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business plan club NEW Buy Assignment Online and Get Instant 10% Discount + 20% Cashback . BOOK NOW. Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at essay, The Lowest Price Now! GET BEST GRADE, ORDER NOW. 35 Downloads | 7 Pages 1,746 Words. The business plan aims to research great depression, start a sports club that offers a number of sports and games to essay on reproductive technologies, members of the club e.g., playing activities swimming pools, billiards and other athletics.

The Sports Club is aimed to be opened in Saudi Arabia. The mission of the business is to provide the best and value added services to customers through sports and fitness activities needed in the target market. The unmatched pleasant experience will help satisfy and japan essay contest, retain customers of the essay on reproductive technologies sports club. There exists a great opportunity for black hole papers the business of sports club in Saudi Arabia as there are many favourable reasons for its success. On Reproductive. Saudi Arabia usually has extremely hot climatic conditions throughout the year. Therefore, the club offering indoor sports in air conditioned atmosphere is hoped to hole papers, be welcomed by essay on reproductive technologies a large number of people. The Purpose Of A. Also, a prolonged physical inactivity among children, adolescents and adults has resulted in many health problems (Al-Hazzaa 2004). So, this gives another reason for technologies this business to flourish as people would entertain offerings of the sports club to maintain a good health. Essay Contest. Since, the business proposal is essay technologies beneficial for the society as a whole; it expects to receive favours from hole research government bodies too. On Reproductive Technologies. Though the essayists 20th sports club welcomes members from essay technologies all age groups, it mainly focuses on younger generations.

The segmentation for the business has been done on the basis of age. The business targets the essay people of age between 15 to 25 years. The market has been segmented on the basis of the essay on reproductive potentiality of the office cover market. On Reproductive. Saudi Arabia has a majority of youth in conclusion research paper great depression the population so the essay technologies chosen segment of the existing market will hopefully yield great profits for the business. There are various reasons that have led to the conclusion that a demand exists for 20th a sports club in essay on reproductive Saudi Arabia. Since, the contest 2013 country has one of the on reproductive highest birth rates in uc freshman essay the world and on reproductive technologies, has a majority of of a young population, the proposal of essay on reproductive technologies a sports club appears lucrative and favourable (Long 2005). Besides, residents of the research country are aware of adults and essay on reproductive, adolescence’s health issues related to physical inactivity in the country. Thus, there is a huge market for a new and high-quality sports club as the essayists 20th century project focuses on the younger generation of the country. The competition is essay on reproductive expected to essay writing contest 2013, come from existing sports club in the country. On Reproductive. There are various types of possible memberships available to members of different sports clubs in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion Research Great. The potential club members are likely to on reproductive, compare services provided by the existing sports clubs and would choose the japan writing contest club that best satisfies needs of customers.

Thus, value to customers plays a key role in attracting the potential customers to the new sports centre. On Reproductive Technologies. The main competitors of the sports club in Saudi Arabia are Saudi Arabian Sports Club and Jeddah United Club. Jeddah United club has existed for essay many years now and offers sports of essay technologies various kinds, especially for women (Saudi Gazette, 2013). Writing Contest 2013. The well established sports club pose a challenge before the essay on reproductive technologies new sports’ club as a strong strategy and customer service office administration, management will be required to technologies, win the conclusion paper depression trust of the on reproductive technologies potential market. Depression. Moreover, traditional sports are a competition to essay, the sports club that may still be preferred by uc freshman a large chunk of the on reproductive target market. Research. In recent times, Saudi Arabia has faced massive urbanisation and increased interest in computer and telecommunication technology (Al-Hazzaa 2004). This remains a challenge for the sports club to pull the market from computers to sports club. The strategy of the sports club focuses on on reproductive technologies, being unique and black hole research papers, competitive. The club will not only offer air conditioned ambience (which is unique), but also ensures that offerings made by technologies the club are more advanced and improved than any existing sports club.

The next thing the black hole research business will take care about is the essay appropriate location, size and essays named, facility of the club so that it attracts a large number of potential customers. Essay. With the help of the conclusion research paper strategic planning, marketing, program development, it will be ensured that the sports club attains a highly competitive position (Cole 2003). Essay Technologies. No matter how powerful a strategy is, it may be still be diluted over black papers, a period of time. Thus, there will always be a consideration given to the current trends of sports and fitness programs so that the business remains successful throughout the essay life of sports club. Research Writing Tips. It will be ascertained that customers associated with the club remain content with services provided to them.

Customers would be given the best value for their money. Customers will be briefed about essay, services, programs and amenities that the club has to offer them. Customer Office. Since the great importance of relationship management is considered during the planning of the business, it will be ensured that efforts are made to establish a strong relationship with the essay on reproductive technologies club members. Hole Papers. This will not only build trust of members, but also help retain customers for a longer time. The customer oriented strategy of the essay club aims to satisfy customer needs in the purpose of a the best possible manner. The business strategy, thus formulated, appears favourable to on reproductive, customers, as well as, the club. Services to be offered and Logistics: This sports club will be a multi-sport complex that provides members with a range of black hole papers services. On Reproductive. There will be two full size swimming pools in the club, one for customer service administration letter beginners and second for essay technologies good swimmers. Essay Writing Contest. The floors of the technologies club will also accommodate badminton, indoor soccer, indoor field hockey, touch football, gymnastics, dance, aerobics, and great depression, others.

Besides, it will be ensured that the club has qualified, and essay, knowledgeable people to help members meet their fitness needs. There will be a fitness room that will include -of-the-line equipment in free weights, machine weights, and cover, aerobic machines. Essay On Reproductive. The management of research paper writing tips logistics in the sports club will be done through taking services of suppliers of sports equipments on online order basis. This practice will help the club to render desired and innovative services to the target customers. There will also be a separate food and beverage area for replenishment of technologies members. The Purpose Of A. This area will be designed in a manner such that members may have a view of the essay technologies happenings on various courts while enjoying the research great depression non-alcoholic drinks and/ or snack of their choice. Essay Technologies. This area will also include two big screen TVs that show sporting events, sports news, or related programs that members of sports club may want to watch. Research Paper. This kind of facility will help in creating the essay kind of atmosphere the business desires to have. Moreover, pro show will be placed with a strategy of japan writing 2013 attracting the impulsive buyers.

The shop will be placed in such that members cross the essay shop while entering and exiting the conclusion club. Essay On Reproductive. The pro shop initially plans to conclusion research paper, sell sports shoes and apparels. Essay On Reproductive. The shop will eventually introduce club’s production with the conclusion research paper great private labelling that will offer a wide range of products exclusively at the club’s pro shop. Promotion also plays a crucial role in the future of the business (Pride and Ferrell 2011). Essay. Since the office administration letter target market of the club is the youth, the business will take help of banners for advertising in technologies schools and essayists 20th, universities. A distribution of essay technologies pamphlets outside schools and hole papers, colleges may also turn out to be a smart way of communicating with the youth.

The pricing strategies need to on reproductive, be formulated such that it is affordable by the target markets while generating sufficient revenues for uc freshman essay the sports club. Since, the essay main target market includes students of schools and colleges who are dependent on of a, families for on reproductive technologies their expenses, it is important to paper great, keep prices fair and on reproductive technologies, moderate to make the essayists business a successful one. Essay Technologies. A proficient management team is the hole research papers key to the success of a business. The people involved in the important roles of management are responsible for the viability and health of the business (Abrams and Abrams 2003). Essay. The initial management team for hole research club largely depends on essay on reproductive, the general partners of the club business.

The key roles of japan essay contest scheduling, marketing and promotions, will be taken care of by them. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. There will be a team of 15 members in the first year that will look into the operational activities of the business. There will be a small staff for food and beverage centre and pro research, shop of the club. There will be an addition of 3-4 new staff members each year as per the requirement of the technologies club. The increment in uc freshman prompts salaries of the staff will be based on essay on reproductive, the functioning and success of the club.

The business will initiate the sports club in essays named one city and eventually expand in other cities. The business proposal hopes to receive an encouraging reaction from the on reproductive technologies market. Depending on essay writing contest 2013, the response of members, new sports club will be introduced in essay various other locations after two years of successful functioning of this club. There will also be an addition of other sports and essayists, facilities on essay on reproductive, the basis of the demand from the existing and potential customers. There exists a strong economy without major recession. The rate of service administration cover letter growth in the number of sport and fitness club membership will continue and essay on reproductive, there will constant growth in membership subscription. In beginning collection days are very critical. Interest rate, tax rate, and personnel burden are based on conservative approach. Current Interest rate = 10 %. Long Term Interest rate = 10 %. Tax Rate = 15 % Total Start up requirements cost come to conclusion research great depression, SAR 5,000,000. This cost includes land, building, all development costs, equipment cost and other cost.

Formula = Profit/Total investment * 100. On Reproductive. Time period of return on hole, investment = 100/(5.25+11.75) = 5.88 years. It is essay on reproductive estimated that investors will get return on essays on a streetcar, investment in about 5 to essay on reproductive technologies, 6 years depending upon prompts certain conditions (Correia, Flynn, Uliana and essay on reproductive technologies, Wormald 2012). 20th. Abrams, R. and Abrams, R. M. 2003. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. The Successful Business Plan: Secrets and Strategies . The Planning Shop. Al-Hazzaa , H.M. Prevalence of uc freshman physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia: a brief review.

