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Breve resumen de la Guerra de Vietnam. Essay Vikas! La Guerra de Vietnam es uno de los episodios mas traumaticos de la historia de Estados Unidos. Life Didactic Essay! No solo porque concluyo con una derrota para el Ejercito de Estados Unidos, sino porque desato la mayor ola de protestas en el pais, en las que el gobierno perdio el apoyo. Essay! Se extendio por mas de una decada, de 1959 al 30 de abril de 1975, aunque EEUU intervino en 1965, en la que los soldados estadounidenses experimentaron desgarradoras escenas de cruda destruccion y muerte. Study Presentation! Durante la Guerra de Vietnam se enfrentaron fuerzas nacionalistas y de corte comunista, contra fuerzas anticomunistas apoyadas por Estados Unidos. Essay! Vietnam, que era una colonia de Francia desde 1862, es invadido por Japon en 1940. En 1941 Ho Chi Minh, el lider revolucionario comunista regresa a su tierra luego de 30 anos viajando el mundo. 12 Angry Men Leadership! El lider se establecio en una cueva, desde donde dirigia su lucha para expulsar a los ocupantes extranjeros de Vietnam. Manav! Con gran apoyo en el norte del pais, los Viet Minh declararon la independencia de esa region, creando un Vietnam independiente en el norte, como la Republica Democratica de Vietnam el 2 de septiembre de 1942. Essay Outline Checklist! Los franceses sin embargo, se resistian a perder su colonia.

Ho trato de ganar el apoyo de Estados Unidos, pero la politica anticomunista durante la Guerra Fria, con la doctrina de la contencion y el miedo a la diseminacion de la ideologia a traves de la teoria del domino impidieron cualquier alianza con los Viet Minh. Essay Vikas! Y para detener el comunismo los EEUU enviaron ayuda militar a Francia a partir de 1950. Sin embargo en 1954, derrotados en la batalla de Dien Bien Phu, los franceses se retiran completamente de Vietnam y mediante la Conferencia de Genova de 1954 varias naciones estipularon la division de Vietnam a lo largo del paralelo 17. Essay Questions For Inherit The Wind! Asi quedo el pais dividido en Vietnam del Norte (comunista) y Vietnam del Sur. Manav! Se acordo una eleccion en 1956 para reunificar al pais. Essay Outline Checklist! Pero las elecciones se realizaron solamente en el sur, con la victoria de Ngo Dinh Diem. Essay Vikas! El lider fue derrocado en 1960 con un golpe de estado, y se creo un movimiento afin al comunismo, el Frente de Liberacion Nacional (NFL) o Viet Cong, en 1960 que se enfrento a las autoridades de Vietnam del sur como una guerrilla.

Intervencion de Estados Unidos. To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus Courage! Estados Unidos comenzo a enviar asesores a Vietnam del Sur. Essay Vikas! El 2 de agosto de 1964 en el incidente conocido como Incidente del Golfo de Tonkin , los vietnamitas del norte dispararon sobre dos naves estadounidenses ancladas en aguas internacionales. Presentation! Como consecuencia, el Congreso dio autoridad al presidenteLyndon Johnson a determinar el envio de tropas a Vietnam en marzo de 1965. Essay! El plan de Johnson consistia en dar apoyo al gobierno de Vietnam del Sur, no con la idea de dar una victoria a su Ejercito. Essay Outline Checklist! De 1965 a 1969, el papel de las tropas era limitado, pues la intencion del plan era mantener los ataques en el territorio de Vietnam del Sur. Vikas! Estados Unidos no se propuso atacar el Camino de Ho Chi Minh, que se extendia a traves de Laos y Cambodia, y que servia como vias de abastecimientos para los Viet Cong. Life Didactic! Las condiciones de la jungla eran muy hostiles para los soldados estadounidenses. Essay Vikas! Los guerrilleros comunistas se movian en la selva con trampas y tecnicas de mimetismo que ponian a los americanos en dificultades.

Las familias apoyaban a los Viet Cong y estos no tenian escrupulos en sus tecnicas de lucha. El Ejercito norteamericano comenzo a bombardear la jungla con el llamado agente naranja, causando la devastacion de poblados y areas boscosas. And Contrast Essay Thesis! El 30 de enero de 1968, Vietnam del Norte lanzo un ataque masivo y por sorpresa a un centenar de poblados y ciudades en Vietnam del Sur. Essay Manav Vikas! Esta operacion se conoce como la Ofensiva Tet, y aunque el ataque fue contenido significo un punto de giro en la guerra, que demostro el poderio y la organizacion de las fuerzas comunistas. Essay! Esta efeiciacia militar de los comunistas y las oposicion de los propios civiles estadounidenses preparo el terreno para una retirada de las tropas norteamericanas del teatro de la guerra. Essay Vikas! En 1969 Richard Nixon llego a la presidencia de EEUU con el plan de retirar las tropas del conflicto. A Mockingbird Atticus! Su plan era ir traspasando la responsabilidad de la lucha completamente a los vietnamitas del Sur. La retirada comenzo el julio de 1969. Essay Manav Vikas! Para lograr la “paz con honor” Nixon extendio las hostilidades a Laos y Cambodia, lo que creo aun mayor malestar en Estados Unidos.

El 25 de enero de 1969 se comenzaron dialogos de paz en Paris. Outline! Una vez los soldados comenzarona retirarse los comunistas efectuaron otro asalto masivo, conocido como Ofensiva del este o la Ofensiva de Primavera el 30 de marzo de 1972. Manav Vikas! Las tropas de Vietnam del Norte cruzaron hacia la zona desmilitarizada (DMZ) e invadieron el Sur, con la resistencia del Ejercito de Vietnam del Sur y los remanentes del estadounidense. Checklist! El 27 de enero de 1973 se alcanza el acuerdo de cese al fuego en Paris. Las tropas estadounidenses se retiran de Vietnam el 29 de marzo de 1973. Essay! Reunificacion de Vietnam. To Kill Essay! El conflicto continuo entre las dos partes de Vietnam hasta que luego de otra ofensiva del Norte, Vietnam del Sur se rindio el 30 de abril de 1975. Vikas! El 2 de julio de 1976, el pais se reunifico bajo un gobierno comunista. Why Mba Harvard! Se estima que costo uno $200 mil millones. Vikas! Las bombas superaron la cantidad arrojada en Alemania, Italia y Japon en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

(Segun el departamento de defensa de EEUU citado por CNN) 8,744,000 – Soldados estadounidenses que fueron a la Guerra. Why Mba! La lista de prisioneros de Guerra fue de 2,646, 1,647 aun no aparecieron.

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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of manav every new venture: the king we crave horror, people, the essay, opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. Essay Outline! The questions about essay vikas, people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for why mba harvard the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in essay, addition to demonstrating an essay understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes.

Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. Manav! But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. 12 Angry Essay! A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. Manav Vikas! In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success.

And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the stephen king essay why do we crave horror, document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of vikas a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for hiv case presentation a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for manav vikas more than a year—are an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives.

Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. For Inherit! These maneuvers create a vicious circle of manav vikas inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the essay outline, entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the manav, yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in king we crave horror movies, software, the impact of using various distribution channels.

The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the essay manav vikas, business begin to we crave, make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain?

If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the essay manav vikas, right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and 12 angry essay, women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers.

The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and manav vikas, what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the outline, entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together?

The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on essay manav vikas, who is pouring money into essay checklist them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in essay, the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of men leadership command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance. However, in essay manav vikas, the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates.

It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at hiv case the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Manav! Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of 12 angry a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. Manav! A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to why mba, projections?

What decisions has the manav, team made in response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the king why do we crave movies, team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Essay! Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by essay for inherit the wind large companies. Why weren’t they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of vikas independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the stephen essay we crave, framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble.

They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and essay vikas, experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the essay checklist, scale and scope of the manav, business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is why mba essay, favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. Essay Manav Vikas! In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only essay for inherit, reality were so neat.

When I receive a business plan, I always read the essay, résumé section first. Stephen King Essay Why Do Horror Movies! Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in vikas, mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer.

Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is essay harvard, directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the essay manav, venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on why mba, the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity?

Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to essay vikas, be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and questions, whom they know are matters of essay manav vikas insight and experience. How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on essay questions for inherit, a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the manav, new company is hiv case study, run by people well known to manav vikas, suppliers, customers, and employees.

Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the why do horror, people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per essay, year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the essay, world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in essay manav vikas, mind as they craft their proposal. 12 Angry! Talk about the people—exhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about essay, launching the venture.

When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the a mockingbird courage, total market for manav the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and essay questions, investors look for manav large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to hiv case presentation, fight with entrenched competitors for essay vikas a share of a mature or stagnant market. Stephen King Essay Why Do! Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in essay, a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in stephen king why do horror movies, annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to vikas, make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems.

In the essay, late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into essay manav vikas the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is hiv case study presentation, gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated.

The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Essay Vikas! Moreover, product life cycles are short and essay for inherit the wind, ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by essay contrast, is hiv case, paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to essay manav, the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. Essay! First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by manav the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is essay, often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of essay manav vikas receiving the courage essay, service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed.

In short, the essay manav, structure of the 12 angry essay, information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service?

To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and vikas, deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to to kill atticus essay, retain a customer?

Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. Essay Vikas! The second step is to hiv case presentation, make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the essay manav vikas, answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. Why Mba Essay Harvard! I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Essay Manav! Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to essay outline checklist, this notion: build it, and they will come.

That strategy works in the movies but is essay vikas, not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the men leadership essay, venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an essay manav vikas empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a mockingbird atticus courage essay a price less than cost.

Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in vikas, which the costs to essay, produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is essay, dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes.

A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the to kill a mockingbird atticus essay, equation. Manav! The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and essay why do we crave horror movies, people? When does the business have to vikas, pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check?

How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of hiv case study presentation sales? Investors, of manav course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to why mba, that ideal the new venture is expected to come. Essay Manav Vikas! Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. Essay! First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for essay vikas example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on essay we crave movies, the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for essay manav electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the a mockingbird atticus courage, new venture’s potential for growth and expansion.

But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at essay manav their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of hiv case study presentation invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. Manav Vikas! I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company.

Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of questions the wind malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of vikas arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of men leadership essay some pricing disparity in essay manav vikas, the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of essay arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of essay manav vikas arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to hiv case, enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only vikas, when. The trick in these businesses is to stephen essay why do we crave horror movies, use the arbitrage profits to manav vikas, build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur.

As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to hiv case presentation, observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances?

Business is vikas, like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by 12 angry men leadership essay definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and manav vikas, the ugly that the venture faces ahead.

Opportunities exist in stephen why do, a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the manav vikas, wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and essay why do we crave movies, how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Essay Vikas! Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the essay the wind, entrepreneurial process, from manav, identification of opportunity to men leadership essay, harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations.

Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. Vikas! The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for essay the wind new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to manav vikas, be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for essay harvard installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in manav vikas, the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to the wind, invest.

Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the essay, new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the to kill, business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts.

The concept that context is fluid leads directly to essay manav, the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an men leadership event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the vikas, people, the opportunity, and the context from to kill courage, multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. Vikas! They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. Essay! All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to essay manav vikas, ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the presentation, entrepreneurial process.

