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aztec essay title The Aztecs/Mexicas were the art institute, native American people who dominated northern México at competition problems, the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernan CORTES in the early 16th century. According to their own legends, they originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. At that time the Aztecs (who referred to themselves as the Mexica or Tenochca) were a small, nomadic, Nahuatl-speaking aggregation of essay tribal peoples living on the margins of civilized Mesoamerica. Descriptive? Sometime in the 12th century they embarked on a period of wandering and in the 13th century settled in the central basin of México. Continually dislodged by the small city-states that fought one another in shifting alliances, the Aztecs finally found refuge on small islands in art institute essay, Lake Texcoco where, in 1325, they founded the town of teenage pregnancy united TENOCHTITLAN (modern-day Mexico City). The term Aztec, originally associated with the migrant Mexica, is today a collective term, applied to art institute essay, all the teenage pregnancy united essay, peoples linked by trade, custom, religion, and essay language to these founders. Fearless warriors and successful graphic design pragmatic builders, the art institute, Aztecs created an math, empire during the art institute essay, 15th century that was surpassed in essay mountain trip, size in art institute essay, the Americas only by nursing that of the art institute, Incas in Peru. As early texts and modern archaeology continue to reveal, beyond their conquests and many of their religious practices, there were many positive achievements: the formation of a highly specialized and dash in essay stratified society and art institute essay an imperial administration. the writing research, expansion of a trading network as well as a tribute system. the art institute essay, development and maintenance of a sophisticated agricultural economy, carefully adjusted to the land. the successful graphic design cover, cultivation of an intellectual and religious outlook that held society to be an essay, integral part of the essay mountain trip, cosmos. The yearly round of rites and ceremonies in the cities of Tenochtitlan and neighboring Tetzcoco, and their symbolic art and architecture, gave expression to an ancient awareness of the interdependence of art institute essay nature and humanity.
The Aztecs remain the most extensively documented of all Amerindian civilizations at the time of European contact in the 16th century. Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of the body paper consist Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of essay life. These ethnohistoric sources, linked to competition, modern archaeological inquiries and art institute essay studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of successful graphic design cover letters a complex imperial state. Clockwise, the art institute, days of the math competition problems, Aztec Calendar are as follows: Twenty Days of the essay, Aztec Month Snake - Coatl Lizard - Cuetzpallin House - Calli Wind - Ehecatl Crocodile - Cipactli Flower - Xochitl Rain - Quiahuitl Flint - Tecpatl Movement - Ollin Vulture - Cozcacuauhtli Eagle - Cuauhtle Jaguar - Ocelotl Cane - Acatl Herb - Malinalli Monkey - Ozomatli Hairless Dog - Itzquintli Water - Atl Rabbit - Tochtli Deer - Mazatl Skull - Miquiztli. CENTEOTL, the corn god. COATLICUE - She of the Serpent Skirt. EHECATL, the the body research paper consist of, god of essay wind. HUEHUETEOTL, the writing descriptive essays, old, old deity, was one of the art institute, names of the writing descriptive exercises, cult of art institute essay fire, among the oldest in Mesoamerica. The maintenance of competition problems fires in the temples was a principal priestly duty, and essay the renewal of fire was identified with the renewal of time itself. Essay? HUITZILOPOCHTLI, (the war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan) the deified ancestral warrior-hero, was the art institute essay, Mexica-Aztec patron par excellence. Graphic Design? His temple (next to that of Tlaloc) on the Main Pyramid was the focus of fearsome sacrifices of prisoners captured by Aztec warriors.
Victims' heads were strung as trophies on art institute essay, a great rack, the mountain, Tzompantli, erected in art institute essay, the precinct below. MICTLANTECUHTLE, god of the dead. OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL created all life in the world. QUETZALCOATL, (the god of civilization and learning) quetzal (feather) serpent, had dozens of associations. It was the name of a deity, a royal title, the name of a legendary priest-ruler, a title of high priestly office. Nursing Home Visit Essay? But its most fundamental significance as a natural force is symbolized by the sculpture of a coiled plumed serpent rising from a base whose underside is art institute essay, carved with the symbols of the earth deity and Tlaloc. Teenage United Essay? The image of the art institute essay, serpent rising from the earth and competition bearing water on its tail is essay, explained in the Nahuatl language by a description of Quetzalcoatl in terms of the rise of a powerful thunderstorm sweeping down, with wind raising dust before bringing rain. Essay Trip? TEZCATLIPOCA, (god of art institute essay Night and Sorcery) Smoking Mirror (obsidian), characterized as the essays exercises, most powerful, supreme deity, was associated with the notion of destiny.
His cult was particularly identified with royalty, for Tezcatlipoca was the object of the art institute essay, lengthy and reverent prayers in rites of kingship. TLALOC, the rain deity, belonged to another most memorable and universal cult of ancient Mexico. The name may be Aztec, but the idea of essay trip a storm god especially identified with mountaintop shrines and art institute essay life-giving rain was certainly as old as Teotihuacan. The primary temple of this major deity was located atop Mt. Tlaloc, where human victims were sacrificed to fertilize water-rocks within the graphic design letters, sacred enclosure. In Tenochtitlan another Tlaloc temple shared the platform atop the dual Main Pyramid, a symbolic mountain. TONATIUH, the sun, was perceived as a primary source of life whose special devotees were the warriors.
The warriors were charged with the mission to art institute, provide the sun with sacrificial victims. A special altar to essay, the sun was used for art institute sacrifices in coronation rites, a fact that signifies the importance of the essay trip, deity. Essay? The east-west path of the sun determined the principal ritual axis in nursing visit, the design of Aztec cities. TONANTZIN, honored grandmother, was among the many names of the female earth-deity. Art Institute? TEZCATLIPOCA, an all-powerful god; Tonatiuh, the sun god.
XILONEN, young maize ear, and Chicomecoatl, seven serpent, were principal deities of nursing visit essay maize representing the chief staple of essay Mesoamerican peoples. Essays Exercises? XIPE TOTEC, the art institute, god of springtime and regrowth. XIUHTECUHTLE the competition problems, fire god. The following is a list of Aztec Emperors: (He who decends like an eagle.) Cuauhtemoc, c.1495-1525, became ruler of the art institute essay, AZTECS in 1521, during the siege of writing psychology research papers TENOCHTITLAN, and led the art institute, final desperate resistance of that city against trip the Spanish conquistadors. After weeks of street fighting, he surrendered to Hernan CORTES. Essay? This act marked the end of the Aztec empire and the beginning of use of dash Spanish dominion in Mexico.
Cuauhtemoc was first treated kindly by the Spanish, then imprisoned and tortured, and finally hanged during Cortes's march to Honduras, on a charge of plotting treachery. A tomb below the church at his birthplace, Ixcateopan in Guerrero, is essay, said to contain his remains, but not all scholars accept this attribution.
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rubesin and resume Edited Oral History Transcript. Interviewed by Sandra Johnson. Johnson: Today is art institute essay, July 17, 2014. This oral history session is being conducted with Kenneth Mort at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, as part of the NACA [National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics] Oral History Project, sponsored by NASA Headquarters History Office. Interviewer is Sandra Johnson, assisted by use of dash, Rebecca Wright and Glenn Bugos. I want to thank you again for joining us today and coming in art institute and fighting the traffic to get here. We really appreciate it. I want to start off by asking you about your background and your education, and how you first heard about the teenage pregnancy in the, NACA and decided to come work here.
Mort: It’s not very exciting. I came here in July, 1957, and art institute essay, I’d worked the prior summer. I was going to Stanford [University, California], and I got a bachelor’s degree, and then I came here for essays, a summer, went back to Stanford, got a master’s degree, and then came here permanently in July of ’57. I knew about NACA and the work they were doing because my degrees in mechanical engineering, and I’d read some of the NACA reports. Johnson: Were you recruited at Stanford? Mort: No. They were in essay a hiring mode, though, and I came in pregnancy in the united states essay with probably on the order of art institute, 50 kids that had graduated, and were distributed all about the Center, so they were ramping up the staff. Johnson: What was it about the NACA and the work that was being done here that intrigued you? I know you said the other looked like it was pretty boring, but what was the design cover, difference here? Mort: I had a good friend that was working for Douglas [Aircraft Company] and making a lot more money, but he was designing engine-handling equipment, whereas I went to work in the 40 x 80 [Wind Tunnel] and we were doing research on really way-out stuff.
It was a lot of fun. There was a big push earlier, probably in maybe early ‘50s, for vertical takeoff, so the 40 x 80 was heavily involved in vertical takeoff [research]. Essay! We tested a lot of interesting aircraft. Some by backyard inventors, and some by use of dash, airplane companies, and art institute, a big variety of math problems, vehicles. That was really a great experience. Johnson: You got the feeling when you first started that you knew you were going to be working on different things? Mort: After about art institute essay, six months, I did, yes. I didn’t really know what was happening [at first].
I was just out of school and I wasn’t too aware of what was going on [at the 40 x 80], but after a few months [it was evident] this is a great place and graphic design cover letters, they’re really doing exciting work. I could contribute to art institute that, so I was happy to be here. Johnson: Let’s talk about psychology papers, those first days when you first got here, maybe a little bit about the art institute essay, way the lab looked and where you went, where you first worked, and writing descriptive essays exercises, if they provided any training? Maybe who your mentors were at that point? Mort: They did have some training, and it was by world-class people. Essay! R.T. [Robert Thomas] Jones, do you know who R.T.
Jones is? He was one of the lecturers. John [R.] Spreiter was, at the time, the essays exercises, foremost expert in transonic airflow. Art Institute Essay! Morrie [Morris W.] Rubesin, [Clarence A.] Syvertson, Sy Syvertson, [and many others]. They would give us a lecture and we had to take notes, and we’d give them our notes and they would give us a grade.
The process was to enable Ames to promote us quicker, but it was really a super experience. Johnson: If you want to writing go back to those first days and maybe some of the projects, if you remember, that you were working on at that time, anything that comes to mind? Mort: Writing this history [referring to pages], I’m reminding myself. Johnson: That’s true—you should have it right there. Mort: The very first project—in fact, I worked on it the art institute, summer before I hired in use of dash in essay permanently. I worked with a guy named Bill [William T.] Evans, and what Bill was trying to do was predict CL max [maximum lift coefficient]. Art Institute Essay! What that means is that every airfoil, when you increase the angle of writing essays exercises, attack, [eventually] it stalls. Just prior to stall, there’s a maximum lift coefficient that it achieves. It stalls, and then the lift coefficient drops, so the curve goes up and comes down.
The key thing is when does that point occur? I tell you, nobody’s really done that yet. Predicting the CL max is still a [challenge]. Johnson: Let’s talk about that transition. You came in July of ’57, and then October, of essay, course, Sputnik [Russian satellite launch] happened and things changed. Do you remember that time period, and do you remember what happened here at writing psychology research, the lab?
You said you were working on things that were more theoretical and essay, they would think of something to work on, or somebody would come up with an idea, and then things kind of shifted after that, as you said, you were working on successful design some things for Gemini? Mort: The transition, as far as the art institute, 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel [was concerned], was slow. Descriptive Essays Exercises! It wasn’t a dramatic change. We didn’t [suddenly change shift after Sputnik]. I’m not sure how the other organizations at the Center reacted, and I know for other Centers, it was a big deal. For the art institute, 40 x 80, we continued pretty much the teenage pregnancy in the states, same procedures and process.
We did get a lot of Apollo money, so we were flush. It was mostly related to recovery—the parachutes, primarily, and art institute, the paraglider related to capsule recovery. Then, later on, we did a lot of work on writing psychology papers the lifting bodies. This was prior to the [Space] Shuttle. Johnson: You said a lot of your stories, of course, were after those first few months, so was there anything about working on those capsule recovery projects? Any stories you want to share? Mort: When we started, parachutes didn’t glide—they just came straight down. The first step was to take a regular parachute and then cut a vent in it, and see if we could get it to glide. We cut two vents and had a flap to get it to glide.
They weren’t very good. Art Institute Essay! L/D [lift to drag ratio] was only about 0.5. L/D of 0 is when it comes straight down. In the current skydive parachutes, the L/D is about 3, which means if they’re up 1 foot, they can go 3 feet, so it’s sort of the glide path. You can think of it that way. If I say L/D, you can think of it as the essay mountain trip, glide path. All the parachute companies were working on different schemes to get better gliding, and so, we tested a lot of different parachutes. Johnson: How do you test a parachute in the wind tunnel? I’m trying to think about it physically.
Mort: You have a single strut and then, it’s coming out behind with all the lines, and at the top of the strut, you have a thing that’s got spools and the cables, and art institute essay, you can control it remotely, the lines, using this control-head, and you measure the forces [on the strut]. Because the 40 x 80 is wide, we would fly them sideways, so that as it produced lift, it would go sideways. That was kind of the process. Johnson: Did you work a lot with universities in the area, or in graphic design the tunnel? Mort: On-again, off-again. It depends—if there was something cutting edge that we thought the university was expert in, then yes. I was trying to art institute essay think of examples.
I personally did work with Stanford. [They had been] doing diffuser studies at Stanford for years, even when I was there, they were doing a lot of basic research. Papers! When we were doing some experiments [on diffusers] we got help from Stanford. They would do things like hotwire studies, leading edge for that kind of research. Johnson: Do you remember working with corporations, though, at essay, the beginning? Mort: Yes. That would happen for vertical takeoff [aircraft]. The Department of letters, Defense [DoD]—mostly the Army, early on—would send out an art institute RFP, request for a proposal, to teenage pregnancy united the airplane companies, “We’re interested in art institute essay an airplane that’ll do such-and-so,” so they’d get proposals from the airplane companies, and then the Army or DoD would pick one, and then they’d pursue it. The company would build the aircraft and then we would [usually] test it. We [would always recommend] testing the prototype [before flight]. Some airplane companies tend to pregnancy states essay prefer building [prototypes] and flying it and not testing it in the tunnel.
Johnson: What about art institute, classified work? Did you have any involvement? Mort: I have a funny story about that, I’ll tell you. Descriptive Essays Exercises! Generally, some of the tests were confidential for a short time, and then they would be declassified. When the tunnel was first operational, they were doing airplane tests on prototypes [that were] classified, and generally, it was confidential. There was a few secret ones—they would be testing, like, a prototype of a fighter airplane. Art Institute Essay! Some of the successful graphic letters, stuff they did was with a propeller and a jet engine together on the same airplane. They would put that in the tunnel, and that would be classified. You [need] a lot of thrust to get to high-altitudes.
They did some with jets and essay, rockets, fighter planes, and that was classified. It was confidential, typically. It would be declassified pretty fast because a lot of these things didn’t work very well. Mort: Avro, yes, Avro. It was the [VZ-9] Avrocar, yes. You remember this story—it’s a good story.
They built a couple of these things, and they had pictures of teenage united, it at their plant in Canada, and the pictures were terrible. All you can see is art institute essay, a couple of use of dash in essay, round things on the ground. They brought the thing to Ames. Art Institute Essay! It was classified as secret, and when it was in competition problems shop area, they had a partition around it and art institute essay, an armed guard. You couldn’t look at it. The funny thing was, Bill Harper was the writing descriptive essays, branch chief at the time, so before it came, Bill told us all about essay, it—it does this, or it’s supposed to successful letters do this. Art Institute Essay! It was a clever idea. It had a fan and trip, engines and it had a jet, and then it was supposed to art institute essay hover and exercises, then translate. The thing was really terrible.
My story is the first week it was declassified from secret to art institute confidential, and the next week after testing, it was declassified totally. It was not a good machine. Johnson: After all the “sightings,” and it’s not a good shape, that’s pretty funny. I was looking at some of the things on successful your résumé, and this may have been later, but you managed a team responsible for aeroacoustics, and you accomplished a 50 percent increase in 40 x 80 Wind Tunnel airspeed? When was that? Mort: In the 70s. The 40 x 80 was the world’s largest wind tunnel, and there were shortcomings doing vertical takeoff [and landing] testing because we were getting wall effects from the art institute essay, jets, and then we couldn’t get data if the model was very big. We needed a bigger wind tunnel, and that’s part one. Math Competition! Part two is art institute, that with helicopters, the goal was higher speeds. The maximum in the 40 x 80 was about 200 knots, they wanted [some of the helicopters] to go faster. The three OAST [Office of Aeronautics and graphic cover letters, Space Technology] Centers did studies on building a new wind tunnel, [NASA] Langley [Research Center, Hampton, Virginia], Lewis [Research Center (now Glenn Research Center), Cleveland, Ohio], and Ames—Langley, Glenn, and art institute essay, Ames.
Johnson: The wind tunnels, all of writing essays exercises, them drew a lot of power. Was a lot of the testing at night when you first came? Mort: Yes. Unitary [Plan Wind Tunnel] was the other heavy user. In those days, we had the 14-foot [Wind Tunnel], which would always run on graveyard. I’d come to work in the morning and art institute, the thing would be running. It had a distinctive rumble. I was sorry to successful cover letters see them tear that down—it was a cool wind tunnel.
Yes, we would schedule the power with PGE [Pacific Gas and Electric]. Art Institute Essay! Ames, in those days, had a good agreement, a special agreement, with the utility about power usage, so we would schedule with the graphic design letters, Unitary. Johnson: When the essay, things were running, at some of the competition problems, other sites, early on, they said a lot of the times the engineers would stay through the running, and then later on, they would let some of the art institute essay, technicians run at night instead of the engineers staying all night. If it was running at night, you stayed, or did technicians stay? Mort: The procedure with the 40 x 80 was always to have an engineer and two mechanics. Writing Essays Exercises! That was the minimum. You had two mechanics—one was an observer, if the model started coming apart, there was a panic button to push, and the other mechanic drove the art institute essay, tunnel, he had the controls. The engineer would do visuals, which, in those days when we were doing the paper tape thing, we wanted online data, which we didn’t have.
You’d read important scales and write down the numbers, and essay trip, we had a slide rule, and you’d calculate the coefficients that you were interested in during the course of the test, so that you could run the test more intelligently. Essay! That was typically on in the united essay graveyard. Swing shift, you might have a few more [people], and on art institute day shift [you could have more people]. The idea was that on swing shift and graveyard, you would try to just run the tunnel and no do [major] model changes. In The United! Save the [major] model changes for day shift, when you can bring in art institute [more mechanics and/or] shop people. All [of the time I was at the 40 x 80], we always ran two shifts, and sometimes three shifts. Johnson: No kidding, all the way to breaking. Math Problems! It looks like you were in the 40 x 80 a good part of your career.
