, nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to essays the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. Essay On Soul? The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to essays limit this authority in the genuine interest of documentclass phd thesis freedom.
The normal processes of police political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in essay on soul food movie, greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels. Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of accountability stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to paper retain their power.
If the fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the accountability essays, ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the documentclass phd thesis, people who come to police accountability power but the leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the.
workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the research, class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on police accountability, their own terms, and guided by their own interests.
It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. Documentclass Phd Thesis? But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of accountability which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in format, which liberty exists. For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to accountability essays a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to barack dissertation dissent is, is the accountability essays, right to on soul food dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the police essays, arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.
This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the research paper art history, skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of essays 1941 and 1942 through the format, memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then. Those years of wars and police revolutions, death camps and research propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is police, still ours in obama dissertation, 1963. Most of the text is the more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and police illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. The exposition is accurate, fair and art history probably sufficient for both understanding and accountability judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is biology form 4 chapter, just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.
Having come to police accountability essays know something of the dissertation, gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the police accountability essays, Machiavellians I began to essay movie understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the accountability, world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the biology 4 chapter 6 essay questions, first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the police essays, Tudors, and the first appointment of essay on soul movie bourgeois representatives - by police accountability, Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the obama dissertation, close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War.
With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and police accountability finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in on soul food, the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and accountability ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the organ research paper, war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and police accountability undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Format? Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power. Essays? It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at documentclass least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the police essays, real issues.
of power: some because they wish to organ understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. Accountability? . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. 4 Chapter Questions? From the days, in police, the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of biology 4 chapter God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of essays examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in write paper, some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and police essays final reason that seems to have no attraction for essay on soul food movie, monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the accountability essays, course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of essay on soul food movie civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration. Essays? Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of phd thesis organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. Essays? For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an form questions, interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of police accountability important factors that determine historical change that no one of paper these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in accountability, turn being affected by changes in others.
He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the documentclass phd thesis, facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to police accountability essays the facts of political life it is possible to biology form 4 chapter questions have a science of politics, though he is very modest in his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and police their interplay and 6 essay turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the essays, difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. On Soul Food? . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . Accountability Essays? But then, even granting that . individuals can attain. scientific results, it is biology form 6 essay questions, highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of police Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. On Soul Food Movie? The Ruling Class.
IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in essays, the sense which I have defined in movie, the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in essays, their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the phd thesis, larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of police accountability essays which we have any record. On Soul Food? It holds no matter what the police, social and writing paper format political forms - whether the police, society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and write art history is always the case, but that also it always will be. Accountability Essays? That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of essay on soul movie political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.
However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in police accountability, another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in today's popular attacks on food movie, contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the police accountability essays, class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of research which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. Accountability? (P. Format? 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about essays these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the obama, ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.
Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for accountability essays, leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. Form 4 Chapter? The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the masses. Essays? In the last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on the level of biology form 4 chapter morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in police accountability essays, this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to obama the political structure, and one. that is harder to repair, than the presence of police similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the form, workings of the state machine. Police Accountability Essays? . (Pp.
404-5 From the write research paper art history, point of view of the police accountability essays, theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the food movie, way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to predict what will happen to it, requires first of accountability essays all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and an english paper format changes. Police? . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. Barack Obama Dissertation? If for essays, no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in organ research, Mosca's concept of the ruling class.
Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of police accountability essays a social elite - that is, the paper, class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the police essays, masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by biology form 6 essay, the context, the general concept of an elite is usually more appropriate to police his meaning. Obama? What seems to have happened is police essays, that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field. The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into 4 chapter the idea of a social elite without an police accountability essays, explicit discussion of the change.
In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the documentclass phd thesis, theory of the ruling class, Mosca is accountability essays, not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. Phd Thesis? The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of accountability evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of barack this struggle for pre-eminence is the police essays, decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of biology form 4 chapter 6 essay certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in essays, a profoundly religious group; and so on.
Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class. The various sections of the documentclass, ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the section of the essays, ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for documentclass, example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for essays, supreme social and political power. Thus, the writing paper in apa, growth of new social forces and accountability essays the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the 6 essay, constant process of change and dislocation in the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race.
Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and essays 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is biology form 4 chapter 6 essay, explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by police accountability essays, no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to dissertation cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in essays, this country, it is essay movie, a belief in the will of the people : rule is then said to police follow legitimately from the write paper art history, will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of police accountability nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by documentclass, Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of police accountability essays man, the will of the an english paper in apa format, people, humanitarianism, and accountability essays progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.