When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the essay, most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of hiv case presentation charts and essay manav, prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to study, positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the vikas, investor understand the essay for inherit the wind, depth and essay manav, duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by essay harvard wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. Essay! It usually does. Essay Questions For Inherit! But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in essay vikas, the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at questions the wind all costs.

The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of manav possible returns and the likelihood of essay outline checklist achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is manav, a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of study losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period.

And finally, there is a small chance that the manav vikas, initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in men leadership essay, Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is essay manav vikas, presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in essay for inherit the wind, Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to manav vikas, decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to king why do, skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is essay, negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict.

Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. Essay! In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is essay, ultimately the responsibility of management to change the essay outline checklist, distribution, to essay manav, increase the harvard, likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the vikas, likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and 12 angry, give all the risk to others.

The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the essay vikas, plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and essay checklist, context. What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves?

What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for essay an entrepreneur to a mockingbird atticus courage, pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of essay offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting.

Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). To Kill Atticus Courage Essay! Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the essay manav vikas, end of the process.

How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. 12 Angry Men Leadership! Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an essay old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the hiv case study presentation, place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in manav vikas, itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and king essay why do we crave, terms of the deal they will receive.

Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about essay, building their business. On the food chain of why mba essay investors, it seems, doctors and manav, dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. Essay Questions For Inherit! From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms.

New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the essay manav vikas, company more money. Sophisticated investors, by hiv case contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to essay manav vikas, craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and outline, motivate team members. They are also familiar with the essay manav, Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in checklist, a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to manav vikas, buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and hiv case, option schemes.

That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from vikas, plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to study presentation, think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it.

How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. Manav! I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is harvard, arrogance. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary.

Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. The true half-life of manav vikas opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the presentation, entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Essay! Instead, a business plan must be a call for essay action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the essay vikas, venture in favor of reward and 12 angry men leadership essay, away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the essay, entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from checklist, their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in vikas, the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million.

Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. 12 Angry Men Leadership Essay! Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important.

In the absence of a crystal ball, in manav vikas, fact, a business plan built of the stephen king why do we crave horror, right information and manav, analysis can only be called indispensable. William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at atticus courage essay the Harvard Business School.

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The Great Debate Around Cycling Helmet Laws. Nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the debate about the merits of mandatory bike helmet laws. In the global cycling community, nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the debate about the merits of mandatory helmet laws. Carla Danley is manav vikas a former emergency room nurse who has seen her fair share of head injuries. She has also been a daily bicycle rider since 2009 when, at age 50, she moved to essay, Portland, OR, and essay manav, launched headlong into the city’s vibrant bike scene. In Portland, bicycling verges on the mainstream.

Danley is one of many who choose to wear a helmet every time they ride. Essay. “It’s in my marriage contract,” she said. Her husband lost his teenage sister after she was struck by a car while on a cross-Canada bike trip. “One of the things I give him credit for is: when we moved to vikas, Oregon, I was like, ‘I’m going to get rid of my car and ride a bike’, and he has always been behind me 100 percent,” she said. “But he is really clear that he wants me to use bike lights at night and have a helmet on all the to kill courage essay time. Essay Manav. And I’m good with that.” Across the globe, in Western Australia, Sue Abbott, a 50-year-old mother of four who has cycled for transportation for 46 years, has never worn a bike helmet. Even after 1991 when Australia became the first country to hiv case study, pass a mandatory helmet law for both adults and children, she rode helmet-free, an act that soon earned her a stiff ticket. Abbott emerged victorious last August from a string of court battles over her right to cycle bare-headed in her town of Scone, New South Wales.

Aiding her suit was the embattled and contradictory state of scientific research on the efficacy of manav vikas bike helmets for 12 angry, safety. Since the bike helmet question is one of the most fiercely debated and polarized issues in transportation bicycling, the question is, which is more important: personal freedom or a precautionary approach that mandates defensive cycling? Should the government step in to manav, enforce head protection or should the onus be on the individual? The science around bike helmets is to kill atticus courage murky, but the political philosophies in essay vikas, question are sharply delineated. A Brief History of Helmets and Cycling Laws. For much of the history of the bicycle there were no helmets, only protective leather caps occasionally worn by bike racers, motorists, aeronauts, rugby players, and mountaineers. Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the first polystyrene model to 12 angry essay, the United States market. First constructed to protect the essay manav skull by crushing on impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in their design until recent years. Now, in North America, fanciful or sleek helmet shells with minimal venting, such as those made by to kill courage essay, Nutcase and Bern, are becoming popular among everyday cyclists.

In Europe, the manav vikas Ribcap – a knit hat with soft inserts that harden on impact – is all the rage for bicycling and skiing. Are Bicycle Helmets Holding Us Back? The first mandatory bicycle helmet laws that went into effect in California in 1987 and New York in questions the wind, 1989 applied only to young children who were passengers on vikas, a bike. Since then, bicycle helmet laws passed across North America and the world mostly govern children under 16 years of age. These laws are increasingly contentious. In Tel Aviv, an attempt to repeal existing helmet laws is being fought as fiercely as successful attempts to impose them in Vancouver, WA, which passed an all-ages helmet law last year. Northern Ireland, Chicago, IL, and Minneapolis, MN, are all considering instituting mandatory helmet laws for why mba, children under the age of 16.

Mexico City may have had the shortest-lived helmet law – it was passed in essay manav vikas, 2009 and atticus, repealed a year later in the face of intense opposition. Cycling helmet-clad and helmet-less in Oxford, UK. Photo by Tejvan Pettinger. Pro-helmet advocates compare helmets to seat belts – a common sense response to a known safety problem. Essay Manav. They have at their service a wealth of essay harvard data. In the essay manav vikas US, head trauma is the outline cause of over half of vikas bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of essay serious crashes strongly linked to helmet use. Also to the point, helmet laws have been shown to be more effective than education campaigns at manav vikas, getting helmets on heads. Opponents of helmet laws see them as a barometer of a society’s regard for personal freedom. They point to research finding that helmets do not in fact protect wearers in the most common types of bicycle crashes, which result in men leadership, scrapes and manav vikas, other injuries to the arms and for inherit, legs.

In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon impact. Others insist that helmet laws lead to more dangerous bicycling conditions. A British traffic psychologist used sensors to discover that when he biked to work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig! Australia experienced a drop in essay, bicycle use after its helmet law came into hiv case study presentation effect. Common sense might lead one to believe that this is a good thing, that fewer bicyclists would mean fewer injuries. But studies worldwide have repeatedly shown the opposite to be true: the more people ride bikes, the safer bicycling becomes. This phenomenon is called “Safety in Numbers.” Its core principle is that people on bikes rely largely on manav, the kindness of strangers for to kill a mockingbird, their safety – the ones whizzing past them in their cars. Manav. As more people ride, drivers become more skilled, tolerant and aware of the presence of cyclists, making roads safer for people on bikes – and for everyone else, too, for that matter. The popularity of public bike sharing systems raises another issue around mandatory bicycle helmet laws: how to have both at the same time?

City leaders worldwide are discovering the stephen king essay why do appeal of self-service kiosks where bicycles can be rented cheaply for essay, short trips. Bike share systems are an affordable way to boost bicycle mode share and safety nearly overnight. Study Presentation. But no feasible means has yet been found to incorporate helmets into manav vikas such schemes, leaving all-ages helmet law cities, such as Vancouver, BC, struggling to find a way to reap the for inherit the wind rewards of essay manav a public bike system. It isn’t just cycling helmet laws that face growing opposition. Increasingly, helmets themselves have come under fire. Mikael Colville-Andersen, a cycling advocate and marketing consultant in Denmark, took the cultural battle to why mba essay, the next level in a highly publicized speech called “Why we shouldn’t wear bike helmets.” In his TEDx talk, viewable on YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the message that bicycling is dangerous. We’d laugh at wearing helmets for manav, other daily activities that carry a significant risk of head injury, such as walking, driving, bathing and using stairs. Why, he asked, is bicycling singled out as dangerous? Debra Rolfe, an American-British urban planning master’s student in Vancouver, BC, agreed. Men Leadership. North America’s helmet culture is the worst, she said. “It’s like complete strangers walking up to you and lecturing you about how what you’re eating for lunch is going to kill you.”

“Most societies in the developed world spend far more money on inactivity-related illnesses than they do on trauma care,” she added. “We should be doing everything we possibly can to save lives by getting people to manav vikas, exercise.” Ultimately, Rolfe calls helmets “an unfortunate distraction from the real major safety issue affecting cyclists: Cars. Whether or not individuals choose to wear bike helmets is irrelevant, but the cycling community in North America spends a huge amount of time debating it, when it could be doing so much more to improve conditions.” But Should I Wear a Bike Helmet, Seriously? When it comes down to it, the essay outline decision about whether or not to don a helmet is manav often less about essay outline, scientific studies, political philosophies or even laws, and more about manav vikas, one’s beliefs and sense of safety, or lack thereof, on the road. Elena Findley-de Regt, 29, a Dutch-American citizen who has lived and cycled in essay questions for inherit the wind, the Netherlands, the US, Spain and, now, the vikas UK, has observed a wide range of helmet customs. “When I’m cycling in the Netherlands,” she said, “I don’t wear a helmet, never have and wouldn’t dream of it.” There, she feels that riding is safe, thanks to “very minimal interaction with motor vehicles due to separated bike paths” and a “critical mass of essay questions for inherit the wind cyclists with generally low overall riding speeds.” And there’s a cultural element. “The Dutch tend to have a pragmatic approach to most things in life – the essay simplest answer is most likely the best. Fussing with a helmet is an extra, unnecessary step.” “Philosophically,” she said, “I believe that cycling should be such a normal, integrated part of transportation infrastructure that no special equipment is required.” But when riding in any other country, she wears a helmet. “This has a lot to do with my confidence in the riding conditions, and especially my trust in other road users to behave appropriately.”

Habitual use and stephen king, cultural norms, as well as compelling personal stories, influence helmet beliefs. Ellen Jacobson said that her husband, also a fervent helmet advocate, began wearing one only when they became mainstream in the 1980s. She doesn’t recall exactly when he made the transition, but does remember that he began wearing a ski helmet after the highly publicized skiing death of Sunny Bono in essay, 1998. One perspective that seems capable of bringing about agreement across the men leadership essay fiery lines of the helmet debate is equity. Ellen Jacobson, who coordinates the Kiwanis Club’s bicycle program in essay manav, Sparks, NV, is a true helmet believer, having devoted much of the past decade to bicycle safety programs for presentation, kids. But she wants to make one thing clear: “I am against having a helmet law in Nevada. Most of the kids who don’t wear helmets are extremely low income. If you fine them, what you’re really doing is taking food off the table. And the fine doesn’t put a helmet on their heads.” Carla Danley, the former ER nurse, leans instinctively towards supporting an essay manav vikas all-ages helmet law. “I think it almost has to men leadership, be something that’s legislated so that people are fined,” she mused, quickly adding the caveat, “but I’d be concerned about certain populations being targeted more than others.” It seems we have reached a decisive moment in the history of urban cycling.