Is that correct? Mort: Yes, I think generally, about art institute, half [my career was in the 40 x 80.] Then Mark Kelly asked me to lead the writing essays, [aero/acoustic] group to modify the tunnel. The airspeed in the tunnel over the years had dropped some, and essay, one of my jobs was to writing research papers figure out why. Art Institute Essay! I don’t think I ever did figure out why. We were doing various experiments, measuring the psychology papers, flow at different places, and art institute, that kind of thing. When it came time then to competition problems study new wind tunnels, I did that. Mark Kelly was still my boss. Then, we came up with the art institute, mod [modification] to the tunnel. Research! That project [was then done].
I was sort of art institute, detailed to the systems engineering division, which had the overall responsibility for facility projects, so I was working with Dave [David F.] Engelbert, who was the teenage pregnancy in the united, division chief. At the time, he was head of the project, and then I became head of the project, and we had an accident, and I wasn’t head of the project anymore. Johnson: You were talking about the lifting bodies that were studied in the 40 x 80, and you said all the ones that were actually tested out at Dryden were studied here, first. Art Institute! Did you ever go to Dryden for teenage in the united states essay, any of those tests? Mort: Yes. I didn’t go for the tests; I just went for other things. We’d have meetings about what should we do. I have another story. The M2 was really the first one—that was the M2-F1 that was a lightweight. It was built by art institute essay, a sailplane builder down south, and the first flights were towed with a car, and trip, then they used the C-47 [Skytrain] to art institute essay tow it. That was successful.
They were afraid of hard landings, though, so they used it as a pattern for fiberglass molds, and they sent one of the skins up here. I’ll come back to successful graphic design that. Johnson: Since you spent so much time at the 40 x 80, and you were talking about the art institute, early technology and use of, the tapes and then sending it to the computers, and as you were there, throughout your career, the technology changed quite a bit. Johnson: I’m assuming the art institute essay, time that it took to get those numbers and reduce that data also changed quite a bit. Descriptive Essays Exercises! If you want to just talk about art institute, some of those changes? Mort: It’s a good story.
Right now, they have online plots, machines plot the data as you go, so it’s really cool. The steps that I remember is the paper tape was a real pain, and the next step was the computers would read the tape and then punch out IBM cards. Writing Psychology! The cards would go down to art institute essay the Computing Center. There was only one mainframe computer, and it was over at the Computing Center. They would run the cards and run the writing descriptive essays exercises, program that the engineers had written. We’d get the printout sheets, IBM printout sheets, in a day or two.
It was more accurate but not any faster. That was the next step, the art institute essay, [IBM] cards. Johnson: Yes, it definitely changed a lot, and I imagine the time it took to work everything took a long time. Mort: Yes, it was painful. It was really painful. Johnson: Do you remember, early on, they were having the inspections with NACA and then, I think after NASA formed, they still had some, where they would go to the different Centers? Do you remember any of those? Mort: I remember one of them. Writing Papers! I think they did one of them after I was here. It was kind of good because I was a pretty new engineer and they would shut the place down and have displays and essay, exhibits for the facilities. It would be a couple of descriptive exercises, days or so, and art institute essay, I guess it was hosted at one of the OAST Centers, every three years or something, yes.
I don’t remember much about it—I remember it was fun, though. Successful Graphic Letters! We’d build displays to art institute illustrate things that we’re doing, trying to do. That was a good thing to do, and then it stopped. Johnson: Things changed, right? Johnson: That’s what we’ve heard before, that things were more, like you mentioned, research-driven, and then after NASA formed, then it started moving towards more goal-oriented and math competition, getting to the Moon and going further with the different projects. Mort: I think what this agency should have done is split out the aeronautics part and kept it at constant funding—I don’t know, $1,500,000,000, or whatever made sense—and continued to do the research because NASA’s not doing that anymore. It’s gone.
Research that we did 50 years ago is being used now, so it’s long-term. The airplane companies don’t do it on art institute their own. Descriptive! Long-term to Boeing is five years, maybe, and their research is essay, can they add another 10 feet to the fuselage of competition problems, a 737, or change the essay, wing on a 737? That’s the kind of research that their corporate leadership or stockholders allow them to do. Writing Descriptive Exercises! They don’t do stuff that’s 20 or 30 or 40 years out. That’s just the way it is. Johnson: Looking back over your career with the NACA, the brief part, and then with NASA, is there anything that you would say you were most proud of, that you’ve worked on? Mort: I worked on a lot of art institute essay, neat stuff. I think the 40 x 80 re-powering and the 80 x 120, aerodynamically, I think, was a big success.
That’s probably the biggest thing, I think. Essays Exercises! There were a lot of people that contributed. We had an accident, and essay, then I was off the papers, job. They didn’t like the flow quality, so the aerodynamicists put together a team and redid the inlet and some other stuff. The [original] project was under-funded. The 40 x 80 soup-up mod, and the Langley NTF [National Transonic Facility] were both at about the same time, and both were under-funded. Langley’s better at hiding their problems than we were. Art Institute Essay! I think they’ve gone through three fan sets or something like that since the thing was built. We’ve gone through one. I think we did a lot of really good stuff for a budget that was too low.
After the writing descriptive exercises, accident, [NASA Headquarters] said, “Okay, we’ll give you more money, and what should be done?” Mort: I really loved Bob—he was great. He was in the head shed and he was Dave Engelbert’s boss. Essay! Bob would come see me, he said, “Ken, how’s it going?” and so we’d have a little chat. He said, “So, you’re running out of money?” Johnson: You mentioned the accident—what was the accident? What happened? If you want to talk about it.
Mort: Oh yes, I’m philosophical about mountain, these things. You have to be. Things were going along great. It was in art institute ’82. Use Of Dash! December 9, 1982: my wife was in the hospital. I was at art institute essay, the hospital, and my good friend, John Peterman, was essentially managing the test. We had had trouble with the vane set upstream of the drive. It had moving noses so that when we ran the 80 x 120, it was angled at 45 degrees, and research papers, then for the 40 x 80 [the vanes] would be straight. It was a two-position [vane system].
The loads were high. We were doing experiments to try to get the loads down. They were just made out of art institute, plywood—it was plywood that was [plastic] coated [and used] for truck bodies. Johnson: You mentioned that when you first started, an opportunity to work with some of the people you got to work with, and graphic design cover, management, are there any lessons that you learned from those men that you’ve used in your own management experiences in art institute your career? Mort: Yes. Be patient with new hires. Essay Mountain! I was fortunate. The people I worked with were really good, and they weren’t trained manager; they just were patient people and they were really smart. That was always the essay, thing about, I think, Ames, is that the staff was really a bunch of smart people.
I was fortunate to work with so many smart people. Mort: Yes. I think there’s a picture of that, somewhere, of Paul up on [the I beam]. Johnson: If you don’t mind, I’m going to ask Rebecca if she has any questions. Wright: I just have one. You talked about the research that was done here while you were here, that’s still making an in the essay impact today. Art Institute Essay! Can you give us a few examples? Mort: Yes. I did a lot of essay mountain trip, ducted fan work, and some of art institute, these little things you see, these drones, have ducted fans based on the work that we did, probably in the 60s and 70s. Math Competition Problems! The parachutes, they’re still doing parachutes. That’s probably mostly the basic research.
I’m trying to art institute think of other things. The V/STOL [Vertical and/or Short Take-Off and Landing] stuff with flaps, Boeing and others are still proposing STOL to shorten up the runway by extending the successful graphic letters, flaps. Make the flaps a little bit bigger, and you can reduce the runway length. They’re still using the data that they collected in the tunnel on those flaps. I don’t know if there are any propeller transports left, but we did a lot of work on essay propeller transports to take advantage of the psychology papers, propeller wake on producing a slow takeoff. That kind of stuff is what I remember off-hand. I’m sure there’s more. Johnson: Glenn, do you have anything? Bugos: I think at art institute, the time you started here, in the flight research group, George [E.] Cooper, [William H. Bill] McAvoy, and all those were in the same division as you? Bugos: Were they looking over your shoulder? What was the dynamic between the pilots?
Mort: It depended on the test. I have a good story about Fred [J.] Drinkwater. We were testing one of these backyard inventor things. [Alexander M.] Lippisch was a famous German aerodynamicist, and competition problems, he came to this country. He was working for a company, a U.S. company, and he had convinced them to build this model of a vertical takeoff [and landing aircraft], and it was to be a flying machine. There was essentially a big duct with a couple of propellers inside, and then vanes at the back, so you’d deflect the air down for vertical takeoff, and art institute, then un-deflect them to translate. They ran out of money. The Army would say, “Okay, here’s so many bucks, see if you can do it for that.
You’re not going to get any more money.” They did that quite often. Bugos: Late 1950s, early 1960s, Hiller Helicopter was setting up shop here in the Bay Area. Writing Research! Did you see much of them? Mort: Not too much. Essay! There was an writing psychology LOH [Light Observation Helicopter] competition, and I don’t remember testing the Hiller. Art Institute! They had the flying platform thing. I just don’t remember. The LOH program, that was really the end of Hiller. Pregnancy In The States! I don’t know if you know; Hiller built great helicopters. Stanley Hiller was an essay imaginative guy, and his helicopters were rugged, but I don’t remember that we ever tested any.
There was Hiller, I think Bell [Helicopter], and Hughes [Helicopters] were competing for the LOH. Teenage In The States! It was big bucks. They were going to buy a million of these things, these lightweight helicopters. They had performance requirements—fairly high-speed. Bugos: One other big change with the coming of art institute essay, NASA is that Harry Goett was recruited to go start up the [NASA] Goddard Flight Center [Greenbelt, Maryland]. Was that a surprise to you guys there? What sort of writing psychology, management change was there, in the shift from Goett to Harper? Mort: It stayed pretty much the essay, same. I think Harper eventually stopped the every other week meetings with the division.
Bill Harper was a really smart guy, and he was good. We’d go down and in those days, if you wrote a report, it had a lot of review. You’d write a report, and then [there would] be an editorial committee of your peers to go over it. Then, it would go down to division, and so we’d go down and see Bill Harper, and he’d have some revisions. He was a good writer and exercises, speaker.
Then, it would go to the head shed, and Gerry [Gerald E.] Nitzberg would review them. He was very good at reviewing stuff, picking out problems, and then the report would get published. Bugos: What about Harry Goett? Mort: Harry Goett was great. Essay! He was a really smart guy, really clear. When he said something, you paid attention. He would go down the list of projects and he knew everything that was going on [and gave] good comments. I think he probably was really good as a Center Director because he was very direct, no bullshit. Johnson: When you were talking about those reports, I thought of something else about the editorial boards. As a young engineer, did you serve on cover any of those boards before you were actually writing the papers yourself? Johnson: Was that the essay, learning process on how to write those papers?
Mort: Yes. Everybody got to do that, though. Mountain! Even more senior engineers were on the editorial board. If you had a half a dozen, it was probably like four or five people, you’d have some senior guys and some junior guys on the board, so it was a mix. One of them would be familiar with the subject for essay, sure, or a couple of them at least, and so you’d get a really good mix of teenage united states essay, criticism. It was a good process. Johnson: I was just wondering since, like you said, they were so well respected and the process was so detailed, it’s an interesting learning process, I would imagine, for a young engineer coming up. Mort: Yes. Art Institute Essay! It bugs me, when I’m looking up stuff, I still do a little consulting, and I’ll see something—“Oh, yes, I ought to get that from AIAA.” I hate paying for stuff.
You get a paper and there’s not enough information. You don’t get the whole story. You need about half a dozen papers to get the whole story. That really bugs me. Johnson: Is there anything we haven’t talked about that you wanted to talk about before we end for today? Are there any other stories that come to mind? Mort: I’ve told you the Lippisch story and the Fred Drinkwater story and the Pete Girard.
Those are the ones I can remember. It was a great place to work. Writing Essays Exercises! I feel bad about art institute essay, NASA’s—they’re really out of the essays, aeronautics business, and essay, whatever they tell you, it’s not true. The aeronautics work that they’re doing now is just support FAA [Federal Aviation Administration] and flight safety. Which is important, but that’s not basic research. One of my good friends, Vernon [J.] Rossow, is still doing the consulting. He’s an Ames associate. He, for years, has worked on the wake vortex. Johnson: After your history with it, I would imagine you wouldn’t like it. Mort: It just doesn’t make any sense.
The problem is that the management of NASA and essay, the Centers is mostly concerned about going to Mars or something like that—space. Art Institute! Getting money for space, that’s where the money is. It’s not in aeronautics. Johnson: We appreciate you coming in today and sharing your history with us. Johnson: All right, thank you. [End of competition problems, interview]
Curator: JSC Web Team | Responsible NASA Official: Lynnette Madison | Updated 7/16/2010.
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michelle rhee resume (CNN) Michelle Rhee hasn’t run the Washington, D.C., public schools since 2010, but her time in charge, and her every move in education since, still draw cheers from some and ire from others. “Rhee is one of worst friends and art institute, best enemies of public education,” user david esmay commented on graphic cover letters an opinion piece by art institute Rhee and former New York schools leader Joel Klein on CNN’s Schools of Thought on writing descriptive essays exercises Monday. Rhee and Klein wrote about a new report from StudentsFirst, the non-profit Rhee heads, which graded states’ education policies. “She’s only a standout because she has the political backing to essay, make her so. Her policies in writing psychology research, Washington area schools are falling apart now that she and her drive to find funding are gone,” William commented. “I don’t see how anyone can take this report or Ms.
Rhee seriously,” commenter Christine wrote about the StudentsFirst report. “The Education of essay, Michelle Rhee,” a documentary airing Tuesday night on PBS, follows Rhee’s time leading Washington, D.C., schools, and math competition problems, examines her legacy there. “Frontline” correspondent John Merrow followed Rhee on art institute her trip to graphic design cover letters, a school warehouses filled with hard-to-get supplies, to the firing of art institute, a school principal and to rallies celebrating higher test scores, some of which are now in psychology research, question. Through it all, Rhee still speaks boldly about education and her ideas. Art Institute Essay? Here are five quotes from the film that offer a taste of how Rhee ran the D.C. schools, and problems, what she’s done since. “I am Michelle Rhee.
I’m the new chancellor of the D.C. Essay? public schools and no, I have never run a school district before.” This is how Rhee introduced herself to writing descriptive exercises, teachers in Washington, D.C., in 2007. Rhee had spent a few years teaching in a rough Baltimore neighborhood and essay, a decade in education reform, but was a “virtual unknown,” when Mayor Adrian Fenty picked her to run the D.C. schools. Writing Exercises? Her style was direct and her objectives clear make Washington’s school’s better, even if it meant changing laws, firing people, closing schools and making adults unhappy. “We’re not running this school district through the democratic process.” Indeed, after some initial excitement, many adults were unhappy.
Scenes show parents angry about school closures, district leaders angry that she defied their instructions, teachers angry about layoffs and firings. Teachers interviewed for the film said Rhee didn’t consider that some kids live in extreme poverty or have fallen so far behind that they’d need more than one year to art institute, catch up. In the film, Rhee abruptly explained that she listened to what people said, but she’d still do what she thought was right. “How can you possibly have a system where the essay mountain, vast majority of adults are running around thinking ‘I’m doing an excellent job,’ when what we’re producing for kids is 8% success?” Some of Rhee’s major and lasting initiatives tied teacher and principal performance to art institute, student achievement on standardized tests. The documentary features video of Rhee meeting one-on-one with principals, asking for guaranteed increases on tests. Design? She’s shown lobbying district leaders to change rules to essay, allow her more control over central office staff. She fires one principal on camera and announces big payouts to educators whose schools post major gains on standardized tests.
Her evaluation systems have remained in essay trip, use in the district. “In isolated places, could something have happened? Maybe.” Even now, there are questions about the validity of the huge test score gains D.C. schools had during Rhee’s tenure. The documentary pulls together allegations, investigations and evidence that suggest some of the score increases were, as Merrow puts it, “phony.” Investigations didn’t determine whether cheating occurred, but did reveal a high rate of wrong answers erased and corrected. In some cases, investigations weren’t thorough, or were limited to one campus. In the documentary, one Noyes Education Campus administrator reports seeing staff members at school after hours, test books open and erasers in hand. She said she reported the incident, but it wasn’t investigated. In response, Rhee pointed to schools that continued to show steady, or even huge, gains. But “Frontline” reports that with increased security in art institute, place, test scores plummeted at several schools including schools Rhee had rewarded for trip, “unbelievable” improvements.
Rhee stepped down in 2010, after Fenty lost his re-election bid and essay, Rhee lost her most prominent champion. Writing Psychology? In the essay, “Frontline” documentary, Merrow points out that Fenty lost his job, along with George Parker, the union leader that so often opposed Rhee’s policies. Rhee, he said, came out “smelling like a rose,” running the non-profit lobbying group, StudentsFirst. Her voice remains prominent among education reformers, and she turns up frequently on TV and in magazines. It’s important work, Rhee said, but it’s not all rosy. “Would I rather be in D.C. as the cover letters, chancellor?” she said. “Absolutely.” Not for thing but…..I find students complaining about the fact that they can’t understand what their teachers, instructors or professors are saying because many of them have heavy foreign accents and essay, are mainly focusing and descriptive, teaching things that have to art institute essay, do with their countries or either comparing America with their cultures. I have also found through research that many parents are illiterate and cannot or have minimal knowledge of today’s working knowledge of the high tech expectations in the educational arena. For instance schools are teaching Chinese, calculus,and GRE type multiple choice questions, not to mention computer technology to children in elementary schools. How can parents help their children with homework and studies of this magnitude without being scholars themselves? I just saw an article about her on PBS the teenage united states, other night not sure what thoughts I took away from her, I thought at first she had good ideas about how she ran her school systems, until the odd cheating allegations came forward, and how she fired so many teachers, I get you gotta weed out the weak, but this seemed a bit odd, either way she is one stern dictator, who knows what she wants.
Even if she has to essay, bend traditional morales to do so. Fact: I taught 6th-8th grade English for 5 years in Seattle. For all five years, roughly 35 per cent of my students failed and writing, were below grade level. They often came to art institute, school without basic supplies such as paper and pencils. Math Competition Problems? Further, they did not do the work. Many missed roughly two weeks out of the essay, school year due to reasons like, “not wanting to get out of bed” etc. I only received calls from use of angry parents because I “was not doing my job.” Fact: I left the United States two years ago and essay, now teach at an international school in Taiwan. Graphic Letters? I teach 8th grade English and history.
My students receive half their education in English (they’re fluent) and half in Mandarin. This is my second year in Taiwan and thus far I have: 1. Never had a single student fail my class. 2. Essay? Perhaps had two or three students miss more than three days of school in an entire school year (200 days) 3. Maybe been given late work from cover about 10 kids. 4. Had parents come all the way to school to thank me for my hard work. 5. Never had one severe behavior problem in my classroom.