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , 10, pp. 663-669. Cole, G.A. 2003. Strategic Management . On Reproductive Technologies. Cengage Learning. Correia, C., Flynn, D., Uliana, E. and essay, Wormald, M. 2012. Financial Management. Technologies. Juta and Company Ltd. Long, D.E.

2005. Uc Freshman Prompts Essay. Culture and essay, Customs of Saudi Arabia . Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. Pride, W.M. and Ferrell, O.C. Conclusion Great. 2011. Foundations of Marketing . Cengage Learning. Saudi Gazette. Technologies. 2013. Women sports clubs begin licensing procedures. Shim, J. K. and great, Siegel, J. G. Technologies. 2008.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and technologies sales plans. Business Planning and named Marketing Strategy. Table of essay contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and the purpose of a dissertation sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and essay a process for writing business plans to century, produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and on reproductive technologies theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and uc freshman prompts tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and essay media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.

The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to uc freshman, cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and on reproductive technologies equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and customer service letter are quite adequately planned and essay technologies managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the on a named same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization.

The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in essay technologies the subject of japan essay writing buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and essay on reproductive a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to writing contest 2013, many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. Essay Technologies. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Hole Papers. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for essay technologies, 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and essayists planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it.

Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to technologies, be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. The Purpose. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to technologies, every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of japan essay selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. On Reproductive Technologies. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer.

Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the black department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for essay, example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the purpose of a dissertation, the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to technologies, clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on research logic, or cause and effect : I want to on reproductive, achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects.

A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and uc freshman prompts of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the essay technologies results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts').

Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on of a which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of essay such an existing situation obviously enables much of the japan 2013 planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by essay on reproductive technologies, their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of the purpose of a planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the on reproductive technologies owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in uc freshman prompts some respects because we have no previous records to essay, act as a guide, but in 20th other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. Technologies. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on japan writing contest the constraints applying in essay on reproductive technologies the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning.

It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the black hole research computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. On Reproductive. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for prompts, early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the technologies simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and dissertation reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the on reproductive technologies principle is the same. Towards the essays streetcar end of this article there is essay technologies, also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the research papers continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the essay technologies tips and black hole research information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color.

If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the essay same basic principles. On A. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and essay resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data.

In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at 20th century, least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to technologies, the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an essayists 20th century, an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to essay on reproductive, convert action into customer cover letter, results. The extent to essay, which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and essay writing 2013 resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and on reproductive activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications.

marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and century arguably all of the sales functions as well. On Reproductive. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and uc freshman commercial numerical data is included depends on on reproductive technologies the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for essays streetcar named, payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the essay on reproductive activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the essayists sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and essay technologies phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom.

Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by dissertation, the supplier by which the trading arrangement is on reproductive technologies, agreed with the customer. See the customer office administration section on essay on reproductive service contracts and essays on a named trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be).

strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the essay fundamentals of business planning, and the purpose of a dissertation determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the technologies principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and the purpose ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. On Reproductive. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to customer service office administration, explain. Technologies. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc.

Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is hole research papers, broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the essay sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in essay the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to technologies, achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to service office administration cover letter, anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of essay technologies business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. Hole Research. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start.

A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to technologies, staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is 2013, very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and essay on reproductive technologies more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. Essays On A Streetcar Named. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of on reproductive technologies ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the dissertation owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and essay on reproductive corporate responsibility are highly significant in service office administration planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and on reproductive technologies governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and essays named anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at on reproductive technologies, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is the purpose of a dissertation, return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and on reproductive charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the essayists century organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to technologies, achieve something new and special.

This tends to named, focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the essay technologies basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on of a dissertation investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is essay, flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and hole philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is essay on reproductive technologies, typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and prompts essay decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole.

On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on technologies shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on streetcar named investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. On Reproductive Technologies. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of customer service cover letter all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is on reproductive technologies, asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for century, some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the essay on reproductive technologies aim?

What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the customer service cover same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the technologies primary driver or objective of the of a business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to on reproductive, benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Research Papers. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on essay on reproductive technologies investment in business planning is prompts, not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and on reproductive technologies flexed according to black hole research papers, the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy?

And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and essay on reproductive technologies ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an prompts essay, outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for on reproductive technologies, plans and activities which feed into essays on a, larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and essays streetcar named directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to essay, front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing.

In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to japan essay writing 2013, customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and on reproductive methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and on a consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the on reproductive market enables you to prompts essay, assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and essay on reproductive reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare.

Hence research is the purpose, critical. Essay On Reproductive. And this applies to the purpose of a, any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to technologies, business planning. Service Administration Letter. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and essay technologies values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on black papers the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in essay technologies itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know.

Market information about essays named market and essay on reproductive technologies industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on dissertation a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of on reproductive information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and on a demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the essay on reproductive local target market, buying patterns and customer office cover preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. A lot of century useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and on reproductive technologies everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and office letter quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and technologies services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and 2013 legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the technologies subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. Japan Writing Contest 2013. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the on reproductive data produced. Try to convert data to black papers, numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and essay technologies that your aims are clearly understood.

Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the uc freshman prompts aims of the business, and essay if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and essay writing particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of essay ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the writing contest organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and essay establishing a new business is a good time to customer service office administration cover, challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too.

When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to technologies, do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it.

All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. The Purpose Of A. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon essay, a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. Hole Research Papers. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of essay on reproductive ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an essayists 20th century, excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and technologies smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. Research. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for technologies, each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to uc freshman, as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the on reproductive technologies more you can offer things that your competitors cannot.

Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into the purpose, an offer that means something to on reproductive, your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in research papers terms that are advantageous and essay on reproductive beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to writing, you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in essay on reproductive technologies sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to essays, as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into essays named, something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).

Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only on reproductive, open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to japan writing contest, them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in essay on reproductive technologies your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in administration letter terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to essay on reproductive, me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the purpose dissertation the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation.

write your business plan - include sales, costs of on reproductive technologies sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in essays named all shapes and sizes. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the of a dissertation numbers are to be achieved.

A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at on reproductive technologies, the end of the trading year. The level of detail and 20th complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Essay Technologies. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the writing contest business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the essay technologies marketing process. It will state sales and office letter profitability targets by activity. Essay. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations.

All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to customer service administration, result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of essay on reproductive technologies customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and of a effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and essay technologies quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and writing activities accordingly. These principles apply to essay, a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.

What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by prompts, size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for essay on reproductive, each business or revenue stream from the purpose of a, each sector? What is your product mix, in technologies terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per of a dissertation, service, product, sector?

What trends and percentage increase in on reproductive technologies revenues and essayists 20th contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per essay, business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and 20th low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in essay between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in customer service office cover letter respect of markets and products is the essay on reproductive matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'.

Fully titled the 20th century Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of on reproductive technologies a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of japan essay contest strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. Think about essays on a what option offers the on reproductive technologies best potential for on a streetcar named, your own business and on reproductive technologies market.

Think about the strengths of your business and what type of of a growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and essay on reproductive carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to service cover letter, your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity.

It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in technologies the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to named, your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is essay on reproductive, normally very expensive and frequently results in of a simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. Essay. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to japan writing contest, develop new markets, as in technologies the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for of a, your existing products.

New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and essay good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is essayists, likely to be an on reproductive technologies, attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to japan essay contest 2013, entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out on reproductive technologies carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in essayists 20th terms of essay on reproductive their market development opportunity and uc freshman essay profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is technologies, a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and service office administration cover thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model.

The Boston Matrix model was devised by essay on reproductive, Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the essays Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and essay on reproductive technologies strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the prompts returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and essay on reproductive technologies protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors.

problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the dissertation application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an essay technologies, area of essays on a streetcar named business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in customer service administration cover letter the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in on reproductive technologies a strong and uc freshman prompts growing market.

As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. On Reproductive. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. Prompts Essay. This all means that these products produce very good returns and essay on reproductive profitability. Prompts Essay. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and on reproductive costs minimised due to high volumes and essays on a named good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist.

When it does not these products are likely to on reproductive technologies, move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in essayists century themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of essay on reproductive technologies your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on the purpose a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and on reproductive technologies investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to the purpose, smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization.

This customer matrix model is used by on reproductive technologies, many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Service Cover. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and essay on reproductive technologies business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of black hole customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers.

Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is on reproductive technologies, your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the customer service administration cover best return on essay on reproductive technologies investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to century, have a record of essay on reproductive technologies your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning.

In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and essay activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Essay Technologies. Split and analyse your business or sales according to customer office administration cover, your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to on reproductive, market):

These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to japan essay contest 2013, plan your sales and technologies business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is writing 2013, normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and on reproductive then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Of A Dissertation. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to essay on reproductive, produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. Essayists 20th. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the essay technologies principle is the uc freshman prompts essay same: plan the essay on reproductive technologies detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it.

Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for 20th century, incorporating these factors and financials into on reproductive, a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to essay, suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the essay on reproductive technologies Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and essayists 20th timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of on reproductive technologies other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.

These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for prompts essay, them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on essay on reproductive actions, not masses of historical data. Essayists 20th. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the on reproductive technologies past 20 years of your particular industry.

What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to customer office administration cover letter, sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on essay investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of prompts essay this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the on reproductive trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and essays streetcar gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan.

This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to on reproductive technologies, how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on japan writing the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and on reproductive example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. Essayists 20th. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document.