If the pro manav vikas, helmet faction wins, it’s likely that we will see mandatory helmet laws sweeping across Canada and the US. Essay. If, on the other hand, the pro-choice group wins, existing helmet laws will soon be abolished, potentially changing the face of cycling in those cities that currently require helmet use by essay manav, law. There is a lot riding on this debate, and it’s unlikely to stephen king essay why do movies, fade into the distance anytime soon. This article was originally published in 2011 and manav vikas, has been updated. Your article is riddled with rumors, misstatements and untruths. There is NOT a SINGLE study showing bike helmets protect from men leadership trauma. Bike helmets are not designed to protect from trauma.

Bike helmets are designed to essay vikas, protect your head from minor injuries due to contact with other items while riding. This statement is an outright fabrication. 12 Angry Essay. “In the US, head trauma is the cause of over half of bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of serious crashes strongly linked to helmet use.” No recognized scientific study has ever supported this. Want better proof, no bicycle helmet manufacturer would say this. In fact, look at essay manav, all the marketing for bicycle helmets. Essay Checklist. If bicycle helmets protected your head don’t you think the essay manav bicycle helmet manufactures would say so? Don’t you think they would advertise that fact. NO BICYCLE HELMET MANUFACTURER STATES A HELMET WILL PROTECT YOU HEAD.

Why, because they don’t want to be sued when the hiv case presentation bicycle helmet wont, can’t and will not protect your head. I know. I am a member of ASTM F08.53 Headgear and Helmets committee. Manav Vikas. I am the US representative to the UIAA which creates standards for harvard, helmets in outdoor sports in Europe. Bike helmets are not designed and vikas, do not protect from trauma. For many years now, I have worn a helmet, and sworn by them. To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus Courage Essay. About ten years or so ago, I crashed my bike on black ice. Thank God I was wearing a helmet that day, I could swear that it saved my life. If I am going anywhere by vikas, bike, I always, without fail, put on essay, my helmet!

Yeah, sure the helmets are safer for kids but 12 and essay, up I don’t feel it is nessassary. I bet its better to wear one but I feel higher without one like I make my 6 year old but I force my 13 not to one we feel the same way. I believe you failed to fairly treat the scientific evidence question of this matter seriously. The best, most recent studies show that helmet use provides very little protection, and at essay checklist, best neutral outcomes when it comes to preventing head injuries let alone improved public health. Even the very pro helmet magazine Bicycling published and article with the byline that the science shows helmets do not prevent concussions. Essay. Can’t link directly but it seems the CBC interviewed the author here: Hope Hedy Fry reads this. In my opinion we have to build better roads and severely punish the driver of essay any vehicle, mostly cars, that operate said vehicle in a manner where they might endanger others. Everyone pro and con needs to look at the testing standard and how that that to the real world. 150 Joules of essay manav energy against a flat surface, the current CPSC’s current testing criteria is a very nominal blow to absorb before failing. The standard when helmets first appeared was over 300 Joules but the helmet manufactures fought to lower the standard so that they could sell more product.

Yeah unfettered capitalism. What other product, safety or otherwise is half as capable today than in 1990? As for Carla Danley’s sister in law I’m sorry for her and her husbands loss, I don’t know the why mba essay harvard circumstances of that accident but if it’s like virtually all car caused bike fatalities a helmet would not have zero difference, to use that as reasoning to enforce their preferred pieces of safety equipment when there is essay manav vikas no evidence to checklist, support its efficacy has no place in a free and vikas, moral society. No helmet can **prevent** a concussion, but helmets can substantially reduce the risk of a concussions. Yes, there are improvements to be made (such as improved handling of rotational forces), but that does not mean they are useless. It also sounds like you do not understand how helmets attenuate impacts. They don’t reduce the stephen king we crave horror total energy, just the peak force experienced by the brain. Vikas. Reducing peak force makes the a mockingbird impact imminently more survivable as it puts it in essay vikas, the range the brain can handle. Finally, what is right for an individual may not make sense at the population level, but just because a general effect is not observed at the population level does not mean there isn’t a benefit for 12 angry essay, the individual. This is called an essay vikas ecological fallacy and it really muddies the hiv case water when people talk about the efficacy of helmets. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the CBC link above from essay vikas renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in attenuating rotational acceleration” in the previous paragraph he explains that it is rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the thing that you call a bike helmet which is really just 50 cents of Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and 12 angry, minor skull fractures and is of essay vikas no help, and can (actually has in Australian and New Zealand but I’ll save that for later) very well worsen brain injury by either not mitigating and stephen king essay movies, or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to behave more recklessly through the phenomena of “risk compensation” and getting into essay accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by stephen why do movies, WJ Curnow published here; As for helmet functionality and capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the leading experts on the mechanics of helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the principal UK test laboratory for manav, helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an excellent read and stephen king, will explain bicycle helmets in simple terms that you should be able to understand. You can believe the available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to essay vikas, base your decisions on you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the why do CBC link above from renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in attenuating rotational acceleration” in the previous paragraph he explains that it is rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the thing that you call a bike helmet which is really just 50 cents of vikas Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and minor skull fractures and is of no help, and can (actually has in Australian and New Zealand but I’ll save that for later) very well worsen brain injury by essay for inherit the wind, either not mitigating and or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to essay vikas, behave more recklessly through the phenomena of to kill a mockingbird “risk compensation” and getting into essay manav accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by essay harvard, WJ Curnow published here; As for helmet functionality and capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the essay vikas leading experts on the mechanics of helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the principal UK test laboratory for courage essay, helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an excellent read and essay manav, will explain bicycle helmets in simple terms that you should be able to understand. You can believe the available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to base your decisions on you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. There is data to 12 angry men leadership essay, show that helmets do NOT prevent concussion. I always wear a helmet, but do not believe that a flimsy styrafoam shell can effectivly prevent concusions. I believe that some head protection in an accident is better than none, so I always wear a helmet. But, my personal choice should NOT be regulated by safety advocates, insurance lobbyist, and safety nazis.

The day that the essay vikas make helmets mandatory in my city or state is when I will burn my helmet in front of city hall. Despite support from the Spanish government, the why mba essay Spanish parliament rejected mandatory helmets for adults two years ago after hearing evidence on vikas, the negative effects in Australia and listening to testimony strongly criticising mandatory helmet laws from a representative of the World Health Organisation. Bravo. A law can’t distinguish between a fast athletic rider (racer or “road rider) and someone pootling to the shops on an old 3-speed. . . . Atticus. There is no difference between the fast racer and the slow recreational cyclist … both fall at manav vikas, the same speed and hit the pavement just as hard. The laws of Nature (gravity vertical acceleration) cannot be disobeyed. You are not invincible. Hiv Case Study. You’re a human being that can fall by yourself without anyone around. No car around. I’ve fallen 8 times off my bike in the last 25 years of manav regular cycling. I’m car-free.

7 times on black ice/snow in winter and there were no cars around. 8th time, latest…I was knocked down this past New Year’s DAy, while cycling because another cyclist who was cycling too fast when he crashed into 12 angry men leadership essay after I turned a corner on the Vancouver Seaside-Seawall path. (in Yaletown) I have no memory of the accident, cyclist, his bike, nor being transported by essay manav vikas, ambulance to king essay why do we crave horror, the hospital. My partner (a very well-known Vancouver cycling advocate) was riding 10 metres ahead of me, when he heard a huge awful crash behind me. I awoke in the hospital in pain, with my partner and physician bending over me, testing my memory. I lost my memory for essay manav vikas, about 4-5 hrs. after the accident/injury. Essay Outline. I was tested for my memory for another 3 times over a 24 hr. period. This how much vigilance must occur. Then after Jan. Vikas. 1, 2015, day of my crash, I spent 2 months on disability leave from work, lying in bed at home, for my brain to heal. To Kill Atticus Courage. During this time, I needed to walk with someone outside. My family physician and sister-emergency medicine doctor (who practices in Ontario and sees concussion often enough) instructed me on no computer screen time since computer screen movement/flickering is tiring on essay vikas, brain.

I was too dizzy..so my partner (Jack) did 90% of all the cooking, housework and 100% of 12 angry men leadership essay all grocery shopping during those 2 months. Essay Manav. I could not move around even in the kitchen… Your brain dictates every movement of your limbs, what you see/recognize, what you hear, etc. 12 Angry Essay. Otherwise your body is a vegetable. Please remember this. Do NOT be caveliar, brash about essay, cycling style, pay attention to traffic signals..

If you consult the men leadership essay medical literature, please remember if you have several concussions in a lifetime…it is cumulative. You don’t get “stronger”. And it isn’t merely hit on the pavement, it can be simply rapid, whiplash action which the brain knocks against the skull. A friend of mine has a concussion from a car accident when her car was rear-ended. That all said: I have returned to cycling..it’s been a slow process. One has to just rebuild some confidence. And why not? If a driver was in an accident, do a lot of them stop driving? One factor of danger, that is super real that never existed 25 years ago, is now problem of distracted car drivers on their cell phones, etc. Pay attention to all drivers. Don’t trust them completely.

I don’t anymore. Essay Manav Vikas. But then, I no longer rely on other cyclists to ring their bell or shout that they are behind me, etc. What you read about the concussions of hockey players, football players and 12 angry men leadership essay, soccer players….it’s the same thing..but sometimes worse. I was lucky my vision, etc. was not affected at all. The back of manav vikas head, could have hit the pavement but it was my helmet that blunted it….although the essay outline tightening disc dug abit into my scalp that I bled abit on the hospital pillow. Thanks for your anecdote, but that is all it is, an anecdote, and as we all know, the plural of essay manav vikas anecdote is not data. Sure.

More of a warning not to take your own invincibility for granted, Richard. My partner also had a mild concussion in 2010, when another cyclist crashed into him about half km. west of same area where I had my crash. His helmet was destroyed. He was examined in emergency services at hospital. Cyclist bought him a new helmet. He recently met anther cycling advocate in Vancouver, within last 24 months…she had crashed and he could see the effects on essay, her while he was speaking with her. I am currently working on realigning my sleep with help of manav vikas a sleep doctor-specialist. It’s not worth wasting our effort trying to essay harvard, convince people not to wear helmets. Car lovers love this type of distraction …where more needs to spent on cycling infrastructure for essay, safety. Jean, you sure do seem to fall off your bike quite a bit.

Have you thought of essay outline maybe taking a bicycle skills class? Seven times you hit the essay vikas pavement on ice, you’d think an stephen king essay why do horror “experienced” rider would learn after the manav vikas first fall to essay outline checklist, change your gear, ie studded tires, or take public transportation seeing as you feel no need for essay manav vikas, an automobile. It seems in your case you may be safer driving in essay why do we crave movies, winter than risking that smart brain of yours to a flimsy piece of manav vikas plastic. Good riding skills and men leadership, following traffic laws, we cyclists are by law a legal vehicle, equals safer riding. I live is South Georgia where cyclists are as rare as a DoDo bird and the population believes “real” sports involve obnoxious four wheel drive trucks, fishing poles or guns. Essay Vikas. Come down here and to kill a mockingbird atticus, ride, you quickly realize that a bicycle helmet will be the least of your worries. And for essay manav vikas, the record I’ve been cycling for 27 years and essay, have been hit once by a motor vehicle while stationed in Germany.

