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arctic essay wolf Sub-zero: below zero. Canine Distemper: Canine distemper is buy my essay a contagious viral disease that affects the skin, eye membranes, intestinal tract and sometimes the brain of the a diagram essay, animals it attacks. Rabies: Rabies is usually transmitted from essay, one mammal to another when an infected animal bites an report, uninfected one, as the rabies virus is capable of buy my essay dividing rapidly within the salivary glands of an infected animal. Brucellosis: This disease primarily affects ruminants and symptoms include orchitis, abortion or other reproductive problems. Democracy? Because of their wide range, the Arctic wolf's population is currently unknown. Buy My Essay? They are too scattered and scarce to be determined.

Mating season: January through March Gestation: 60-63 days Litter size: 1-7 pups. Arctic wolves are not threatened! Because of where they reside, their only black, predators, man, are not interesting in killing this sub-species. Essay? Able to tolerate a lifetime of below zero temperatures, long periods of juliet darkness, and weeks without food, the Arctic wolf is one of the few species able to withstand the tundra's harsh climate. Buy My Essay? They inhabit the Canadian Arctic and the Northern parts of Greenland, safe from essay juliet question, mankind.

Arctic wolves are a sub-species to the broader main family, the Gray wolf. These wolves can survive temperatures lower than -22 degrees F. Essay? Unlike the Gray wolf, Arctic wolves wear a heavy white coat that enables them to burbidge research, blend in essay, with the summer creative courses dublin, snowy terrain. They have many layers of buy my fur, some which include an insulating layer and a water/ice resistant layer. During the summers, they may shed and essay romeo turn a light gray color. Essay? Due to creative courses, their harsh living conditions, Arctic wolves will kill anything they can catch. Buy My Essay? They will eat every part of the animal, parts such as the bones, skin, and question romeo even the fur. They need to eat as much as possible to increase the fat content in their body, seeing as fats act as insulation for animals. Buy My Essay? Arctic wolves prey on essays on tocqueville's, lemming, other small rodents, arctic hares, sometimes the arctic fox, birds, but most of essay all, musk oxen and caribou. Occasionally, an Arctic wolf will hunt moose, but only those who are vulnerable when stuck in the snow or sick. When hunting larger herding animals like the musk oxen and courses dublin caribou, Arctic wolves must hunt in packs.

They used an organized formation and play mind games with the animal in order to get it to scatter. The Arctic Wolf and buy my essay the Timber Wolf are the only subspecies of the Gray Wolf that still can be found over the whole of its original range; largely because in their natural habitat they rarely encounter humans. Their territories and hunting range are enormous. They have the entire arctic to roam, which is over thousands of miles. Sky Book Report? Arctic wolves have been known to follow their prey when they migrate, tacking them for hundreds of miles. Like the buy my, Gray wolf, Arctic wolves usually live together in packs. Though the packs can get as big as 7-10 members, Arctic wolf packs normally consist of 4 to 6. King? With Gray wolves, packs have the alpha pair, one or two beta wolves, subordinates, pups, and an omega. Buy My Essay? Whereas Arctic wolves, their packs are often structures with an essay juliet question, alpha pair and their offspring.

Despite the ones in packs, Arctic wolves are usually seen on their own. Males will travel by themselves in search of food or a female, giving themselves the title of lone wolf. Like all species of essay wolves, the essay romeo, alpha pair consists of essay a male and a female wolf. They lead the pack, choose the territory and writing den sites, lead the buy my, hunts, and parent the on tocqueville's in america, puppies. Buy My? For the Arctic wolf, their pack usually just has their offspring, young and old. Sometimes, the boy essay hunger, alpha male will go off to essay, hunt alone while the alpha female stays behind with the pups. Sky Book Report? Pups of the alpha male and buy my essay female are the lowest ranking wolves within the pack. However, they are always put first before any of the adults because of their dependence and development. And The? When Arctic wolf pups get older, they tend to buy my, stay within the summer creative dublin, pack and become subordinates, but some (most often the males) go off on buy my, their own. Mating season for essays on tocqueville's the Arctic wolf begins in January and buy my essay goes through March. Juliet Question? They usually give birth in buy my, May or June.

If in stephn king critical, a pack, the alpha male and alpha female have the breeding rights. If another non-related member of the pack wishes to essay, breed, he or she is geoffrey burbidge paper usually dominated by buy my essay, the alpha male or female. Geoffrey Paper? During the buy my essay, mating season, however, wolves often challenge the leaders for essay romeo alpha positions. The gestation period for a female Arctic wolf is about 60 to 63 days, just like the essay, Gray wolf. Romeo? When time to buy my, give birth, the female will locate a den usually by digging a new one.

However, due to the frozen ground, she may have to essays and the, seek out a previously used den or occupy one within rocks. The mother is buy my essay capable of giving birth to 7-10 pups, but it's usually no more than 4 that are born. Stephn King Critical? Some researchers say that the essay, lower number of creating a diagram pups is because of the essay, scarcity of prey in the Arctic. Stephn Critical? Like all wolf pups, Arctic wolves are born blind, deaf, and dependent on their mother. Buy My Essay? In turn, the mother relies on her mate to black hunger, bring her food.

For the first couple of weeks, the puppies stay inside the warmth of the essay, den, feeding on their mother's milk, which has the environment, essential nutrients for buy my essay their development. Creating A Diagram For An English? After they reach about 4 weeks of age, the pups are slowly weaned off their mother's milk and essay allowed to eat meat. Report? Members of the pack take turns regurgitating food until they are old enough to eat solid food. Around 6 weeks, they are allowed outside the buy my essay, den where they play and interact with their father and other pack members or older siblings. Still not old enough to hunt, they rely on their parents to summer dublin, bring them food. Essay? In about black a year or so, Arctic wolf pups can leave the buy my, pack to sky book, venture on their own, maybe starting a new pack or staying a lone wolf.

Though Arctic wolves aren't threatened by buy my essay, man, they do share some of the black boy essay hunger, same threats as Gray wolves. Things such as disease and injury, as well as climate and buy my essay starvation. Essays On Recycling? Because of the cold temperatures, some types of diseases and parasites aren't able to live in buy my, such climates. This doesn't bring the Arctic wolf out of the woods, however. Arctic wolves can develop diseases such as canine distemper, rabies, Brucellosis, Lyme disease, Tapeworm, liver flukes, and other infections. Arctic wolves are most likely to boy essay, die from starvation due to the enormous range and frigid weather. Arctic wolves rely on essay, the larger, migrating prey like caribou to feed their entire pack, but sometimes, the animals don't always follow the same route.

Arctic wolves will sometime move South with the caribou, but their course can be altered. Critical Essays? If wolves are unable to buy my essay, find good sources of stephn king food, pups and adults will die.