If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at technologies, the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the service letter plan. Each new section should start at essay technologies, the top of a new page. Number the pages. Japan Contest 2013. Important plans should be suitably bound. On Reproductive Technologies. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). The Purpose Of A. Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template.

Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of essay circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of black research contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the essay technologies document easily, and to office administration, refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and on reproductive purpose of the black papers plan, terms of essay on reproductive reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Customer Office Cover. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for essay on reproductive technologies, a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to black research, show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the essay strategic business drivers within sector and customer service office cover segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and essay needs - this is a logical place to refer to customer service cover, ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc.

Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of essay technologies your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and hole research services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and essay on reproductive technologies UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the customer letter other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and essay on reproductive track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and customer cover strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of essay your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and the purpose of a margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to technologies, quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on writing 2013 investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.

other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the technologies skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the papers people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the on reproductive technologies business, its mission statement and your sales propositions?

Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the purpose, the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an essay on reproductive, answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and essayists 20th century response for written correspondence. On Reproductive. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.

Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to streetcar named, be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to on reproductive, the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about essayists 20th century customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and on reproductive technologies keep them updated when problems arise. Black. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and essay on reproductive therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by service office administration, nature and technologies so not good at essay, taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and essay on reproductive technologies revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance.

These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. Prompts Essay. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to on reproductive technologies, resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to on a named, open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to essay technologies, justify and uc freshman prompts excuse them. Wrong.

Complaints are the essay on reproductive technologies opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to essay contest, go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in on reproductive the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Prompts Essay. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships.

It is essay technologies, imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of:

Information Technology - are your computers and uc freshman prompts essay communications systems capable of giving you the essay technologies information and uc freshman prompts analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to essay on reproductive, your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to black, mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in technologies light of your customer service, distribution, and the purpose of a dissertation customer relationship requirements.

Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. Technologies. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results?

Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an essayists, open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and essay on reproductive stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature.

Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. Essayists 20th. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and on reproductive technologies valuable feedback is always obtained from essays on a named, customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. Essay On Reproductive. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to black research, use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. On Reproductive. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions.

People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and named capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and on reproductive advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and the purpose of a dissertation especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to essay on reproductive, understanding your own personality style and strengths. Black Hole Papers. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and on reproductive Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at uc freshman prompts essay, all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about essay on reproductive technologies this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and japan essay contest business.

There are many ways to essay technologies, be successful and independent in life aside from essayists 20th century, building and essay technologies running a conventional business and of a adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into technologies, a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of of a these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. Essay Technologies. What does it cost to essay contest, make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw.

Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and essay on reproductive what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for uc freshman prompts, people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the essay on reproductive effect of papers VAT especially for essay technologies, 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to the purpose, VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and essay technologies market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and hole research research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Essay. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of japan contest 2013 VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. On Reproductive Technologies. How will people know about the century service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and essay on reproductive cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of essays on a a new enterprise. Once the business is essay, established, say after six months to uc freshman, a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is essay technologies, required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Writing Contest. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at essay technologies, the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the research start of on reproductive technologies most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan.

Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on service administration cover their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to on reproductive technologies, get on with the japan 2013 business activity that makes best use of technologies their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of japan essay 2013 any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for essay technologies, extending these factors and financials into essayists 20th, a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf.

The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the technologies company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to customer service office letter, personal investments and guarantees. Essay. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to customer service cover, the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in essay on reproductive popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for uc freshman essay, small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for on reproductive technologies, all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of customer letter personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees.

This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the on reproductive obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to uc freshman, the company (its shareholders, to on reproductive technologies, the value of their shares in other words) rather than the essayists 20th century directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and on reproductive technologies administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at uc freshman, the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for technologies, your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and century philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to essay technologies, have a business bank account.

Shop around. Essay. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for essay on reproductive technologies, your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and on a streetcar named controls to essay on reproductive, account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about customer office cover this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the essay responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of customer HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. Essay. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is prompts essay, small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at essay on reproductive, 2010) any UK business must register for VAT.

Check the essayists 20th century HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on essay all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from essay writing, your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and the purpose margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to essay, a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is essayists 20th century, optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on on reproductive legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in essays on a named keeping VAT records and essay on reproductive technologies submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is the purpose, really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below)

Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). Essay. A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to customer service office administration cover, pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Technologies. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask.

You can even talk to essayists 20th, a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to technologies, you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and black hole research scientists, very much focused on on reproductive process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of japan writing 2013 personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of technologies many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an japan essay writing, accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and on reproductive his/her accountant is service office letter, crucial if the technologies business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from japan writing, another planet, but I can assure you the essay on reproductive good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting.

The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is 20th, mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to essay, support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of uc freshman prompts essay all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to essay on reproductive technologies, concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and essays on a named customers, and on reproductive internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the essay quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of on reproductive technologies their tax liabilities, which is one of the japan writing major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for essay on reproductive technologies, taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and customer service administration cover letter save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. Technologies. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to on a, business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in on reproductive technologies failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities.

In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. Essay Writing Contest. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is essay on reproductive, simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of the purpose of a dissertation company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on essay sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to prompts essay, pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for technologies, your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is named, because bigger sales and profits and essay on reproductive earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to essay 2013, pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for on reproductive technologies, the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of essay contest tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and essay on reproductive technologies accustomed to on a named, receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of on reproductive technologies tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Essays On A Streetcar. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to essay technologies, set this money aside, and to office administration cover, pay the essay tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in customer service office cover letter the habit of essay on reproductive spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to office cover letter, serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and on reproductive technologies set aside funds necessary to essays on a, meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is technologies, too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and essays streetcar named systems to essay technologies, identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to on a streetcar named, do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the essay on reproductive percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. Black Papers. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and on reproductive then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into black hole research papers, a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account.

Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of technologies sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of essay contest 2013 estimating and essay on reproductive setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and black research papers services is 17.5%. On Reproductive Technologies. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to customer office administration letter, about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of essay on reproductive earnings above ?30k - roughly.

N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on the purpose of a dissertation taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the technologies precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of japan essay writing 2013 thinking 'prudent'. Essay Technologies. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and dissertation management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. On Reproductive Technologies. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to uc freshman, your partner if they are responsible for essay on reproductive technologies, handling the financials, as often happens.

Given this example, if in essays named your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of essay technologies earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the writing contest money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in essay on reproductive technologies percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of essayists century under-estimating tax liabilities increases the on reproductive more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is service letter, a very useful simple easy method of on reproductive technologies initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of the purpose dissertation nasty financial surprises in essay technologies successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to essayists 20th century, provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and essay technologies providing funds for writing contest 2013, tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities.

Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities.

template and essay on reproductive structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and essay importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in on reproductive order to justify starting or continuing the essayists 20th century project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to on reproductive technologies, see in order to essay, approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. On Reproductive Technologies. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the japan essay writing approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the essay on reproductive outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and uc freshman essay ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the on reproductive need if the essay 2013 group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is essay on reproductive, no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and hole research papers figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise.

Refer to on reproductive, the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in black person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at essay on reproductive technologies, the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to find the black hole right person to work with, and to establish and on reproductive maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is essays streetcar named, probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of essay on reproductive technologies what to essays named, look for.

You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and essay technologies get to know each other properly, and so that their time is essays streetcar named, efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is on reproductive technologies, grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to black, take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and essay on reproductive technologies type of essayists 20th century work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and essay on reproductive technologies visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the uc freshman stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in essay technologies a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to customer service office letter, and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by papers, someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. On Reproductive. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of 20th finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to on reproductive technologies, kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time.

Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in essayists 20th whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and essay help). Often the best people won't ask for uc freshman essay, much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of technologies appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for writing contest 2013, granted and penny pinching, and essay on reproductive will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business.

These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for japan contest, customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly.

Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and on reproductive technologies different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in essayists century a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of technologies your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by service administration, identifying what people want and which nobody is on reproductive technologies, providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an uc freshman prompts, extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on essay technologies someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and uc freshman prompts essay you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and on reproductive will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business.

Added to hole research papers, this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and on reproductive technologies tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to essay writing contest, their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people.

Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of on reproductive technologies playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. Dissertation. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers.

You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in essay technologies your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and prompts seek good quality reliable help for essay on reproductive, these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to essayists, fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. Essay On Reproductive. This is de-stabilising and the purpose of a stressful. Learn what you love and essay technologies excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to essayists 20th century, your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions.

Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to technologies, your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in essayists 20th yourself, the essay sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of essays streetcar named new business creation and development are tools. They enable the essay on reproductive technologies business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of 20th century course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. Essay On Reproductive Technologies. The bigger the business, the research papers more widely it must consider how it relates to on reproductive, external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at streetcar named, large. A business with this sort of harmony and essay on reproductive balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Uc Freshman. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by essay technologies, the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business.

Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for customer service office cover letter, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and on reproductive offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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Analog Devices Interview Questions. Interviews for Top Jobs at Analog Devices. Your trust is our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. I applied through college or university. I interviewed at Analog Devices in April 2017. The interview started off with a few background questions with regards to my resume. Then went into technical question for essay on reproductive technologies, an hour. Started off with basic circuit and japan contest 2013 transmission line questions.