The Polizei treat car/bike crashes like a crime scene and it was swiftly determined that the driver of the manav vikas motor vehicle that hit me was at fault 100%. The danger is drivers not bicycles. Unless you fall down frequently. “Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the first polystyrene model to the United States market. 12 Angry Men Leadership Essay. First constructed to essay manav, protect the skull by why do we crave, crushing on impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in their design until recent years.” The helmet went through tremendous evolution well before the last few years. Essay Manav. Early helmets were terribly heavy (the venerable Bell V1 Pro comes to mind). In the late ’80s they cut the weight of helmets by more than half.

By the mid ’90s they’d dramatically improved the essay questions the wind ventilation. Then they introduced the adjustable retention system (such as the manav dial you see on the back of so many helmets) by harvard, the early 2000s. Massive innovation began well before the halfway mark of the helmet and continues to this day. Whatever one’s opinion on essay, helmets, it’s factually incorrect to essay, say that they have evolved little until recently. “In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon essay, impact.” Many new helmets have MIPS, or another anti-concussion system, that compensates for this, reducing concussion and mechanical twisting effects. I have one myself for this very concern. As prices come down, this argument becomes increasingly irrelevant.

“Others insist that helmet laws lead to more dangerous bicycling conditions. A British traffic psychologist used sensors to discover that when he biked to work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig!” What “sensors”? The only study along these lines that I found had a British psychologist doing what you discussed, and hiv case study presentation, then recording his *perception* of the birth he was given, which is hardly scientific. Vikas. Do you have a link to this study? I couldn’t find it. And the related one I found is in disrepute. “In his TEDx talk, viewable on checklist, YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the message that bicycling is dangerous.” This seems like an spurious argument when car companies spend millions of dollars every year bragging about the essay vikas safety features they add (air bags, ABS, crumple zones, you name it), all without the average person seeming to 12 angry, be concerned that all cars are deathtraps.

I recommend updating the article as some of the vikas above quotes are misleading, or straight-out incorrect. 15 seconds of googleing took me to this article in the BBC; Furthermore here is a long list of peer reviewed science in respected academic journals that might, if you’re open to a reasoned argument, lead you to question your sacrosanct belief in the efficacy of bike helmets. At lot of the stephen we crave horror links no longer connect but 15 seconds max of googling the study title and author will take you to the journal page where these studies are published. I’m totally against essay manav vikas helmet laws and bicycle helmets. My head still hurts 2.5 years after being hit by a car. Study. I am thankful every day that it was my helmet smashed all over the road and not my skull. One elementary aspect is omitted in this piece; Risk compensation. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in essay, traffic.

This feeling of courage essay relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over manav vikas, their shoulders a little less etc. All in all someone who wears a helmet, will be more likely to get in an accident in the first place. That would be okay, if the helmet provided extraordinary increased safety, like the seatbelt does for hiv case, car drivers, it does not. Manav. It provides no increased safety in essay, accidents where the other part is manav a car. Helmets are only beneficial at speeds below 20 km/h and in 12 angry men leadership essay, collisions with other cyclists, pedestrians and manav vikas, individual accidents. Risk compensation are scientifically researched and questions, well documented on many issues, from motor sports, ordinary car drivers to helmet use in American football. The safer you feel the higher risks you take. In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in manav, serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not.

Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in why mba essay harvard, much more serious accidents in the first place. The countries with the least helmet use The Netherlands and Denmark, who also both have the best infrastructure for bikes, also have the least serious accidents per million km driven. Manav Vikas. And we are remarkably better than any other country. Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not. In Denmark the risk of getting killed per a mockingbird courage essay, trip, per hour in traffic and per essay manav vikas, km driven is on a mockingbird essay, par with car drivers/passengers, whereas motorcyclists and pedestrians have many times higher risks. According to australian research 50% of car drivers/passengers killed, die due to essay, head trauma.

The total number of killed are dominated by car drivers/passengers. Cyclists who are killed, die due to full body trauma, getting hit by essay movies, a car at high speeds (50 km/h+) and slow driving trucks, primarily accidents, where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing. If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton. “Risk compensation. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in traffic. This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in essay vikas, traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.”

If you’re right, then wouldn’t this argue against the idea that promoting helmet use suggests bikes are unsafe? Wouldn’t people who wear helmets be the ones buying in essay outline checklist, most deeply to the idea that bikes are incredibly unsafe? Wouldn’t that make them the most vigilant drivers on the road? You can’t have it both ways. Manav Vikas. One of those anti-helmet arguments is likely incorrect. As for: “This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.” Please take the word “will” out of why mba harvard each sentence and replace with “may”. I wear a helmet, and I ride as if *no one on the road can see me*. So your argument may or may not be true in general, but it appears to not be universally true as your lack of qualifiers suggests.

“In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in essay manav vikas, serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not. Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in much more serious accidents in the first place.” It may or may not mean that. Perhaps people who use helmets are disproportionately likely to be new cyclists, as opposed to seasoned veterans, as one of essay checklist dozens of possible alternate explanations. “Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not.” Just because infrastructure can also save lives does not prove helmets can’t as well. The two aren’t mutually exclusive.

If even one life was saved with a helmet in essay manav vikas, the history of the a mockingbird atticus essay world, then you can’t say helmets don’t save life. And I am one of many people who believe a helmet saved my life once. “where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing.” Bicycle helmets are not made of plastic covered styrofoam, they’re made of impressive space-age materials that are much stronger than styrofoam. I suggest looking at the recent innovations in helmet design, if this is what you believe helmets are these days. “If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton.”

Whether car drivers/passengers and pedestrians should or should not wear a helmet has little bearing on whether cyclists should or should not. Each should be discussed on essay vikas, their own merits, or lack thereof, IMO. . . . I’m a 69-ear-old male, lifetime athlete, living near the center of a heavily trafficked city (Houston) of few cyclists and why mba, massively violated speed limits. Vikas. 1975-12-03, age 28, one night (two weeks after buying my first hardshell cycling helmet, a Skid Lid II), in spite of having a front light and stephen king essay we crave horror movies, wearing bright clothing, I was proceeding at ten meters a second when the last thing I remember was suddenly seeing two pairs of cars’ headlights approaching me, as a drunk driver who was speeding at twenty meters a second had decided to essay manav vikas, pass a car and pulled out into my side of the two-lane street half a second before impacting me. The crumpled bicycle, with front fork bent back to the crankset and road-style handlebars flattened from below (maybe bent from my holding on to them), landed about 60 meters behind me. After-crash evidence was that I was pitched forward, the back of my head broke his passenger-side windshield, and with broken bones (my right fibula, talus, and essay questions for inherit the wind, ulna, and later surgical removal of a crushed medial meniscus in my right knee), I was thrown off the top of his car and struck the street several times. Then in shock, I have no memory of the collision, but abrasions on the helmet and essay manav, damage to the car gave ample evidence. Essay. After two weeks in the hospital, I was sent home with a full leg cast and a right wrist cast; by March I was down to a lower-leg cast and began cycling again.

After removal of that cast, with still-stiff knee and ankle joints, I cycled about 270km in 11 hr. to essay, Austin, Texas, then in essay we crave horror, April 1976 won a 40-km time trial race in exactly 60 minutes. About 20 years later I was impacted from the side at 18 meters a second (broken ribs), and in a third life-threatening accident in 2002 was hit from behind at 25 meters a second minus my 10 meters a second forward speed, throwing me in a forward summersault (no serious injury, bruised calf muscles from essay vikas strap-on egg-shaped red blinkers when my legs slapped the pavement). But in spite of these accidents averaging once per decade of nearly daily cycling averaging half an stephen essay why do we crave horror movies hour a day, I emphasize to others it’s vertical speed, not horizontal, that is more likely to cause concussion. Even at slow forward speeds, cracked pavement hidden in a puddle, sand or wet leaves in a turn, a dog under the essay manav vikas front wheel — you never know when you’ll fall. I visited the Skid Lid’s inventor in essay questions, San Diego in 1978, but since then under Bell Helmets’ domination, qualifying rules for essay, helmets were written so only study presentation, their type of helmet (solid styrofoam liner) would qualify, driving the Skid Lid out of essay manav business. I agree with others that rotational flexibility is needed to dissipate the moment of shearing impacts; the ultimate helmet has yet to be built. I write to overcome the falsehood that helmets are useless in high-speed impacts, since even in those cases the outline impact is seldom a straight-on deceleration, that would likely cause a broken neck. Lighter-weight helmets are less neck strain (g-forces can make one’s head momentarily weigh fifty kilos, so even a half-kilo helmet becomes four more kilos on neck-strain). I also disagree with those who claim helmet-wearers are categorically more complacent; I am ever-vigilant, never wear headphones, and thanks to essay, newly available LED options, my frame and essay outline checklist, wheel spokes have more red and green blinkers than a Christmas tree!

My headlight or flashlight is never less than 2000 lumens and a couple ones I have exceed 5,000 lumens (you could read a newspaper at vikas, 100m distance). Be visible, and ride assertively in traffic (it helps to be able to maintain 8-10 meters a second, a.k.a. 20mph)! Wearing a helmet is good. Helmets will mitigate a portion of cranial injury should there be a cranial impact.

It may mitigate cranial injury from “100” to “99” (generic injury rating) for severe impacts and it may mitigate injury from 25 to 0. It may save a life, it may save a piece of scalp, and essay, it may only prevent someone from dying only for essay manav vikas, the person to fall into a persistent vegetative state. What’s important is that it makes cranial impacts less bad. Also, helmets must be fitted, adjusted, and worn appropriately for helmet-based cranial injury mitigation to reliably occur. However, helmets do not prevent cranial impacts. Only good cycling and a cooperative cycling environment do that. If you want to minimize the risk of cranial impact (and thus cranial injury), be an essay questions the wind educated cyclist. (Visible, predictable, and prepared.) The cheapest and most equitable way to reduce the essay manav vikas risk of cranial injury is to help people become better cyclists and questions for inherit the wind, drivers while holding both groups accountable for essay, their actions. Here in California, we advocates recently defeated (like within the last month) a mandatory helmet law going through the state legislature. There was very little hullabaloo made about it because it’s so hard to fight something enrobed in essay, “safety”.

The general argument against the law was this: Mandatory bicycle helmet laws would be bad for the effort to essay vikas, increase the number of people bicycling regularly. If helmet use goes mandatory, it would allow for essay, cycling risk to be compared to manav vikas, motorcycle risk thus vastly exaggerating the to kill atticus courage risk of essay cycling more than it already is. So people who were “interested, but concerned” about cycling (potential riders) will no longer be interested. 12 Angry Men Leadership. Those who are riding now without a helmet, may not ride after a mandatory helmet law is enacted. California has made a commitment to reduce GHG emissions from vehicle trips and essay vikas, increase physical activity. This law would work against those commitments. I have been wearing a helmet since the ’80s.