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resume vitamin a What and buy my essay, how the world is stephn king essays beginning to. learn about the importance of “Vitamin D” This is buy my essay a high-quality, single-channel audio file of the sort Leo normally provides for use with any media player that can handle standard MP3 files. Smallest download, 16kbps, mp3 audio file (7.55 mb) Since we're just talking, 64kbps can be overkill (though it certainly does sound the best). But if you'd prefer a smaller file, this one is probably all you need. Ready-to-Burn, Audio CD Cue/Bin file set (404 mb)

Since the audio now easily fits onto geoffrey burbidge research, a standard audio CD, and since you might wish to buy my essay, share it with non-iPod or mp3 playing people, this ZIP file contains a standard Cue/Bin file set that can be loaded and summer creative writing, burned by most CD burning software, to produce a standard audio CD, making sharing the content as easy as possible. Do-It-Yourself, high quality Stereo WAV (404 mb) If you want the podcast content in buy my essay any other format, this file provides the raw, full-fidelity, stereo WAV file from which all of the foregoing files were created. It can be packaged or compressed in any way you wish. “Vitamin D” is in burbidge paper quotes here and above because it is not a vitamin at all — in its active form it is the most powerful steroid hormone in our bodies. Though it is surprisingly crucial to both our developmental and buy my essay, ongoing health and well being (as the many clinical studies provided below demonstrate), it is present in essay it's so-called “active form” in concentrations of only 20 to 50 picograms per liter of human blood (a “picogram” is a trillionth of a gram!) So just a very tiny bit of buy my essay this stuff goes a long way! When human skin is exposed to sufficiently powerful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight, a form of creative dublin cholesterol contained in our skin (“7-dehydrocholesterol”) is converted into the precursor of Vitamin D, called “cholecalciferol”. This is then converted by our liver into the inactive bulk storage form of vitamin D that blood tests measure (“25-hydroxyvitamin D”).

Although Vitamin D is present in limited amounts in buy my cod liver oil and essay juliet, some fatty fish (salmon, mackerel and tuna), it is essentially unavailable in metabolically useful quantities from dietary sources. As we age, our skin gradually loses its youthful cholesterol and its ability to synthesize Vitamin D declines over time. Although it has not been widely studied, some reports indicate that by the age of 50, Vitamin D production has fallen to approximately 50% of its original rate, and by essay the age of 65 production will have fallen to just 25% of stephn critical essays its original capability. And independent of age, the buy my essay skin's melanin pigmentation — either from natural genetic racial coloration or tanning adaptation — acts to essay juliet, absorb much of the sun's visible and ultraviolet radiation. This skin darkening has the essay beneficial effect of protecting our skin from UV radiation damage, but at the expense of further reducing the skin's rate and capacity for creative writing dublin, Vitamin D production. (Melanin is buy my 99.9% efficient in absorbing the summer creative writing courses dublin energy from ultraviolet light, converting it into essay, harmless heat energy.) “Vitamin D” was misnamed when it was first discovered hundreds of years ago, before we knew where it came from or how it was made. By definition, it is not a “vitamin” because vitamins are not produced endogenously (internally), they must be obtained exogenously (externally) from dietary food sources. It seems likely that part of the trouble “Vitamin D” has had with capturing.

the attention it deserves is due to the fact that, simply by being misnamed a. “vitamin”, it has been lumped in with all of the other vitamins and nutrients, and thus assumed to be available in sufficient quantity through our diet. “Vitamin D” isn't even a nutrient! It comes from the sun, not from nutrition. Vitamin D Science has another problem: Vitamin D is very inexpensive and summer courses dublin, cannot be patented. Large and long, many-year double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials with many participants can easily cost millions of buy my essay dollars. But since Vitamin D is technically free (just go stand in the sun) or super-inexpensive (about 2.4 cents per day as a dietary supplement), no commercial pharmaceutical company wants to even think about it. Unlike synthetic chemicals to lower cholesterol, control blood sugar, lower high blood pressure or improve sexual performance, no large pharmaceutical company can make money selling vitamin D. And as the english essay studies below demonstrate over and over, maintaining adequate levels of Vitamin D throughout a lifetime is both simple and inexpensive. Buy My! Prospective study after study shows that Vitamin D is apparently highly effective in preventing many of the summer courses health problems that big pharmaceutical firms have invested millions of dollars in developing expensive drugs to essay, cure. This puts such companies in the admittedly awkward position of not being big fans of health. Vitamin D inexpensively promotes health.

So only University and stephn essays, some hospital affiliated researchers, with comparatively limited budgets, have any interest in exploring the health benefits of Vitamin D. And even when they, again and again, demonstrate surprising benefits from maintaining higher levels of vitamin D . who's going to market and sell that information? Once again, there's no money in it . So, once again, although all of buy my essay these professionally prepared reports and studies are freely available for access, download, and printing on the Internet, the for an essay general public never knows about is since there's no one running expensive prime-time commercials to sell it. As you read the buy my studies provided below, I predict that you are going to be. amazed and surprised and perhaps finally skeptical. You're going to wonder “if. this is all true, if this could all be true, why doesn't the public know about it?” We see expensive commercials every night during prime time for expensive and patented pharmaceuticals that allow older men to creating a diagram, urinate more easily and less often, but we never see any similar advertisements mentioning that study after study has shown that simply (and inexpensively) maintaining sufficient levels of buy my Vitamin D can work to prevent rickets (that's well known) but also 17 types of cancer including pancreatic, colon/rectal, stomach, prostate, lung, breast, bladder, uterine, espousal, kidney, ovarian, multiple myeloma, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia, lower blood pressure, improve immune system function (prevents colds and flu), autoimmune function, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, autism, allergies, preeclampsia, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis (also well known) depression, muscle and bone weakness and generalized pain.

Looking at king critical essays that long list of problems above, you may wonder how something, anything, could possibly “cure” all of those very different disease conditions. But that's thinking about Vitamin D backwards. Vitamin D doesn't “cure” anything. NONE of those things are supposed to go wrong in the first place. So Vitamin D simply allows our bodies to work the way they were designed to . Buy My! . . because our bodies were designed to have much more Vitamin D circulating through them than most indoor-living Westerners do today.

The human race evolved, developed and emerged in for an sub-Saharan equatorial East Africa where, year round without seasons, we received the sunlight we needed everyday for buy my essay, our skin to manufacture all of the Vitamin D hormone we required from our skin's natural cholesterol. When we migrated away from the equator, natural selection quickly eliminated most of the melanin pigmentation from our skin in an attempt to compensate for the much weaker levels of UV radiation available for stephn king critical, making Vitamin D. But then we went indoors and have been inadvertently starving our bodies of Vitamin D ever since. After reading the original medical research studies provided below, I wondered what the popular press had to say about essay Vitamin D. Stephn! So I purchased a number of essay inexpensive books to review. My favorite from among them is this book the “Vitamin D Prescription” that I recommend without hesitation. A Diagram! It very fairly and accurately recaps and summarizes in non-clinical non-medical language, all of the latest original research and findings regarding Vitamin D. Essay! If you were to read all of the fundamental research first, as I have, you would recognize it all in this book, but in much more readily accessible form.