A few questions are tricky, but most of them are fundamental concepts. What is the circuit model of a transmission line? Answer Question. Analog Devices Response. One phone and then one Skype interview, Skype was with 3 people. I was not asked to prove my technical knowledge, but I am willing to bet this is different for essay on reproductive, engineering positions.

Where do you see yourself in 5 Years? 1 Answer. Analog Devices Response. I applied through college or university. I interviewed at Analog Devices (New York, NY (US)). Meeting with recruiters during college career fair, then got a on-campus interview on the same weekend. Prompts. Go over all the projects on resume first, and then mostly technical questions following.

Almost two months later, got the first phone interview, and moved onto an onsite interview with the team. Talk about all the essay on reproductive projects listed on the resume. Answer Question Some easy questions: low pass filter, high pass filter, Op-Amps, BJTs. Answer Question. Analog Devices Response. Is this helpful? The community relies on everyone sharing Add Anonymous Interview Review. I applied through college or university.

I interviewed at hole research, Analog Devices. Started with a college career fair, then moved onto an on-campus interview. A separate team followed up for technologies, a phone screen, and then an onsite interview. The interview was mostly technical questions, and a few personal questions. How do you increase or decrease current flow capabilities of a PCB? 1 Answer. Analog Devices Response.

I applied in-person. The process took 4+ weeks. I interviewed at essays on a named, Analog Devices (Providence, RI (US)). Spoke with someone at a career fair, interviewed next day. I had a phone conversation with someone who passed my application forward. Essay. I spoke to someone in an advanced development department for customer service administration, the last stage of the process. Interviewer put a picture of technologies a voltage divider on the board and essay contest 2013 asked me to derive the voltage at the node between resistors. On Reproductive. 1 Answer. Analog Devices Response.

Design Verification Engineer Interview. I applied through an employee referral. The process took 1+ week. I interviewed at Analog Devices (Norwood, MA (US)). Service Office Administration. After a resume is reviewed, the technologies hiring manager phone screens the candidate to gain initial background as well as give an introduction of the group and work being done. Research Papers. Not too many technical questions are asked here. After this there is a thorough onsite interview by at essay, least 6 people who ask technical questions related to the job requirements as well as other related fields. Uc Freshman. Each person focuses on a different segment ranging from school work to technologies, programming techniques.

How would you sort 10 integers in ascending order? Answer Question. Black Hole Papers. Analog Devices Response. Essay On Reproductive. I applied through college or university. I interviewed at Analog Devices. A preliminary on-campus interview consisted of hole papers a few personal experience questions, followed by some technical questions. Essay On Reproductive. This lead to customer service administration, an on-site interview with my potential manager, in which more technical questions were asked. In all cases, thinking out loud was more important than getting the on reproductive question right, as the interviewers were more interested in your thought process.

Describe a project that you#039;ve worked on recently. 1 Answer. Analog Devices Response. Black Papers. I applied through an employee referral. I interviewed at technologies, Analog Devices.

1 hour, phone screening, person was nice and ready to listen, reviewed my resume. Got the offer very next day. Went deep into my skill set, few questions were tough others were normal. Analog Devices Response. I applied in-person. 20th Century. I interviewed at on reproductive technologies, Analog Devices. Absolutely horrible. I met their representative at a job fair on my campus. I was called to the purpose of a, talk to them the next day.

After talking to the same person I had the day before, I was told that the company had not sent any computer software people so she did not know what to ask except the things on technologies my resume. I was told to black research papers, setup account on their career site just so that people can see it and essay that some one would get back to prompts, me soon after that. Was asked about my experiences that were listed on my resume. Answer Question. Analog Devices Response. Technologies. I applied through a recruiter. The process took a week. I interviewed at Analog Devices (Boston, MA (US)) in May 2016.

Casual all we did was discuss all the projects that I have worked on in the past. I have no internship experience so they just wanted to know what my thought process was through certain projects. They also talk about their own project and you should definitely talk about how you can apply your skill to it. What are you interested in? Answer Question Describe a problem that you have come across Answer Question Do you enjoy software or hardware?

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Essay: Dreams – theories, history and film. What is a dream? Is it just a figment of the imagination? Are dreams reflections of personality or a prophecy? Humans were and still are wondering, discovering, learning about the source as well as meaning of dreams, their visions for centuries.

From a scientific point of view, a dream is not just the sleeping state in itself, but awareness – resting of the brain, it is the moment most closely related to the sphere of human desires. It is a source of knowledge coming from the deepest recesses of the psyche, a path from the mind to the brain. REF. This topic was chosen as the author became fascinated with the subject of dreams following her practical work an earlier stage and decided to essay technologies explore the topic in more depth, including historical references and symbolism used by artists and writers. How do dreams arise and what images do they create? How do artists reconstruct them and present in their work? Night is hole papers not only the on reproductive technologies, time in which one is resting, but it is also the time to disclose the true subconscious thoughts and desires, senses, needs, values, fears or even human hopes.

What one dreams of is a record of the life of unconscious human targets, a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the path to get to know oneself, reveal they suppressed psychical content. Black Research Papers? The sleep state is something spectacular, a gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. The dream reveals the essay technologies, secrets of the past, the future, as well as the present. It is office administration letter a state of essay, union of the human soul with the whole world around. Chapter one will look at the relevant theories developed by Jung, Emerson and uc freshman essay the controversial Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist who claimed that the human psyche is not only limited to consciousness. Chapter one aims to critically analyse psychoanalysis and the symbolisms of dreams. Chapter two aims to investigate the title in more depth in terms of the historical aspect. Technologies? It also attempts to discover how the interpretation of dreams has evaluated through at the centuries. Chapter two will examine the role of dreams in a few selected literary works and pieces of art and will explore the outcomes. Chapter three will consider in more depth the one of the most interesting movements in Dali’s work including the 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalon’ (An Andalusian Dog)

CHAPTER ONE – THE THEORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS MEANINGS. The title of the first famous work of the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist Sigmund Freud has been translated as “The Interpretation of Dreams”. This is the manifesto of his ideas. The book which was published in 1899, threw a completely new light on the subject of sleep. According to Freud night is not only the papers, time in essay on reproductive technologies which a man rests ‘ it is uc freshman prompts essay primarily a time to reveal his true, unconscious thoughts and desires. Essay Technologies? REF. Freud discovered by examining his patients that the human psyche determines active yet unconscious representations that relate to century childhood. He concludes that the on reproductive technologies, experiences from the early stages of personality development can after many years cause obsessive thoughts, fears and strange courses of research, action. The reasons for such behaviour are, according to Freud not admitted to consciousness due to the high emotional charge when the emotions which are too painful or too improbable.

REF. Freud distinguished three spheres of the essay technologies, human psyche: the unconscious the Id, the Ego and conscious irrational the Superego. The Id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle. In 1933, Sigmund Freud described the japan writing, Id as. ‘the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from on reproductive, our study of the dream-work and of the dissertation, construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of this is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We all approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations… It is essay on reproductive filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the essayists 20th, pleasure principle.’ REF. The Id remains in conflict with the Superego and the outside world. The Ego, guided by essay on reproductive technologies the principle of reality, tries to alleviate this conflict and customize the behaviour of the individual to conform to given environment principles. It attenuates impulses or satisfies them in 20th the safest and most beneficial manner including the on reproductive, most important – sexual. According to the theory of Freud one of the proofs of the existence of the Id are dreams, fulfilling the unconscious desires and replacing real action. Dreams are hidden desires, which reflect the subconscious, and thanks to them it is possible to discover the cause of anxiety and neurotic behaviour.

According to Freud, the dream is a creation of the dreamer’s own activity, but during sleep censorship temporarily weakens its activities. The Purpose Of A Dissertation? This allows unconscious thoughts to have the opportunity to appear. Technologies? REF. Thus the dream is essayists century a record of life, unconscious human needs, and a combination of technologies, experiences. The analysis of dreams is the path to get to know oneself; dreams reveal suppressed psychological content.

In a dream, several forms merge into one. For example, anxiety concerning one house may manifest itself in dreams as a few houses. According to uc freshman scientists, the dream is something extraordinary, the on reproductive technologies, gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Freud concluded that the human psyche cannot be limited only to consciousness. Prompts? He claimed that there is an unconscious that contains in itself the specific content and which is also directing its own mechanisms.

Unconscious processes affect our behaviour. REF. Freud introduced two new theories concerning dreams-manifest and technologies latent content. Manifest content is simply remembered dream, latent content is an expression of latent desires, memories of the previous days, and the impetus of the body or the environment. The close connection between the dream and the unconscious the Id makes every detail of the black research papers, overt content of dreams imbuing with it some significance. Essay Technologies? According to Jung, dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious – what might be called unconscious memory.

He believed that dreams are unconscious revelation of transcendental wisdom to the individual. Freud and Jung have made great contributions to the study of dreams and have created a solid foundation for translating dreams. These studies show that during sleep the subconscious sends signals that actually deciphered can explain where the source of the problem is and how it can be solved. Essays On A Named? REF. In dreams nothing happens without a reason, they can be deciphered. Because sexual desire, according to Freud, plays a crucial role in human life, different objects and situations in on reproductive technologies dreams can refer to sexual objects. For example, sticks, knives, umbrellas and shotguns, are unconscious representations of the penis. According to this theory, young girls seeking sexual contacts and yet fearful of them are often in black hole papers dreams pursued by men with a knife or firearm. On the other hand, for example, fruits such as apples, in men’s dreams symbolize a woman’s breasts.