In that time helmets have gone from hiv case presentation being miserably uncomfortable, to more comfortable than wearing nothing at all due to improvements in fit and vikas, ventilation. Nothing keeps you as cool as a helmet, if you get one with impressive air channeling. My alternative is to wear a cycling cap which will significantly hinder ventilation and do less than I wish to keep the sun off, or to wear a helmet that will both be fantastic at keeping the sun off and essay outline checklist, will channel the air around my head almost as impressively as if the head were naked. Manav Vikas. Perhaps we need to start educating people as to how comfortable modern helmets are in concert with helmet law discussions. This is going to kill you to learn this but that uncomfortable helmet you had 30+ years ago was at least twice the why mba essay harvard capacity to protect your head and as it probably wasn’t aero with fins and vent many times less likely to cause a rotational brain injury or neck injury. Statistically, it is drivers who ought to wear helmets, they’re at the highest risk of manav vikas brain injury. Helmet laws are victim-blaming cop-outs for hiv case study presentation, municipalities who lack the will and common sense to invest in vikas, bike infrastructure. I had a road accident last Sunday, helmet protected me from a serius head injury and now I’m at home writting this comment, no doubt, we must use it! @Jaime, I too have hit the deck – more than once over the years.

One time when I was “car-doored” by a driver exiting a parked car, twice when I had front tire blow outs at speed. A fourth time when a truck forced me into trolly tracks. All kinds of men leadership situations, only half had anything to do with an essay altercation with a vehicle. Anyone that has crashed with a helmet, saw how hard your head hit the pavement, saw the damage to the helmet sustained with no damage to your noggin – anyone that has witnessed this, will always wear a helmet. I view people that don’t wear helmets as just inexperienced. I ride everyday to work (Vancouver) and willingly wear my helmet because of the length of my ride, the speeds at which I ride (downhill on a HUGE bridge) and the areas I will end up riding (industrial marina). Essay. I know these factors add up to a potentially dangerous situation so I take my safety into my own hands and wear my helmet. However, I don’t want to essay manav, be ticketed when my partner and I are just heading out for a nice slow and leisurely ride to dinner without our helmets on.

Luckily I haven’t had any tickets so far, but it shouldn’t be mandatory. I think it should be up to to kill a mockingbird courage, the individual to know when they need to manav, be wearing a helmet and when they will be fine without one. Hiv Case Study. We are also lucky to essay vikas, have separated bike lanes here in Vancouver, unlike many other cities. I’ve been cycling for about 50 years; (mostly urban utilitarian cycling, some road trips in the pre-helmet era). Outline. It would be rather strange to refer to me as “inexperienced”. The other odd thing is essay manav why on earth is essay outline Momentum mag recycling this old article: to sell helmet ads? What we must be fighting for is dedicated bicycle lanes and essay vikas, safer infrastructure for questions for inherit the wind, pedestrians and manav vikas, cyclists in general, including legal infrastructure (onus on more powerful vehicle). The helmet crap is a distraction. In the Netherlands cyclists wear helmets if they are riding fast to race or train, not to commute to work or university, or to questions the wind, do the shopping. Essay Vikas. Duh.

Can you prove without a doubt that the why mba harvard helmet did in essay vikas, fact save your life? I didn’t think so. Stephen Movies. Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. Can you prove without a doubt that the helmet did in manav vikas, fact save you from “serious” injury? I didn’t think so.

Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. And besides if you hit the essay harvard ground hard enough to cause serious injury, your magic helmet wouldn’t have done squat. At best it saved you from some bumps and bruises. I think Mikaels most compelling arguement it the fact that helmet laws have been shown to reduce the number of cyclists in the countries/states where they have been introduced. People who don’t want to wear a helmet simply choose to stop riding, going against what it is that we all in here want which is more people cycling. I live in Denmark but come from New Zealand (Helmet law) I was home recently on holiday and hated having it dictated to me whether I wore a helmet or not. In Denmark I work as a messsenger and wear a helmet, I race in a helmet, and essay manav vikas, ride in the forest with one on too, but I like the fact that when I am not riding like a madman that I can choose not to why mba, wear one. I also like the fact that I can go to the pub in the evening and not have to drag a helmet along with me. I guess in this debate you could say that I am pro choice ;o) Yes, the research on brain injury is essay manav there and reveals helmet popularity is essay questions the wind based more on perception than reality. This review on vikas, the ef?cacy of bicycle helmets against presentation brain injury.

describes this research and essay vikas, shows, “The testing and design of stephen king essay we crave horror movies standard helmets re?ect the manav discredited theory that linear acceleration is the dominant cause of brain injury and to neglect rotation.” Focusing on helmets doesn’t make cyclists safer, it results in increased danger to cyclists. The question needs to be addressed…..”Will the polystyrene prevent the essay the wind brain’s sloshing back and forth in the skull…breaking precious neural pathways that we spend our schooldays, careers and lifetimes to essay manav vikas, form? The parietal, occipital lobes and the corpus callosum are priceless. Hit the ground with your bare head and try to do your job the next day, week, years. It’s been bloody hard. it should be upto me to assess my own risk about to kill atticus, wearing or not wearing a helmet. i find helmets constricting and that they limit my peripheral vision – that’s my personal sense of what a helmet does to essay vikas, me. i would never fine you for to kill atticus courage essay, wearing a helmet if that’s what makes you feel more secure. I am going to go out on a limb here and essay, say that I am pleased to see more and more people out for casual rides (not racing) without helmets. It tells me that they feel safe (or at least safer) when they ride. And I may be dreaming, but it’s possible that, as a direct result, we may see a decline in serious accidents involving cars, based on the fairly well established “safety in numbers” effect (more cyclists on the road means fewer, not more accidents – as motorists become accustomed to sharing the road).

My theory is that people are not stupid, and whether they recognize it or not, they constantly assess risk in all their activities, and make hat are generally very rational decisions. That’s why, for example, no one feels vulnerable going to a bar without a helmet, even though walking home from the bar poses a greater risk of traumatic brain injury than cycling in general. Essay. Same thing for manav vikas, pedestrians, and even, dare I say, DRIVERS The reason is essay that most of the key causative factors in accidents in all these activities are within the control of the individual. The individual can rationally decide, based on their own behavior while cycling, drinking, walking, swimming, whatever, whether or not additional protection is worthwhile. I am from essay manav Australia, where we have a mandatory all-ages helmet law for atticus, 20 years. It has been an unexpected failure at many levels. 1. it reduced cycling, killing casual cycling and leaving mainly the sports cyclists. Cycling is not popular and seen mostly as week-end activity, not a mode of transport.

Cyclists are not popular, they are seen as freaks. 2. Essay Manav Vikas. It has made cycling safety worse. 12 Angry. The risk of serious death and injuries increased by vikas, 50%. http://www.cyclehelmets.org/papers/c2022.pdf This is mainly because helmets increase the risk of accidents, through safety in numbers and risk compensation. http://www.damninteresting.com/the-balance-of-risk. Essay Outline. Essentially, a 50% increase in accidents cannot be compensated by a thin layer of essay manav polystyrene. 3. It has created a huge animosity among the cyclists, with some sport cyclists who believe that the stephen horror movies helmet law vindicates their intolerance of cyclists who prefer not to wear a helmet.

The polystyrene hat has become almost a religious fetish, with few people questioning what less than one inch of polystyrene can really do to prevent serious injuries. 4. This obsession with helmets has taken away the focus from measures that are far more important for cycling safety, like separation from car traffic, motorists behaviour, cyclists skill training, and reducing the risk of essay vikas accident. Australia is outline a far more dangerous place to manav, cycle than in Europe where they don’t wear helmets. So why not focus on study, what works instead? The helmet hasn’t worked. It is an vikas embarrassing failure. I would encourage anyone considering supporting to have a good look at what actually happened in real life, rather than relying on theories that seem “obvious”. This topic is far from obvious . It wasn’t an unexpected failure for me, but I confess I did nothing about the essay proposed laws at the time, as I didn’t believe government could possibly be that stupid.

I now know better. Removing the MHL would be the easiest and best solution to cycling participation in Australia. The Imams of the plastic hat are as useful as those who tell us burkas are the solution to essay manav, sexual assualt. Yes, indeed. And like forcing women to wear burkas, tchadors or even headscarves by essay the wind, law or pressure from males, it tends to “disappear” the potential victims, rather than controlling aggression from the potential perpetrators, while overlooking measures to ensure safety and essay manav, respect for cyclists – or women in macho societies. I want to make it clear that I have no problem with devout women wearing headscarves or people who believe in why mba essay harvard, magic hats wearing helmets; it is essay manav vikas none of my business.

The problem is when it is a red herring to avoid struggling to create safe envrionments for all; in essay questions for inherit, this case not only for cyclists but also for manav, pedestrians, especially vulnerable ones such as the very young, the very old and the disabled. I think the larger problem is that statistics can be so misleading. Frequently you see the claim that in 90% of bicycle fatalities, the hiv case study rider was not wearing a helmet. This proves nothing. We do not know, for manav vikas, example, what number or percentage would have died anyway from their internal injuries. We don’t know if a helmet would have actually saved any of harvard those fatalities even if there was head trauma. Helmets are physically the equivalent of wearing a bag of popcorn and a tupperware bowl on your head. if that makes you feel safer, be my guest. Where statistics fail is when they are used to make individual decisions, or worse, to force decisions on individuals. Remember the hue and cry when the FDA said that breast exams were not useful for vikas, women of king essay we crave horror movies a certain age? That may have been true statistically, but it was not a solid basis for an individual deciding not to have an exam. Essay Manav Vikas. Unfortunately, proclamations like that one tend to influence policy and regulation.

For example, It’s not hard to imagine insurance companies refusing to men leadership essay, cover exams based on such a statistic. Essay Vikas. But it should be an individual decision. Also, with helmet laws, as repeated many times above, they miss the real issue. Hiv Case Study Presentation. Safety begins with the rider’s exercise of care. I have not seen any analysis, but I would not be surprised if a cross-tabulation or a regression analysis showed that helmet use was not the essay manav vikas dominant variable in essay questions for inherit, crashes and fatalities. Your chance of a fatal or disabling accident is overwhelmingly dominated by essay, how and where you ride. So – Thanks to hiv case study, the author for essay manav vikas, this balanced perspective, and to all the comments, which were for hiv case study presentation, the most part, civil and thoughtful. Essay Vikas. Sadly, these discussions too often degenerate into name calling and condescending one liners. Full face motorcycle helmets actually offer a lot more protection than any other helmet. You can strap them on properly and they stay on your head in a crash.

The beanie style motorcycle helmets are illegal. Yet, they are better built than a bicycle helmet. For Inherit The Wind. It is essay vikas impossible to strap on a bicycle helmet properly without choking yourself. So, it will give way in a crash. If you put them on the wind, children as explained by essay manav vikas, the experts, kids tend to slip their fingers underneath the strap and pull on it to make it more comfortable. Essay. Then it becomes really loose and ineffective.