If you would like something more readily digestible, or if you want something for a family member or friend, this might be perfect. The book is available from Amazon for $14.99 USD at this direct link: http://amzn.com/1439229465. Retail Blood Tests. Unfortunately, purchasing your own blood tests is usually rather expensive. If you ask your doctor to add a few additional tests (like serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) to your next regular annual test, insurance will likely pay for the test.

But if you don't routinely see a doctor, or if for whatever reason you want to writing dublin, obtain your own tests, it's quite possible to do so. The following are two sources that I know of: Life Extension Foundation — “LEF” offers retail blood testing through their affiliation with LabCorp, a national clinical testing laboratory with facilities everywhere. (There are four near me that I had to choose among.) After purchasing the buy my essay test(s) online, you receive a packet send via postal mail or faster ways if you prefer. That is taken to the lab which draws blood and essay, processes the buy my essay tests. The results are electronically returned to on tocqueville's, LEF who makes them available to buy my, you online, by eMail, postal mail or fax (in any combination). Here's the black boy essay hunger link to buy my, Life Extension's Vitamin D (25-hydroxy) test. Since it is (as of this writing) $62.67 for non-members or $47.00 for members, with membership costing $75 per year, if you think you might be taking multiple tests, as I have been during my experiments, joining to stephn critical, get the lower price pays for itself pretty quickly. Here's the link to all of Life Extension's extensive selection of buy my essay tests. Again, since the offer substantial discounts to members, becoming one can reduce the cost of even one expensive blood test.

Grass Root Health — I recently learned of this site, and their $40 prick your finger at hunger home Vitamin D blood testing kit. SO I can't vouch for them in any way, but I wanted to buy my essay, pass on the information in case it might be useful to anyone. extremely high doses daily for many months . Purchasing Vitamin D Supplements. I have been using the web site “ iHerb.com ” for many years and I recommend them without hesitation. An advantage for me is essays democracy that they are located close enough that UPS Ground delivery is overnight, but I would use them if they were on the other side of the essay moon.

Their service is perfect, their web site works well, and — most importantly — their prices are consistently the lowest anywhere. This is the burbidge research paper Vitamin D3 I had chosen for my own use, and it's what I had been recommending to others. I have since switched to the Vitamin D from “Healthy Origins” (see below) because it is even less expensive than Now Foods and they are an equally good and trusted supplier. This Vitamin D3 appeared on the iHerb site in buy my August 2009, right around the time of the Vitamin D podcast. It's label suggests taking one per essays on tocqueville's in america day which, frankly, even though it's three times the essay dosage suggested by the Now Foods label, is not something I would disagree with so long as its users always act responsibly with making sure there are no problems, rare as they might be, with hypercalcemia, which could affect some people who would be genetically sensitive to higher intakes of Vitamin D. PLEASE remember that Vitamin D can definitely be toxic when taken in essays on tocqueville's democracy large doses over an extended period of time. There are so many available potencies and capsule counts of Healthy Origins Vitamin D3 that rather than listing them all, here's a search link of essay iHerb.com for: “Healthy Origins Vitamin D3” which should give you a page showing all of the many options of 1200, 2400, and 5000 IU Vitamin D3. One last point about summer writing iHerb and Now Foods Vitamin D3: While you're browsing the pages, check out the customer feedback for the 5,000 IU capsules. It sure looks like people are pleased with the results of taking Vitamin D3. (At the time of this writing, the Healthy Origins D3 was too new to have many feedback postings.) The YouTube video below is a VERY WORTHWHILE quite fast-paced , 58-minute presentation by Michael Holick, one of the leading Vitamin D researchers. (About 40 minutes into the presentation he gets into the many cancer and other preventive aspects of essay sufficient Vitamin D.) Click the video above to play embedded, or this link for large size:

This is the black hunger doctor (MD Psychiatrist) who I mentioned during the podcast as working at the Atascadero State Mental Hospital where he had all of the essay patients on Vitamin D for its beneficial effects on their emotional state. During that time, an extremely serious influenza (flu) outbreak swept the black hunger hospital, causing the buy my quarantining of the wards surrounding his on every side . . . while not one of his patients became sick, despite having had ample pre-quarantine contact with the king essays adjoining wards. Today, everyone in the hospital takes vitamin D. Essay! Doctor Cannell is also the founder of king critical The Vitamin D Council and, as you can probably tell from the video, he appears to really know his stuff . Buy My! . . Click the black boy essay video above to buy my essay, play embedded, or this link for large size: The following YouTube video news blurb, produced by “Science Central, Inc.” is just a random bit of critical further confirmation of the conclusions of the essay many studies and reviews on the topic, some of which I have described and black hunger, provided in their entirety, as PDFs, below: Click the video above to play embedded, or this link for large size: It is not my intention to bury you in media. But seeing samples from many different sources helps make the buy my essay point that the a diagram for an english essay awakening to the Vitamin D problem is essay happening all over and is creative courses dublin not an isolated “crackpot” phenomenon. The following collection of PDF files were gathered from essay freely available public Internet sources.

Nothing was paid for — though some digging was sometimes required to locate a freely downloadable version of an geoffrey research paper, article that was available only for purchase elsewhere — and all copyrights have been left intact and unchanged. Buy My Essay! So you should feel free to print or share anything here with anyone else. Also, the URLs of summer writing courses dublin these documents are stable. They will not be changing or going away for the foreseeable future. U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) on Vitamin D. This provides a good ultra-conservative take on the U.S. government's current official position on Vitamin D as a dietary supplement.

While most informed researchers would argue with many points herein, even the government is being forced to acknowledge the role of Vitamin D. Check out the section on Cancer. Overview Articles Studies. 2003 - British Journal of Nutrition — 21 pages. This review article provides a brief summary of the essay metabolism of Vitamin D, followed by a broad overview of the essay romeo increasing number of roles Vitamin D is essay believed to have on health. Vitamin D Deficiency: 2007 - The New England Journal of Medicine — 16 pages — by Michael F. Summer Creative Writing Dublin! Holick , M.D., Ph.D. Michael Holick is one of the buy my essay doctors who is most responsible for helping raise awareness of need for black, more attention on Vitamin D. You will see his work cited throughout these articles and studies. This review article provides great background on Vitamin D metabolism (with some nice color diagrams) and buy my essay, an overview of the essay question many roles played by the hormone. Implications for Establishing a New Effective Dietary Intake Recommendation for Vitamin D: 2005 - The Journal of Nutrition — 6 pages — by Bruce W. Essay! Hollis. Bruce Hollis is juliet another name you will often encounter throughout the Vitamin D research literature.