REF Indeed, not all dreams are filled with unconscious sexual content. One patient told Freud a dream in which members of his family were sitting around an odd-shaped table. Seemingly the dream did not make sense. But it turned out that the man had seen a similar table the house of a friend he had met recently. REF. Another example of dream analysis he in accordance with Freud’s theory is on reproductive technologies cited in the book, “Secrets of Sleep” by Alexander Borbely. A certain man dreamed that he was riding a bike. His answer to the question of what bike reminded him was that this was his son’s favourite pastime. In the autumn the son would be leaving for university and the man wanted to uc freshman spend more time with him before his departure.

The second dream involved a combination of his father’s death following a heart attack. On Reproductive Technologies? The bike had helped the father to customer office administration cover letter maintain fitness. The dream of cycling related to two very serious things in his life. REF. Some people believe that many theories developed by Freud and his successors such, as Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Erich Fromm (1900-1980), are not supported by on reproductive sufficient scientific evidence. The Purpose Of A Dissertation? On the other hand, the phenomenon of sleep and essay on reproductive technologies subconscious human hides so many puzzles that one cannot authoritatively determine who is right and who is wrong.

Perhaps doubt will never be justified. Formerly dreams were given different meanings. They were considered as information derived from the hole, gods, and essay the mysterious language of sleep sought to be explained in many ways. The sages and priests spent much time on customer service office this. In order to fathom the mystery of on reproductive, dreams, dreams were collected and office administration were written down in technologies order to later attempt to interpret them. Erich Fromm believed that ‘Both dreams and myths are important communications from black hole, ourselves to ourselves. If we do not understand the language in which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. ‘ REF. Myths and dreams are united by one shared feature – dreams can be written in symbolic language. It is a language in which the inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are expressed in such a way as if they were sensory experiences, events in the outside world.

This language is essay technologies governed by logic which is different from the conventional, everyday logic, in which there is not significant space and time, but intensity and association. Historically, for people living both east and west, dreams and writing contest 2013 myths were among the most important creations the mind, and the lack of understanding of essay on reproductive technologies, dreams was treated as ignorance. Prompts? An interesting interpretation of dreams was presented by Artemidorus in the second century. Essay On Reproductive? His work on the translation of the dream had a huge impact on the views of the Middle Ages. He distinguished five types of dreams: 1) Dream hides the customer service office letter, truth in latent form. 2) The vision is when what is seen in a dream is what happened in the real world. 3) An racle is a revelation sent down in a dream by an angel, or another character to fulfill the will of God. 4) Fantasy is essay when what preoccupies s person during the day t is subject of the dream. 5) The phantom is on a streetcar named a night vision, which is technologies manifested to small the children or elderly people to the purpose dissertation scare or scandalize them.

Ralph Emerson theorized that dreams reflect character, and particularly those aspects that cannot be observed in technologies waking behaviou. This manifests itself in the character of the other , as he claimed, ‘in the dreams of japan writing, other persons their hidden forces which affect their behavior and in on reproductive technologies this way we can often predict their future actions.’ REF. Whereas Emerson suggested a relationship between character and dream, Henri Bergson argued that dreams are actually caused by different physical stimuli, but these stimuli do not need to be explained as the dominant desires. According to him dreams are caused by memories being pushed into oblivion. Customer Office Administration Cover? He assumed that the human mind does not forget anything, and what is remembered, is only a small fraction of the whole of one’s memory. REF.

Many researchers share the view that dreams have in them something of both an irrational and a rational nature. Some people believe that dreams reveal the animal nature and are the gateway to illusions whereas dreams for others are an expression of the on reproductive technologies, most rational forces, which is the gateway to truth. According to some researchers, the uc freshman, role of dreams is to explain when the dream manifests the better part of the “I”, and when it dominates the animal nature. REF. A long time before psychoanalysis, great importance was attributed to dreams; hence the frequent presence of dreams and visions as theme in the literature of different eras. Essay On Reproductive? The works of some artists also embed this convention which will be discussed further in the following chapter.

CHAPTER TWO ‘ HISTORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS EVOLUTION. The first references regarding dreams in art are as old as literature itself. The interest in dreams and their analysis began with the birth of humanity. Since time immemorial, dreams have been the richest source of the interpretation of the past, present, and most importantly the future. The stories of Gilgamesh, Iliad and the purpose the Bible all describe dreams of essay technologies, some of the main characters along with their meanings. However dreams as art, without historical or tale format appear to have developed in later years, although it is impossible to know how many pre-modern works were inspired by of a dissertation dreams. (Belanger, 2005)’According to one of the oldest beliefs, sleep was a state similar to the state of death.

In former times dreams considered were to be the journey of the soul leaving the body REF. This idea of the essay, soul leaving the body can be to the pre-Christian era. In the Bible there are many examples of dreams. In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the dream was considered a bad omen, unless it was interpreted by experts who carried out the appropriate rituals according to essayists their message. Babylonians treated dreams as a kind of guide to conduct in everyday life. Also the ancient Greeks had a highly developed technique of dream interpretation. Initially, they considered dreams as signs from the gods, consisting of a kind of guide to the complicated way of essay on reproductive technologies, life. Health was analysed in terms of dreams.

According to mythology, the Ancient Greeks imagined the god of sleep, Hypnos, as a winged youth. He was the brother of Thanatos, the god of death. Hypnos could make people fall asleep just by touching their foreheads with a twig or strewing on them poppies stored in horn. A more common representation of a dream coming from ancient culture is Morpheus, son of Hypnos the god of dreams. Morpheus had the ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams.

REF. In the Bible the black hole, dream has a symbolic meaning. It could be an omen, prophecy or vision. Essay Technologies? God appeared to Pharaoh in a dream, cautioning him of black hole papers, imminent danger. Pharaoh’s vision allowed him to avoid the oncoming adversity.

God gave him a chance to essay on reproductive save the people from famine, which was coming in the near future. Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile, when up seven cows, sleek and fat appeared out of the the purpose of a dissertation, river and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on essay on reproductive the riverbank. The cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up, but when he fell asleep again, he dreamed a second dream.

Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and 20th scorched by the east wind. On Reproductive Technologies? The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Office Administration? Pharaoh woke up again and realized it was a dream which may have been sent as a warning. – Image 1 Pharaoh’s Dreams by James Tissot.

The next day, Pharaoh decided to convene all the magicians and wise men of essay on reproductive, Egypt but none of them knew what the dream meant. Joseph, who was held captive had the gift of interpretation of dreams . ‘The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to japan contest 2013 Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is essay one and the same dream. Black Research? The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine.’ REF. However, after seven years of prosperity there was to be time of technologies, misery and the purpose of a poverty. Essay? Joseph advised Pharaoh to build granaries where he might store the excess food. Dissertation? In addition, Joseph announced that if the dream was repeated twice, it was certain that it would happen. REF.

The author of the Exodus proved that dreams could predict the future or foreshadow any specific event. The Bible is a source of various motives and symbols that are for people a reference to real life. Dreams in essay technologies the Bible reveal the intricacies of the human psyche, reveal fears and anxieties, and yet are a path which God and man can communicate. Streetcar? God appeared in Solomon’s dream and announced that he would give anything that Solomon wished. Solomon was king of Israel and did not demand long life or riches; he preferred to have the wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, when governing the people.

God fulfilled his wish, but also gave him fame and wealth. The dream here demonstrated Solomon’s attitude to God, who not only fulfilled his request but gave him more. REF Luca Giordano was one of the most important painters of the late Baroque period. Essay On Reproductive Technologies? Invited to Spain by King Charles II in 1692, he was soon established as the leading painter at the Spanish Court. For the crown, he painted in particular the biblical stories of inter alia Solomon where he also immortalized the scene of Solomon’s dream. Early Christians interpreted dreams as a state in which the defenseless body and uc freshman prompts spirit were susceptible to a variety of influences. Nightmares were thought to be a clear manifestation of demons and on reproductive technologies monsters or warnings from God or a message from heaven. In the New Testament, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and uc freshman essay declared that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Mary and Joseph were not married yet and technologies Joseph thought about annulling the the purpose dissertation, betrothal because of the pregnancy of Mary.

However, the angel told him that the future child would be the Saviour, which led to Joseph’s change of heart. REF. Dream themes appeared as early as in on reproductive technologies ancient Greek and Roman comedies, and continued to provide material for drama throughout the centuries. One example is the Baroque ‘Life Is a Dream’ by Calderon de la Barca in japan essay 1635 (WHERE?!) Long before the discovery of psychoanalysis and its development, there were attempts to unravel the mystery of the on reproductive, origin and message of dreams. Also artists started to be more involve in this phenomen. The Renaissance era was no exception. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dreams became a theme often adoptedby artists who tried to push the boundaries of art seeking ways to show the unpreventable.

How could an artist capture on canvas something so intangible, ephemeral and incomprehensible as a dream? Another form, which was as its basic material, imagination and service office administration dream, is the drama of the Renaissance era. Writers used dreams to reveal the complexities of the human psyche and to reveal subconscious fears and anxieties. This method was used by William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) who already in on reproductive technologies the sixteenth century broke with the 20th, existing conventions of drama and placed the supernatural alongside the real world. In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the playwright applied a phenomenon called the essay technologies, dualism of the represented world, which means that fantasy should be represented equally with reality. REF. One night in the middle of summer the boundary between these two worlds was obliterated. The forest, which was the place of the action, became a place for service office cover, the simultaneous operation of two states of consciousness: reality and dream. On Reproductive? In this way, Shakespeare created an image resembling the original beliefs of the people or the fantasies of a child whose mind was not yet sufficiently affected by the suffering of the world and the things overlooked by japan essay writing 2013 adults.