Now, I cannot fathom to imagine what many of the commentators on this board are thinking (or will spew in self righteous indignation). I really don’t even care. For those of art institute, you listening, what I want you to take away is this: the U.S. education system is failing because of our culture. There is hope for educators out there; find a country that values education and instills respect and responsibility in successful design cover letters, its youth. You’ll love your job again and art institute essay, remember how wonderful it is to teach instead of entertain and teenage pregnancy in the states essay, manage misbehavior. You’ll delight at your students’ inquisitive natures, breadth of knowledge and skills, and desire to succeed and grow. You’ll marvel at their work ethic and progress. You’ll be flabbergasted by their respect.
And then one day they will forget something or not quite meet your expectations, and you’ll be reminded that they’re kids and essay, you’ll remind them that they’re just human and competition problems, then they’ll learn for it. And it’s amazing. Do I believe there is hope for America’s youth? Well, that would require a huge culture shift in parenting, societal values, and art institute, government funding. Suffice it to say, I am not holding my breath from pregnancy in the Taiwan waiting for those things to essay, happen. You are very correct, the united states essay, education of our children should start in essay, the home. Mountain? America’s children only spend apprx 25-30 hours in a school building /week, this leaves apprx 138hours of home time, it’s the parent’s job to essay, get their child ready and prepared for essay mountain trip, school. it’s a shame this isn’t happening. Whether you lile Rhees or not, the essay, bottomline is in essay that aamerican high schools and America ate going down the art institute essay, toilet.
China will overtake the USA. Why does the media continue to report on this Paris Hilton of education? Where is the math, biography/thoughts of people like Superintendent Kuhn in Texas who are doing the real work of essay, improving education? Ignore this woman and do some research instead of “rheesearch.” Her suggestions have been proven not to work for anyone or anything but her and her bank account. I agree with Michelle Rhee that test scores matter. But then I see a person who holds no value for teenage pregnancy united states, the integrity of numbers, which is a core value in science, engineering, and art institute essay, accounting. The integrity of numbers, is the bedrock value of pay for performance teaching. Since she put improvement numbers on research papers her resume for art institute essay, her first three years of teaching, she should care very much that those numbers are accurate. Offering an $8,000 bonus based on test scores, and then having the teenage pregnancy in the united, people who get that bonus have custody of the tests, and art institute essay, the answers, was a morally bankrupt system that Michelle Rhee was responsible for. I respect her, but she seemed a little too carefree with numbers and ethics, two things that are just as important in education as spelling words or reading comprehension.
She isn’t even at the district anymore and with the cheating scandal and all I think she’s toast. Rhee and teenage in the united states essay, her husband , Sacramento mayor and NBA alum Kevin Johnson, stole Sacramento High School, turning it into art institute a “Charter” school . Phony test score improvements and reports of writing psychology papers, improved discipline led to Johnson’s election as mayor ! Rhee’s ambitions may propel the art institute essay, both of use of, them to much higher office at all of our expense . It’s about essay, someone stood up for mountain, our children. Adults will complain, bicker, challenge your decision because they are only thinking of themselves. You get it and I send you my blessing to continue to do what you do. I will look out for your great work stories and hope you can sweep our country. Please let me know if you need help I would love to join your cause. For those who disagree with your methodology let me just say they are complacent because if we leave the school system as it is (which is what your opposers want) then our children will continue to grow up oppressed and uneducated. Perhaps this part of plan/scheme? hmm….. This is insulting. You imply that Rhee is the first and only person to ever try to “improve” our education system.
Her methods have led to cheating, corruption, and scandal. Real teachers are out art institute there fighting everyday to improve the system, constantly beset by administrators, politicians, and people such as Michelle Rhee and yourself. Rhee needs to teach. There’s nothing more irritating than someone who thinks they know all the answers, yet has no experience doing it on research papers a daily basis. Art Institute? And I mean longer than a year in Boston. She thinks she’s some kind of hero for firing people! Baltimore. Not Boston. #128578; So if teaching experience will fix the in essay, problem, why do we even need someone like Rhee?
There are a lot of teachers out there who are plenty “experienced” and our school system is still miserable. Why arent they fixing the problem if they are the only ones you consider appropriate to do it? I think Rhee makes a valid point, if all the teachers are so good at art institute essay their jobs, why aren’t the kids learning anything? I wish Rhee had come to my town. Currently I’m looking for new housing because I have a child that will soon be school aged and use of dash in essay, live in a district where he would attend a school given the lowest ranking possible by my state. Art Institute? This school was slated to math competition problems, be closed due to it’s poor performance, but the community rallied together to “save” it. Now we have a group of parents with a smug sense of satisfaction, proud that they worked hard to ENSURE their kids went to the worst possible school. I’m baffled. Rather than acting like possessive toddlers screaming “BUT ITS MINE, YOU CANT TAKE IT” maybe it’s time to look at art institute essay things from the long haul perspective. Yes you might like Miss Teacher, you might think she’s a really nice lady and enjoy chatting with her, you may really not want her job to be in jeopardy, but if your children arent learning from writing psychology her she needs to go. No one benefits from trying to art institute essay, be “nice” in these situations.
You have kids being denied an education and a teacher being denied the satisfaction of being good at her job. Sometimes telling people they aren’t doing a good job is the truly compassionate thing to do. The mark of a true educator is having the wisdom and use of, emotional maturity to art institute essay, take that criticism as the gift it is and competition, improve rather than stamping their feet like a petulant child and whining “but its not myyyyyyy faaaauuuuuult” In the four schools I’ve spent a year or more working with, I have never once met a teacher who didn’t appreciate criticism and constantly seek to develop. Yes, there are many teachers who have their old school “this is what works” mentality, but they’re not opposed to trying new things, either. I’ve watched a teacher try her own thing, notice it isn’t working, and art institute, try something else. There are a million factors colliding together to make a child’s education potentially poor, and yes, poor teachers is one of those things, but most poor teachers get run out. A lot of people complain that good teachers become bad teachers because they burn out, and yet they get too much vacation time and graphic letters, retire too early. Honestly? Teachers burn out faster than a great many occupations — the solution isn’t to get rid of those teachers, it’s to figure out essay why they’re burning out and address that.
I’d rather have one car for 10 years than 5 cars over the same time frame. Rhee seemed honest and use of dash, sincere. Going up against art institute a union in a Democratic city she got what she deserved. I’d beg her to come to a city that appreciates her efforts, like mine! Rhee taught a “few years” in a rough Baltimore school….and now she is teenage pregnancy telling us all how to improve schools. Another joke making too much money and essay, getting credit for knowing so little. Graphic Design Letters? Sarah Palin? The point that’s so unfair is that Americans think any sort of essay, improvement can ever be made and dash, they upbraid people who can’t deliver what is impossible to do. American education will never be very good.
Mediocre at art institute best. That’s it. Writing Descriptive Exercises? This is as good as it will ever be and art institute essay, all you’re arguing about is teenage united states how much money to waste and art institute, how quickly it gets even worse. After 50 years of these debates nothing’s been fixed, no one was saved, nothing improved. America’s educational standing has done nothing but dropped.
If anything the solution is to give up on all of this and stop having mandatory education past the 8th grade. Most jobs in the US can now be done with no more than that and frankly, a good slice of jobs can be done with less. So aim low, Americans. You can’t miss.
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This site was designed to provide help with CMMI for essay people who are researching, trying to get to the truth about CMMI, or just looking for answers to use of in essay basic, frequently asked questions about CMMI and the process of having an appraisal for getting a level rating (or CMMI certification as some people (inaccurately) prefer to say). The information on this site has also been demonstrated to provide answers and essay, new insights to people who are already (or thought they were) very familiar with CMMI and the appraisal. Feedback has indicated that there is descriptive essays exercises, more than a fair amount of essay, incomplete and actual incorrect information being put forth by supposed experts in CMMI. Your feedback is therefore very important to us. If you have any suggestions for other questions, or especially corrections, please don't hesitate to send them to us.
This is a work-in-progress, not all questions have been answered yet -- simply a matter of time to write them, not that we don't know the answers -- but we didn't want to keep you waiting, so we're starting with that we have. For your own self-study, and for additional information, the competition problems source material for many of the art institute essay answers on dash in essay, CMMI come from the CMMI Institute. They're not hiding anything; it's all there. We've broken up the FAQs into essay the following sections (there will be much cross-over, as can be expected): CMMI, Agile, Kanban, Lean, LifeCycles and writing essays, other Process Concepts FAQs.
SEI / CMMI Institute Transition Out of SEI FAQs. Specific Model Content FAQs. A: CMMI stands for art institute essay Capability Maturity Model Integration. It's the integration of several other CMMs (Capability Maturity Models). By integrating these other CMMs, it also becomes an integration of the writing exercises process areas and practices within the model in ways that previous incarnations of the model(s) didn't achieve. The CMMI is a framework for business process improvement. In other words, it is a model for building process improvement systems.
In the same way that models are used to guide thinking and analysis on how to build other things (algorithms, buildings, molecules), CMMI is used to build process improvement systems. There are currently three flavors of CMMI called constellations. The most famous one is the CMMI for Development -- i.e., DEV . It has been around (in one version or another) for roughly 10 years and has been the art institute essay subject of much energy for over 20 years when including its CMM ancestors. More recently, two other constellations have been created: CMMI for Acquisition -- i.e., ACQ , and CMMI for Services -- i.e., SVC . All constellations share many things, but fundamentally, they are all nothing more than frameworks for assembling process improvement systems. Essay. Each constellation has content that targets improvements in particular areas, tuned to organizations whose primary work effort either: Develops products and complex services, and/or Acquires goods and services from others, and/or Provides/ delivers services.
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To date, CMMI has most widely applied in software and systems engineering organizations. Now, with the expansion of the constellations, where it is math, applied is a significantly distinct matter from being anything even remotely akin to a standard or certification mechanism for the engineering, methods, technologies, or accreditation necessary to build stuff, buy stuff or do stuff, . Essay. If an organization chose to do so, CMMI could be applied in writing psychology research the construction or even media production industries. (Exactly, how would be an *entirely* different discussion!) Before we get too off-track. CMMI is meant to help organizations improve their performance of and art institute essay, capability to consistently and predictably deliver the products, services, and letters, sourced goods their customers want, when they want them and at a price they're willing to essay pay. From a purely inwardly-facing perspective, CMMI helps companies improve operational performance by essay mountain lowering the cost of production, delivery, and sourcing. Without some insight into and control over art institute essay their internal business processes, how else can a company know how well they're doing before it's too late to do anything about it? And if/ when they wait until the end of a project or work package to see how close/far they were to their promises/expectations, without some idea of psychology research papers, what their processes are and how they work, how else could a company ever make whatever changes or improvements they'd want/need to art institute essay make in order to do better next time? CMMI provides the models from which to pursue these sorts of writing research, insights and art institute essay, activities for improvement. It's a place to start, not a final destination.
CMMI can't tell an organization what is or isn't important to them. Pregnancy United Essay. CMMI, however, can provide a path for an organization to achieve its performance goals. Furthermore, CMMI is art institute essay, just a model, it's not reality. Like any other model, CMMI reflects one version of reality, and like most models, it's rather idealistic and unrealistic -- at pregnancy in the, least in some ways. When understood as *just* a model, people implementing CMMI have a much higher chance of implementing something of lasting value.
As a model, what CMMI lacks is context. Specifically, the context of the art institute essay organization in which it will be implemented for process improvement. Teenage Pregnancy In The United. Together with the organization's context, CMMI can be applied to create a process improvement solution appropriate to the context of each unique organization. Putting it all together: CMMI is a model for building process improvement systems from art institute, which (astute) organizations will abstract and create process improvement solutions that fit their unique environment to help them improve their operational performance. At the risk of seeming self-serving, the following addresses the question of what CMMI is: A: We should start the answer to this question with a quick sentence about what CMMI itself *is*. CMMI is about improving performance through improving operational processes. In particular, it's improving processes associated with managing how organizations develop or acquire solution-based wares and define and deliver their services. So we should ask you a question before we answer yours: Do you feel that you ought to be looking at successful graphic design, improving your processes? What business performance improvements would you like to art institute essay see from your operations?
SO, is CMMI right for you? Obviously this depends on what you're trying to in essay accomplish. Sometimes it's best to divide and conquer. So we'll divide the world into two groups: those who develop wares and provide services for art institute US Federal agencies (or their prime contractors) and those who don't. Those of you in the former group will probably come across CMMI in the form of successful design cover letters, a pre-qualifier in some RFP. Art Institute. As such, you're probably looking at the CMMI as a necessary evil regardless of whether or not you feel your processes need to be addressed in any way. Writing Psychology Research. If you're in this group, there aren't many loop-holes. One strong case for why your company might not need to mess with CMMI would be if you are selling a product of your own specification. Something that might be called shrink-wrapped or even COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf). While looking at CMMI for process improvement wouldn't be a bad idea, the point is that unless you are developing wares from scratch to a government (or a Prime's) specification, you ought to be able to elude having someone else require or expect you to pursue CMMI practices when you otherwise might not do so. A couple of exceptions to this rule of thumb would be (a) if you are entering into the world of custom wares for the Feds, even though you currently aren't in it, and/or (b) if the extent to which your product might need modifications or out-of-spec maintenance for it to be bought/used by the government.
Governments have an all-too-regular habit of buying a product as is art institute, functionally, and then realizing that what they need kinda only looks like the teenage united states essay original product but is really different. Knowing this, many agencies and prime contractors are using the CMMI's appraisal method (called SCAMPI) as part of their due diligence before wedding themselves to a product or vendor. If you're in the latter group, (remember. Art Institute. those who don't sell to the Feds or their Primes) then the question is really this, what's not working for you with your current way of running your operation? You'll need to get crystal clear about that. Essay Mountain Trip. Certain things CMMI can't really help you with such as marketing and communications. OK, it could, but if managing your customers and marketing are your biggest challenges, you've got other fish to fry and art institute essay, frying them with CMMI is a really long way around to get them into the pan. Don't get us wrong, there are aspects of CMMI that can be applied to anything related to teenage pregnancy essay *how* you do business. But, if you are worrying about art institute essay where the next meal is coming from, you might be hungry for a while before the ROI from CMMI will bring home the design cover letters bacon. It usually takes a number of months.
Having said that. If you're finding that. customer acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or project success, profitability, predictability, or timeliness, and/or employee acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or service level accuracy, predictability, cycle or lead time. are tied to a certain level of uncertainty, inconsistency, and/or lack of insight into or control over work activities, then you could do worse than investigating CMMI for essay what it offers in rectifying these concerns. NOTE: This answer assumes you know a thing or two about CMMI, so we won't be explaining some terms you'll find answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How many processes are there in CMMI? A: NONE. Zero.
Zip. Nada. Psychology Research. Rien. Nil. Bupkis. Big ol' goose-egg. There's not a single process in art institute essay all of CMMI. Papers. They're called Process Areas (PAs) in CMMI, and we're not being obtuse or overly pedantic about semantics. It's an important distinction to understand between processes and Process Areas (PAs). So, there are *no* processes in CMMI. No processes, no procedures, no work instructions, nothing.
This is often very confusing to CMMI newcomers. You see, there are many practices in CMMI that *are* part of typical work practices. Sometimes they are almost exactly what a given project, work effort, service group or organization might do, but sometimes the practices in CMMI sound the same as likely typical practices in essay name only and the similarity ends there. Despite the similar names used in typical work practices and in CMMI, they are *not* to be assumed to use of dash in essay be referring to one-in-the-same activities. That alone is enough to cause endless hours, days, or months of confusion. What CMMI practices are, are practices that improve existing work practices, but do not *define* what those work practices must be for any given activity or organization. The sad reality is so many organizations haven't taken the time to look at essay, and understand the present state of their actual work practices, so as a result not only do they not know everything they would need to teenage pregnancy essay know to merely run their operation, they then look to essay CMMI as a means of defining their own practices! As one might guess, this approach often rapidly leads to failure and disillusionment. How you run your operation would undoubtedly include practices that may happen at any point and time in an effort and during the course of doing the work. Writing Psychology. Irrespective of where these activities take place in reality, the CMMI PAs are collections of practices to improve those activities. Art Institute. CMMI practices are not to be interpreted as being necessarily in a sequence or to be intrinsically distinct from existing activities or from one CMMI practices to another.
Simply, CMMI practices (or alternatives to them) are the activities collectively performed to achieve improvement goals . Goals, we might add, that ought to be tied to business objectives more substantial than simply achieving a rating. There's so much more to say here, but it would be a site unto itself to do so. Besides, we never answered the question. . in the current version of CMMI for use of DEVELOPMENT (v1.3, released October 2010) there are 22 Process Areas . (There were 25 in v1.1, and also 22 in essay v1.2.) CMMI v1.3 can actually now refer to three different flavors of research, CMMI, called constellations. CMMI for art institute Development is one constellation of PAs. There are two other constellations, one for improving services , and one for acquisition . Each constellation has particular practices meant to improve those particular uses.
CMMI for writing essays Acquisition and CMMI for Services are now all at v1.3. Essay. While much of the focus of essay mountain, this list is on CMMI for Development, we're updating it slowly but surely to at least address CMMI for Services, too. Meanwhile, we'll just point out that the essay three constellations share 16 core process areas; CMMI for Development and for Services share the competition problems Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) process area. The CMMI for essay Acquisition has a total of 21 PAs, and Services has a total of 24 PAs. The delta between core, core + shared, and total are those PAs specific to writing research the constellation. More on that later. We would like to thank our friend, Saif, for pointing out that our original answer was not nearly doing justice to those in need of help. Essay. The update to math competition problems this answer was a result of essay, his keen observation.
Thanks Saif! The Process Areas of CMMI are listed below. Mountain. They were taken directly from their respective SEI/CMMI Institute publications. We first list the core process areas, also called the CMMI Model Foundation or, CMF. Then we list the art institute process area shared by two of the constellations, DEV and SVC, then we list the process areas unique to each of the three constellations, in essay trip order of essay, chronological appearance: DEV, ACQ, then SVC. All the PAs are listed in alphabetical order by acronym, and for those who are interested in Maturity Levels, we include in brackets '' which Maturity Level each PA is mountain, part of. Art Institute Essay. We're also listing the purpose statement of research, each one. We should also note that in process area names, purpose statements, and throughout the text, in CMMI for Services , the notion of art institute, project has largely been replaced with the notion (and use of the term) work. For example, in CMMI for Services , Project Planning becomes Work Planning , and so forth.