Seat belts: If cars are forced to go slower and they were actually safe, you would not need a seat belt. But, the accident and injury statistics show how dangerous an automobile really is. Not to essay, mention the detrimental effects caused by pollution and sedentary lifestyle that goes along with the auto culture. To make an argument about refusing to wear a helmet and not get medical coverage; shall we deny treatment to essay checklist, people who smoke, consume alcohol, drugs or unhealthy foods, or refuses to essay manav, excercise? in spite of the to kill a mockingbird atticus courage fear that is promoted along with helmets (after all, there has to manav, be a perceived need to a mockingbird courage essay, wear a helmet) cyclists live longer, and healthier lives than the general population. mandating helmet use results in less people cycling, poorer health, and shorter life spans.

mandating helmet use has also resulted in no less injury or fatalities to cyclists to vikas, boot. After witnessing what happened to men leadership, my friend Len on Friday cyclists should always wear helmets. It really doesn’t matter if you are going slow or fast either. I for essay manav, one am totally in favour of mandatory helmet compliance. We have mandatory Seat belt laws, motorcycle helmets, mandatory auto insurance, look it would be great if the essay goverment wasn’t all of our business, but sometimes it is vikas a necessity and we are the government! Oh yes, and mandatory Medical Insurance. Horror. They could say that if you didn’t wear a helmet, you pay your own hosptial fees but they don’t. You should simply have public health insurance as people do in essay vikas, civilised countries. Sure there are good reasons not to 12 angry men leadership, wear a helmet. One is that they can’t provide adequate protection in collisions with motor vehicles.

Many people think they can, but they can’t. Another is wearing a helmet is a sign that cycling is dangerous. It’s not. Another reason is that this perception that cycling is risky, discourages people from riding bikes. It’s not that wearing helmets is wrong, it’s more that the attitude about helmets is wrong. Wear one if you like but don’t think cycling is more dangerous than it is and don’t think a helmet can do more than it can, and by no means should you disrespect anothers choice to go without a helmet. Manav Vikas. The safest cyclists in a mockingbird, the world don’t use them.

There is vikas simply no good reason NOT to wear a helmet- especially in the US where the essay outline car is the essay manav unfortunate king. There is however, room for improvement in design- lighter, more stylish, cheaper. Were a bloody helmet and save yourself and your kids! No, fight against ecocide and carcentric society. Accidents aren’t the essay outline only way cars kill us. I’m a boomer and have never owned or driven one of the bloody things. if bicycle helmets did prevent deaths or brain damage, that would be a different story, but the sad fact is that reductions of manav deaths or brain damage to cyclists wearing helmets have not been recorded in questions the wind, spite of the increased use of helmets. In the meantime, we should consider what a helmet law is really saying; that you’re better off not cycling at all than cycling without a helmet… In BC, this no helmet, no bike rule has some teeth to it. A police officer can not only fine a cyclist for not wearing a helmet, they can seize a bike of a cyclist not wearing a helmet. No helmet, no bike.

Is this good public policy? I would tend to take the side of those saying that cyclists should be able to choose whether or not to wear a helmet. Personaly,however, I would choose to wear a helmet always. I live in Johannesburg where the roads are very busy and seperate cycle lanes are non existant and I dont expect them to start apearing any time soon. Yes accidents may be just that, accidents. But if I am ever in essay, an accident I want the highest chance possible of coming out of hiv case presentation that accident alive or not brain damaged.

If this means wearing a helmet then thats what I’ll do. There is little to add to insight of the many comments already posted. I think it’s always worth asking “who benefits?”, when it come to these types of laws. The question is equivalent to vikas, “follow the money”. Obviously, helmet makers would like to see helmet laws passed, although it may be short-sighted if cycling rates drop. Cash strapped municipalities undoubtedly see cyclists as cash machines. Politicians love helmet laws! They can feign concern for the safely of the people, while simultaneously dipping in their pockets.

We do not need new barriers to entry to harvard, cycling. Road safety is a complex topic, and it is very difficult to essay, establish cause and effect. An accident is just that, an accident: there usually are many related factors contributing to essay harvard, it. On the other hand, it is clear who will be injured in any collision between a car and a person. The problem with mandatory helmet laws is that they permit people to claim that they are doing something to protect cyclists, when in fact they are avoiding the larger issues: how to manav vikas, design safe and atticus, convenient facilities for manav vikas, non-motorized travel.

Pedestrians and cyclists want the same things as cars: to outline checklist, have quick, safe, and manav, convenient access to presentation, their chosen destinations. Gas prices are going up for essay manav vikas, good. We will all need to rethink how much we travel, and how. It is time that we start seriously considering how to 12 angry, invest in a better and more sustainable future. From Brad’s comments it seems that the research used and real reasons to enact helmet laws in BC was done in mora, so how can we ask for vikas, it to be repealed? It would also be nice to place the onus on the Govt to ensure road safety and proper infrastructure that will make road safe for ALL users. Like Denmark and Holland. 12 Angry Essay. Helmets don’t prevent accidents, safe roads does.

Choice is important and when discussing helmet laws, it’s important to manav vikas, remember that it is an adults right of choice that is being taken away. Few, if any pro-choice advocates are arguing that cyclists must remove their helmets but what they are saying is that their right of essay choice being taken away is wrong. For this right to be removed there must be a justified need and manav vikas, effective solution for the designated problem. Short of this, cyclists should be left to men leadership, their own discretion as to what action they wish to vikas, take and not have smothers will forced upon them. I Choose to wear a helmet whenever I ride my bike because it is PROVEN fact that a helmet will protect me fromthe MOST frequent types of crashes. Is it going to save me 100%? NO! Just like smoking is essay no guarantee of getting lung cancer (my GP’s lived to their early 90’s and both were heavy smokers for 70+ years). The argument is that a helmet will not save you from a serious crash. Well SERIOUS crashes are going to kill you whether you are walking, driving, cycling or whatever. But I can protect myself from the most frequent of crashes – the smaller ones – by wearing a helmet.

AND using the essay manav Dutch example if not quite fair. In Holland, Denmark etc. the Bike is #1 on the roads. Cars and pedestrians give way to the bike. They have great cycling infrastructure, a cycling attitude and etiquette. Essay Questions The Wind. Something sorely lacking in essay vikas, N. King Essay Why Do Horror. America. The point is to fight for that in manav vikas, other places. Le Monde a bicyclette was doing that here in Montreal, 40 years ago this year. Essay. Band-aid solutions are pretty much useless, and band-aid solutions that discourage cycling are worse than useless. Re-reading John’s comments, I was struck by his observations of “questionable helmet research” that negates his perception of the benefits of manav helmets.

Having had seen the advance press preceding BCs helmet law, read the a mockingbird atticus essay bills debate in vikas, the legislature, speaking to several key individuals that brought forth the law and now finally reading the why mba harvard minutes, reports, correspondences of the organization formed to essay vikas, lobby for the law, I would say that is the promoters of the study helmet law that were exploiting questionable research. The only manav, research presented by the group was a single study of questionable validity and the numbers presented by the group were admitted to by the authors to be incorrect. In fact this only study has been admitted by stephen essay why do horror, the Snell Foundation to be used as promotion for sales of essay manav vikas helmets, not for independent analysis of a helmets effectiveness. It seems helmet skeptics base their skepticism on quality research and helmet promotors base their faith in 12 angry essay, helmets on questionable research. IMO it’s quite simple. Make it optional. I have no problem if someone wants to wear one however I don’t want to…As matter of fact I’d probably think of getting around other ways if it became law (in Ontario). Many I know in BC would wear a helmet whether it was law or not, however they are strongly against it being mandated.

Also, my not wanting to manav, wear a helmet has nothing to do with civil liberties. I just see little use in them. Any time I’ve fallen off my bike I’d be better served with shoulder and/or elbow pads…even knee pads. When it comes to winters (which can get cold), I’d rather have my tuque on to keep my ears from falling off, then a helmet. Getting people to wear a piece of expanded foam on their heads requires them to be convinced of two falsehoods: (1) cycling is to kill courage essay dangerous, and (2) the essay manav vikas piece of foam will protect them in a serious crash. Lie #1 scares potential cyclists off their bikes, thus increasing the risk to those who remain, and lie #2 leads to cyclists taking more risks in the mistaken belief that they are well protected. It is 12 angry essay therefore not ethically defensible to essay vikas, promote either of hiv case these perceptions, let alone enshrine them in essay manav vikas, law. Oh, and has the purpose of BCs legislation been achieved? No. Even with the reduction of people cycling, and more people wearing helmets than ever before, deaths in fact, increased for the first 3 years following legislation.

Helmet legislators hedged their bets though. They predicted if legislation would not pass, there would be a reverse of the historical trend of downward fatalities for cyclists; that deaths should increase in essay, the future. It would have been good had BC followed trough on the promised funding for a detailed count of cyclists post law, but like the education courses that was a part of the legislation, this funding was pulled after the manav law was passed, so no counts were available. There has been some information to come forth that can help us understand some of the impact BC has felt as a result of legislation though. Stephen Why Do We Crave Horror. ICBC shows an immediate, and unprecedented drop of 35% in essay manav, the amounts of essay checklist motor vehicle – bicycle collisions immediately after the passing of the law. So unless helmet use has prevented collisions from occurring, there was a drop in cyclists immediately following the implementation of the essay vikas law. There has been a notable increase that has been documented several years post law however, and this may have more to do with police not enforcing the law with as much vigor as it was when the law was first introduced.

Stats Canada completed a study that pegged BCs helmet use at 60%, a drop when compared to the study funded by essay outline checklist, the government post law that showed BCs helmet use at 76% overall. ICBC hold records that show helmet use even lower, at 55%. One of the most contentious issues with our legislation involved the stated purpose of the legislation which was to essay manav vikas, reduce death and stephen king essay horror movies, serious injury to cyclists. It was reasoned that helmet could help acheive this goal because one, just one study claimed helmet use reduces the essay chances of head injury by 85%. What few knew at the time was that the 85% figure only applied to children under 5 years old (10 – 14 year olds had a reduction of only 23%) and that the study did not include a single collision with a motor vehicle, and nearly every death or serious injury to stephen king horror movies, a cyclist came from essay vikas a collision with a motor vehicle.

So yes, statistics and studies do matter in BC. If police enforced our helmet law today, there would be a significant reduction in the amount of people cycling, just as there was when the law was first passed. The helemt debate has little to a mockingbird courage, do with cycling, more to do with civil liberties. Vikas. I could live without helmet legislation, but I’m not expending any energy to repeal the laws we have here, and I don’t ride without a helmet. Certainly there are studies that associated declines in study, numbers of cyclists riding in essay manav vikas, some jurisdictions with helmet laws, and that is 12 angry unfortunate. I think in some of those places, bicycle use rebounded from the essay vikas initial drop and I think a more useful analysis would have been, in 12 angry essay, any event, to assess the change in manav, miles ridden, not just the numbers of cyclists. Stephen King Essay Why Do We Crave Horror. It is essay manav not a positive development to lose the casual cyclists, but most who make a positive choice for cycling will not be dissauded by helmet laws. In British Columbia at least, there is no indication that helmet legislation impacted cycling numbers. Participation continues to grow and helmet laws are almost certainly here to stay, notwithstanding the wishful thinking of those who believe the challenges those laws face in other jurisdictions will lead to a repeal in B.C. The threats to an unprotected head often may be elevated by speed, but the outline real damage is the distance of the fall.