The forest was turned into a magical place with the presence of magic and elves. On Reproductive Technologies? Among the characters of the drama, two circles could be distinguished: humans and elves. Japan Essay Writing Contest? The first is a symbol of the ordinary and the mundane, while the second circle symbolizes the extraordinary and magic. Elves show that anything can happen. By being transformed physically into an ass, Bottom’s true character is revealed. This was depicted by technologies Edwin Landseer in his painting ‘Scene from A Midsummer Night’s Dream’.Elvish magic showed the impossibility of the purpose dissertation, distinguishing dream from reality. In the words of essay technologies, Shakespeare: ‘The lunatic, the lover, and the purpose the poet, are of imagination all compact.’ REF. In Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’ the world resembles ghostly phantom apnea, which is rife with crime, and the scenery is immersed in the darkness of night.

The theme is the on reproductive, desire to gain power, which Macbeth and his wife achieve by the murder of King Duncan. After the crime both perpetrators have guilty consciences, which they cannot suppress. Dark thoughts and memories haunt both characters in dreams. The crime which they have committed has led to them believing every man was a threat to them as a potential enemy. In a dream Macbeth sees the essayists 20th, spirit of a dead friend, Banquo. This means he is faced with a difficult choice.

On the one hand there is the desire to gain power, on the other sensitivity and a sense of morality, which ultimately is victorious. Macbeth could no longer keep secret, the terrible crime which was haunting him every night. Nightmares also tormented his wife. Essay On Reproductive? Remorse disturbed his peace of mind. However, recurring nightmares still had a greater influence on japan essay writing contest 2013 his wife, and on reproductive technologies especially on the psyche. This is confirmed by the words of Macbeth (ACT 2 SCENE 5) REF. ‘Methought I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more!

Macbeth does murder sleep”the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the essays on a streetcar named, raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, Balm of essay on reproductive, hurt minds, great nature’s second course, Chief nourisher in life’s feast.’ REF. The killing a man by Macbeth is the essays named, killing of dream, his own conscience. Technologies? The painting “Nightmare” by Henry Fuseli (1781) reflects the struggle of the protagonist of Macbeth and his wife to come to terms with the murder. Dissertation? The woman lying on the bed perfectly reflects their mental state.

Moreover, the woman’s position suggests that she may be dreaming of something horrifying, manifesting as fear in the dreamer. Essay On Reproductive? The painter has not left any specific instructions regarding its interpretation. It can be assumed that a woman lying on the bed is his beloved Anna Landolf. Service Administration Cover Letter? This would allow the discovery of an additional intimate sense. REF. ‘The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dream’by indicating the effect of the nightmare on the woman’and a dream image’in symbolically portraying the sleeping vision.’ REF It is also unclear whether the woman is essay technologies immersed in a dream or whether she is trying to catch her last breath. Prompts? The symbolism and imagery of the painting is very much exposed. The outer form is the “undercover” for essay on reproductive technologies, what is important, which is a nightmare of the spirit.

Within the symbolism there is a monkey ornament, which according to uc freshman essay ancient times was the creature which most closely resembles to essay on reproductive technologies a human. However, in the art of the Middle Ages it symbolized the essence of essayists century, a degraded, creature hiding in essay technologies the animal nature of man. REF Similar symbols associated with the character of the horse. Additional evidence may be darkness, from which it emerges. ‘Sleep, the Cousin of Death’ – Charles Sackville REF. Indeed the woman lying on the bed could be dead or just sleeping. During the Renaissance poets developed an awareness, not only of the service office administration letter, importance od dreams but of unlimited imagination. The poets of the seventeenth century liked to compare dream to the state of death.

They even discussed the concept that human life ends in the sleep of death. – Miko??aj S??p Szarzy??ski (1550 ‘ 1581) REF. In European literature Romanticism emphasized the value of emotions and inspirations coming from the irrational. Visions, stemming from dreams or the mental, and sometimes the physical state caused by the interaction of drugs, served as excellent material to manifest the highest potential and skills of the artist. Onirism which is an art form directly based on material from essay on reproductive technologies, dreams, or which employs dream-like imagery, often embraces the entire composition of the artist’s work, especially the the purpose of a, construction of the person and his relationship with the real, fantastic and spiritual world. (Drucker, 2006) In fact, the term Onirism in essay on reproductive technologies relation to art appeared in the twentieth century as a result of the achievements of the Surrealists, for whom creativity and onirism tendencies are very characteristic. The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, myths and hole tales, tearing down the logical order of reality and essay on reproductive investigating absurdity, dreams and mediumship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The Surrealists attributed on essayists 20th enormous role to unrestrained imagination. Oneiric tendencies were noticed and disseminated in the 1960s and 1970s with the essay on reproductive technologies, resurgent popularity of surrealism. (Jurewicz, 2014) The epithet “oneiric” is most commonly used to characterize the japan essay contest 2013, artistic techniques, rather than the overall concept of the dream. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century symbolism and expressionism introduced dream images to the visual arts. Expressionism was also a literary movement and embraced later work. (Jouvet, 2000) August Strindberg coined the term “dream play” for narrative style, which does not apply the differentiations between fantasy and reality.

Whereas others believed that sleep is a kind of essay, escape from the world. ‘The Wedding’ (1901) defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the 20th century by Stanis??aw Wyspia??ski (1869 – 1907) describes the perils of the national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The author, by uc freshman essay combining reality with fiction, evaluates Polish society facing an opportunity to technologies regain independence. There are large number of symbols, which serve as criticisms of inconsistency, lack of prompts, understanding and the motivation to fight for the country. Essay? Wyspiariski placed in his act realistic as well as fictional characters, ghosts and spirits. There is no doubt that the whole of the second act of the drama is constructed from black papers, oneiric conventions.

Ghosts and spirits, which have symbolic importance, are merely the imagination of the on reproductive technologies, authentic characters. Almost every one of customer administration, them is on reproductive technologies a remembrance of the past, the embodiment of their desires, fears and aspirations. Their task is to unmasked the inner state of the person to whomghost are appearing. The Poet is office cover letter visited successively by the Black Knight a symbol of the nation’s past military glory, the Journalist, then by the court jester Sta??czy who is a conservative political sage and by technologies the Ghost of Wernyhora, a paradigm of leadership for Poland. Wernyhora presents the Host with a golden horn symbolizing the national mission, and calls the black research, Polish people to revolt.

There is a mood of essay on reproductive, horror, mystery, understatement, ambiguity, so it is research papers not known whether the characters see spirits while they are awake, or they are merely a dream. Painting “B’?dne ko??o” (The Mad Circle) by Jacek Malczewski is an example of a symbolic painting. The painting presents quite a strange scene referring to on reproductive technologies the play ‘The Wedding ‘ In the center of the painting is located a ladder on it there is sitting little boy while numerous characters are dancing around him. Among them is black impossible to distinguish between both the rural population, positioned on essay technologies second plane of the painting, naked women and men in letter the foreground. The humans and the figure of the devil, that is, half-naked creature with hooves instead of feet. The painting is a composition closed, is kept in dark tones predominate, gray, black, brown only on the left side, where there are people of rural origin suddenly colours change in essay a very lively, much happier with a majority of uc freshman prompts, red, yellow, blue.

The image is very dynamic, but the full balance is maintained between one and technologies the other side of the work. Malczewski’s painting sums up all the thoughts and values which carries with it drama ‘The Wedding’. The twentieth first century brought many amazing discoveries in the field of parapsychology, which allowed for a variety of interpretations of of a dissertation, various phenomena in the area of the human mind. It has been proved that the brain during sleep functions only ten percent. REF.

What is happening with the rest? It is still a mystery to be solve. The dream is a kind of escape into the world of fantasy, a condition in which a person is in no way limited’ even by the force of gravity. Wislawa Szymborska (1923 -2012) demonstrated this in the poem “In Praise of Dreams”. In praise of dreams.

I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek. and not just with the living. that does what I want it to. and write mighty epics. as clearly as any venerable saint. My brilliance as a pianist. I fly the technologies, way we ought to, Falling from the roof, I tumble gently to the grass.

I’ve got no problem. breathing under water. I’ve been able to on a locate Atlantis. It’s gratifying that I can always. wake up before dying. As soon as war breaks out, I roll over on my other side. I’m a child of my age, but I don’t have to on reproductive be.

A few years ago. And the night before last a penguin, The poem’s title makes the subject matter obvious. The subject shows the reader that during sleep, nothing is impossible. . One can become an outstanding painter fluent in different languages who plays the piano beautifully or soars high above the ground. The poet sees sleep as a land where anything can happen, an endless realm of improbable things like two suns. In the dream, death does not need to be feared. Each time, when all kinds of threat are revealed by simply opening the eyes one is again lying safely in bed cuddling a pillow. Unknown corners of the earth can be explored; it is possible or to breathe underwater, we become better, we blur the japan 2013, boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends.. people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking or the most important moments of sleep are remembered. It is not surprising that Szymborska devoted a poem to the praise of dreams for on reproductive, their uniqueness. A dream is a second life; it is state of transition, in which people are the masters of their dreams. Apnea material began to be used as an inspiration for uc freshman essay, comics in the 1980s. For instance the popular comic strips of Winsor McCay. Artists began to illustrate their own dreams. In’ The Committee of Sleep’ the on reproductive, Harvard psychologist Deirdre explored material for essay, media provided by dreams among many modernist works inspired by dreams she included paintings such as ‘Flag’ (1954’55) by Jasper Johns, most of the work of Jim Dine and Salvador Dali, novels ranging from on reproductive technologies, ‘Sophie Choice’ directed by Alan J. 20th? Pakula, who adapted William Styron’s novel of the same name. Essay On Reproductive? Works of Anne Rice and Stephen King, even films such as ‘3 Women’ directed by Robert Altman, ‘Wild Strawberries’ directed by Ingmar Bergman, ‘Dracula’ or even ‘Frankenstein’.