The rationale for teenage pregnancy in the essay that is the art institute essay result of months of debate over the relevance and subsequent confusion over essay mountain the concept of a project in the context of service work. While the concept of art institute, a project *is* appropriate for many types of services , it is teenage in the, quite inappropriate for most services, and, substituting the notion (and use of the term) work for project has effectively zero negative consequences in a service context. This may raise the question of why not merely replace work for project in all three constellations? In the attitude of this CMMIFAQ, our flippant answer would be something like, let's take our victories where we can get them and walk away quietly, but a more accurate/appropriate answer would be that product development and acquisition events are generally more discrete entities than services, and the vast majority of product development and acquisition events are, in fact, uniquely identified by the notion of a project. Furthermore, there is art institute essay, nothing in the models that prevent users from restricting the interpretation of use of dash in essay, project or work. Art Institute Essay. It's just that re-framing project and work in their respective contexts made sense in a broader effort to reduce sources of confusion. Process Areas of CMMI Model Foundation (CMF) -- Common to teenage pregnancy in the united All CMMI Constellations. The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of essay, defects and competition, other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. Configuration Management, [ML 2]
The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Decision Analysis Resolution, [ML 3] The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against art institute essay, established criteria. Integrated Project Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and writing research, manage the art institute essay project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes. Writing Psychology Research Papers. Measurement Analysis, [ML 2] The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and art institute, sustain a measurement capability that is essay mountain trip, used to support management information needs. Organizational Process Definition, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to art institute establish and essay trip, maintain a usable set of essay, organizational process assets and work environment standards.
Organizational Process Focus, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and essay, deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and process assets. Art Institute. Organizational Performance Management, [ML5] The purpose of Organizational Performance Management (OPM) is to proactively manage the organization's performance to writing meet its business objectives. Organizational Process Performance, [ML 4] The purpose of art institute essay, Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to successful graphic design cover letters establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the art institute essay process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects. Organizational Training, [ML 3]
The purpose of successful graphic letters, Organizational Training (OT) is to art institute develop the skills and knowledge of successful graphic design cover letters, people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Project Monitoring and essay, Control, [ML 2] The purpose of project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the ongoing work so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when performance deviates significantly from the plan. Essay Trip. Project Planning, [ML 2] The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities.
Process and Product Quality Assurance, [ML 2] The purpose of art institute, Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. Quantitative Project Management, [ML 4] The purpose of Quantitative Project Management (QPM) is to essay quantitatively manage the art institute project's defined process to achieve the project's established quality and process-performance objectives. Requirements Management, [ML 2] The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage requirements of the products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the work plans and work products.
Risk Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to use of dash in essay identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and essay, invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on successful graphic cover letters, achieving objectives. Shared by CMMI for Development and CMMI for art institute Services. The purpose of mountain, Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products from art institute essay, suppliers. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for writing Development. The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. Essay. Requirements Development, [ML 3] The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and use of dash in essay, product component requirements.
Technical Solution, [ML 3] The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to art institute essay design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate. Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to math problems demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in art institute its intended environment.
Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for use of dash Acquisition. The purpose of art institute, Agreement Management (AM) is to ensure that the supplier and the acquirer perform according to the terms of the supplier agreement. Acquisition Requirements Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Acquisition Requirements Development (ARD) is to develop and analyze customer and contractual requirements. Acquisition Technical Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Technical Management (ATM) is to evaluate the supplier's technical solution and to manage selected interfaces of that solution. Acquisition Validation, [ML 3]
The purpose of Acquisition Validation (AVAL) is to demonstrate that an essays exercises acquired product or service fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. Acquisition Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Verification (AVER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Solicitation and essay, Supplier Agreement Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development (SSAD) is to prepare a solicitation package, select one or more suppliers to writing psychology research deliver the product or service, and establish and essay, maintain the supplier agreement. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Services. The purpose of Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) is to ensure effective service system performance and ensure that resources are provided and used effectively to support service requirements. Incident Resolution and Prevention, [ML 3] The purpose of Incident Resolution and successful graphic design letters, Prevention (IRP) is to ensure timely and effective resolution of service incidents and prevention of service incidents as appropriate. Service Continuity, [ML 3]
The purpose of Service Continuity (SCON) is to establish and maintain plans to ensure continuity of services during and following any significant disruption of normal operations. Service Delivery, [ML 2] The purpose of Service Delivery (SD) is to deliver services in accordance with service agreements. Service System Development * , [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Development (SSD) is to analyze, design, develop, integrate, verify, and art institute, validate service systems, including service system components, to satisfy existing or anticipated service agreements. * SSD is an Addition As such, it is at the organization's discretion whether to successful graphic letters implement SSD, and, whether to include SSD in a SCAMPI appraisal.
Service System Transition, [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Transition (SST) is to deploy new or significantly changed service system components while managing their effect on ongoing service delivery. Strategic Service Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Strategic Service Management (STSM) is to establish and art institute essay, maintain standard services in concert with strategic needs and plans. How are the processes organized? A: This question will look at states essay, the organization of art institute, Process Areas as they are organized to dash one another.
The next FAQ question addresses the elements of each Process Area. Process Areas are organized in two main ways, called Representations. Two questions down, we answer the next obvious question: What's the difference between Staged and Continuous? For now, just trust us when we say that this really doesn't matter except to a very few people and organizations who really geek out over art institute essay this idea of pathways through an improvement journey. Ultimately, if you really only care about teenage pregnancy essay improving performance, representations don't matter one bit. What is each process made up of? A: Each process area is made of two kinds of art institute essay, goals, two kinds of practices, and a whole lot of informative material. The two goal types are: Specific Goals and mountain, Generic Goals. Essay. Which then makes the two practices to use of also follow suit as: Specific Practices and Generic Practices.
Astute readers can probably guess that Specific Goals are made up of art institute essay, Specific Practices and teenage pregnancy in the united essay, Generic Goals are made up of Generic Practices. Every Process Area (PA) has at least one Specific Goal (SG), made up of at essay, least two Specific Practices (SPs). The SPs in any PA are unique to that PA, whereas, other than the name of the PA in each of the Generic Practices (GPs), the GPs and Generic Goals (GGs) are identical in every PA. Trip. Hence, the term Generic. PAs all have anywhere from 1 to 3 Generic Goals -- depending on which model representation (see the previous question) the organization chooses to use, and, the path they intend to art institute essay be on to mature their process improvement capabilities. The informative material is very useful, and varies from PA to PA. Readers are well-advised to focus on the Goals and Practices because they are the required and expected components of CMMI when it comes time to be appraised. Again, if improving performance is use of, important to you and appraisals are not something you care about, then these goal-practice relationships and normative/informative philosophies don't really matter at all. Read more about essay that here.
If all you want is improvement, and appraisals are not necessarily important, then it doesn't really matter how the model is organized. Use anything in it to make your operation perform better! How do the Maturity Levels relate to one another and how does one progress through them? A: We touch on this subject below but here is some additional thinking about the subject: Maturity Level 2 is very very basic. This is the minimum that an organization could achieve by merely hiring professional, experienced project managers and allowing them to do their jobs.
These project managers would work directly with the organization's leaders and owners to help projects be successful and the organization to be profitable. Math Problems. They would routinely communicate with the art institute essay leaders and make adjustments. Companies struggling to incorporate or demonstrate use of the competition problems practices in CMMI ML2 are likely to art institute essay be widely inconsistent with when they deliver, the quality of what they deliver and their profits are likely to be highly unpredictable. Such organizations frequently take on more work than they can handle. They then proceed to do a poor job of planning the level of effort and dependencies required to complete the work. When projects don't meet financial or customer expectations, companies who don't perform ML2 practices don't know where to dash in essay begin to start to art institute essay understand why and they typically turn to specific people to try to teenage pregnancy united states figure out what went wrong. Very often people (internally or customers) get blamed for the missed expectations rather than realizing that the problems really started with their own lack of art institute, situational awareness. ML2 does not guarantee project success (no ML does), but it increases awareness of what's going on, good or bad.
WE often wonder how companies who fail to incorporate ML2 practices into competition their work even stay in business! process management, the technical/operational work of art institute, delivery (development or services, etc.), and organizational change and graphic, development. to work with the PM (from ML2) would naturally perform the practices found in art institute ML3. Research. The reason to add such people is to: facilitate communication and art institute essay, coordination throughout the organization and to learn and share observations from the successes and failures of math problems, other projects, establish performance norms for essay how to do the materially core work of the organization, and put in place the mechanisms for continuous improvement, learning, strategic growth, and teenage pregnancy united states essay, decision-making. Furthermore, you would have the PM involved in ensuring the art institute time and effort required to look across the organization is not used-up by the projects. These additional experts would work with the PM to descriptive exercises help them make use of the most effective approaches to meeting their projects' needs. While projects often don't provide useful performance data until near the art institute end of the competition work, these new experts would help the organization's leaders understand how well the organization is performing from the inside even while projects are in the middle of execution.
ML3 organizations use data and metrics to help understand their internal costs and effectiveness. They are also typically better than ML2 organizations at essay, asking themselves whether or not their processes are good, not just whether their processes are followed. What's the graphic cover difference between Staged and Continuous? A: It's just different ways of looking at the same basic objects. The main difference is simply how the model is organized around the path towards process improvement that an art institute essay organization can take. Problems. That probably sounds meaningless, so let's get into essay a little bit about what that really means. The SEI, based on the original idea behind the competition problems CMM for Software, promoted the notion that there are more fundamental and more advanced (key)* process areas that organizations should endeavor to get good at on the way to maturing their processes towards higher and higher capabilities. In this notion, certain process areas were staged together with the expectation that the groupings made sense as building blocks. Since the latter blocks depended on the prior blocks, the groupings resembled stair-steps, or levels. The idea then was that the first level didn't include any process areas, and that the first staging of (K)PAs* (the actual level 2) was a set of very fundamental practices that alone could make a significant difference in art institute essay performance. From there, the next staging of successful letters, PAs, or level 3, could begin to exploit the foundational PAs and begin to affect process improvement changes from art institute, a more detailed technical and math competition problems, managerial perspective.
Whereas, up through Level 3, where PAs had some degree of autonomy from one another, Levels 4 and 5 add Process Areas that look across all the other process areas as well as other activities not exclusively limited to essay process-area-related efforts. While Levels 4 and 5 only add a total of four PAs, they are not in the least trivial. They add the maturity and essay trip, capability to art institute essay manage processes by numbers rather than only by subjective feedback, and they add the ability to optimize and continuously improve process across the use of dash board based on a statistically-backed quantitative understanding of effort and process performance. Then along comes a group of people who said, in effect, why not be able to improve any one process area to art institute the point of writing descriptive essays, optimization without having all process areas needing to be there? In fact, why not be able to essay focus on process areas with high value to the organization first and then go after other process areas, or maybe even ignore any process areas that we don't really need to improve? In the staged representation, which is the original Software CMM approach, this ability to mature a capability in successful design any one process area doesn't exist, so in CMMI, the idea of a Continuous representation was taken from a short-lived Systems Engineering CMM and implemented -- whereby an organization could choose to get really really good at any number of PAs without having to art institute put forth the effort to implement low-value or unused PAs. This becomes especially meaningful to organizations that want to be able to benchmark themselves (or be formally rated) in only areas that matter to them. *In the original CMM for Software, the process areas were called Key Process Areas, or KPAs, and, there was no distinction between types of levels (see below), therefore there was only one type of level, and when someone said level 3 everyone understood. Writing Psychology Papers. In CMMI, there are two level types which correspond to the two model representations.(see below) Saying, level in the context of CMMI is incomplete. Art Institute. However, for anyone reading this FAQ from the beginning, this concept has not yet been introduced, and mountain, we didn't want to start adding terms that had not yet been defined.
What's the difference between Maturity Level and Capability Level? A: They are different ways of rating your process areas. Let's start with the basics. Art Institute. A Maturity Level is letters, what you can be appraised to and rated as when the organization uses the Staged Representation of the CMMI, and essay, a Capability Level is successful letters, what you can be appraised to and rated as when the organization uses the Continuous Representation of the art institute essay CMMI. As for the details. A Maturity Level X means that an states essay organization, when appraised, was found to art institute be satisfying the goals required by process areas in that level (X). Those goals are a combination of specific and generic goals from a pre-defined set of Process Areas. Each Maturity Level has a particular set of design letters, PAs associated with it, and in art institute essay turn, within those PAs have a delineated set of goals. Maturity Level 2 (ML 2) in CMMI for use of dash in essay Development requires the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 2 within them:
Requirements Management (REQM) Project Planning (PP) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Measurement and essay, Analysis (MA) Process and math competition, Product Quality Assurance (PPQA), and Configuration Management (CM) Maturity Level 3 (ML 3) in CMMI for Development requires the art institute ML 2 PAs, plus the teenage pregnancy in the states following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Requirements Development (RD) Technical Solution (TS) Product Integration (PI) Verification (VER) Validation (VAL) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Training (OT) Integrated Project Management (IPM) Risk Management (RSKM), and Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Maturity Level 4 (ML 4) requires the ML 2 and art institute essay, 3 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Process Performance (OPP) and Quantitative Project Management (QPM)
And finally, Maturity Level 5 (ML 5) requires the ML 2-4 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Performance Management (OPM) and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) For CMMI for Services and CMMI for Acquisition, the idea is the same, only some of the process areas are swapped out at both ML 2 and ML 3 for their respective disciplines. You can refer back to this question to fill in the blanks on which PAs to swap in/out for use of dash in essay CMMI for Services and art institute, CMMI for Acquisition at ML2 and ML3. You'll notice that MLs 4 and 5 are the same across all three constellations. Now, if you recall from the writing essays exercises earlier FAQ, the Continuous representation is tied to the Generic Goals, and from above, Capability Levels are attained when using the Continuous representation.
So with that, Capability Levels are then tied to the Generic Goals. Art Institute Essay. As we noted earlier, there are no collections of PAs in Capability Levels as there are in Maturity Levels or the staged representation. Therefore, it is far simpler to explain that a Capability Level is attained PA by PA. Competition Problems. An organization can choose (or perhaps not by art institute essay choice, but by use of de facto performance) to be a different Capability Levels (CLs) for different PAs. Art Institute Essay. For this reason, the results of a SCAMPI based on the Continuous Representation determine a Capability Profile that conveys each PA and the Capability Level of each one. Basically, the math Capability Level of a PA is the highest Generic Goal at which the organization is capable of art institute, operating. Since there is actually 3 Generic Goals, 1-3, an organization can be found to writing descriptive essays be operating at essay, a Capability Level of in the united states essay, ZERO (CL 0), in which they aren't even achieving the first Generic Goal which is essay, simply to Achieve Specific Goals Thus, the three Capability Levels are (in our own words): Capability Level 1: The organization achieves the essays exercises specific goals of the respective process area(s). Capability Level 2: The organization institutionalizes a managed process for the respective process area(s). Capability Level 3: The organization institutionalizes a defined process for the respective process area(s).
What are the Generic Goals? a.k.a. Art Institute. What are the differences among the Capability Levels? a.k.a. What do they mean when they say process institutionalization ? A: The Generic Goals *are*, in fact, perfectly parallel with the research papers Capability Levels. Art Institute Essay. In other words, Generic Goal 1 (GG1) aligns with Capability Level 1 (CL1). GG2 with CL2, and GG3 with CL3.
So when someone says their process area(s) are performing at pregnancy in the, Capability Level 3 they are saying that their process areas are achieving Generic Goal 3. The Generic Goals are cumulative, so saying that a process area is CL3 (or GG3) includes that they are achieving GG1 and GG2 as well. Generic Goal 1 [GG1]: The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products. So, you're wondering what's this business about institutionalization . What it means is the extent to which your processes have taken root within your organization. It's not just a matter of essay, how widespread the math competition problems processes are, because institutionalization can take place in even 1-project organizations. So then, it's really about art institute essay how they're performed, how they're managed, how they're defined, what you measure and use of in essay, control the processes by, and how you go about essay continuously improving upon them. What's High Maturity About? a.k.a. What's the fuss about High Maturity Lead Appraisers? a.k.a. What's the fuss about the informative materials in the High Maturity process areas? A: High Maturity refers to the four process areas that are added to achieve Maturity Levels, 4 and 5:
Organizational Process Performance (OPP), Quantitative Project Management (QPM), Organizational Performance Management (OPM), and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Collectively, these process areas are all about making decisions about projects, work, and processes based on performance numbers, not opinions, not compliance, and eventually not on problems, rearward-looking data, rather, forward-looking and predictive analysis. the only required and expected components of the model are the art institute goals and practice statements, respectively, and in the essay, misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation of the model high maturity practices. The action to address these facets stems from a flood of art institute essay, findings that many high maturity appraisals didn't accept as evidence those artifacts that convey the teenage pregnancy in the united essay proper intent and implementation of these higher maturity concepts were applied at the organizations appraised. In fact, the opposite was found to be true. That, what *was* accepted as evidence conveyed that the high maturity practices were clearly indicating that the practices were *NOT* implemented properly. It's not that organizations and/or appraisers purposely set out to essay deceive anyone. The matter was not one of ethics, it was one of understanding the concepts that made these practices add value. Writing Psychology Research. It was even found that organizations were able to art institute essay generate erroneously-assumed high-maturity artifacts on foundations of writing psychology research, erroneously interpreted Maturity Level 2 and 3 practices! What's a Constellation?
A: A constellation is a particular collection of process areas specifically chosen to help improve a given business need. Currently there are three (3) constellations: Development: For improving the development of (product or complex service) solutions. Acquisition: For improving the purchasing of products, services and/or solutions. Services: For improving delivery of services and art institute essay, creation of service systems (say, to graphic design letters operate a solution but not buy it or build it in the first place). Art Institute. There are 16 of the process areas common to all three constellations, Basically, in all CMMIs, you have all the process areas listed here minus the following process areas specific to CMMI-DEV: A quick reminder that the process ares listed here are for the DEV constellation only.
The SVC and ACQ constellations have the mountain trip core 16 noted above, plus some others for their respective constellation-specific disciplines. How many different ways are there to implement CMMI? A: Infinite, but 2 are most common. But before we get into that, let's set the record straight. Art Institute Essay. You do *not* implement CMMI the essay mountain way someone implements the requirements of a product. Art Institute Essay. The only thing getting implemented are your organization's work flows along with whatever standard processes and associated procedures your organization feels are appropriate--not what's in CMMI. CMMI has nothing more than a set of practices to help you *improve* whatever you've got going on. CAUTION: If whatever you've got going on is garbage, CMMI is unlikely to help. AND, if you create your organization's processes only using CMMI's practices as a template you'll not only never get anything of value done but your organization's work flows will be dreadfully lacking all the important and necessary activities to essay operate the art institute business!
Where in our workflow does *that* happen? How does *that* show up? What do we do that accomplishes *that*? Or simply, add the words How do we ___ ahead of any practice and put a question mark at the end. For any practice where you don't have an successful design letters answer or don't like the answer, consider that your operation is at risk. EVERY CMMI practice avoids a risk, reduces the impact of a risk, buys you options for future risks/opportunities, or reduces uncertainty. Art Institute Essay. EVERY.ONE. Graphic Design Cover Letters. You might need a bit of expert guidance to help you refactor the art institute essay practice so that it appears more relevant and useful to your particular needs, but there is a value-add or other benefit to every practice. Truly.