This article provides some great background for the discussion of adequate and healthy levels of Vitamin D. Vitamin D Supplementation, 25-hydroxy D concentrations and safety: 1999 - The American Journal of CLinical Nutrition — 15 pages — by Reinhold Vieth. Reinhold Vieth, and buy my essay, this article, is more than ten years old, but it's one of the most influential early papers written. If you're finding yourself fascinated by summer creative writing the topic and wanting to know more, this paper is a terrific source. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy and Implications for Health: 2006 - Mayo Clinic Proceedings — 21 pages — by Michael F. Buy My! Holick , M.D., Ph.D.

2004 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition — 11 pages — by Michael F. Black Boy Essay Hunger! Holick , M.D., Ph.D. This article provides additional background about Vitamin D and also discusses the buy my essay widely observed latitudinal variations in black boy essay hunger diseases believed to be related to Vitamin D deficiency. Clinical Research Epidemiological Studies. 2007 - American Journal of essay Clinical Nutrition — 6 pages. This 4-year, population-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial showed that the relative risk (RR) of all forms of cancer was reduced to 0.232 in women receiving 1100 IU of daily Vitamin D plus calcium compared to the placebo control group. (Please see the study for all details.) Prospective Study of summer creative writing courses Predictors of Vitamin D Status and Cancer in Men:

2006 - Journal of the National Cancer Institute — 9 pages. This is a statistical study based upon buy my essay a cohort of 51,529 medical professionals aged 40-75 in 1986. From their analysis, an increase of 25 nmol/L (which is creating english essay 10 ng/ml, the more commonly used units) of predicted serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D, resulted in a 17% reduction in total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in buy my essay total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in essay digestive-system cancer mortality. (Please see the study for all details.) Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Serum Vitamin D Levels in the U.S.: 2007 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association — 7 pages. This study divided 7186 male and 7902 female adults, 20 years or older, into four equal-size groups based upon their measured serum Vitamin D levels. Comparing the lowest serum group (the lowest quartile) to the highest (the highest quartile), those with the essay lowest serum Vitamin D levels had 1.3 times the occurrence of geoffrey paper hypertension (high blood pressure), 1.98 times the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, 2.29 times the occurrence of buy my essay obesity, and 1.47 times the writing courses dublin occurrence of high serum triglyceride levels. (Please see the study for all details.) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Men: 2008 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association — 7 pages. This prospective statistical study examined 18,225 male health professionals aged 40 to buy my, 75 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at the time of blood collection. During 10 years of follow-up, 454 men developed nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack) or fatal coronary heart disease.

Compared with twice the number of age- and smoking status-matched control subjects, men deficient in Vitamin D (?15 ng/mL) were 2.42 times more at essays on tocqueville's democracy risk for heart attack than those with sufficient serum Vitamin D (?30 ng/mL). (Please see the study for all details.) Predictors of Vitamin D Status and Cancer Incidence in buy my essay Men: 2006 - Journal of the on tocqueville's National Cancer Institute — 9 pages. This is a report on a “prospective statistical study” meaning that they took an existing medical database of buy my essay information and analyzed it carefully for statistically significant relationships of stephn essays a specific nature. In this case, they were examining the relationship, if any, between serum (blood) levels of Vitamin D and incidents of cancer and cancer mortality in men. Essay! What they found was that every increase of 25 nmol/L (that's 10 ug/mL on the scale most often used) of serum Vitamin D was associated with a 17% reduction in total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in digestive-system cancer mortality. The study concluded, in addition to the above, that the Vitamin D supplementation required to achieve a 25 nmol/L (10 mg/mL) increment in Vitamin D serum levels was approximately 1500 IU/day. (Please see the burbidge paper study for all details.) Low Vitamin D Status Despite Abundant Sun Exposure: 2007 - The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism — 6 pages. An odd thing that Vitamin D researchers occasionally encounter is essay surprisingly low serum Vitamin D levels in people having plenty of king critical exposure to the sun. Buy My Essay! This study examined students of the University of Hawaii and essays on tocqueville's in america, patrons of a Hawaiian skateboard shop who are regularly in the sun. (Please see the study for all details.) From the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 2009 - Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons — 8 pages — Joel M. Kauffman, Ph.D.

This very recent summary report (Summer of 2009) perfectly sums up the buy my case for raising and maintaining higher serum levels of Vitamin D. Essays! Supplementation is used throughout most studies, and it works — literal — wonders. of this page are Copyright (c) 2016 Gibson Research Corporation. SpinRite, ShieldsUP, NanoProbe, and buy my, any other indicated trademarks are registered trademarks of Gibson. Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA.

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The Anatomy of a Terrible Sales Resume. The sales resume is often the first contact a hiring manager will have with the person who could become the next best performer on his or her sales team. However, with managers stating that one in five hires are “bad” or “regrettable”, the reality is that most have trouble distinguishing a bad salesperson from buy my essay a good or a great one. To mitigate hiring risk and expedite the question, recruiting process, hiring leaders need to be able to buy my quickly identify a great resume from a terrible one. A recent survey from stephn critical The Society of Human Resource Managers reported that an buy my essay, incredible 53 percent of the resume they reviewed contained false information – anything from boy essay altered job descriptions to inaccurate employment dates and false degrees. Moreover, we have found that more than eight in ten hiring managers have interviewed salespeople who have exaggerated their sales accomplishments and selling activities. While most candidates don’t set out to intentionally mislead their future employers, people naturally want to present themselves in the best light. They may stretch the truth to essay cover up an unfortunate job choice or try to research paper elevate their experience to be considered for a position for which they are not qualified.

To help you uncover great salespeople and easily identify resumes for the reject pile, here we dissect the buy my essay, anatomy of a terrible sales resume. The best salespeople have a resume that states their accomplishments in a clear, concise manner, supporting their claims with quantifiable results and examples. Their resume includes concrete examples of key customer wins (logos), large deals, quota achievement, and/or how they started key channel partnerships that lead to a diagram for an english essay a defined revenue number. Buy My Essay! For example: “Delivered 122% of sales target.” “Sold $2.2 million of software against essays a $1.7 million quota.” “Achieved a 25% cold call closing rate.”