Barrett also mentions that the song ‘Yesterday’ by Paul McCartney, was heard by him in japan essay writing contest 2013 a dream. (Belanger, 2005) Content coming from the dreams is still used for different purposes by essay many contemporary artists. The exploitation of dreams is considered by some to give suitable psychological weigt to their work, regardless of artistic value. Essayists Century? (Pells, 1973) CHAPTER THREE ‘ SURREALISM: THE DREAM MOVEMENT. Dreams have been an inseparable part of everyone’s life since time immemorial, and this is essay on reproductive technologies reflected in the fields of literature and art where the use of dreams as theme.

Simultaneously, the discussion regarding dreams reached a new level of awareness in the western world due to the work of 20th century, Sigmund Freud who introduced the concept of the unconscious as a field of research. Freud’s theories greatly influenced the twentieth-century Surrealists who combined visionary impulses and essay on reproductive technologies expressionism placing great emphasis on the unconscious as a creative tool, with the assumption that the seemingly irrational content might contain much of relevant information, perhaps even more than the rational. Service Administration? The aim of the technologies, Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego, an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. Although the Surrealists strongly embraced Freud’s theory he wrote letter to Stefan Zweig (20 July 1938), after meeting Salvador Dali, that he was “inclined to look upon surrealists, who have apparently chosen me for their patron saint, as absolute (let us say 95 per cent, like alcohol) cranks!” (Pontalis, Frontiers in Psychoanalysis, p.49) Films, particularly those of Bunuel have, to a large extent been responsible for essayists 20th, spreading the concept of the dream.

Some of Bunuel’s sequences have been described as “an involuntary imitation of sleep.” (Solar, 2003) Film criticism popularized the epithet oneiric, but very often it is used interchangeably with the term “surreal” – regardless of whether it is a film created through surrealism or not. Commonly, these terms apply to discontinuities in the film, the scenes that are a contradiction of realistic logic and unexpected associations. The invention of film and animation has brought new opportunities to describe irrational events, but films composed entirely of technologies, dream-like images and content were still rare avant-garde. (Peterson, 1994) One of the most interesting movements in painting of the twentieth century was Surrealism. Artists representing this style were using surprising ideas that were innovative, inspired by reality as well as dreams.

Antonin Artaud states that, ‘Surrealism is not a style. It is the cry of a mind turning back on itself.’ (1997, p.3) Surrealism was founded in France and quickly gained followers. It expressed what is difficult to determine, allowed freedom of association, and even expressed the irrational. The style was a revolt against classicism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism and previous conventions in art. The main feature of Surrealist painting was a visual expression of internal perception. Artists tried to research papers create images that disturbed the logical order of reality. Often these were grotesque visions, the borderline between reality, dream, fantasy, hallucinations and a movement away from rationalism. (Durozoi, 2002) The Surrealists, who attributed a major role to unrestrained imagination, also derived some ideas from Romanticism. They wanted to essay dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Important for essays streetcar named, them also was the element of surprise, absurdity and nonsense. The Surreal images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts.

Important inspirations for the Surrealists were Hieronymus Bosch’s (1450 ‘ 1516) paintings. Art historian Walter Gibson described Bosch’s paintings as “a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and change before our eyes.” The Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that the artist was regarded merely as “the inventor of monsters and chimeras”. Whereas a Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Bosch’s work as “wondrous and strange fantasies (‘) often less pleasant than gruesome to look at.” The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the essay on reproductive technologies, realm of the the purpose dissertation, unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious ‘Ego’.

The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, automatic writing, medium-ship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The most prominent psychoanalysis’s were Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Although the Surrealists referred to the theories of Freud, he himself was utterly puzzled by the Surrealists. They Surrealists wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Their images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts. Salvador Dali (1904 ‘ 1989) was one of the most outstanding artists who was highly influenced by the world of dreams.

An example can be Dali’s most recognizable series of essay, melting clocks, supposedly inspired by a dream about camembert cheese. Uc Freshman? ‘Dali transferred on canvas culinary materialistic dreams and on reproductive technologies obsessions. Symbolism is part of the inherited culture of human nature. It should be remembered that new symbols are constantly being created and they join the old. The Purpose Of A Dissertation? Each symbol has its counterpart which is its translation or example. The quantity and quality symbol which humans use to express thoughts and desires, is, however, changed during the course of life and depends on the changing socio-cultural context. Because desires are suppressed during resting, they are revealed only in conditions of reduced censorship.

The essence of dreams is the hallucinatory fulfilment of irrational impulses and essay desires. The formation of essay writing 2013, dreams involving two types of mental processes: one that creates thoughts of sleep and the other encodes these thoughts in such a way that they are irrational. Encoding is designed to conceal infantile desires, as well as those that are contrary to the principles of pleasure, but which are thought about in everyday life.’ (Jurewicz, 2014 p.7) The 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalou’ (An Andalusian Dog) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bu??uel is a Surrealistic potpourri of shocking, dream-influenced obscene non-related episodic clips with no purpose but merely to shock the viewer. Essay On Reproductive Technologies? The chronology of the films is chaotic and disjointed, there are no central characters to follow, it jumps from ‘once upon a time’ to ‘eight years later’ without any explanation whatsoever. ‘It uses dream logic in japan essay writing contest narrative flow that can be described in terms of the then-popular Freudian free association, presenting a series of tenuously related scenes.’ (The Generalist, 2014) The film is reminiscent of dream logic that requires no rhyme or reason, just like an actual dream. For centuries, people have been having dreams. Technologies? Every night they enter into essays, the world of dream, an unknown world where it is possible to be anyone.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends… people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Essay On Reproductive? Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in 2013 reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking, the most important moments of sleep are remembered, and on reproductive technologies so it is with this film. The Purpose Dissertation? The film includes ants crawling out of technologies, a man’s palm, a severed hand in the street and a shocking scene when a razor is black research held to a woman’s eyeball and an incision is promptly made. Bu??uel in his youth played outside surrounded by dead donkeys and Dali had a dream of ants poking out of essay, his hand. The film is a patchwork of scenes inspired by Dali’s and Bu??uel’s dreams. This dissertation has examined the prompts essay, importance and relevance of dreams in art and literature. It has shown that dreams can reveal the secrets of the past and technologies present and predict the future. Dreams may be evidence of supernatural power, and japan essay may provide an insight into the afterlife. Dreaming is a state of the union of body, mind and soul.

It is essay on reproductive a disclosure of unconscious and repressed psychological contents. Dreams are wonderfully mysterious vision, a manifestation of different dimension of reality. According to Freud, most experiences are pushed out of the realm of consciousness into the subconscious, where they remain involuntarily. This realm of the subconscious is not without influence on people’s lives, because dreams are the expression, a disclosure – they represent symbolically all that is feared and loved. Uc Freshman Prompts Essay? What people yearn for often a matter of great surprise themselves. Essay On Reproductive Technologies? Other theorist, Gustav Jung stated that dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious what might be called the unconscious memory. Emerson postulated that there is a relationship between personality and dream, whereas Henri Bergson argued that dreams are caused by different physical stimuli. Sleep can be a key factor in writing contest the creation of the represented world or create a composition those rovers between reality and technologies fiction, between a waking state and a dream. Search our thousands of 20th century, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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Cashier Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Imagine that you’re applying for a part-time cashier job at your local mall. And lo and behold, you have to turn in a resume. What gives? When you applied for essay on reproductive, a cashier position at Walmart, you only uc freshman essay had to fill out an application. Such a simple job as taking money from customers and hiding it in a drawer can’t merit a professional resume, can it? Well, if you’re here, it must. There’s a way to on reproductive write a cashier resume sample that’s as simple as ringing people up at the grocery store. At the writing contest 2013 same time, you want to make sure that you’re the person who gets the job. That’s why this guide will show you:

How to make a cashier resume for a part-time cashier job that reflects the skills you need. Resume tricks that will skyrocket your resume for essay on reproductive, a cashier job past the competition. Uc Freshman Essay! Simple and easy resume writing tips that you can use later in life. Here’s a sample resume for a cashier made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to essay use. 20th Century! Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the Best Format for a Cashier Resume? Most cashier positions are entry-level roles.

You plan to ring up shoppers at the local mall to help pay for college. Or you want that part-time cashier job at the supermarket or movie theater for some extra pocket money. On the flip side, let’s say you do have experience. You’ve held a couple of cashier positions. In either case, which resume format should you choose? Regardless, you’ll want to technologies use a simple, traditional resume format. That’s why the reverse-chronological resume format works best in both scenarios. Let's start with an of a entry-level cashier resume with no experience. The benefit of the reverse-chronological format is that you can play with the essay layout. The education or experience sections can come first. Then you list each item in the reverse-chronological order.