(Admittedly, whether or not there's value to writing research papers *your* business to modify your behavior to realize the benefit of a given practice is an entirely different question.) The blunt-object approach resembles what many process improvement experts call process silos, stove pipes, or layers. Art Institute. This approach is also often implemented *to* a development team *by* some external process entity with brute force and very extreme prejudice. So, not only does the blunt approach employ some very unsavory techniques, subjecting its royal subjects to problems cruel and unusual process punishment, it also (in its design) is characterized by essay a look and feel of a process where each process is in its own vacuum, without any connection to other processes (or to reality, for that matter), and where the practices of the processes are somehow expected to writing descriptive essays exercises be performed serially, from one to the next, in essay the absence of writing papers, any other organizational context. A few other common (non-exhaustive, and not mutually-exclusive) characteristics of the non-recommended approach include: Heavy emphasis on compliance irrespective of performance. Art Institute. Little or no input from math problems, staff on what the processes should be. Art Institute Essay. Using CMMI practices as project or process requirements. Measures and goals that have little/nothing to do with actual business performance.
No one can answer the question: Outside of compliance, what has the process done for my bottom line? Complaints about the writing psychology research cost of art institute, compliance from use of dash, people who actually watch things like the bottom line. If so many implementations of CMMI are guided by an (internal or external process) expert, one might (justifiably) wonder how and art institute essay, why CMMI processes could ever be implemented in such an mountain trip obviously poorly conceived approach! There are two (sometimes inter-related) reasons: Lack of art institute, understanding of the model, and Being an expert process auditor, and not a process improvement expert. Unfortunately, being an expert process auditor does not make someone a process improvement expert. However, one need not prove themselves an successful graphic design cover expert in art institute essay process improvement to train, consult, or appraise in the CMMI. We wish it weren't so, and, it might be changing, but for use of dash now, that's the way it is. So, what you have are many people who become experts in CMMI, but they're really only experts in the model's text and in appraising an organization's ability to read the essay text and produce text-book artifacts. They're not necessarily experts in process improvement or performance excellence , in general, or in implementing CMMI in particular. We've come across countless examples of organizations' attempts to implement CMMI while being led by someone (or plural) who was at teenage pregnancy in the states, least one of the art institute essay two types of persons, and too frequently, both at once.
Frightening, but true. The jury is still out on whether it's worse to teenage united states be led by art institute essay such a non-expert or to attempt Do-It-Yourself CMMI implementation. Design. What the art institute essay jury is writing descriptive essays, definitely in agreement on is that if your focus is on CMMI and art institute essay, not on improving business performance, you're really wasting your time. Again, we digress. We can't allow ourselves to explain our favored reality-based approach without first explaining what the other approach really is. Design Letters. Not so that our approach looks better, and essay, not because we must justify our approach, but because we feel that it's important for people new to CMMI and/or to essay trip process/performance improvement to be prepared to recognize the signs of art institute, doom and use of in essay, be able to art institute essay do something about it before it's too late.
All kidding aside, believe it or not, there are organizations for whom the blunt/silo/stove-pipe approach actually works well, and we wouldn't necessarily recommend that they change it. Design. These organizations tend to share certain characteristics including any number of the following: being larger, bureaucratic by necessity, managing very large and/or complex projects; and, there's an actual, justifiable reason for their approach. In fact, in these cases, the effect is actually neither blunt, nor particularly silo'd, but these types of organizations have other mechanisms for softening the essay effect that such an approach would have on smaller projects/organizations. And, that is precisely, how we can characterize the main difference between the two approaches: we believe that the reality-based approach to graphic letters implementing CMMI works well in art institute essay most types of organizations and dash in essay, work/projects of most scope, where the brute-force approach would not. What does the blunt/brute-force/silo/stove-pipe approach look like?
In a nutshell, the traits of that approach are: Organizational processes mirror the process areas. This alone makes no sense since the process areas aren't processes and don't actually get anything out the door. Art Institute. Process area description documents are prescriptive and implementation of the processes do not easily account for the inter-relatedness of the process areas to one another, or of the generic practices to the specific practices. Furthermore, the processes seem to be implemented out-of-step with actual development/project/services work. Nowhere in math competition problems the descriptions or artifacts of the processes is it clear how and when the art institute process gets done. It's not a matter of poorly written processes, quite the writing essays exercises opposite, many of these processes are the exemplar of process documents. What these processes lack is a connection to the work as it actually happens.
Without a process subject-matter expert on essay, hand, it's unlikely that the process would actually get done. In many cases (thanks to the sheer size of the organization) such processes *are*, in fact, done by a process specialist, and not by personnel doing the work. In other words, with such processes, if an writing descriptive essays exercises organization doesn't have the luxury of art institute essay, process specialists to do the process work, it would be difficult for someone actually doing the use of real work who is trying to follow the processes to see how the process activities relate to his or her activities and/or to see when/where/how to implement the process activities on actual tasks at essay, hand. Because of this, this approach to CMMI often has the feel (or the actual experience) of an external organization coming in to do CMMI *to* the organization, or as often, that staff members must pause their revenue-oriented work to complete process-oriented activities. Therein lies the greatest draw-back (in our opinion) to the most common approach. Instead of process improvement being an integral and writing research, transparent characteristic of art institute essay, everyday work, it becomes a non-productive layer of overhead activity superimposed on top of research papers, real work. And yet, this seems to be the prevalent way of implementing CMMI! Crazy, huh? Why is it so prevalent? That's where the art institute two reasons of poor implementation, above, come in.
People who don't understand the model as well as people who are not process experts (and therefore may have a weak understanding of the model) don't truly get that the model is not prescriptive, and so they attempt to make it a prescription. Use Of Dash In Essay. Auditing and appraising to a prescription is far easier and less ambiguous than auditing and appraising to a robust integrated process infrastructure. Art Institute. Frankly, the common approach suits the lowest common denominator of companies and appraisers. Those companies and appraisers who aren't after true improvement, and are only after a level rating, and successful design, who are willing (companies -- unknowingly -- (sometimes) ) to sacrifice the essay morale and productivity of their projects for the short-term gain of what becomes a meaningless rating statement. Alright already! So what's the reality-based approach about?!
The reality-based approach starts with a premise that a successful organization is use of dash, already doing what it needs to be doing to be successful, and, that process improvement activities can be designed into the organization's existing routines. Furthermore, the reality-based approach also assumes that, as a business, the organization actually *wants* to increase their operational performance. Note the use of designed into. This is essay, crucial. This means that for reality-based process improvement (reality-based CMMI implementation), the operational activities must be known, they must be definable, and, they must be at work for the organization.
Then, activities that achieve the successful graphic letters goals of CMMI can be designed into those pre-existing activities. This whole business of designing process improvement activities into product/project activities illuminates a simple but powerful fact: effective process improvement (CMMI included) requires processes to be engineered. Sadly, a recent Google search on essay, process engineering turned up few instances where the competition search term was associated with software processes, and most of art institute essay, those positive hits were about software products, not process improvement. The results were even more grim with respect to improving acquisition practices, but, happily, there are many strong associations between process engineering and the notion of services and other operations. There is hope. Besides the reality of what's already working, other attributes of our preferred implementation approach is that we don't expect the processes to be done by someone else, and, we don't expect them to magically apparate into existence. For both of those attributes to be in writing psychology research papers place, the reality-based approach doesn't rely on process descriptions to art institute make the writing descriptive essays exercises processes happen.
Instead, the practices that achieve the goals of the processes are built into the very product, service and project activities of the organization's work, and, the process descriptions simply describe where in that work to art institute find the practices happening. One other attribute of our approach that is in stark contrast with the successful design cover letters most common approaches is this: one of the expected practices of every managed process area is that they are planned for each project. The common approach interprets this as requiring a distinct plan for art institute each process area for each project/work effort. Our approach categorically rejects this notion in favor of an epiphany we like to share with clients: You can have a plan for performing each process without having to graphic design cover letters create an entirely new plan for doing so as long as you've already done all the planning. Essay. If a process works well, why re-plan it if the only thing that will change is who, when, and the project names (if that)? Planning for performing a process is part of institutionalizing a managed process, which is what Generic Goal 2 (thus, Capability Level 2) achieves. If not re-inventing the planning piece for each project *is* appropriate, can't the same be said for the remainder of the practices in institutionalizing a managed process?
We believe, yes. In the end we extend this concept to account for the capabilities of having managed and defined processes. We extend it in in the states essay such a way that any and all processes an organization wants to improve can be managed and essay, defined whether or not those processes come from CMMI. The reality-based process improvement approach (CMMI or not) results in descriptive exercises process improvement artifacts that appear where the real work gets done, and not as an overhead process, or a process performed by process commandos, or a process that only generates artifacts if developers and project managers have to go searching for proof that the process was performed. For what it's worth, this approach is what we at Entinex call Agile CMMI. Do we have to art institute do everything in the book? Also known as: What's actually required to writing descriptive essays exercises be said that someone's following CMMI? A: The Goals are required. Everything else is mostly commentary.
Let's be frank (as if we haven't been frank thus far). The only time whether or not you're doing what's in art institute CMMI (or not) matters is if/when you're aiming to problems be appraised. Otherwise, you'd just do whatever you want to get the most improvement out essay of and ignore what you don't need. Having said that, the context of this answer is then about descriptive exercises what's required for people who want it said that they are doing CMMI, and for the most part, this means that they're going to determine this via an appraisal. In fact, nowhere in art institute essay the CMMI model literature does it discuss CMMI requirements for process improvement. The model is very careful to only use terms that imply that requirements of the model are for the model, not for process improvement. That's why CMMI is just *a* model for writing psychology process improvement, not *the* model for it. The discussion of CMMI as far as requirements are concerned are in the materials that define the appraisal. This is also an often misunderstood aspect of CMMI. SO. in the context of performing activities that appear like they came from the art institute essay model -- especially where an appraisal is concerned -- there are three types of model content components: required, expected, and informative The goals are required. Achieving/satisfying all the pregnancy in the goals of a process area satisfies the art institute process area.
Since goals don't get done by themselves (sports analogies work well here), an organization must be performing some kind of practices in order to research papers achieve a goal, therefore, in art institute the absence of any other practices, CMMI provides some practices that an organization might perform to satisfy each goal. That's why the practices are expected, but not required. The organization might have entirely different practices and might have a different number of practices, either of which are entirely OK as far as CMMI goes, but *something* must be happening to achieve a goal. If an organization is *doing* something, then it must be resulting is some form of identifiable, tangible output. However, not every organization does the math same thing, therefore not every organization produces the same outputs, and therefore sub-practices, most narratives and sample work products of a process' practices are only informative, and neither expected, nor required. Essay. Just to be technically complete, there is more content in the model, but it doesn't even fall into the informative content component.
The appraisal even has a term for in the united states essay practices that achieve goals that aren't in essay the model. They're called (logically enough) alternative practices ! It logically leads to descriptive essays the reality that an art institute essay organization's alternative practices include sub-practices and produce work products that aren't in the model. What does this mean for an appraisal or the appraiser? It means that in order to demonstrate that an organization's process area (or a goal) is satisfied, they might not be able to problems solely rely on the stated practices, typical work products, or sub-practices of a process area. This means that not only might it be a good bit of work before an appraisal for the appraiser(s) to art institute essay get up to speed and elbow-deep into an organization's processes, but it could even drag with it the pregnancy in the states need to be somewhat competent in the kind of work an organization does or tools they use. DANGER! That kind of in-depth involvement puts appraisers (and consultants) at some risk: they might be exposed for not being competent in the ways and means of modern operations! (Did we just say that?) Well, in for a penny. let's go the whole way. We have a saying around here, the first part most people have heard of: Those who cannot do, teach. Art Institute. [We added this next corollary:] Those who cannot teach, audit.
It's much easier on essay mountain, the appraiser if the expected model components were investigated as required and if some of the informative materials were also expected or required in essay order to demonstrate the (now, newly promoted) required parts (in their minds). This is closely tied to our discussion above regarding the implementation approaches. But until now, we didn't have enough background to get into it. The blunt approach to use of dash in essay CMMI is art institute essay, replete with verbatim practices (which is in essay, often fine -- except where they're just floating out there without being tied to everyday work) and art institute, verbatim sub-practices, which starts to get a little fishy since sub-practices often change with the context of the projects, and verbatim typical work products, which is descriptive exercises, even fishier since it's rare that any one piece of an organization's work will use/need/produce so many work products. These are the tell-tale signs of an organization that doesn't really understand CMMI, or an appraiser/consultant who's just plain lazy (or worse, incompetent)! Why does it cost so much? A: Well that's a loaded and ambiguous question! What qualifies as so much? We'll just tell you what goes into art institute essay the costs here and writing descriptive essays, you can determine whether it's reasonable for you or how you can go about minimizing cost or maximizing value.
Here are the variables that go into the factors that affect cost: Where you are *now* with respect to your implementation of process improvement using CMMI? (i.e., Present-State or Gap Analysis Results) How process-oriented is your company? Do you understand process improvement? Do you have a culture that embraces a disciplined approach to killing-off things that don't work in favor of things that do? Do you have process improvement professionals on essay, staff? Are you dedicating explicit resources to managing your process improvement activities? How much process improvement implementation work will your company do on its own? vs. How much process improvement implementation work will your company need outsider help doing? How much progress do you think you'll be able to make? Meaning, how fast can you absorb change?
Will implementing process improvement always be competing for essay resources from other work? Will all the time for implementing a process improvement system be outside ordinary billable hours? And, How quickly do you want to essay make progress? Other considerations include your organization's size, the kind of work you do, the kind of products you build and math competition problems, techniques and tools you employ to art institute build them, the psychology papers kind of contracts you find yourself in, your relationship with your clients, the art institute way you manage your projects, skills your people have and the nature and composition of your organization and management structures. NOT trivial. Here's another reason people perceive that implementing CMMI costs so much: Implementations that went bad. There are far more bad implementation stories than success stories. By bad we simply mean those implementations that, while many of mountain trip, them did achieve a maturity level ratings, and all the while they were spending lots of time and money, they were also causing disillusionment, cynicism, and processes that fundamentally didn't work!
It's very easy to screw-up process improvement implementation, with or without CMMI. Because CMMI is a very complete model, it has the side-effect of further complicating process improvement. The easiest way to screw it up is to attempt to implement the CMMI model as either a development standard and/or as a checklist (making all non-required pieces to CMMI required), and/or by buying so-called CMMI-enabling tools. While there are also many ways to essay being a CMMI implementation success story, what these stories share in pregnancy united states common are the essay following attributes: Treat process improvement with the same rigor as a technical project. Create a process architecture that reflects how real work is done, then find where/how that reality can be improved as a business process. Executive management understands the model, what's being done, what's going to change, how *their* jobs will change, and the meaning of commitment. Create and sustain a culture of process improvement. Recognize that process improvement takes time and graphic design cover, discipline, exactly like a nutrition and exercise program.
And, Process Improvement can't be done *to* a project, it's done *by* the art institute essay project by the very nature of dash, their work, not by any explicit CMMI activities But, we are not in a position to give numbers. We hope you now understand why. Why does it take so long? A: That's a loaded and art institute, ambiguous question! What qualifies as so long? We'll just tell you what goes into the time frames here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for you or how you can go about minimizing time or maximizing progress. Please see the previous question. Why would anyone want to do CMMI if they didn't have to do it to in essay get business? A: Because they must be perceiving that the way they do technology development or services now isn't giving them everything they want or need to be confident in their ability to produce the art institute essay results they want/expect (profit, happy clients, low overhead, etc.) and to do it in trip a consistent way. Art Institute. If that's not you, move on.
Otherwise, give CMMI a shot and check back here for more elaboration on this topic soon. Isn't CMMI just about software development? A: Nope. It can be used for Systems Engineering, Integrated Product Development (i.e., large, complex projects), and use of dash, Supplier Sourcing. It can even be abstracted so it can help organizations who do technology services as well. More on essay, that coming up. What's the difference between CMMI v1.1 and v1.2? A: Since the current version of CMMI is v1.3, we won't get into detailed differences between v1.1 and v1.2, but a summary of successful cover, major changes to the model (only) are as follows:
Both representations (Staged/Continuous) are packaged together. The advanced practices and common feature concepts were eliminated. Hardware amplifications and examples were added. All definitions were consolidated in the glossary. IPPD practices were consolidated and simplified.
There are no longer separate IPPD process areas; IPPD concepts became additions noted by +IPPD after two PAs (OPD and IPM). These PAs gained new goals and practices invoked only for organizations wanting IPPD. Art Institute. Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) and dash, Integrated Supplier Management (ISM) were consolidated, and the original v1.1 Supplier Sourcing addition was eliminated. Generic practice (GP) elaborations were added to the (maturity/capability) level 3 GPs. Art Institute. An explanation of how process areas support the math implementation of GPs was added.
Material was added to ensure that standard processes are deployed on projects at their startup. With v1.2, there were changes to the SCAMPI process and all CMMI training courses as well. What's the essay difference between CMMI v1.2 and v1.3? A: CMMI v1.3 does several things: Aligns all three (3) constellations (DEV, SVC, ACQ) at once. Clarifies language around many practices and goals by removing unnecessary (and sometimes confusion-adding) language.
Focuses more on improvement -- without assuming things are necessarily bad now and that all users need CMMI just to essay bad to art institute good and that users might just be looking for use of CMMI to help them go from good to great. Tightens language so that goals and practices more clearly state what was intended. Art Institute. Substantially re-writes high maturity process areas (i.e., maturity level 4 and psychology papers, 5) to reflect the original intentions of those areas (that somehow got lost in committee) and to close loop-holes exploited by less scrupulous users. In that effort, the Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) process area has been replaced with Organizational Performance Management (OPM) Eliminates Generic Goals 4 and 5, and as a result,. Eliminates Capability Levels 4 and art institute essay, 5. Eliminates the IPPD addition from the DEV constellation. Removes references to projects where there is psychology, no reason to essay limit the use of practices to such specific management constructs. Re-orients the psychology papers concept of a project to that of work in CMMI-SVC. Adds several narratives to help CMMI practices be interpreted in art institute agile environments. In all three constellations now, the text elaborating Generic Practices from all process areas were consolidated to one location instead of repeated in each process area. This only means that in competition problems one place you'll see elaborations for all process areas for each generic practice. For example, you'll see Generic Practice 2.6 (Control Work Products) listed once and under it you'll see elaborations for each of the process areas to help understand how it applies to each one.
Substantial changes to the SCAMPI appraisal method (which, technically, isn't part of CMMI), but *is* part of the CMMI Product Suite. With each new version, there were changes to all CMMI training courses as well. What's the key limitation for approaching CMMI? A: This question comes to us from one of our readers. We love our readers! What's the key effort required in CMMI implementation? A: This question also comes to art institute us from one of our readers. We love our readers!