“Great salespeople aren’t afraid to showcase their achievements, and buy my essay they know that detailing their sales results on their resume is an effective way to separate themselves from average and below average sellers” – Brent Thomson, CSO of Peak Sales Recruiting. If these statistics are not on a resume, that is a cause for concern. “If I don’t see these stats, I become suspicious,” says Dave Stein, author of Beyond the Sales Process . “I’ll ask the candidate to send me their performance against a diagram for an essay quota, year by year.” What separates the top sellers from the buy my, rest, however, is that in addition to the metrics listed above, they list closing ratio, average sales size, repeat order percentage, and average sales conversion time from prospect to close. They also take it a step further by listing details on how their numbers compare to past employer averages or industry benchmarks. Creative Writing! Put simply, the best candidates provide detailed number breakdowns, while the essay, worst try to conceal their failures. How to peel away the artificial layers. It is black boy essay hunger, easy for candidates to essay inflate the numbers on their resume – how often do you see candidates list “Achieved 50% of quota”? But the majority of salespeople miss their targets – more than 60%. That’s why experienced sales interviewers ask for stephn king essays, more details on specific numbers during the introductory, screening interview (click here to find download a list of the interview questions every great hiring manager asks a sales candidate). Buy My! Should the summer creative dublin, candidate make it into the final phases of the assessment process, interviewing references that were in a supervisory role, and checking W-2s to verify the claims made by the candidate are proven methods to further reduce hiring risk. Requiring candidates to complete a career history form adds another layer to the assessment process that employers can leverage to eliminate poor performers from the recruiting process.

This is a lengthy account of the buy my essay, person’s selling history, requiring much more detailed information than can be found on a resume. If a candidate responds that the creating english essay, information is on their CV or that they will fill it out if they go further in the hiring process, it may indicate they are not serious about the position, or they are trying to hide less than stellar sales results. A career history form doesn’t come without its drawbacks, however. The form can discourage great salespeople from continuing through the buy my essay, hiring process since they are too busy focusing on achieving their sales targets than to be filling out geoffrey burbidge research paper lengthy application forms. Confidentiality agreements also hinder the usefulness of essay this from since it restricts candidates from disclosing key client acquisitions or specific deals. In this case, the best salespeople will list the information more generally, stating the industry rather than company – “Fortune 500 telecommunications company” or “Large national automotive supplier”. 2. Lack of awards and achievements.

Annual top salesperson, top revenue, units sold, sales trips and other incentives are common awards given to top performers on a sales team – and the best salespeople are constantly winning. “The best salespeople on my team wear their awards as badges of honor”, says Eliot Burdett, CEO of Peak Sales Recruiting, “They take every opportunity to showcase their accomplishments.” Salespeople who have earned these awards are proud of their achievements and stephn king critical will highlight these on a resume. If this kind of recognition is essay, missing, this is juliet question romeo, not a great salesperson. There are as many titles for salespeople out buy my essay there as there are companies, with organizations of summer creative writing courses varying sizes selecting identical titles with vastly different responsibilities and buy my essay success metrics. A VP Sales, for example, could be responsible for summer creative writing, a team of 150 reps in a multinational company, or lead a team of essay 3 reps in a Fortune 10000 company. This makes it easy for salespeople to writing list a title on buy my essay their resume that inflates their role and juliet question level of responsibility. When sales recruiting, the best hiring managers look beyond the candidate’s title and buy my essay examine the responsibilities listed on essay romeo the resume. The actual level, experience, and success of the buy my essay, candidate should quickly become apparent. A great resume for a Vice President of boy essay hunger Sales, for example, would highlight responsibilities and success metrics such as increasing company revenue, increasing profit margin, team growth, and market growth, not cold calling stats and number of demos booked. 4. Too many non-sales responsibilities. Great salespeople are busy doing what they do best: sell.

The best sales resumes focus on buy my essay sales-related activities. Romeo! Watch for non-sales activities listed such as: “Responsible for monitoring the buy my, day-to-day tasks performed by the sales team” “Fostered effective relationships between sales and marketing teams” “Participated in black the restructuring of sales incentive packages” If there are too many non-selling activities on a resume, this indicates the person has not been actively selling. Again, the buy my essay, best salespeople let their results speak for themselves. Top performers are always gainfully employed and producing results. If there are months missing from a candidate’s career history, it could be that the person under-performed, did not meet their sales quota, and was let go.

However, there are also good reasons why a person may have months missing in their career history, such as time off to spend with a new child or caring for an ailing parent. A great candidate will be candid about these gaps and proactively address them to prospective employers. “If their last three jobs were sole proprietorships where the essays, candidate ‘worked’ for themselves, take a closer look,” says Stein. “Either they thought they could make oodles of money, or they couldn’t get a real sales job.” Also, beware if a resume lists years only rather than month and buy my essay year – this can be an attempt to creating a diagram for an english hide periods of unemployment. If there are too many gaps, best to take a pass.

6. Too many jobs in a short period of time. While it can be good for buy my essay, salespeople to have diverse experiences in different industries and positions, be wary of those who have had many jobs in a short period of time. It may be that they were unemployed and took any position they could get at the time. “When a salesperson has worked at five companies in a seven-year period, something is wrong,” says Mike Weinberg, author of Sales Management. Simplified. and New Sales. Simplified . Geoffrey Burbidge Research! “There are no unemployed ‘A’ player salespeople.” There can be good explanations for shorter stays such as a company merger or acquisition, or company-wide lay-offs. However, since top salespeople only represent 10-15% of the entire sales population, the buy my essay, best are retained, even in essay juliet these situations. Does the essay, resume include vague or verbose language to describe simple tasks or “soft skills”? This usually indicates the candidate is trying to stephn critical conceal a lack of essay results by making average or non-selling tasks appear more important. Consider this example from an essays on tocqueville's democracy, actual resume: “Generates a high volume of sales through implementing creative strategies and buy my solutions to meet individual customer needs”.

First, “high volume of king critical sales” should be documented as an buy my, actual number, either as a percentage of sales target or total dollar revenue against quota. Second, “creative strategies and solutions to creating a diagram english essay meet individual customer needs” is vague and does not give concrete evidence as to what selling methodology was used and how the solution was tailored to meet the customer’s requirements. Dave Stein also warns against resumes filled with too much “techno-speak”. Buy My Essay! “Architectures, programming languages, platforms, etc. Noise!” says Stein. “This is usually misdirection away from selling capabilities they probably don’t have.” Our article “Words We’d Rather Not See on Resumes This Year” lists some revealing adjectives for essays democracy in america, which hiring leaders should be on the lookout. Some of the buy my, most commonly used include: One consideration that has to be made when assessing sales resumes is that the geoffrey burbidge research paper, best salespeople are busy hunting new prospects and closing business and may not have the time to keep their resumes up to date. These are passive candidates who are happy in their current roles and not actively searching for a new position. The best recruiters understand this reality and question any gaps during the pre-screening interview phase.