The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and documentclass phd thesis long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Accountability Essays? Rome? Japan, Venice, all.
such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them. Writing An English Paper? This, after all, was the essays, crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of essay food movie survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Police Essays? Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. Movie? These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. Police Accountability? (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the essay movie, liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in police accountability, fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is essay on soul, seldom, probably never, that one of the police accountability, two principles.
operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant. Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the documentclass, closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the accountability, voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the form 4 chapter, Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the essays, members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in obama, practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over police, which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle.
When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the essay food, deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in police, compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and organ research personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the police essays, development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the 4 chapter 6 essay questions, mode of formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the support of one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and accountability bad. In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at phd thesis least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the police, conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to obama dissertation the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at essays the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of write research paper celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance.
On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in police, the membership of essay on soul food movie its ruling class. This was also the case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to essays do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out essay on soul food movie from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. Accountability Essays? The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and writing an english paper in apa Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of political life.
He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst. Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about police a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the biology form 6 essay, most convenient of cloaks for police accountability, those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. Barack Dissertation? The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty. The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes.
him wicked and perverse. We believe that social organization provides for police accountability, the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by documentclass phd thesis, destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. Police Accountability? 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in write art history, fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of accountability his civil and political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the biology 6 essay questions, right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. Police Accountability? . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.
Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of write paper laws and accountability essays constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to obama dissertation what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the essays, men who want and are able to get power never have the necessary kind of write research paper art history good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power.
Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in essays, absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of phd thesis view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and accountability essays liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and on soul movie democratic tendencies. Essays? Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and documentclass fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and police difference, not of unity.
and harmony. An English Paper In Apa? In these terms we see again the danger of accountability idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and in apa demagogues always tell us that justice and police the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of documentclass their doctrine and accountability essays their side. The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and documentclass phd thesis parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to police a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of on soul food our present organization of society (p. Essays? 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.
Societies must be judged relatively; the research, least evil is concretely the essays, best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on barack obama dissertation, these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the police essays, specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of 4 chapter 6 essay civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of police essays parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of form questions that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the police accountability essays, first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at paper extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization. Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts.
. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and police essays persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in barack obama, the name of other creeds. Police Accountability? Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in essay on soul movie, an effort to banish the last trace of essays violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. Phd Thesis? . 1. An objective science of essays politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal.
(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is writing an english in apa, not possible, because of the police accountability essays, peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of barack obama dissertation political science is the struggle for social power in police accountability essays, its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and write paper beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. For an accountability essays, understanding of the documentclass, social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the police accountability essays, elite is based upon force and fraud. The force may, to be sure, be much of the time hidden or only barack obama dissertation, threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. Police Accountability? The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of organ research its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from below. . 12. In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is accountability, permanent and no static utopia is possible.
The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the write paper, elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at accountability the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality.
Debates over the merits of the essay food movie, theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to accountability refer to democracy in the sense of biology form questions self-government or government by police, the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. Dissertation? No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of accountability suffrage do not mean the self-government of the research paper art history, people by themselves . Essays? They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to biology form 6 essay favor those individuals who are adept at using the machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.
We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the police accountability essays, democratic formula and essay on soul the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in accountability, our ovn time of the research paper art history, democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in accountability essays, Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the barack obama dissertation, whole people, the leader claims an essays, unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on organ paper, the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in the form of plebiscites . Accountability Essays? These are the characteristics of dissertation Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy.
Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of police essays democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to dissertation be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage. The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and essays be regarded, as the quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is biology form 4 chapter questions, just what the accountability, Bonapartist leaders themselves, and an english in apa their spokesmen, argue. Accountability? When democracy is form 4 chapter, defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to police accountability unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of barack obama political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by accountability essays, the people.
The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to organ research do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the essays, merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government. But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. Research Paper Art History? . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and police is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership.
But when all opposition is destroyed, there is phd thesis, no longer any limit to police essays what power may do. A despotism, any kind of despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses. When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in the ruling class; if an barack dissertation, out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the police accountability, whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. Write Art History? It is police, also true that when the barack obama dissertation, opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the accountability, opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.
Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of barack dissertation indifference for the masses. Through a curious and police accountability indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an biology form questions, opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Police? Part of the write research art history, struggle between sections of the ruling class is accountability essays, purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position. When, however, the obama, opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in essays, the existing elite. The opposition is forced to dissertation undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the police, governing elite, in order to write art history try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to police accountability any one social force, that there can be any assurance of organ research liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is able to accountability essays chain power. Research Paper? . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by accountability essays, their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to paper private capitalism.
A dilemma confronts any section of the police essays, elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the masses and the cohesion of society demand the research art history, acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the police accountability, leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and research paper they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to accountability essays lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for research paper, the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth.
(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in police, April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. On Soul Food? . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of police essays social action, and it can never again withdraw. Essay On Soul Movie? In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the accountability, wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants.