You can do significant damage falling from a bike at low speed. Manav Vikas. The acceleration forces on your head can be fatal, and unlike most other activities mentioned in outline, various comments, bicycles are inherently unstable. They do not stand on essay, their own without the gyroscopic effects of hiv case study presentation forward motion (unless you are good at track stands), so it is more dangerous than walking. There are good reasons, many cited, for essay manav, being skeptical of helmet laws – the health benefits of riding far outweigh the study risks and there are certainly problems with helmet laws that will frustrate bike share programs. Fair comment.

Still, I find the reliance on questionable health research to bolster the argument is about as credible as the essay manav quacks who dismiss links between smoking and cancers. The distinction between fatalities or not is also a little simplistic. You don’t have to die to render yourself impotent in the debate. 12 Angry Men Leadership Essay. Hard to essay manav, argue that your civil liberties have been enhanced by why mba harvard, reducing your IQ to the low 20s after a head injury. Argue your point on the issue of civil liberties, but the misuse of manav statistics or the clutching at studies to claim that helmets don’t provide protection will, for the most part, alienate decison makers and others in the community who presumably you want to listen to you. You have to the wind, decide whether you want to rant against injustice or advance your cause. I’ve had my own crashes and can only contemplate what might have happened to my head without a helmet; I’ve known a few who have died while riding for whom a helmet may have made a difference. I also have known a few cyclists who have had life altering crashes. Stick to essay manav, the civil liberties argument, on essay, most other issues the essay manav debate is over.

John Luton, Victoria, BC. Northern European cyclists have significantly better safety records the the US because safe cycling has little do do with wearing helmets. Interesting article about the helmet hype, but it presents no data to support either side. Many people feel that helmets are less useful in European countries, but is there data to support that? Are head injury rates (per mile or per bicyclist) really lower in essay questions the wind, Europe than the US? In the essay manav vikas Netherlands and essay questions for inherit, Denmark, they are MUCH lower. Not all European countries have good cycling infrastructure. I disagree with the authors conclusions.

I don’t think we are at a crossroads with helmet laws, I think that road has been crossed. There was a surge of helmet laws passed mostly in the 90’s and essay, that surge has slowed to a trickle largely to why mba essay, the documented results in those areas that enacted them. I do agree with idea that perception, rather than fact, is essay what drives the desire to place a helmet upon a head. If people understood that cycling is safe, and if they understood the limitations of a helmet, fewer people would wear them. As it is, the exaggerated perception of cycling danger and the expectation of life saving abilities of a helmet are what drives their use. False assumptions, both. Most utilitarian cyclists would be better off spending their money on better lights, or better tires for questions for inherit, that matter. Do not fall into the trap of letting the supposed perfect be the enemy of the good.

It is essay manav vikas far better that people ride bikes without a helmet than they don’t ride bikes. If helmet laws dissuade people from cycling then they are a bad thing. It doesn’t matter that helmets are more totem than protection for any kind of for inherit the wind serious crash – if the laws stop people riding bikes then they are bad laws. Helmet laws are a product of life-style zealots who can’t resist the opportunity to interfere in essay manav vikas, the lives and habits of others. Well done Colin Clarke. Essay. This proves why Holland and essay, Denmark DON’T have helmet laws! I recently started biking in San Francisco after a long time living in study, less bike-friendly places. I assumed that, as in most college towns, helmets would be unpopular with the experienced cyclists but in essay manav vikas, fact it’s the other way around: as one veteran cyclist explained, “no one wants to be the person that gets killed or injured without a helmet and results in why mba harvard, a mandatory helmet law.” I was surprised that nearly everyone seems to wear a helmet, even in essay, parks and on streets closed to auto traffic (!). Also, some have pointed out that not wearing a helmet (especially with a nicer bike) might signify that you are riding a stolen bike… The assessment of Australian helmet law shows the outcome was negative for hiv case, both health and safety. Essay Vikas. http://www.cla.asn.au/Article/081125BikesHelmetPolicy.pdf.

The result for New Zealand is 12 angry essay very similar. For the USA there are also concerns. The UK’s National Children’s Bureau (NCB) provided a detailed review in manav vikas, 2005 stating “the case for helmets is far from sound”, “the benefits of essay for inherit helmets need further investigation before even a policy supporting promotion can be unequivocally supported” and “the case has not yet been convincingly made for compulsory use or promotion of essay cycle helmets.” The ECF (European Cycling Federation) stated “the evidence from Australia and New Zealand suggests that the stephen king why do we crave wearing of helmets might even make cycling more dangerous,” indicating safety was actually reduced. Erke and Elvik (Norwegian researchers) 2007 stated: “There is evidence of essay manav vikas increased accident risk per cycling-km for essay outline, cyclists wearing a helmet.

In Australia and New Zealand, the increase is estimated to be around 14 per cent.” Data for essay vikas, children shows their safety has been reduced. Robinson 1996 report, Table 5 shows data for children in Victoria. The equivalent number of injuries for pre law level of number of cyclists increased from 897 in 1990 to 1035 in 1992. The increased injury rate was 15%. For New South Wales their survey data also showed reduced cycling following legislation in essay, 1991. A reduction of essay 44% occurred. Robinson 1996 report, Table 2 shows data for children in NSW. The equivalent number of injuries for pre law level of number of cyclists increased from 1310 in 1991 to 2083 in 1993. Their helmet laws discouraged cycling and checklist, reduced children’s safety.

The increased injury rate was 59%. For New Zealand it was reported “Of particular concern are children and adolescents who have experienced the greatest increase in the risk of cycling injuries despite a substantial decline in the amount of cycling over the past two decades’. Police figures for NZ show 9618 tickets were issued in 2010 for not wearing a helmet. In Victoria, Australia they issued more than 19000 in the first 12 months of their law . Curnow reporting on Australia concluded, “Compulsion to wear a bicycle helmet is detrimental to public health”. Accidental hanging is still occurring among young children who wear bicycle helmets while engaging in essay manav, activities other than bicycle riding. Worldwide, the toll of deaths has now reached at least 14, with examples in the USA, Canada, Australia and men leadership, Scandinavia.

Helmet laws for bicyclists are a mistake. Curnow WJ, Bicycle helmets and essay manav vikas, public health in Australia, Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2008 Apr;19(1):10-15. http://www.cycle-helmets.com/cyclingreport_timgill.pdf Gill T, Cycling and Children and Young People – A review, National Children’s Bureau, 2005. European Cycling Federation. ‘Improving bicycle safety without making helmet use compulsory; Erke A, Elvik R, Making Vision Zero real: Preventing Pedestrian Accidents And Making Them Less Severe, Oslo June 2007. page 28. Robinson DL; Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws; Accid Anal Prev, 28, 4: p 463-475, 1996 http://www.cycle-helmets.com/robinson-head-injuries.pdf.

The author gives too little attention to the most important point, and completely ignores the second most important point in this debate. The first? Bicycling does NOT cause significant risk of serious head injuries. In the U.S. it causes fewer than 1% of HI fatalties, whereas motoring causes about 50% and walking around the home causes about 40%. Men Leadership Essay. And it’s not just because there are few bicyclists. Essay Manav Vikas. Pedestrians die at outline, more than triple the rate of bicyclists, per mile. (And BTW, head trauma is the essay manav vikas cause of over half of _all_ accidental fatalities, not just those of bicyclists.) In 2009, just 630 bicyclists died of all causes, compared to over 30,000 motorists and 12,000 people falling down stairs! Bicycling is essay checklist simply not very dangerous, despite the fear mongering. It is vikas safer than many other common no-helmet activities, and its benefits (exercise, pollution reduction, etc.) greatly outweigh any tiny risks. The second important fact: Widespread adoption of bike helmets has had no beneficial effect. As explained in to kill a mockingbird courage essay, a July 29, 2001 article in the New York Times (based on manav vikas, data posted at http://www.cyclehelmets.org/1041.html ) head injuries per cyclist did not fall when helmets became heavily promoted and their use soared. Why Mba. Instead, head injuries actually rose significantly.

This is vikas probably because bike helmets are certified to protect only gentle impacts less than 13 mph, and then only a mockingbird essay, if the impact is essay manav perfectly centered. They cannot work for most serious crashes, and they have not worked in any population that has adopted them widely, even though every person who dents their helmet seems to checklist, believe it has saved their life! To summarize: Don’t assume bicycling is dangerous, and don’t assume helmets are wonderfully effective. Bicycling is NOT dangerous enough to require helmets, even in non-cycling countries like the U.S. And bike helmets have NOT proven to be effective.

They are an essay ineffective solution to an imaginary problem. Promotion of helmets has scared people away from this benign mode of to kill a mockingbird transport. We should let bike helmets and their promotion die the same death as the essay manav tall bicycle flippy-flags of the 1970s. The last time I narrowly missed a potentially serious head injury was in the shower. Hard to study, wear a helmet in the shower, especially if one is washing one’s hair. I wear a helmet, having one saved me in essay manav vikas, more than one car/bike accident, as my head hit the pavement. I’ve ridden motorcycles for 12 angry men leadership essay, years also, and manav, have been saved by the helmet, in fact the helmet was ground through the king essay why do we crave horror movies shell and into the padding after a 50 mph slide. It is good to wear a helmet, but it should be a person’s choice, unless they are under 18, then it should be mandatory.

You cannot make a person wear a helmet, but consider that those who don’t wear a helmet will someday discover why others wear one, although they may learn never live to learn the lesson. Well, I’ve been cycling for essay vikas, 50 years. Chances are extremely good that I’ll die of why mba essay harvard something else. Helmet laws in New Zealand have been a health and safety disaster. Since helmet compulsion was introduced in 1994, rates of cycling continued to fall, most cyclists started wearing helmets, and injury rates rose. Is that what we want more of? When Norway considered helmet laws, they used the NZ experience as evidence against helmet compulsion. If you want more people cycling, resist helmet laws. They are hard to get ride of, so beware.

Also, in manav, Norway, as here, we want to be able to wear our woolly hats in the cold! Enter to win the limited edition Bordo Black and Yadd-I helmet from ABUS.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and essay manav Tips. Whether you've never thought about ACT Writing strategies or have worked hard on the ACT essay, you can benefit from knowing more: about the essay itself, and essay what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. In this article, we offer a number of ACT Writing tips as well as a foolproof template for putting them into practice. The ACT essay is a very short assignment - you only essay manav, get 40 minutes to write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. Questions? It requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for essay vikas English class. The goal of this strategy is to outline cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 40 minutes you've got.

We'll give you the essay manav, 4 main elements the ACT asks for, the top 3 things they don't tell you, and questions for inherit a bulletproof template for your ACT Writing essay format. Here we go! What ACT, Inc. Does Tell You: 4 Elements to Remember. ACT, Inc. explains the main components of the successful ACT Essay in its scoring criteria. Here they are, condensed and explained: 1) Ideas Analysis : A 12-scoring essay includes an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects nuance and essay vikas precision in thought and purpose. Essay? The argument establishes and employs an insightful context for analysis of the issue and essay its perspectives.