In his article “Secrets Buried in a Salesperson’s Resume” author and sales expert, Lee B. Salz points out that in the education section of the resume a hiring manager should look for the school attended, degree attained and essay the year. While it is true that some people may omit the dates in order to for an essay hide their age, there are those who may not have completed their studies. A question for sales managers, executives and hiring managers posed on LinkedIn, “Do Sales Professionals Need a College Education?” elicited some interesting answers. “There are many successful business men who never graduated from essay a college.” “I know great sales reps in my industry without a college degree and I know some not so good sales reps with a MBA from a renowned business school.” “Do you want people who can sell, or those who can spell?” Your company may agree with these sentiments. Essay Juliet! Or, you may value post-secondary education for demonstrating the person’s discipline to complete a program of study, as well as learn valuable skills such as critical thinking, persuasive communication and buy my maintain intellectual curiosity.

Most hiring managers would likely agree that solid sales performance trumps post-secondary education, but honesty and integrity are also critical. If a promising salesperson does not have a college or university degree, this is less important than their willingness to be open and honest about their education. Many of the essay question romeo, best salespeople have taken formal sales training or achieved a designation to continue to buy my essay improve in their profession. It is easy to list training programs completed on a resume because hiring managers rarely check. Terrible resumes don’t list the date of certification completion. Here is an example of an actual sales resume – the burbidge research paper, names and employment details have been changed.

Most of the points on this resume are vague and essay fail to give a clear indication of the actual task, responsibility, and performance against these responsibilities. Here are some other observations: Extensive list of creating for an english essay sales-related activities with no reference to buy my concrete sales numbers and performance against quota Dates are presented as years, not month/year Superfluous language Vague education section Spelling mistakes Picture included. “The easiest way to determine whether or not the stephn essays, candidate’s claims are legitimate is through the interview process,” says Peak CSO Brent Thomson, “Ask questions regarding their accomplishments in buy my multiple ways to assess whether or not the answer is the same. Essays On Tocqueville's Democracy In America! If the interview take-aways do not agree with the resume, then the candidate may be exaggerating, misrepresenting, and/or lying.” Knowing the pitfalls and red flags to look for on a salesperson’s resumes can help streamline the recruiting process. It helps to reveal the stars and quickly eliminate average and buy my below average sellers so you can fill your position with a salesperson with the black hunger, competences required to hit aggressive growth targets. Latest posts by Keith Johnstone (see all) Responsibilities of a Sales Manager: The Ultimate Guide - May 16, 2017 How HR Can Build an Integrated Approach to Sales Talent Management - March 14, 2017 Debunking 14 Common Sales Management Misconceptions - February 24, 2017. Latest Posts on essay the Peak Sales Blog. 4 Reasons a Diverse Sales Team Will Boost Revenue [Video]

30 Game-Changing Statistics To Improve Your Cold Calling. 5 Sales Team Building Activities That Reduce Turnover Rates. 10 Ways to Motivate Your Sales Team to essays in america Crush Their Numbers [Infographic] Sales Interview Questions: The Ultimate Guide. Sales recruiting? We wrote the essay, book.

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coffin business plan My Father's Shoes - Our Coffin Story, Pages 1 to 25. Tristram Coffyn was born in 1609 in Brixton Parish, town of Plymouth, Devonshire, England and baptized March 11, 1610. Buy My. He was the eldest child of Peter and Johanna Coffin. Coffyn's early years in England were during a very eventful time. Summer Writing Courses Dublin. Intellectual freedom was being claimed as a right for each individual. This period was during the reign of James I. Buy My Essay. Among the names of the day were William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and Oliver Cromwell. It was a period when the Puritans were making large gains in the Parliament. Tristram had one younger brother, John and four sisters, Johanna, Deborah, Eunice and Mary. When Tristram was 19 his father Peter, died. Essay Juliet Romeo. His will was dated December 21, 1627 and was proved by his widow Johanna on March 13, 1628.

In the will it was declared that Tristram was to be provided for according to his degree and essay, calling. Tristram was a farmer and therefore most likely took control of his fathers estate near Plymouth. Two years later Tristram courted and wed Dionis Stevens, daughter of Robert Stevens of Brixton. Dionis Stevens was born in 1609 although other accounts say 1613. Shortly after their marriage, their first child Peter was born in 1631 followed by their son Tristram Jr., born in 1632.

During the early 1630's England entered into a storm of conflict with the death of James I and the succession of Charles I. In 1638 the Scots took up arms against the King. The Presbyterians took control of the Commons and this was followed by an all out civil war in 1642. Summer Dublin. During this period of time Tristram and Dionis had two more children Elizabeth (d.o.b. unknown) and James born August 12, 1639. Dionis was also pregnant with their fifth child. In 1640 Coffyn was selected as a Warden of Brixton Parish. Shortly after in November 1640, he leased his farm that was located at Butlass. With the civil war closing in on essay, his family and the wounding and eventual death eight days later of his brother John at juliet romeo Plymouth Fort, Tristram decided to take his family, including his mother and buy my essay, two unwed sisters to safety in Colonial America. Tristram's friend Robert Clement was leaving for America shortly, aboard a small fleet of ships, some of which were owned by Clement. Tristram quickly put his affairs in order and embarked on his journey with his family aboard Clement's ship named Hector Clement in for an essay the spring of 1642.

This proved to be the last time Coffyn was to see his home in England. The crossing of the Atlantic took between 60 and buy my, 90 days before they arrived in Newburyport Massachusetts, during the summer of 1642. It was a mere twenty years since the pilgrims, aboard the Mayflower had landed at Plymouth. Shortly after their arrival, Tristram. secured living quarters for essay question romeo his family and started exploring up the Merrimack River with Robert Clement in search of a good location for buy my a more permanent home. He arrived in a soon to stephn essays be called settlement named Pentucket, now known as Haverhill Ma. The book The History of essay Haverhill by George Chase states that Clements son, Job Clements had already settled in the area a year earlier, if so, this could be the reason that Coffyn and courses, Clements chose this area. Buy My Essay. They found the area to a diagram for an english essay have fertile soil with the necessary resources to build a farm, however, it was recorded that the large population of wolves were a problem with the flocks of sheep and a guard had to be posted at all times.

In 1641 there were only six homes built in Pentucket. Tristram's group of settlers negotiated with the Indians for the property rights and secured a large area for the sum of three pounds ten shillings. A copy of this deed is still on record and buy my, bares witness to the signatures of Robert Clement and Tristram Coffyn, dated November 15, 1642. Not only is this the first record of the first Coffin immigrant in America, but it also indicates how Tristram spelled his surname, Coffyn, with a y instead of an i. It was also during this period that John, their youngest child fell ill and died. Dionis was also pregnant with their sixth child who was later named Deborah. She was born the first Coffin child in a diagram english America, and the third child born in buy my essay the tiny settlement but was destined for the same fate as the other newborns and died three weeks later. These deaths give evidence to the harsh conditions that the first immigrants must have encountered upon their arrival in the new world. The living conditions were primitive and unforgiving and many families suffered greatly. It was noted that Coffyn was the first white settler to plough land in the area, having made his own plough from materials at hand.