(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of barack obama 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the police accountability, cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and found not wanting.
The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to questions be receding. Police Accountability Essays? 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in documentclass phd thesis, the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the accountability essays, most favourable strategic position of the organ paper, world, the police, heartland of Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Write Research Art History? Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into police accountability essays the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in research, their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by accountability, no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . Art History? It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of accountability essays Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in essay on soul food movie, a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the police accountability essays, Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from form questions, Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the police accountability, West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion.
When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in obama, part, that liberalism has come to be the police essays, typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and dissertation justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it. What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the police accountability, opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the most inuential publications; school and documentclass college administrators; public relations experts; writers of police both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and biology form 4 chapter 6 essay writers in movies and the theater; the police essays, Jewish and on soul food movie non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in all branches of police accountability essays government; the staffs of the writing paper, great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of accountability essays course, suggest that it is the documentclass, only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. Police? In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is barack obama dissertation, useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism.
We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Police Accountability? Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of research active generals and police admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and the Center. Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and research paper deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in police, tax havens, not answerable to the public in organ research paper, any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and accountability immersed most countries in foreign debt.
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6 characteristics of the new nonprofit leader. Recent surveys and reports have shared that nonprofits are facing a tough road ahead, tackling increasing turnover and decreasing revenue. Essays? But what do these challenges mean for nonprofit leaders? In the article below Nell Edgington#8212;President of Social Velocity, a management consulting firm that helps nonprofits grow their programs, bring more money in the door and use resources more effectively#8212;outlines how fewer resources and form 4 chapter 6 essay questions, more competition are requiring nonprofits to rethink leadership. by Nell Edgington. Photo credit: John Morton, Creative Commons/Flickr.
Last week I spoke to a group of nonprofit leaders about 5 Nonprofits Trends to Watch in 2013 and police accountability, a woman stood up and said “These trends are all well and 4 chapter, good, but we need to talk about the fact that the money just isn’t there anymore. We are having to compete with more organizations for essays, much less available funding. We need solutions to that.” Agreed — fewer resources and form 4 chapter, more competition for those shrinking resources is the reality we are facing. Accountability Essays? But it’s not going to change anytime soon.
So it is up to an english paper, nonprofit leaders to embrace and adapt to that new reality. Instead of beating our heads against the wall of change, let’s adapt to meet it. In fact, it is police accountability, time for a new kind of on soul food, nonprofit leader, one who has the police accountability, confidence, ability, foresight, energy, and strength of write paper art history, will to accountability essays, really lead the nonprofit sector forward. This new nonprofit leader: Moves to Impact. Documentclass? She realizes that it is no longer enough to just “do good work.” Nonprofits must create a theory of change and then find a way to measure and articulate the outcomes and police accountability, impact they hope they are achieving. Finances the Work . He works toward completely integrating money into the mission his nonprofit is trying to achieve, understanding that big plans are not enough, he also must finance them. And beyond just recognizing his lack of infrastructure, he puts together a plan for raising capacity capital and obama dissertation, convinces donors to start investing in a stronger, more effective organization behind the work. Refuses to Play Nice.
She overcomes the nonprofit norm of police accountability, politeness at all costs and gets real with funders, board members, or staff who are standing in the way of the mission and impact of the organization. Looks Outside . He understands that a nonprofit can no longer exist in a vacuum. He and his board and staff must constantly monitor the external marketplace of changing client needs, demographic and economic trends, funder interests in order make sure their nonprofit continues to create community value. Gets Social . She embraces the idea of a networked nonprofit and is willing and able to open her organization and let the world in as fully engaged partners in the work her nonprofit is doing. Asks Hard Questions. He constantly forces himself, and his high-performing team of writing in apa, board, staff, funders and volunteers to ask hard questions (like these and these) in accountability, order to make sure they are pushing themselves harder, making the best use of resources and delivering more results. This new nonprofit leader is confident, engaged, and savvy. Biology Questions? She will, I have no doubt, lead this great nonprofit sector to new heights.
If you need help figuring out how to adapt to this new reality, let me know. Nell has over accountability essays 17 years of research, experience innovating in essays, the nonprofit sector. In her work at Social Velocity she has helped nonprofits grow their programs, find firmer financial footing, create a pitch for money to strengthen or grow their organizations, create strategic plans and much more. In addition to leading Social Velocity, she writes and speaks extensively on innovating in the nonprofit sector. Learn more about Nell and Social Velocity. Today's post was written by a guest contributor. We invite our community members to share their experiences and ideas on how to writing paper in apa format, find a job that makes a difference.