How do we determine whether to use CMMI for Development or CMMI for competition Services? A: This question (paraphrased) also comes to us from art institute, one of our readers. We love our readers! How do customers get from us what we do? Do they submit a request into an existing request system where everyone goes through the same request process and the resulting transaction is only alive for as long (typically short) as the request is outstanding, or, do we build something specific to a specification and/or statement of work where each effort is on a stand-alone contract? How do customers pay for what we do? Do they pay per request or do they pay for successful design effort/results over art institute time? Is there a Service Level Agreement in place that we have to meet? Do we operate more on a transaction basis or more on a trusted advisor basis? (Ignore, for now, what your marketing people say.) What are we trying to improve? How we manage and develop products, or how we provide services?
Hopefully, the essays exercises answers to these questions make the answer to which CMMI constellation to use self-evident. If not, write back, give us some more detail about the situation, and we'll be happy to help you think this through. How do we get certified? A: OK, let's get something straight here and forever-after: You do not get certified in CMMI. At least not yet. In the US, the concept of a certification carries a specific legal expectation and companies who are *rated* (and that *IS* the right term) to a level of the CMMI are not being certified to anything. So the correct question is, 'how do you get rated?'. And an even more complete question is, 'how do we get rated to a maturity/capability level X?' We'll get to the difference between Maturity Levels and Capability Levels and what the level numbers mean shortly. The short answer for how to get rated still leaves a lot of information on the table. So, if all you read is this short answer, you'll be doing yourself a disservice.
The really short answer on getting a level rating is that you get appraised by an appraisal team led by essay an CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser who determine whether you are performing the practices of the CMMI. This answer is so loaded with hidden terms it's frightening. So just so you know that you've been warned that this answer is too short, we'll point out each of the terms in our previous answer that has hidden meaning in it: getting level rating you get appraised appraisal team led CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser determine whether performing practices CMMI. Problems. There's a condition, requirement or definition in and of themselves for each one of these words. Art Institute Essay. Don't get annoyed, SEI isn't the first, last, only, or worst organization to create such things.
Every non-trivial discipline is loaded with concepts that experts can do in their sleep but that requires effort to understand by everyone else. It's true of cover letters, EVERY profession so, _CHILL_OUT_. Need an essay example? Think of it like getting into shape. The short answer is diet and exercise.
Brilliant. Wonderful. What do you eat? How much? How often? What sort of competition, work-out routine is right for you? How do you work out so that you're not just wasting time or harming yourself? See? Don't be so indignant just because you don't like the idea that you need to art institute essay get a rating and you don't want to. The trend is, that most people asking about successful graphic design cover letters what it takes to get a rating are more interested in the rating than the improvement. That's OK.
We understand. Sadly, too well. Keep reading this FAQ. What else did you have to do today anyway? How long does it take? A: Here's another one of those dead give-away questions that a company is more interested in the rating than the improvement. OK, that's a little unfair. Let's just say that as often as we hear this question, our judgmental attitude holds for ALMOST everyone who asks it.
Allright, so maybe you are the exception. Essay. The truth is, it's a fair question. Graphic Design Cover Letters. For every company. A rare few companies don't care how long it takes. Lucky them. Essay. Applying a generous dose of benefit of the doubt, we can assume that the question is psychology research, asked not for how soon can we get this out of the way? as much as from are there any rules that dictate a minimum time before performing an appraisal? How we can tell whether the art institute essay company is dash in essay, interested in the improvements vs. the rating is simply a linear function of how long into the conversation we are before it gets asked. All-too-often, the source of the question is less ignorance of the process and more ignorance of the point behind going through the process.
Process improvement purists wish more people were more interested in the journey than in the destination. We are process improvement pragmatists. We know you're not looking at essay, CMMI because you had nothing better to essay mountain do with your time and money. That's for art institute Bill Gates and his very worthy charitable endeavors. The company he's famous for founding is still in business for the money. FAST. Papers. So, how long it takes is a real question regardless of art institute essay, how you spend your money. Fortunately, or unfortunately, the answer lies within you, young grasshopper. Really. Letters. We can't give you a much better answer than that. What we can do, however, is give you a list of the attributes that you can use to estimate how long it will take you, and give you a few example cases and some very general time-ranges.
Let's start again with our favorite analogy. Say you're carrying around about 40lbs. (18.18kg) of excess body fat. Art Institute Essay. How long will it take you to dash in essay lose the fat? A year? Two? 6 months? Can one person do in essay 6 months what another person needs 2 years? We all know the answer to these questions.
IT DEPENDS! EXACTLY! How quickly a company can become rated to a pre-determined point in the CMMI's rating scale depends entirely on them and their circumstances. It depends on: their level of essay trip, commitment, their tolerance for and ability to implement change, how busy they are, what they know about art institute process improvement in general and CMMI in use of dash in essay particular, and it depends on where they are as a starting point and how much of the organization they want to include in the rating. Working backwards from the appraisal itself (NOT including process changes to incorporate the CMMI practices or goals--only for planning and conducting the appraisal), the absolute minimum calendar time a company should expect between when the starting gun is fired and when they cross the finish line is a simple matter of logistics.
Probably about art institute a month if they're lucky. Use Of. Two months would be more realistic. Essay. These 2 months, of course, are just the successful graphic design letters logistics and prep-work necessary to plan and art institute essay, conduct the appraisal and the activities that lead to an appraisal. Obviously, this time frame would only be realistic if the company was completely ready for the appraisal, had done all their homework, knew exactly what the state of their process implementation was and were literally trying to do nothing more than figure out how much time they had before they could conduct the appraisal. Of course, such a company wouldn't be asking the question. In Essay. They'd already know. So then there's almost everyone else. Everyone else needs time to first determine where they are in their implementation of CMMI practices. Essay. This is like saying, first we need to. find out successful cover letters how much excess fat we're carrying around. A trip to art institute essay the right physician would answer this.
For CMMI, it's called a Gap Analysis (a term we, here, don't like because it presumes something's missing where we prefer to research merely look at the Present State ) and can take a week or two. Then, depending on those factors bulleted earlier, the essay gap found by the analysis would need to be filled. This is the part where a company would need to figure out writing descriptive exercises what it's optimum sustainable diet and exercise routine should be, and, how long to stick with it to see the desired results. In CMMI v1.1, there were 25 Process Areas, and in art institute essay v1.2 and v1.3 there are 22 for CMMI for Development and Acquisition , and 24 for Services . There are two ways to look at them. The duration of the gap closure activities would also be a function of how many (and which ones) of the Process Areas the organization wanted appraised. Each of the Process Areas could be analogous to some aspect of a healthy lifestyle such as food choices, food quantity, shopping, cooking, meal planning, exercises, frequency, repetitions, technique, equipment, blood work, rest, stress management, work environment, time management, and so on.
Obviously, the more of the lifestyle someone wanted to essay mountain trip adopt, the essay longer it would likely take. Once a gap is filled (i.e., the weight is lost and/or new muscle mass is added), an organization should give itself at least 2-3 months (on the short-project end) to 12-16 months (on the larger project end) to actually use their processes. This would provide them with enough data to actually conduct an math problems appraisal. However, the actual metric isn't the calendar , it's the cycle-time of their development processes. Essay. Often called their development life-cycle.
Clearly, projects that get from estimate to pregnancy in the united delivery ( life-cycle ) quickly are going through their processes and art institute, generating artifacts of doing so. This is the value to key off of moreso than the clock. On the fat-loss analogy, this would be like finding that point where diet and teenage states, exercise are enough to keep the weight off and art institute essay, one is research, able to demonstrate to art institute essay themselves (or others, as needed) that they can, in use of fact, live and sustain a healthy lifestyle -- in the face of temptation and other uncertainties. Once people internalize how process improvement works, how long it takes to earn a rating is art institute, a question such people stop asking. Like fat loss and getting into successful design cover shape, process improvement is a discipline backed by many best practices. And, just like getting into shape, people are still seeking a silver bullet. We, on the other hand, stick to art institute a healthy diet and competition problems, exercise program. Art Institute. When we're off track we know it. We gain fat and feel like crap.
When we're on use of dash in essay, it, we see the results. How much does it cost? A: If you've read the essay answer to the previous question and are still asking this question then you must really only writing psychology be wondering about fees, attributes of cost or other general costs. Art Institute. Otherwise, go and math problems, read the answer to How long does it take? because time is money and what it costs is largely a matter of what you spend time doing. As for essay fees, attributes of descriptive essays exercises, cost and other general costs, here's break-down of things that can or will cost you money towards being rated to a capability or maturity level of the CMMI: The Lead Appraiser will need time to meet with you to plan the appraisal, perform some preliminary evidence review (called Readiness Review) and then to perform the appraisal. The range of what Lead Appraisers charge is art institute, pretty wide. Most charge about $2000/day +/- $1000. Essay Trip. As a benchmark for your ball-park, the CMMI Institute has a small cadre of art institute essay, Lead Appraisers who can be hired (NOTE: only a few handfuls of dash in essay, Lead Appraisers actually work for the CMMI Institute, most are employees of other companies or operate independently of the CMMI Institute.).
Prior to essay transferring to the CMMI Institute, the SEI used to psychology research charge at least $1800/day from the moment they leave their home (or their last engagement) to the moment they get back home (or to their next engagement). They also charge for all travel expenses as well as time they spend away from your site to do their preparatory and concluding activities. Also, they will often work by the book. Meaning, a guidebook exists that assists with planning appraisals. The guide suggests that, based on essay, the scope of the appraisal, appraisals be scheduled for a certain duration and writing essays exercises, not be condensed into fewer days and art institute, longer hours.
Lead Appraisers are free to math charge whatever they want. Art Institute. not many charge the way the SEI once did. (The CMMI Institute will have its own rates that, as of this udpdate, were not known to us at the CMMIFAQ.info site.) Someone will also need to provide Appraisal Team Training to the people you plan to successful design cover letters have on the Appraisal Team. This takes 2 days and is usually done by a Lead Appraiser, and best if done by the Lead Appraiser you plan to have doing your appraisal. So, plan on essay, the Lead Appraiser needing about 1-3 weeks to do the preparatory work for an appraisal, including Appraisal Team Training and at least one Readiness Review, and writing papers, then 1-3 weeks to perform the appraisal itself (depending on the scope), then another day to wrap-up all the paperwork. Appraisal Team Members. Every Appraisal for a rating is done by essay a team.
The minimum number of people is 4 and that can include the Lead Appraiser. Dash In Essay. Every person on the team must meet certain individual pre-requisites and contribute to certain team-wide qualifications. (More on that in answer.) It is best if the team's constituents include people from your company as well as outsiders. At the appraisal, if you don't have (and can't create) qualified people in your company to be on the team, then you will need to bring in outside team members. Essay. (Most Lead Appraisers keep these in their back pockets -- kinda.) Outside team members are essentially consultants and charge as such. You're doing well if you can get outside team members for $1000/day. This would be very high-value. And, if you're only pregnancy in the states essay charged for a day where 1 day = the date on the calendar, and not 1 day = 8 hours, you're doing VERY well. Process Improvement Consulting. If your organization needs to get up to art institute essay speed on in essay, CMMI, you'll probably do one of two things: (1) Look to hire an employee with the expected expertise, or (2) Look to hire a consultant with the art institute essay expertise.
Which you choose to do depends on your organization's needs. The pros and cons of either approach are a basic matter of business and strategy. Either way, there's a cost. Psychology. As for consultants, they're a lot like Lead Appraisers. And yes, many Lead Appraisers are also consultants. So, what and how they charge is largely up to them. Fees. There are no SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for art institute essay improving your processes, using their models, or getting an appraisal. The only fees charged by essay trip the SEI or CMMI Institute are for courses licensed by art institute essay them to the providers of such services, and for using their own in-house consultants or Lead Appraisers. There *are* fees for people using their materials when delivering licensed training. First of all, only mountain authorized or certified people can use the material and art institute essay, when such people do so, and the people in class want it to be official, there's a licensing fee that goes to the SEI and/or CMMI Institute.
Consulting firms can charge whatever they want and call it whatever they want, but if anyone is essay mountain trip, implying that there are SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for essay consulting or appraising, they're only implying this. What they're really doing is simply separating the writing descriptive exercises time you're paying for doing certain things from the time you're paying for doing other things. For example, they might say that there's a fee to file your appraisal results. Not with the SEI or CMMI Institute, there's not, but it does take time and it's reasonable for essay them to simply charge you some amount for the time it takes them to put in all the paperwork. Other General Costs.
As above, the only other general costs associated with an appraisal are: Official training, and your employees' time on the clock. NOTICE what's *NOT* in the list above: TOOLS. There is NO requirement for the purchase or use of any tool. Anyone saying that in order to comply with CMMI (or the appraisal) that you must purchase a tool, they're full of *crap!* Some consultants do use tools as part of their work and as part of you hiring them you are also buying a license to use the tool. That's OK. Since you will end up using the successful graphic design cover tool after they're gone, it's reasonable that you should pay for essay using something that is either the consultant's intellectual property, or something they bought and are bringing to essay the table. And, it's up to you if you want to art institute hire that company.
It's not reasonable for you to hire a consultant who tells you they use a tool and psychology, then tell them not to use it so you don't have to pay for their tools. Art Institute Essay. Many consultants work their pricing structure into the productivity and efficiencies they gain by competition using a tool and asking them to stand by their rates when you've asked them to leave their tools in the shed is art institute essay, not playing nice. On the essays exercises other hand, anyone telling you that if you don't buy their tool then you are not going to essay meet the CMMI's requirements or pass the graphic letters appraisal is FLAT OUT LYING LYING LYING. and should be reported to the SEI/CMMI Institute! And, you can do that by taking a number of actions listed here. What's involved (in getting a rating)? A: Um. that's a little broad, don'chya think? But, we get that question frequently enough so we might as well answer it. At least at a very high altitude.
There are three broad steps towards achieving a level rating: This is usually called a gap analysis or present state analysis. The right person to do this is someone who really understands the CMMI and art institute essay, how to appraise for the CMMI. Essay Mountain. Too often we get into companies who thought they were simply smart enough to do it themselves -- in some cases doing nothing more than downloading the model and reading it which is enough for very few organizations, but it's extremely rare. Even taking the SEI's licensed Introduction to art institute essay CMMI course(s) seldom provides enough of an understanding to determine, without any other direct experience, how closely your company is performing the expected practices of CMMI, or how your particular implementation of the practices will fare in an appraisal. Also, please don't make the following mistake: Assume you're golden just because you've been through an ISO 9000 audit, you've won the Malcolm Baldridge Award, or even been in an organization assessed to the intent of SW-CMM. We've actually found that prior experience with other process-oriented bodies of work can work against a company's true understanding of what CMMI is about, how to implement it effectively, and how to appraise their practices. Once you know what and where your gaps are in implementation you're ready for the next broad step. This is usually called, in CMMI circles, Process Improvement Although this step implies that your processes aren't up to math competition problems the task as they stand now, what it really implies is that you will likely be making some changes to your current processes as you implement CMMI's practices and the method you should follow is essay, one of writing, process improvement and not simply a re-skinning of essay, your paper trail. The entire purpose behind CMMI is that of performance improvement via process improvement , and companies that simply slap a layer of CMMI processes over top of what they're currently doing is not process improvement, it's death by process; it's WASTE.
It's come to descriptive essays our attention that CMMI has a reputation as being death by process as it is. We firmly believe that it's the latter approach towards CMMI implementation, as described in art institute essay the previous paragraph, that causes this, not CMMI. To be blunt (you're used to it by now, yes?), slapping CMMI over graphic design top of your existing process, those processes that you feel have been working all along, is a STUPID way to implement CMMI. On the other hand, if you do find value in essay practices CMMI promotes, then what you want to be doing is implementing them in a way that continues to writing psychology research provide you with the value-proposition of the art institute things you like about your current processes and psychology research, replacing or adding with CMMI those things that could use some strengthening. The smoothest way to this approach is by following CMMI as a guide to art institute building a systemic process improvement infrastructure. Again, please be advised that doing this on your own without a CMMI expert employee or consultant is successful graphic design cover, not advisable for the same reasons having an art institute expert is best for performing the present state analysis.
One last comment on this step (and it's a bit of an unsung truism about the CMMI): companies who are honestly thrilled with their current process and really have a handle on the outcome of their efforts are probably doing a lot of what the writing essays exercises CMMI would have you doing. Such companies may call their activities by different names, they might reach the goals in art institute a less traditional way, but ultimately, they are getting the job done and writing research papers, are still in business, so they must be doing things right. (Or at least doing the right things.) If this is you, then your effort towards implementing CMMI is going to be quite painless and enjoyable. Oh, OK. Essay. there really is writing descriptive exercises, one other important point: CMMI says precious little about organizational culture and leadership necessary to make any of this work. First and foremost, improving performance must address the art institute essay organizational psychology of the business. Math. If/when there are issues with the organizational psychology, they are nearly always a negative effect on art institute essay, improvement. Competition Problems. If the organizational culture and psychology are not conducive to improvement, give it up. Getting appraised is what most people think about when they are looking at CMMI.
The appraisal is what gives an organization their Level. Once the appropriate expert can make a sound call on art institute essay, your organization's implementation of the CMMI practices, you can start planning for an appraisal. Design Cover. Details of the appraisal are answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How does the appraisal work? A: NOTE: This answer is for v1.3 of the appraisal method. Users of prior appraisal methods may not recognize this. Just so you understand that the complete answer to this question is ordinarily delivered in 2 days' worth of training. We're obviously limited in what we can explain here.
We're going to pick up the appraisal with the portion of the appraisal that most people think about: the on-site period. It's that period of time when there's an appraisal team at your company and they're looking at your evidence and conducting interviews (or performing some other accepted form of verbal affirmation). Essay. It's at essay mountain trip, the end of this period that a company gets the art institute results of the appraisal and, when all goes well, a rating. So. Writing Papers. that's pretty much what happens at the appraisal: A team, lead by a Lead Appraiser looks at evidence and makes a judgment on that evidence regarding the extent to which the art institute essay it demonstrates that CMMI's practices are being implemented. There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and use of in essay, Affirmations. The evidence comes from the work products of actual organizational activities (projects, services, etc.). Essay. In actuality, instead of specifying that evidence come from design cover letters, projects the term is Basic Units. The number of projects (er, Basic Units) is a function of the organization to which the rating will apply.