A few years after his arrival in creating english essay Pentucket, his daughter Mary was born, becoming the essay first Coffin child to be born and survive to adulthood in summer creative writing America. Shortly after Coffyn's arrival, the essay settlement was threatened when Indian war parties decided to target the settlers homes. They wanted to halt the white invasion however they feared the firepower of the settlers muskets. Essay. The Indian plan was to send a small group to each of the settlers homes at the same time and gain entrance to the houses by way of presenting goods for trade. Upon a predetermined signal, the essay Indians would jump the white men, cut their throats and ransack the house looking for weapons. What the Indians didn't know was that one of their members was a Colonial informant who revealed the plan to British intelligence and the British soldiers, along with about forty settlers disarmed the Indians before they could set the plan in motion. After only writing courses dublin, a few years of farming in buy my Pentucket, Tristram embarked on a new direction.

It would seem that not only was he a farmer, but he was also interested in expanding his business holdings. When the opportunity arose to operate a ferry back in Newbury, Tristram decided to move his family once again. The History of essay Newbury states that in 1644 Tristram Coffin Sr. is allowed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) which consisted of selling wine and keeping a ferry and Inn on the Newbury side of the Merrimack River. George Carr kept a ferry on the Salisbury side across from Carr Island. Tristram's ferry crossed from buy my essay, Newbury on the south side of the river, between Carr Island and Ram Island, over to the north side to the town of Salisbury. The ferry was most likely a tow ferry with oxen providing the power to pull the craft across the democracy river, with his sons helping to load and disembark the essay passengers. Essays Democracy In America. In the 1650's Tristram's eldest children began to expand their horizons with Peter leaving Newbury to go to Dover, New Hampshire, where he became involved in the lumber business along with holding a variety of public office positions. Tristram's daughter Elizabeth wed Stephen Greenleaf in 1651 and resided in essay Newbury where the couple eventually had ten children before Elizabeth's early death. Tristram Jr. married Judith Somerby in 1653 and became a weaver/tailor and Deacon of the First Parish of Newbury.

Tristram Jr. is also the person who brought the Coffin name to the old Coffin house in 1654, which still stands in Newbury, after housing over 240 years of creating for an english essay Coffin descendants. In 1997, I visited Newbury and the Coffin house which is now a historical site owned by the SPNEA. The Coffin house is one of the earliest homes constructed of wood still standing in New England. It is believed that the father, Tristram Sr., lived here shortly before moving to his new home in Nantucket. The house was originally much smaller than it appears today, with the oldest section being located at the back. In 1735 the first centennial of Newbury was celebrated by the town in the front yard of the Coffin house, under two gigantic elm trees. Inside, one is struck by essay the large fireplace located in the middle of the house, in a room referred to as the hall.

This is where the cooking, dining and visiting took place. Above this area was the hall chamber, or sleeping chamber. When I visited the sleeping chamber, a large cradle lay on one side of the room. This was not for infants, but was for the elderly family members who were gently rocked to sleep. Essay. On some of the buy my beams near the stairs were engravings carved in the beam, these were thought to ward off evil spirits.

Much of the black hunger family time in buy my the house was spent reading the bible as this was an era of strong religious beliefs along with the threat of evil coming in the form of witches and devils. The last full time occupant of the Coffin house was Lucy Coffin, who never married and lived to be 101 years old. After she died in 1893, a nephew used the house as a summer place until it was turned over to stephn critical essays the SPNEA in 1921. A short distance from the Coffin house, stood the Coffyn's Tavern. The Tavern was operated mainly be Dionis, Tristram's wife, and it was called Coffyn's Ordinary. Not only did she serve the patrons but she was also responsible for making the buy my beverages of the day. This.

eventually led the Coffyns into burbidge research paper, confrontation with the law. The laws of buy my essay 1645 stated clearly that every person licensed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) shall always be provided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the ale quart, on penalty of stephn king critical forty shillings the essay first offence and for the second offence shall lose his licence. Dionis' ale was made with six bushels, giving it a kick that kept them coming back for more. For her troubles she increased the price by one pence and in turn had to stand before the court to defend her actions. Eventually the boy essay hunger charge was dismissed, but word spread quickly through Newbury as to where to go for a quality ale. According to the book Ould Newbury by John Currier, the Coffyns owned forty acres across from Carr Island. In later years the road to the Inn was known as Coffin Lane and was on buy my essay, the west side of present day Jefferson St. down by the Merrimack River. Toward the mid 1650's the ferry crossings were replaced by a floating bridge leaving Tristram little choice but to sell his property. He moved across the river to Salisbury where records show his name on some documents as Commissioner of Salisbury.

It was during these years in the late 1650's that the first plans to relocate his family to a more desirable location were first laid out. Depending on geoffrey burbidge paper, which source one would believe, there are many arguments that have been brought forward as to why Tristram decided to leave Massachusetts. All would have been valid arguments. It was true that the Puritan rule was harsh and prejudice against freedom of choice both religiously and politically. It was also true that the desire to buy my essay move to an area where fences were not needed for the livestock (that an Island would provide) would be of some benefit, mainly monetary. In the end, Tristram's will to on tocqueville's democracy keep his family together around him in essay a community outside of the black boy essay smothering rules of the Puritans, and guarded by miles of ocean, could have been the driving factor behind his decision to locate to a new home. In talking to his friends and neighbours he found he was not alone in essay his thinking. Summer Writing Courses. Others were also anxious to leave, many for the same reasons as Coffyn. After a short time their ideas took shape and later after meetings, it was decided to form a group of associates to buy my essay pursue matters further. The idea of common pastures and buildings were appealing to many, especially the farmers who were advancing in age. Essays. The back breaking life of maintaining a farm could now be shared among the group with common mills and labour supplied by buy my essay the Indians.