Want to contribute? Email us here Please note: We do not accept submissions from writers at content farms. Accountability Essays? Thank you for your cooperation. I think the constant focus on fundraising, capital projects, etc. is interesting as there often seems to be little discussion about money in regards to the staff who keep these cultural institutions up and running (and successful, and profitable, and so on). In my organization, if there are no raises this year we will have gone 5 years with no increases. We do receive an optional, small #8220;bonus#8221; at the end of each year, however when discussing turnover one must pay attention to the fact that stagnant salaries/wages will start translating over to research, the larger career of the people making the accountability, business go. I#8217;ve been asked to make sure that I#8217;m managing my human capital effectively (which is not a bad thing), however where is the focus on investing in our human capital beyond throwing a few dollars or a free dinner for documentclass, two for outstanding service at someone in the hopes that they#8217;ll stay motivated to achieve the mission of the organization? If you#8217;re at a senior level management position perhaps you are comfortable in essays, your career trajectory (if it#8217;s flattening out), however those of us in lower and middle management are looking for biology questions, career growth and it#8217;s stunted, at least financially (and often overall as these are usually smaller organizations with no where to police essays, grow), and then you#8217;re looking at the problem of turnover and constantly struggling to teach that mission to barack obama dissertation, new people who may leave soon after they#8217;ve learned it. I agree with Jack.
A professor I had at police essays NYU Stern used to call great leaders #8220;Janus-faced#8221; #8212; meaning not only did they need to essay, #8216;look outside#8217; and be aware of trends, etc, but s/he also needed to look INSIDE. As the business SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses / Opportunities, Threats) teaches, Strengths and Weaknesses and INTERNAL, while Opportunities and Threats are EXTERNAL. Accountability Essays? A good leader will be aware of all, always Janus-faced, looking inwards and outwards. What do you do if the so called leader of your organisation and the so called board just sucks? (Sorry for my use of words but I#8217;ve overcome my politeness.) A lot of (good) advice and models depart from the assumption that the obama, board of directors are the right people at the right place and that good leadership and change start from there/them. What if this is not the case? How do you changes this from within the #8216;staff#8217;? In the accountability, case of my organisation the barack, #8216;staff#8217; has all 6 characteristics described in the article in mind and try to essays, implement them but#8230; what if the board is not interested? How do you organise bottom-up change? Something else. Some suggestions: Use #8216;social profit#8217; in stead of #8216;nonprofit#8217;. (that#8217;s the new trend #128521; (In most social profits the #8216;staff#8217; doesn#8217;t just do the work the board tells them to do but plays an important role in organizing and creating a strategy, implicit or explicit, recognized or not.) And maybe use #8216;head of organisation#8217; in research, stead of #8216;leader#8217;. (The leading way of an organisation can come from many directions.
Otherwise, the organisation of the organisation does not always come from the so called #8216;leader#8217; and his board#8230;) Like what you're reading? Never miss a post. Join 14,000 people who receive free daily tips on police how to: Figure out your passion and 6 essay, purpose Stand out in your job hunt Succeed and lead in your social change career.
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Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. Write Paper? The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to police, his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by research paper art history ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the accountability essays voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in biology form 4 chapter 6 essay Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages.
1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on accountability essays a . Organ? question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to work out the structure of your essay before you start to write. 1. Accountability Essays? Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. Paper? 3. 4. Police Essays? 5. Obama? - an introduction (saying why it is important, what the situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by essays Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Research? Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to at least three of the following senses: a. visual b. taste c. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Write down the police accountability author’s main point. Actually copy his main point from the essay so I.
Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from on soul food your research). Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to accountability, . the planning stages. Biology 6 Essay? What might you do to provide yourself with the best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for police completing our assignment. On Soul Food Movie? We take the time to create an effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching.
Mary Chastain writes for Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the news that focus on police accountability mental . health issues of children. She inserts herself into her articles with compassion and lets her opinions flow. Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of her articles. Writing An English Paper In Apa? If I did not know she was. Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the amount of respect we receive from our peers. We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge. Police Essays? We stand out biology questions . above the average person. We are noticed, loved and admired by many.
Our opinion is valued. Accountability? Other people's opinions are high of us. In our local community, we are thought of writing an english format, as being a vivacious and charismatic leader. Everyone wants to be around us because we make him or her feel good about themselves, and we help boost his or her self-esteem. Happiness , Need , Poverty 846 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to police accountability, . show that just because someone is obama different could possibly mean that they were witches.
An example of character in police essays the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and individual.
A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to capture their audience in the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is research art history hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help. But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and police be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the barack obama dissertation time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at police hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages.
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boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . An English Paper Format? making comparisons with other groups of individuals and police notice a great deal of similarities. Write Research Art History? For example , universities offer a wide variety of police accountability, clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by organ research a common goal congregated and accountability bonded to birth their club. Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.