You need a sample of art institute essay, Basic Units representative of the organization. Problems. And, no, you can't pick them, the Lead Appraiser works with you to pick them; and, no, you can't look at art institute essay, only the best aspects of the organization and trip, puzzle together all the good-looking evidence from essay, a bunch of different activities. The characterizations are then looked at in aggregate according to rules in the MDD across all Basic Units. Basically, after aggregating the use of dash characterizations across all Basic Units, no single practice can be characterized as less than Largely Implemented or it will spell disaster. Art Institute. Even then, if certain practices are found even Largely Implemented, and the appraisal team believes there's a pattern in what they're seeing that causes these practices to only be found as Largely Implemented, the team may still choose to say that whatever's causing these practices to not be Fully Implemented is worrisome enough to preclude the psychology research organization from achieving the goals of the Process Area, and if any goal in a Process Area isn't achieved, then it can't be said that the whole Process Area is art institute, being satisfied, can it? And, that, our friends, is how the appraisal works: it's a search for whether the organization is satisfying the goals of those Process Areas in scope of the appraisal. Basic Units are drawn from Sub-Groups. Competition. Sub-Groups are distinguished by a set of key factors that differentiate on Sub-Group from another. Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is whether or not the art institute processes and other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by teenage in the united essay different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the art institute essay effort.
Organizational Structure: if work is teenage pregnancy united, performed differently in different parts of the organizational structure. Art Institute Essay. Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Once you distinguish Sub-Groups based on these factors (and others, that you and essays, your lead appraiser may determine to be relevant), there's an equation that is used to ensure that the number of Basic Units chosen from art institute, each Sub-Group is representative of the size of the Sub-Group and is representative of the Sub-Group's sizes in relation to the entire organization under consideration. A: Ah-ha! Finally! A quick and successful graphic design, easy question! Who can do the appraisal?
A: Another quick and easy question, thanks! A Certified Lead Appraiser. Certified by who? The SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Lead Appraisers (as of this writing) have to qualify by essay surviving the following activities in this order (sort-a): Introduction to CMMI Intermediate Concepts of CMMI, or two distinct CMMI for Practitioners courses Being a team member on writing descriptive essays exercises, at least 2 SCAMPIs* SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training, various examinations throughout, and essay, Being observed performing a SCAMPI by one of a very few number of people the CMMI Institute trusts to do that sort of letters, thing *Participating on art institute, 2 SCAMPIs can happen any time after the Introduction to CMMI course but must happen prior to writing psychology research applying for SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training. The placement of SCAMPI participation is unrelated to when someone takes Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or the essay two CMMI for united states Practitioners courses. NOTE: There is a distinction for High Maturity appraisals and Lead Appraisers.
High Maturity are appraisals performed to a target maturity level of 4 or 5. High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLA) are required to take more coursework, more exams (written and oral), and to qualify in much greater depth of experience and knowledge in concepts found in essay the Maturity Level 4 and 5 process areas. For all SCAMPI A Lead Appraisers, the now obsolete designation was authorized. Authorized Lead Appraisers who have not moved forward to become certified Lead Appraisers (whether or not high maturity) are no longer qualified to perform SCAMPI A appraisals. Make sure your Lead Appraiser is qualified by papers asking them for this certification. Essay. (This certification does not apply to SCAMPI B C Team Leaders -- they are not certified, they remain authorized.) IMPORTANT! ALSO, as of math competition problems, v1.2 (2006) of the MDD:
The organization being appraised needs to have a contractual relationship with the Partner Organization sponsoring the Lead Appraiser performing the appraisal in order for the appraisal to be valid. This rule stayed in place in MDD v1.3. Can we have our own people on essay, the appraisal? A: Yes! Yes, in fact, it's encouraged.
The appraisal team must be at least 4 people strong (including the Lead Appraiser), and with your company's employees on competition, the appraisal team you increase the odds of essay, buy-in to the appraisal process as well as follow-up and follow-through on any recommended actions from the pregnancy in the united states essay appraisal. There are a number of qualifications potential team members must meet, the art institute most logistically challenging of mountain trip, them being that candidate team members must have had a licensed delivery of the Introduction to CMMI before going into the appraisal activities (which begin a month or more before the actual on-site period). A few other details are also expected which should be worked out between your company and your Lead Appraiser. Can we have observers at the appraisal? A: Let's first start by defining what an art institute observer is. An observer is someone who is not qualified to be on the appraisal team, or, despite being qualified is not actually on writing psychology research papers, the appraisal team, but is hanging around with the appraisal team while they do their thing. OK, got that? What sort of evidence is art institute essay, required by the appraisal? A: There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and Affirmations. For each practice in the scope of an appraisal, the requirement for evidence (in a SCAMPI Class A appraisal -- which we'll get to later) requires either Artifacts and Affirmations, or either Artifacts or Affirmations, as a function of the volume of work being appraised and several other factors determined by writing the evidence sampling rules. These are the actual product or output of following a procedure, performing a process or some direct or supporting output or outcome of implementing a practice.
It's fairly simple. If, for example, the art institute way you implement a practice says you are to problems fill out a certain template, then the filled-out template is a Direct artifact of the practice. It doesn't matter whether the artifacts are a direct work product of the process or whether the artifact is art institute, a clear support to writing essays performing the work necessary to produce a work product. Artifacts are simply something tangible coming from essay, having the practice performed. Sometimes these are agendas or minutes from use of dash, meetings where it can be seen that a certain topic was addressed, and it happens that working through the issue is, in essay effect, doing a practice.
Another common example would be where different versions of the dash same work product demonstrate that the work product was updated over time. And, successive versions would indicate that a process was in place to make the changes. If the practice says to art institute keep track of changes, these versions could be used to demonstrate that changes were made, and one could infer that there was some way to keep track of them even though the fact that changes were made isn't actually the same as keeping track of changes. Sometimes, it might even be something the appraisal team can observe while it's happening. All of which are tangible. Essentially interviews. These can also be obtained through other means such as surveys and demonstrations, most appraisals find it useful to conduct face-to-face interviews with the people who are actually doing the work, and graphic design cover letters, hopefully, performing the practices. Again, the mix of art institute, artifacts and affirmations are an important detail that follow specific rules. The rules themselves are HIGHLY context-dependent. You're best working with a Certified Lead Appraiser on essay, how to apply the rules to art institute essay your specific situation. The rules themselves are in the Method Definition Document (MDD v1.3).
Look for the terms Coverage, Sampling, or Data Sufficiency. How much of our company can we get appraised? A: The part of your company that gets the actual rating is called the Organizational Unit. This can be the entire company or only parts of it as determined by the types of work (and as such, the types of processes) the company wants the appraisal to be performed on, and as a result, the appraisal results to apply towards. How many projects (basic units) need to be appraised? A: NOTE: Since the SCAMPI (appraisal) method applies to more than just CMMI for Development, the notion of writing psychology papers, what is appraised is art institute essay, no longer limited to projects. The broader (if, admittedly, more vague) term, basic unit is used. Basic Unit is the name applied by the CMMI appraisal method to the dimension of work performaned by an organization as evaluated in an appraisal. In many cases, these Basic Units are discrete projects or types of graphic letters, services . But because projects or types of services don't always meet the essay needs of an appraisal (or of an organization scoping an exercises appraisal), we use Basic Units as a more generic term. Basic units are drawn from Sub-Groups of the art institute organization.
Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is writing descriptive exercises, whether or not the essay processes and other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is math competition, performed differently based on art institute essay, the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the effort. Organizational Structure: if work is successful graphic letters, performed differently in different parts of the organizational structure. Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in art institute the organization (mobile apps vs. Exercises. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Can we have more than one appraisal and essay, inch our way towards a rating?
A: No, At least not yet. Well, at least not in the way you're thinking. You can have as many appraisals as you want, however, at this time, if you want a Maturity Level rating (or even a Capability Level rating -- more on that later), you will only psychology achieve that if the appraisal looks at all the evidence for all the Process Areas in the scope of the appraisal in a single appraisal. There is talk afoot of allowing something like a cumulative appraisals where you can do some subset of an appraisal scope then come back and do a little more, and so on until you've completed the scope and then putting it all together for essay a rating, but that's not how it works today. If you do perform several appraisals where none (except, perhaps, the last) are for a complete Maturity Level, it would only serve to provide you a sense of how you're doing, you couldn't use the results of essay, those appraisals to art institute pare down what needs to be done at the appraisal you're conducting for all the marbles.
If we go for a level now, do we have to math competition problems go through it again to essay get to the next level? A: Yes. Competition Problems. Whether you are pursuing a Maturity or Capability level rating, you go through all the evidence again for whatever levels you achieved before. One reason is essay, that at this time there are no mechanisms in psychology research papers place to allow for cumulative appraisals, which is what would be necessary to art institute make this approach work. However, even more fundamentally, the appraisal team and Lead Appraiser can't be expected to math assume that there would be evidence from the lower levels to support the higher levels' activities. Even more basic than that is the fact that the levels support one another and it would be very unlikely that appraising to a higher level could be accomplished without evidence from the earlier levels. The only exception to this is if an essay appraisal is spread out over a period of time, and is, in use of dash in essay fact, one long appraisal.
The time-limit for essay completing a single appraisal is 90 days. How long does the certification last? A: Setting aside the fact that it's *NOT* a certification (See #1), the current answer is that Appraisal Results will be recognized by the CMMI Institute for three (3) years from date of the appraisal's acceptance by the CMMI Institute (or if prior to pregnancy in the essay 1 Dec 2012, by the SEI. What is the essay difference between SCAMPI Class A, B and C appraisals? A: The differences boil down to the level of rigor, and, as reflection of the level of rigor, to what the outcomes can be. How do we pick a consultant or lead appraiser? A: Anyone claiming to be a lead appraiser must be certified by the CMMI Institute to in essay do so. The CMMI Institute refers, collectively, to essay all people certified to writing papers perform CMMI-related work using their materials as a certified individual.
Thus, all actual lead appraisers are certified individuals. You can search/sort a list of such people here, and, specifically limit your search to lead appraisers. To narrow your search to a geographic area, you're better off searching for art institute essay a CMMI Institute partner. The partner search has many more ways to search, which includes limiting to a certain type of service offered. And then, once you find a partner, you can see the pregnancy united essay authorized individuals associated with that partner.
Caveat Emptor (buyer beware), and Pick one who you feel can understand your business and your needs; your context . WHY must the art institute essay buyer beware? Because interpreting models for how a given implementation can be done, and also recognizing that a given implementation of a model is a legitimate interpretation of the model are far from exact science. CMMI is a model not a standard, as we've said many times before. It's not something that, when applied, will look the same each time. Furthermore, as we've said, the use of in essay practices in art institute the model are not processes themselves, they are practices to improve processes. In Essay. It takes skill to effectively interpret the art institute essay model and graphic design, implement it in a given situation, and, it takes contextual relate-ability to appraise whether the model has been implemented or interpreted properly/effectively. Where can we see a list of organizations that have been appraised? A: Finally! A question with a simple, straight-forward and easy answer!
There are, however, a few points to keep in mind: Not all organizations have asked to be listed in the system, not appearing does not guarantee they have not been appraised. If an organization has changed their name after being listed, they will *not* be listed with their subsequent name(s), organizations are only listed with the art institute essay name they had when the use of dash appraisal was performed. Pay close attention to art institute the Organizational Unit (OU) (discussed on this FAQ here) of the appraisal. Though you may be interested in validating whether a company has been rated, it's rare that entire companies are rated (especially if the company is not small). A company may be listed, but the organizational unit in the listing may not be the same as the one you're looking for. Or, there may be several organizational units within a single company.
Do not take for granted that the organization you are researching is (or its people are) the same as the one appearing in dash in essay the system. Once all the appraisal data is art institute, fully completed and submitted to the CMMI Institute, it can take 30 days before appearing in math competition problems the PARS. Art Institute Essay. Most common causes of taking longer include: appraisal team or sponsor not completing their appraisal experience surveys, appraisal sponsor not signing the appraisal disclosure statement (ADS), or issues with the use of results that are being investigated by CMMI Institute's SCAMPI QA process. What happens when a company with a CMMI rating is bought, sold, or merged with another company? A: Current and prior versions of art institute, appraisals (through and including v1.3) are patently rearward-looking. Furthermore, in competition problems v1.3, explicit sampling factors were put in place to distinguish important characteristics of the organizations being appraised that may cause the circumstances and therefore the processes to change from one part of the operation to another. As such, the art institute essay only valid statements that can be made about an organization and appraisals performed on the organization are statements related to the specific organization named in the appraisal results at the time of the essay appraisal. What's the official record of the art institute appraisal results? A: The Appraisal Disclosure Statement (ADS) is the sole and entirety of the official results of the appraisal, regardless of what does or does not appear in the CMMI Institute's Published Appraisal Results System, (PARS). Nothing in any appraisal presentation, and unlikely anything to be found framed and on the wall at a company, or printed on a large banner and hung from a footbridge are official or complete indication of math competition problems, what exactly was appraised and the meaning and context of the results of an appraisal. (It's unlikely, but possible, that a company might actually frame their ADS.
It's several pages long; but in the spirit of avoiding any absolutes we can't prove, above, we used the phrase . and unlikely anything to be found. .) In any case, the ADS is generated by the Lead Appraiser after all the other data has been collected and submitted to the appraisal system. It's signed by the appraiser and the sponsor, and art institute essay, contains all the details of the writing descriptive essays exercises appraisal, its circumstances, the explicit organizational unit to which the results apply, and essay, the results themselves. If someone were serious about determining whether an teenage states organization has been appraised, when, to what end, and to what scope, they should request to art institute essay see the non-confidential parts (if any are even confidential) of the ADS. Can we go directly to Maturity Level 5? A: Technically, it *is* possible in the most explicit use of the term possible to be rated directly at maturity level 5. All this means (in the case of maturity level 5 for Development , for example) is that the organization was appraised performing the Specific Goals of all 22 process areas up to and including Generic Goal 3 of each process area. The fact that they were not level-rated before this results in the organization having appeared as achieving ML5 directly . What is the design cover letters difference between renewing the CMMI rating and trying to get it again once it has expired? A: Generally, the essay difference is only in how much preparation it takes the organization. In our collective experience, most 1 st -time ratings require some amount of dash, transition from the essay original present state of the organization's practices to some new present state of practice in later future such that they can attain the desired level rating.
Q: Can my organize go directly to a formal SCAMPI A without any SCAMPI B or SCAMPI C? Is it mandatory that before a formal SCAMPI A, formal SCAMPI C and writing psychology research, B should be completed? A: A: We've gotten this question more than a few times, so it's about time we put it onto the CMMI FAQ. This is true for *any* SCAMPI A--regardless of art institute, whether it is your second, tenth, or first, or any other SCAMPI A. CMMI, Agile, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. What if our development life cycle doesn't match-up with CMMI's? A: CMMI isn't a development life cycle. It's a model for building an improvement system to continuously improve very particular areas of what goes on during development, regardless of the life cycle. Successful Design. This is a central tenet of Entinex's approach to CMMI, by the way. Life cycles and management structures, Scrum, Kanban, XP, whatever, are not incompatible with CMMI because they're only related to CMMI in as much as they may cause you to do things that happen to help you improve what you do. CMMI is agnostic to *how* you manage your work, or the methodology you use to develop your products (or deliver services). CMMI is not where you'll learn how to build your product or deliver your services.
CMMI will not tell you how to art institute essay operate your business. Psychology Research. CMMI is only helpful if you already know how to do these things and is then used to improve your performance. Lifecycles are how you get things done. You choose them and CMMI can help you improve within them. Doesn't the CMMI only art institute work if you're following the Waterfall model? A: NO!
CMMI is not about development life cycles. While a fair criticism of CMMI is that many of the contributors come from a Waterfall- centric or a Big Plan Up Front, top-down way of mountain trip, developing wares, they were at least careful not to box anyone into following a specific development method. Essay. Nonetheless, it takes very deep understanding of the CMMI to writing descriptive exercises implement it, regardless of which life cycle you follow. Essay. We've got more to say on this, so check back in a bit. Meanwhile, you can browse over to our AgileCMMI blog. How does CMMI compare with ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL? (or other standards?) A: While there is considerable overlap between these models, frameworks, and writing essays, best practices, they are different from each other and used for different purposes. People who ask this question come from one (or both) of two camps: They're just totally unfamiliar with CMMI (and/or the others), and essay, are asking innocently enough, and/or They just look at CMMI (and the others) as some standard they need to comply with, and not as something that can make a positive difference in the operations of business. (We've found that last type common among government contracting officers.)
Let's address a question of standards first. The process areas and the practices within them are not intended on being or replacing any technical standard for use of dash in essay doing anything. Some process areas that share names with other familiar activities have volumes of standards already written for how to essay perform those activities. Many of the teenage united states engineering-oriented process areas come immediately to art institute mind such as Configuration Management and Requirements Development. And this matter brings up a very important, but often neglected, fact about CMMI: it is *not* a standard for technical activities.
And, for whatever CMMI *is* supposed to be used for, it does *not* a prescribe how to do anything in it. People who do not understand how we can try to get away with saying that CMMI isn't prescriptive and doesn't represent a technical standard are simply not fully informed -- or worse -- have been misinformed about CMMI. We'd really love an opportunity to set the record straight. CMMI is about improving management processes associated with developing and delivering technical products and services. CMMI is not about the technical processes needed to actually do the developing and delivering. The CMMI process areas are what the authors believe to essays exercises be important elements that contribute to essay a systematic ability to affect process improvement in and among (the management of) those technical process and writing research, practices that actually develop and deliver the essay products and successful cover, services. In essence, CMMI's process areas are the art institute essay things needed for process improvement of technical activities, not the mountain trip activities themselves. What CMMI is saying is:
In order to improve your processes, you need to essay manage your requirements, risks and configurations; you need to plan, monitor and control your projects; you need to writing research papers measure and analyze the output of your efforts; you need to actually pay attention to the performance of your project to art institute how well they follow processes and to whether your processes are working out for you. CMMI then says: if you really want to get good at these things you'd have be making a focused effort on your processes, you'd have standardized process assets, an organization-wide training program and a formality to descriptive essays your technical activities that might otherwise be left to fend for themselves. For the true process zeal: you'd be able to quantify the performance of art institute essay, your projects and processes and you'd be able improve them by focusing on what numbers tell you to focus on, not just what people gripe about the most. CMMI also says that if you're going to do a process, you should have a policy for doing it, a plan for it, resources, assignments, process-level training, stakeholder involvement, and other activities to make them stick. If process improvement is what you want, it only makes sense, doesn't it? (The types of activities mentioned here are from the process areas and generic practices, in states case they weren't familiar to art institute essay you.) You see, CMMI has a number of process areas that are needed for technical activities, but their presence in CMMI is because these process are also needed for process engineering just as much as they are needed for technical engineering. SO, if we disassemble a process area into its purpose and goals in light of the above understanding we will see that the purpose and writing psychology research papers, goals are not oriented at technical activities, they're oriented towards process improvement activities.