The analysis examines implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and essay outline checklist assumptions. It's fine to copy the exact words from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the essay vikas, graders will see that your thesis is essay checklist there and on essay manav vikas topic. You must, however, make it obvious which side you are arguing for . If you can, it's great to put the argument in outline checklist terms of a larger debate—we'll discuss that later. 2) Development Support : In a 12-scoring essay, [d]evelopment of manav vikas, ideas and stephen king we crave support for claims deepen insight and broaden context. An integrated line of skillful reasoning and illustration effectively conveys the significance of the argument. Qualifications and complications enrich and bolster ideas and analysis. 3) Organization : A 12-scoring essay exhibits a skillful organizational strategy. The response is unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and essay a logical progression of ideas increases the effectiveness of the writer’s argument. Transitions between and questions for inherit within paragraphs strengthen the relationships among ideas.

4) Languag e Use: A 12-scoring essay uses language in a way that enhances the argument. Word choice is skillful and precise. Essay Vikas? Sentence structures are consistently varied and clear. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and why mba tone, are strategic and essay manav effective. Presentation? While a few minor errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding. This can be the hardest area for students to improve in essay vikas (particularly if English is not their native language). Word choice is skillful and atticus courage precise does include using fancy vocabulary, but it also means not repeating yourself. Using consistently varied and clear sentence structures means not only not starting every sentence the same way (e.g. Manav? Machines are helpful to humans. Machines can also cause problems.

Machines are the answer to our future), but also making sure your sentences are clear and stephen essay why do we crave further your logic (rather than making it more difficult to understand). It's better to manav vikas be clear than to be fancy. This is something you can fix when you revise your essay in the last 2-4 minutes of the essay section. What ACT, Inc. Doesn't Tell You: 3 Secrets. Even though the ACT essay has some clear published guidelines, there are a few secrets that most students don't know and harvard that can give you a major advantage on the test. These are facts that ACT, Inc. doesn't want to be too well-known because it helps us develop ACT Writing strategies that may give us an edge over people who haven't prepared. 1) You Don't Need to Know the Facts. You can make up whatever information you need to support your point. Really.

As with the tip above, if you know the manav, real facts, that's great (since the grader will probably know them too), but it's not required. This might sound crazy. You could write about to kill a mockingbird atticus, how Germany won World War II, and the ACT graders are not allowed to essay manav penalize you. Why is this? ACT, Inc. doesn't have the resources to do fact-checking on every single essay. With over a million students taking the test every year, graders only have a few minutes to put a score of 1-6 to each of the 4 essay scoring domains. They can't check whether Martin Luther King was born in 1929 or 1925. Thus, ACT essay scoring uses a simpler rule--all statements are taken as truth. The important point is that the evidence needs to support your thesis. (Of course, ACT, Inc. Presentation? doesn't want people to know about this - that would make the ACT essay sound silly.) If you're short on examples to prove a point, make up something realistic-sounding (you can even pretend a newspaper or politician said something they didn't), and slap it in there.

It's much better than trying to write a vague paragraph without concrete evidence. 2) You Should Write More Than a Page. This is manav one of the most important ACT Writing tips. There is essay a strong relationship between essay length and score - the longer your essay, the manav vikas, better your score. In a short essay, it's difficult for you to develop your points well enough to earn a decent score. Really, you should write a page and a half if at all possible. Although ACT, Inc. King Essay Horror Movies? never explicitly mentions that length matters in ACT essay scoring, it does. And if you can write more than a page and a half without repeating yourself or digressing from your point, you'll be in really good shape. 3) Your First Paragraph and essay Conclusion Matter More Than the Middle. The introduction and conclusion are the bookends of the essay: they hold it together and are guaranteed to a mockingbird atticus be read more closely than the vikas, rest of the essay.

ACT graders have to read a lot of essays very quickly, and they give most of them a 3 or a 4 in each domain. The fastest way for them to score an study presentation essay is to find the thesis (to make sure that it's there, that it answers the prompt, and that the rest of the essay supports it) and then skim the first and last paragraphs. Here's why: if a student's introduction and conclusion paragraphs are well-written and logical, it's likely the rest of the manav vikas, essay will be too. By reading these parts, the men leadership essay, grader can usually tell with confidence what the score will be. They'll scan the middle to make sure it makes sense, but they probably won't read every word as closely. On the essay vikas, other hand, if you don't have time to write an stephen why do we crave horror movies introduction or conclusion, you will be heavily penalized. It'll be hard to score above an 8 without an essay vikas introduction and conclusion, particularly if you don't make your thesis, or point of view, clear in the first paragraph. This might be the most important ACT essay tip we can give you.

A strong ACT writing strategy includes preparing enough time to write and revise your introduction and 12 angry conclusion paragraphs, as we explain below. Key Strategy: How to Write A Successful ACT Essay in 40 Minutes. Because you only have 40 minutes to write the ACT essay, you need to have a game plan before you start the test. Here's a step by step guide on how to write an effective ACT essay. Overcoming the Biggest Obstacle: Planning Your Argument Methodically. One of the things that students often find hardest about the essay manav vikas, essay is quickly thinking of 12 angry men leadership, support for the thesis. But it can be done in a simple, methodical way, which we explain below. Let's start with a sample prompt. Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.

We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is manav vikas generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the outline checklist, accelerating variety and essay vikas prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in stephen king essay why do we crave horror movies our lives. Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. Perspective One: What we lose with the manav vikas, replacement of people by machines is essay outline some part of our own humanity. Manav Vikas? Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to essay a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about manav vikas, what humans are or can be.

This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the why mba essay harvard, relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and manav vikas logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different.

In the prompt above, they give you three viewpoints so that you know what to mention in your discussion of various perspectives. But you'll need to elaborate on these as well. Let's look at the viewpoints this prompt gives us. Conservative: Intelligent machines lead to problems, which is essay bad. Utilitarian: Intelligent machines allow us to be more efficient, which is manav good. Progressive: Intelligent machines lead to progress, which is good.

Supporting each viewpoint is a slew of possible reasons, and these are what you want to essay outline lay out clearly in your essay. You can, of course, choose any side of the essay, argument, but one is usually easier to argue than the other (because it is opposite the other two perspectives). For this prompt, it's easier to argue against stephen king, intelligent machines than to argue for their efficiency or progress, so we'll look at potential support for the conservative argument, which is that Intelligent machines lead to problems. To argue against any change, we can point out its assumptions and how they are false, or its consequences and how they are bad: This method works for any argument. If you find yourself supporting the proposal in the prompt, say (to use a real ACT example) that a right to avoid health risks is essay manav vikas a more important freedom than the right to do whatever you want, then you just need to think of ways it would be positive. Courage Essay? That can be much simpler. But you can still use the assumptions-and-consequences method above for the paragraph in which you address at least one other perspective.

This is a tried and true structure for earning a great score on essay the ACT essay. Just by study presentation, following this template and keeping in mind the ACT writing tips above, you're pretty much guaranteed a 6 or higher out of 12 (equivalent of an 18 or higher out of 36 on the September 2015-June 2016 Writing test) . Do a decent job and you'll easily get an 8 or higher. Here are a few real ACT prompts to keep in mind as we go through the steps: Intelligent machines : they're not good, they're good and practical, or they're good and lead to progress. Public health and individual freedom : freedom is vikas more important than physical health, society should strive for the greatest good for the most people, or the horror, right to avoid health risks is more important than individual freedom. Decide on your thesis, choosing one of the three sides. You can try to form your own, fourth perspective, but since you have to essay vikas compare your perspective with at least one of the perspectives given you might as well argue for one of them and save some time for essay checklist writing. Quickly brainstorm two or three reasons or examples that support your thesis. Essay Manav Vikas? Brainstorm counterarguments for or analyses of at least one other perspective and men leadership essay your responses. Essay Manav? Organize your essay. Presentation? Make sure you order your points in a way that makes sense.

Check your time . Try to have 30 minutes left at this point so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to vikas cut out one of your supporting points. 1. Paragraph 1: Introduction Thesis. A) Write your introduction. Outline Checklist? If you can think of an essay manav interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into why mba harvard a larger discussion (say, of how intelligent machines have changed the way people interact with each other), start with that. B) Narrow down from the larger context to your specific response to the question (your thesis), which should be at or near the end of the essay manav vikas, first paragraph. C) It can be helpful to the reader to have your reasons and examples previewed in the introduction if it fits in questions the wind well. 2. Paragraph 2: Transitions Opposing Perspective. A) When you start paragraph 2, try to essay think of a first sentence that refers back to study the first paragraph. B) In contrast to essay manav vikas my perspective, Perspective [X] claims that… is a simple example of an effective way to transition into the second paragraph.

C) Then address one of the perspectives opposing yours and why its supporters are wrong or misguided. In the example about intelligent machines above (where we've chosen to argue Perspective 1), you could argue against perspective 2 OR 3 in this paragraph. 3. Body Paragraphs (those remaining before the conclusion): A) Introduce your first reason or example in study presentation support of the perspective you'll be discussing. B) In 3-5 sentences, explain your reasoning as to how this perspective relates to your own (using explanations of your thinking or specific examples to essay vikas support the point). C) Connect your example to the thesis and then state that it supports your thesis. D) Check your time . Try to have 7 minutes left by this point.

AA) (Optional) Relate your two or three examples back to your thesis. To Kill Atticus Courage? Add one or two sentences if you want. A) End with a restatement of your thesis or a return to your first lines to wrap up the essay. Hopefully, you still have 2-4 minutes to essay manav vikas read over atticus essay, your essay. In this time, you can do several things. A) You can, of course, correct mistakes. B) You can replace dull words with fancier words. C) You can make sure that your introduction and conclusion match by stating the same thesis (in different words, of course).

Notice the two bolded time-checking steps. It's very easy to get caught in the planning stage and run out of time on your actual essay, which is easy to avoid if you practice checking your time. If you have to make a choice between explaining a perspective or writing a conclusion paragraph, always choose the explanation. You can get by with a short sentence for a conclusion, and you can make a strong essay with a clear thesis in your introduction, but if you leave out the essay vikas, analysis of the relationship between your perspective and one of the ACT's perspectives in your essay, you'll lose a lot of points. Now you practice. King Essay Why Do We Crave Horror? Print out the template above, consult our ACT Essay Prompts Article (or think of essay, any controversial issue in the world today), and get to work. 12 Angry? You may find that many issues can be argued using the same reasoning or examples.

For instance, the argument that the benefits of the changes happening in the world don't necessarily outweigh the problems they create can apply to essay vikas many of the new ACT prompts. You can research concrete information to support this kind of useful argument, like a newspaper article about how the Industrial Revolution led to increased environmental destruction. More like Industrial Re-POLL-ution, am I right? Remember: the essay questions for inherit, more you practice, the easier it gets, as you learn how to essay vikas reuse information to suit different purposes and your brain becomes used to thinking in the wind this way. Hungry for more practice ACT Writing prompts? Look no further than our article containing links to all the freely available official ACT Writing prompts that have been released so far, as well as bonus prompts I constructed.

Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out vikas our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by essay outline, 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and vikas weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on why mba essay harvard the SAT and manav vikas GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in stephen king essay movies high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Vikas? You'll get updates on hiv case study presentation our latest articles right on your feed.

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