That way your most recent experiences come first. If you have experience, the on a reverse-chronological format emphasizes your work history. Essay! The result is a clean and natural flow for your cashier resume template. Pro Tip: Your most relevant skills and experience should always go in the top third of your resume. That way, the essays on a hiring manager sees your value first. Not sold on essay on reproductive technologies the reverse-chronological resume format? Want to see more sample cashier resume formats?

Read our guide: “ 3 Resume Formats: How to essayists Choose the Best One [Examples] ” Cashier: Resume Summary or Resume Objective? After your contact information, what comes next? The best resumes for essay technologies, cashiers open with a resume summary or resume objective. Service Office Cover Letter! But what’s the on reproductive technologies difference? Entry-level Cashier Resume Objective. A resume objective is a quick introduction at the beginning of 20th your resume. It tells the employer who you are now and essay technologies, why you would be a great cashier.

It’s short and to the point. A resume objective is essayists 20th century better suited to entry-level cashier resumes. Try to on reproductive technologies show relevant skills gained through other experience. Go for skills learned at school or previous jobs. Friendly Psychology major with 2+ years experience delivering excellent customer service as a Server.

Quick learner with excellent time management skills, can prioritize tasks. Seeking to of a develop my experience as a Cashier at Le Cote Boutique. Hospitality undergraduate with an understanding of essay customer service. Looking for a cashier job. Don’t tell the hiring manager what you want, tell them what you can give them. A resume summary has a bit more meat on its bones. It’s suited to professionals with experience. So, a cashier supervisor should use a summary instead of a resume objective. The Purpose Of A Dissertation! To write an excellent resume summary, include a brief overview of essay technologies your best skills most relevant to the job. Personable Head Cashier with 5+ years experience with large department stores and boutique retailers.

Can process various types of transactions while delivering excellent customer service. Seeking to expand sales skills as Head Cashier at your company. Experience training junior staff. I am seeking a position as a Head Cashier at your department store. I wish to develop my sales skills before graduating.

Pro Tip: Think of your resume objective or resume summary as an elevator pitch. Prompts Essay! If you had to sum up your experience and aspirations in a couple of sentences, what would you say? How to Put Cashier Experience on a Resume. Let’s say you’ve held jobs in the past. After your introduction, you’ll want to lead with your experience. Let’s say you’ve even held lots of on reproductive part-time cashier jobs in the past. You don’t have to century include every job in your cashier resume experience section.

Instead, choose those that had similar responsibilities and skills. Just be careful not to leave large gaps on technologies an experienced cashier resume, as this can raise red flags with the hiring manager. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Trained 5 new members as full-time cashiers. Managed 3 junior staff members in the Accessories Department. Black Papers! Dealt with customer requests and issues, helping the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rate in the region. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store.

Head cashier on department floor. Greeted customers and dealt with requests. Helped junior members of the essay on reproductive technologies team. Notice how the “right” candidate uses achievements to illustrate the japan essay writing value of her work. Her customer service skills helped the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rating. The hiring manager will now imagine that she can do the same for technologies, them. Also, notice the addition of numbers. She trained five employees and managed three.

Using numbers gives the hiring manager a realistic idea of what you can handle. Plus, it draws the eye of the recruiter to the item. Office Cover! So, use numbers when you want to on reproductive highlight a skill and show what happens when you use it. But what if you’re a teenager applying for your first job? What can you put in the experience section of your teen cashier resume? You can include non-traditional work. Examples of uc freshman essay non-traditional work include: Internships Student Organizations Practicums (Student Teaching) Volunteer Work Babysitting Personal Projects Work Study. October 2016 - March 2017.

Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Greeted all residents in a friendly, polite manner. Patiently listened to technologies resident requests to help make them more comfortable. Participated in daily priorities, taking responsibility for cleaning tasks. October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly.

Visited a care home once a week to help staff with various tasks. List responsibilities that use skills that can translate to a cashier job. For example, the “right” candidate has listed greeting residents as a responsibility. That responsibility translates to customer service skills in action. Pro Tip: Include powerful action words instead of starting every responsibility with “responsible for.” Action words can make your cashier resume sample shine. Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. I know what your thinking. Is the education section necessary for a basic cashier resume template? After all, some cashier jobs have no educational requirements. Well, you’re not wrong.

But if you’re a student, your education is your strongest experience. So, you’ll want to consider putting your education section after your introduction. Plus, hiring managers may favor candidates with high school diplomas for full-time roles. So, it’s best to put what education you have on your resume. Here’s how to essay add your high school education to cashier resume: River Creek High School, River Creek, PA. Here’s how to add your education as an ongoing college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Expected to on reproductive technologies graduate in 2019 with a BS in Athletic Training. Here’s how to add education that you did not complete as a college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 2010-2012 Completed 50 credits toward a BS in Athletic Training. Pro Tip: You can add awards and a coursework description to this section to fill out prompts, your resume for a cashier position. How to Put Skills on essay technologies a Resume for a Cashier. For a cashier resume, including a skills section is crucial. A skills section shows hiring managers that you have the skills and the purpose dissertation, abilities to be a cashier. But which skills should go on a resume for a cashier? Start by listing any cashier skills that you have that the hiring manager also listed in essay, the cashier job description. Then consider adding a couple of your best universal cashier skills to administration cover letter your resume.

What are universal cashier skills? They are skills that you use as a fast food cashier at McDonald's one day and as a pharmacy cashier clerk the next. A good example is cash handling. No matter what, you have to know how to handle cash to be a cashier. One of the top universal skills for on reproductive technologies, a cashier is streetcar active listening. And you don't need cashier experience at a restaurant or department store to list active listening on your cashier resume. Here are some more universal hard and on reproductive technologies, soft skills that are great for black hole research, cashier resumes:

Of course, the list is not exhaustive. And you can use these cashier skills whether you’re applying at a gas station or a Target. Just remember to start with the essay on reproductive skills you find in essays on a streetcar, the cashier job description. Now, you have a list of lead cashier resume skills, but how do you add them? Excellent active listening and essay, communication skills. Efficient with customer complaints and requests.

Operate cash registers and various POS systems. Math - can make most calculations mentally. Essays On A! Handle cash, checks, and returns. Speak intermediate Spanish and technologies, French. Remember to be specific. The hiring manager will have a clearer idea of what you can do. Would you rather hire someone who can do math in their head or someone who can do “math?” Pro Tip: You will want to go beyond adding a skills section. Often, hiring managers scan resumes looking for skills mentioned in essays named, the cashier job description. Technologies! That's why you'll want to sprinkle cashier resume skills throughout your document.

How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Let’s face it. You're going to compete with other qualified candidates. So, what do you have that other candidates don't? One way to set yourself apart from the essays streetcar competition is to on reproductive technologies include a hobbies and interests section. Adding hobbies can help you in two ways: Hobbies can show that you fit in with the culture of the essay company. Your interests will show the technologies hiring manager a bit of your personality. Try to choose hobbies that either fit with the company’s brand or work culture. And, in 20th, the case of essay a customer service cashier resume, you can choose hobbies that show you have a social personality.

Let’s say you’re writing a retail cashier resume for a women’s retailer. Here are some examples of hobbies and interests to include: I enjoy pairing accessories with outfits and keeping up with the latest fashion trends. I do volunteer work at my local second-hand clothing store. Pro Tip: Your hobbies can be great icebreaker topics during your interview. Papers! Make sure you only add things to your cashier resume in which you have a genuine interest. On Reproductive Technologies! That way you can talk about them with passion if they come up in conversation later. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.

You might assume that cashiers don't need to 2013 write cover letters. A resume is more than enough. At this point, you’re surprised you have to turn in a simple cashier resume in the first place. So, a cashier cover letter would be overkill, right? Well, not always. Some hiring managers still want cover letters. And sending one can only essay on reproductive technologies help your chances of black hole papers landing the job. Cover letters can show you have excellent communication skills. You get a chance to tell the hiring manager more about your personality.

You can explain inconvenient gaps or shortcomings in on reproductive technologies, your work history. The good news? Cashier cover letters don’t need to be very lengthy. All you have to do is use your letter to tell the hiring manager why you want the essay job. Show some enthusiasm. But let’s be honest. Let’s say you only want the job for essay technologies, the extra cash. Do you believe in of a, the products they sell?

Would you be proud of representing the company’s brand? If yes, go with it. Selling products is essay on reproductive technologies one of the japan essay 2013 responsibilities of a cashier. And that's especially true in a retail environment. Pro Tip: Always address the technologies hiring manager by customer administration, name if you know it. Essay! If you’re not sure, call the company or ask in person who will read your resume. You won't often find yourself in essayists, a position where you must turn in a resume for a cashier job. But when you do, resist the essay temptation to essayists 20th send a weak, generic document.

Use the opportunity. Technologies! Set yourself apart from the century competition. Even if you only essay want to be a cashier to bridge the gap between school and “real work,” don’t say that. Treat your entry-level cashier resume as a serious, professional document. And when you do, that could open a lot of doors for you. Essayists Century! The least it will do is land you that cashier job you want right now. Did we miss anything?

If you are still struggling with how to write a cashier resume, let us know in the comments, and we will do what we can to help. Thanks for reading! Simran is a UK based freelance researcher and writer covering careers and on reproductive, self-development. She has spent over six years in uc freshman essay, headhunting and talent insight and has a Masters in on reproductive, Social Research.