We can hope that in this context, the matter of whether CMMI is a technical standard can be laid to rest, and, we hope that we bring a deeper appreciation for how CMMI works. With that, we can simply explain that ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL have a different focus than CMMI, and just like CMMI has process engineering processes that sound similar to technical engineering processes, these other bodies of knowledge also have their similar-sounding activities that are needed and relevant for the purpose they each represent. Since this isn't a FAQ about ISO/TL 9000 or ITIL, we hope it's enough of an art institute essay answer for now to explain that wherever CMMI has a practice that seems like it's also in another body, CMMI does not innately conflict with the others. there are ways of essay, implementing CMMI that can make them all work well. however, an organization can go about implementing any practice under the sun that could conflict with some other practice, CMMI or otherwise, but it would not be because of anything in CMMI. Aren't CMMI and art institute, Agile / Kanban / Lean methods at opposite ends of the spectrum? A: Not at successful design letters, all.
We've got A LOT of content on this subject! Instead of being very redundant by art institute putting something here, please check out the blog on that topic, and the SEI's Technical Note, CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! . How are CMMI and essays exercises, SOX (SarBox / Sarbanes-Oxley) Related? A: They're not. Well. at least not in the way that many people think they might be. See, many people think that because the art institute Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (which we'll just call SarBox) frequently involves business process and IT infrastructure and related systems, that it involves CMMI. But, in actually, the connection to CMMI is rather weak and always is a function of the organization's intentional effort to connect the two. SEI / CMMI Institute FAQs. Why is CMMI Being Taken Out of the teenage in the united states SEI? A: CMMI and its predecessors have been worked on by SEI for over 25 years.
Much of it was funded by art institute essay the US Department of essay mountain trip, Defense (DOD). The DOD stopped funding CMMI several years ago. Art Institute. However, SEI is still an FFRDC (see here) funded by DOD. In part, for SEI to continue research development (RD) on CMMI, some of the support for that effort would be from money paid to the SEI by DOD for other RD. In 2012 the DOD decided that it wanted the SEI to focus all of its resources on evolving other technologies more urgent to DOD than CMMI and that the CMMI is mature enough to support itself. So, instead of dropping CMMI entirely, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is graphic design cover letters, creating the CMMI Institute to operate CMMI (and People-CMM and a few other things, eventually). Essay. CMMI Institute will be able to evolve CMMI in directions independent of the path it was on while within SEI. Who Will Operate the writing descriptive essays CMMI. A: CMMI will continue to be owned and operated by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) through a start-up entity is created in 2012 called the art institute essay CMMI Institute which will formally assume operation of teenage in the united states, CMMI on 1 January 2013 . This entity will be able to be more market-focused and art institute, industry-driven.
Research will continue, but the research will be more goal-oriented, and, CMMI Institute will operate more like a commercial business than an academic think-tank. The CMMI Institute will have to be self-sustaining since it won't have an automatic funding line from CMU (at least not a significant one) and use of dash, SEI will not be supporting it. What Will Happen to CMMI? Will CMMI Continue to be Supported? A: CMMI will continue to be supported by CMMI Institute. CMMI Institute will continue to support existing users while also orienting CMMI towards emerging market-driven needs. We can expect CMMI and its related products and services (such as appraisals) to be evolved in directions that make sense to meet many market segments and to appeal to audiences more broadly than the RD required of the SEI. We can also expect changes (improvements) in the variety of appraisals, the quality/qualifications of art institute essay, instructors and appraisers and even possible new designations for appraisals, appraisal results, and appraisers. Will CMMI Change? What's the Future of CMMI?
A: CMMI will stay the same for a while, but when it changes, anything is possible. While the current version and architecture of CMMI may continue to evolve along its current trajectory, this is states, only one possibility. When not directed towards DOD RD, CMMI can evolve along many new paths. For example, CMMI can branch so that there are different versions for different markets. It could split-up so that there are subsets that are re-packaged for different uses/users. Essay. Different types of appraisals can be created to meet demands not suitably addressed by use of versions through v1.3 of CMMI and the appraisal methods.
Imagine, for example, versions of CMMI and art institute essay, of appraisals that focus on ongoing improvement in bottom-line performance, or versions that meet the specific targeted needs of start-ups and their venture backers. Imagine appraisers and consultants specifically qualified to work with lean, agile, start-ups, enterprise, operational services, technical debt, or DevOps, each with a version of math problems, CMMI, training, and essay, appraisals suited specifically to teenage in the states essay their business and without the ambiguity currently experienced with only one version of everything for everyone.. These are the essay sorts of things possible now that were not available before. Will Appraisal Results Continue to essay trip Be Valid Once SEI No Longer Runs CMMI? A: Appraisal results achieved while CMMI was still under the SEI will still be valid under the CMMI Institute. Art Institute Essay. Appraisal results will expire as per their original expiration dates. Appraisals performed after CMMI Institute assumed responsibility for teenage pregnancy in the united CMMI will follow the same expiration rules per the version of the appraisal performed.
Changes to art institute appraisals, appraisal methods, appraisal results, and expiration will be made and deployed in a manner consistent with the needs of the market and ordinary refresh and release processes. It should be noted that SEI does not own the intellectual property or related assets of CMMI, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) owns them. Therefore, the backing of CMMI and the appraisals has been and will continue to be from essay, CMU. What Will Happen to Conferences and other CMMI-oriented Events Once Sponsored by SEI? A: SEI will continue to conduct and sponsor its own events and conferences, but they will no longer include CMMI as a focus. Art Institute Essay. Just as for other events and conference, CMMI can't be kept out of the public discourse and use, and, therefore, it's likely that conference/event content within an SEI activity would reference CMMI, SEI will not sponsor CMMI-specific events after 1 January 2013. Essays. CMMI Institute will be responsible for art institute its own choice of sponsoring and supporting CMMI events and conferences. While traditional annual CMMI-oriented events may continue to teenage pregnancy in the essay be run, it's also possible that there will be smaller, more frequent CMMI-oriented events that are more targeted either geographically or by market, or both. Will We Still Be Able to art institute Work with Our Current SEI Partner?
A: All current SEI Partners in good standing will be offered the teenage states essay opportunity to have their licenses continue to art institute oeprated under CMMI Institute. In fact, since the CMMI intellectual property belongs to Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the licenses are between the Partners and CMU, not SEI. Other than changes to references to SEI and essay mountain trip, website URLs, the change of relationship between the Partners and CMMI Institute will not change the relationship between you and your Partners. Isn't this just a cash cow for the SEI (now CMMI Institute)? A: Um, well, yeah. but as far as the SEI goes, they're just, in effect, a US Department of Defense (DOD) contractor in all this. You see, the DOD put out an RFP for some university-based research/think-tank to art institute essay come up with a solution to the problem of writing papers, abysmal performance of software projects. The SEI turned in the winning proposal and was awarded the contract for a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). FFRDCs are typically established, academic, not-for-profit organizations whose outputs are the intellectual property of the researchers' employers but freely distributed within the government and essay, anyone the government says can use it. And so, Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute (SEI) beat out the University of Maryland in the competition to be the FFRDC to solve the problem. Papers. The DOD liked CMU's proposed CMM (for software) approach for improving the quality, cost, and schedule fidelity of software development more than they liked U of M's Goal-Question-Metric approach. Art Institute. As a total aside, we find it rather a good chuckle that CMU now also teaches GQM!
But, we digress. SEI was mandated to work on and continuously improve the field and body of knowledge for software management and math competition, engineering. That's how we now have CMMI v1.3 and a bevy of other process, engineering and management tools, models, courses, etc., where we once started out with just CMM for software. So the bottom line is: Except for when companies *choose* to hire SEI for training or consulting, the SEI does not actually make money on companies who *use* CMMI. The majority of materials are free to use because they were developed with taxpayer money, and art institute, those things that aren't free are cost-recovery for use of dash administration of everyone using SEI services and licensed products. Let's be clear about art institute essay something: organizations do not need SEI to improve their processes, and if companies want to avoid what they perceive as high costs, they can invest a relatively small amount to trip grow their own internal CMMI and art institute, SCAMPI wherewithal. What makes SEI the authority on dash in essay, what are best practices in art institute software? A: Lest you think SEI is entirely made-up of ivory-tower academic pinheads, you'd be surprised to successful letters learn that SEI is still a university research institute, and as such is as worried as any business or school would be about their credibility, keeping their knowledge-base up-to-date with the latest research, techniques, technology and tools. Besides that, the vast majority of people who work on the CMMI come from essay, industry, not academia. Essay. The list of contributors and art institute, reviewers is as impressive as it is long.
While even we concede that the list is a bit heavy with companies who are Federal contractors and companies who can be described as large, deep-pocketed organizations with plenty of ability to research papers absorb overhead, if we want to be fair, we should note that such companies are not alone, and, that they were among the few companies who showed any interest when things got kicked off. Art Institute Essay. As CMMI adoption and essays exercises, exposure increased, so did participation and inclusion of art institute, smaller companies. It's not so much, then, that SEI is the authority, it's the collection of expert software practitioners from across the math problems business spectrum who are the art institute authority. The SEI just makes it possible for these people to get together and centralized. The question of whether or not there are actual *best* practices is out of scope for this FAQ. Mountain. Let's just agree that there may have been a better term than best for the collection of practices they put together.
Do the Lead Appraisers work for the SEI? A: Not all of them. Essay. In fact, only a few do. The rest are licensed to appraise through Partners (once known as Transition Partners), and writing exercises, some of them are also very part time Independent Consultants. CMMI Institute does, however, administer and train people to art institute essay be certified to take leadership roles and responsibilities for leading appraisals and in the states, delivering Introduction to CMMI instruction. In particular, CMMI Institute controls very closely how and art institute, when it allows people to use of in essay become SCAMPI Lead Appraisers. Even still, while the cadre of people with the authority to observe candidate Lead Appraisers on behalf of the SEI CMMI Institute is small, only a few of them are actually CMMI Institute employees. The rest are Independent Consultants who work very closely with the essay CMMI Institute. What's a Transition Partner? What's the Partner Network?
A: Transition Partner is the name previously used for pregnancy states companies/organizations in the SEI's Partner Network. In 2006, the name given to this program (and to these organizations) was changed from Transition Partner to Partner Network . Art Institute Essay. These are organizations (companies, individuals) who holds a license from the SEI and/or CMMI Institute to use SEI materials and perform official activities which are registered with the SEI and/or CMMI Institute such as formal, reported SCAMPIs and training. (NOTE: Some Partners still provide non-CMMI services and use non-CMMI materials that are still held within the SEI and have not (yet, if ever) ported over to teenage in the united essay the CMMI Institute with CMMI in December 2012.) The original term Transition Partner comes from the concept of essay, companies who are out in the field as SEI's partners helping other organizations transition to essay mountain trip using CMMI. Seriously, though, if you're still using or hearing the term Transition Partner, it's so totally last decade. All individuals wanting to be certified to do things using SEI content in any way must be sponsored through a Partner and pay a licensing fee for each credential they want to hold. How do we report concerns about ethics, conflicts of interest, and/or compliance? A: Waste, Fraud, Abuse, and Noncompliance with Policies Harms Everyone. If you have concerns about the art institute truth behind an organization's rating, or about the ethics, compliance or conflict-of-interest of a consultant or appraiser, we strongly encourage you to report these concerns to the SEI.
You may also want to in essay review the SEI's Partner policies, here, as well to ensure your concern is properly supported. All authorized and licensed individuals and art institute, organizations must operate through a Partner, so all investigations will include an mountain inquiry to the Partner. The Ethics and Compliance site is here, there you can also see other information on expectations and how to report your concerns. The US Hotline Phone Number (24/7/365) is: 1-877-217-6316, and. The direct reporting email address for Ethics and Compliance concerns is: [email protected] We sincerely hope you never have to use any of them, but if you do, we're very sorry. And, we hope you are undeterred from your process improvement aspirations. Can individuals be Certified or carry any other CMMI rating or special designation? authorized and/or certified as Instructors, Appraisers, and art institute essay, other designations, licensed partners to be able to use SEI intellectual property and to register appraisals with the SEI, Independent Consultantsof the CMMI Institute (i.e., part time or volunteer employees), eligible to research papers be appraisal team members by taking the licensed Introduction to CMMI and registering in the SEI's appraisal system, and other credentials that are evolving over time, and non-CMMI credentials as well.
But there are no designations conferred on essay, individuals specific to CMMI. So, if an organization is rated a Maturity Level X, individuals from that organization aren't imbued with their own crown of Maturity Level X. Anyone claiming something like that (we've seen this on descriptive essays exercises, many resumes) would represent a gross misunderstanding by the individual and/or a terrible lack of communication/training by the organization. Also, taking Introduction to CMMI , or even the next class, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI , does not designate a person as a certified or authorized CMMI consultant. (We've seen that too.) Currently, there are no SEI-authorized Certified CMMI Consultant designations whatsoever, but that may be changing over the next few years. Is there required training to do CMMI? A: That depends on what you want to accomplish.
To just implement CMMI? None whatsoever. An organization can pick up the technical report that *is* the CMMI, read it, and start to art institute implement it. SEI and CMMI Institute require no training to do that. To be completely blunt, however, we have not found a single company yet who could take this layman's approach and essay trip, make it work for art institute them -- whether to get through a SCAMPI or just realize improvements. There are just some things that a few hours with someone willing and qualified to explain everything -- at least as far as using the model effectively and/or getting to/through a SCAMPI is trip, concerned -- to make a world of art institute essay, difference between success and teenage pregnancy united, disillusionment. (Entinex -- sponsor of this site -- does that in a 4-hour session we call our Crash Course.) To be on a SCAMPI team, a prerequisite is the Introduction to CMMI course. Then, in preparation for the SCAMPI itself, team members receive Appraisal Team Training from the Lead Appraiser (or an alternative qualified individual) prior to art institute the appraisal -- but this is part of the writing descriptive essays appraisal process and not training that must be delivered by CMMI Institute or a Partner. To be an Introduction to CMMI Instructor, one also needs Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for art institute essay Practitioners courses, the writing descriptive exercises CMMI Instructor Training course and then be observed delivering the course before becoming authorized to deliver it on essay, one's own. To be a Lead Appraiser, one needs Introduction to essay mountain CMMI , Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, to participate as a team member on art institute essay, two SCAMPI appraisals, the SCAMPI Lead Appraiser course and descriptive essays exercises, also to be observed leading a SCAMPI appraisal. CMMI for Services has additional requirements for becoming an art institute instructor. High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLAs) require additional coursework and essay mountain, exams.
Applicants for art institute essay all authorized or certified roles will undergo a resume review of experience and qualifications in appropriate areas consistent with the designation they are pursuing. Who can provide CMMI-related training? A: The CMMI Institute itself, and people certified by the CMMI Institute *and* working through a Partner can deliver any training they are authorized to deliver -- if the expectation is that there will be some official registration of the that training event. If there is no such expectation of a Certificate of Completion, or, if there is no intention of using the training as a pre-requisite to future activities, the training is essay mountain trip, not controlled by the CMMI Institute since they would never know about art institute it. Be sure to be clear with whoever you are receiving the training from about their authority to deliver the expected outcome. There are several accounts of companies selling CMMI Training that are not officially licensed events and therefore lack the credentials to be registered with the CMMI Institute as ever having taken place.
What sort of dash, CMMI-related training is there? A: The following are the basic CMMI courses. The CMMI Institute also adds specialized courses all the time. Art Institute. Follow this link for the SEI's list of courses: Introduction to CMMI , and various 1-day supplement courses for each constellation, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI CMMI for Practitioners Understanding CMMI High Maturity Practices CMMI Instructor Training SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training SCAMPI B and C Team Leader Training. How can we learn about the appraisal process? A: For that we have some bad news. There are only three ways to learn about the appraisal process, and one of them is writing psychology, not recommended, and another requires a lot of commitment: Download the art institute Appraisal Requirements for CMMI and math competition problems, the Method Definition Document, and art institute, study them. Dash In Essay. Go through all the art institute training requirements of becoming a Lead Appraiser.
Hire someone who has done #2 to explain it you. Specific Model Content FAQs. What is the writing psychology exact difference between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9? A: It can be confusing. We've found it's especially confusing to people / organizations who see CMMI as being compliance -driven.
Mostly, because they don't see the art institute essay difference between monitoring and controlling the process and objectively evaluating the process. And, part of it is due to math competition the fact that these two phrases are incomplete. To understand these two generic practices requires that we read the complete practice statement, not just the essay title of the practice (which is good advice for use of dash any practice!) as we spell it out here. GP 2.8 is Monitor and control the process against essay, the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action . [Emphasis added.] In other words, GP 2.8 is tied to GP 2.2, Establish and maintain the plan for performing the process. We see many people / organizations confusing (or equating) the plan for performing the process with the process for performing the process. The plan addresses the resources, timing, tasks, and successful graphic design, so forth, for seeing that the process *will* get done at essay, the project level, not necessarily *how* it will get done. The plan is merely knowing how the graphic design letters process will be assured of getting done , not necessarily and not only about getting done right . Sure, it's common to find the process embedded in or referenced by the plan, but that doesn't eliminate the distinction between the plan(s) and the process(es). Effectively, you can monitor and essay, control the math competition problems process just as you would (and when you would) be monitoring and controlling activities of the project. Art Institute Essay. You could even be tracking them using similar metrics such as when did it happen, what happened, how many times did it happen, did it happen on time, did it use the expected resources, etc.
And, that's the real distinction between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9. GP 2.9 is Objectively evaluate adherence of the process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and teenage pregnancy in the states, address noncompliance. That focus is art institute, clearly on mountain, the *how* of the process and whether the *how* was done as expected. An organization may execute a process according to art institute essay its plan, but do so in a way entirely not according to the process (even in a good way), and conversely, the competition problems process could be performed exactly according to the process expectation, but done entirely late, or taking too long, or not by the right people. Hence, the distinct activities of checking that the process was done *both* according to plan, *and* as expected to be done. Thanks to Gino Tudor for asking this question! Why is Requirements Development (RD) in Maturity Level 3, and Requirements Management (REQM) in Maturity Level 2? A: We've received variations on this question often enought that we might as well put the answer on this site.
GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management seems like it would be satisfied by art institute meeting SP 1.6 and 1.7 in PMC but that doesn't seem to pregnancy united states essay meet the institutionalization. Would the essay OPF and OPD SPs also need to be met to trip meet GP 2.10? A: PMC is project-level statuses with whomever may be relevant to a project to be part of this statusing. Art Institute Essay. Whereas GP2.10 is process-oriented review of process performance with a level of management with the mountain trip authority to affect process changes resulting from the essay review of process performance. CMM, CMMI, and SCAMPI are ® registered in the U.S. Patent and. Trademark Office by writing papers Carnegie Mellon University.
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