How the Island of Nantucket, thirty miles off the south shore of Cape Cod ever came forth as a choice, is once again debatable. Some point out boy essay, that the connection lies with Thomas Mayhew, the owner of Nantucket and essay, Martha's Vineyard, was a cousin of one of the associates in Tristram's group, a man named Thomas Macy. Others think that Nantucket simply came up in a passing conversation and caught the groups imagination. At one meeting the summer writing courses decision was made to send Tristram Coffyn, possibly his son James, Edward Starbuck and essay, cabin boy Isaac Coleman on a fact finding mission to meet with Mayhew and view Nantucket to assess its suitability as a home. Essays Democracy In America. Early in 1659 the men set out for Edgartown in Martha's Vineyard, the home of Thomas Mayhew. Thomas Mayhew came to New England before 1632 from Wiltshire England. By 1637 Mayhew was in the town of Watertown, Massachusetts, where he was operating a grist mill. Essay. His. business enterprises were flourishing by the time the family of John Folger arrived in Watertown. Mayhew had a son named Thomas Jr. who was very religious.

Folger's son Peter was close to the same age as Thomas Jr. and the two became friends. They both shared an appetite for adventure, so when the black boy essay opportunity came forth for the Mayhew's to purchase an Island named Nantucket, from the Earl of Stirling in essay 1641 for forty pounds, the adventure began. After seeing the boy essay Island it was concluded that Nantucket Island was too far off shore and that Martha's Vineyard would be a more suitable island to inhabit, so shortly after Mayhew also bought Martha's Vineyard. Thomas Mayhew Jr. moved quickly to establish his home on Martha's Vineyard bringing Peter Folger along with him. His mission was to teach the essay Indians that inhabited the boy essay Islands' Christianity.

Folger was to be a school master and surveyor. The work was quite successful and the elder Mayhew came to join them in Edgartown. In 1657 Thomas Jr. found it necessary to go to England to stimulate more financial support, however, his ship was lost in a gale on the crossing and he was never heard from buy my essay, again. Mayhew was devastated by the loss of his son, however he decided to continue with his son's mission. Summer Creative. Folger on the other hand was looking for a change. His chance for buy my essay change came in the form of a shallop sailing into hunger, the harbour at Edgartown with Tristram Coffyn on buy my, board.

It's interesting to note that this simple twist of fate with Coffyn arriving in Edgartown while Folger was searching for a new adventure, brought about one of the black boy essay hunger circumstances to which American statesman, scientist and buy my, writer, Benjamin Franklin would later be born into. Forty years later, Folger's daughter, Abiah, of Nantucket, married Josiah Franklin, where in 1706 shortly after moving from Nantucket, gave birth to Benjamin Franklin. In turn this would make Tristram's new friend, Peter, Ben Franklin's grandfather. Tristram's preliminary discussions with Mayhew were favourable, however, Mayhew insisted that if Coffyn's group wanted to purchase Nantucket, the Indians on the Island would have to be included in the negotiations. It was estimated that Nantucket had about 700 Narragansett Indians living in six villages, mostly on essay question romeo, the east shore. Today, there is not a single Indian descendant living on the Island. The last Indian descendant died in the 1850's, wiped out for the most part by white man diseases. Nantucket in Algonquin is interpreted as far away Island. Coffyn realized that without an interpreter he would have problems communicating with the Indians. To address this problem he enlisted the services of Peter Folger who was also a skilled Surveyor. Shortly thereafter, the group left for essay the Island.

The Indians greeted them favourably and although their interpretation of purchasing land proved to be different than the summer writing white interpretation, they agreed on the idea. In later years the Indians were surprised to learn the meaning of trespassing, for in their culture no one ever owns property but instead they only essay, had rights to live upon it, yet anyone could travel through it. The whites wouldn't allow this for in america fear of livestock disappearing. Shortly after achieving their goal, Coffyn and the rest headed back to Edgartown for further negotiations with Mayhew. Committed to carrying on with his lost son's mission, Mayhew had no real interest in Nantucket and therefore agreed to essay very reasonable terms for the purchase of the Island. The sale price of 30 pounds along with two beaver hats, one for him and one for black his wife, was a bargain especially if one considers that after owning the Island for close to essay twenty years Mayhew was selling it for geoffrey burbidge research paper ten pounds less than he bought it for. The beaver hats incidently were supposedly made by Tristram Coffyn's son, Tristram Jr. Today one can only speculate on the mood of the negotiations, but judging by the eventual results, Coffyn and Mayhew must have respected each other a great deal in order for things to have gone so smoothly. Mayhew did decide however to essay retain a one twentieth share of the venture so he could have a voice in how the Island affairs were being handled.

Coffin returned home to Salisbury to organize the purchase of Nantucket. Once there, his eight partners ratified the juliet romeo agreement with Mayhew and ten new partners and ten tenant inhabitants were admitted into the company. Half Share Owners. Tristram Coffin Jr. #9;The half share partners were tradesmen who were needed to help develop the settlement. Folger was the interpreter/surveyor who later became the miller. Joseph Gardner was a shoemaker and Nathaniel Holland was a tailor etc.

Some of the other half-share holders listed didn't join the group until the buy my essay later years. #9;In the fall of 1659 before any formal deed was drawn up with the Indian leaders Wanackmamack and Nickanoose, James Coffin, Thomas Macy and family, Edward Starbuck and research paper, Isaac Coleman left Salisbury for Nantucket to take up residence. Buy My Essay. Macy was in trouble with the Puritan judges for harbouring Quakers during a short rain storm. Nantucket was out of the Judge's legal realm, so rather than stay and face the charges he decided that the sooner he could leave Salisbury the better it would be. Edward Starbuck was Macy's partner in the company and essays on tocqueville's democracy in america, also his best friend.

He felt compelled to go with Macy and the rest to see them through what was going to be a tough first winter. James Coffin age 19 went to watch over his father's interests and Isaac Coleman age 13 was probably just looking for adventure. The first winter on Nantucket proved to be one full of hardships. The crossing was reported to have been a rough one in buy my which the tiny craft was almost lost. During the first winter the burbidge paper Indians were said to have been most helpful in seeing to essay the needs of the first white settlers on the Island.

In the spring of 1660 Edward Starbuck returned to Salisbury to update the rest on the progress of Nantucket. The reports were favourable and burbidge research paper, others made preparations to relocate quickly. The freedom enjoyed in buy my essay Nantucket, by writing being independent from the buy my essay Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the lure that attracted many from Salisbury. But along with their freedom certain laws and regulations had to be drawn-up to keep the new settlement from deteriorating. For instance one guideline was that Indian land could not be purchased by any individual except for use by all its original purchasers. This would ensure a balanced ownership. The Colony of paper New York claimed jurisdiction over essay Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and so it was with the Governor of for an english essay New York, Francis Lovelace, that the Colony had to deal within terms of essay being recognized.

By the summer of 1661, records show that the meetings were now being held on Nantucket indicating that many of the settlers had made the move to the Island. The first concerns of many were where their house lots would be located. At a town meeting held July 15, 1661 it was agreed upon that each owner would have the freedom to choose his lot within limits not previously occupied. It was also decided that the lot size for each full share holder would be sixty rods square (a rod consisting of 16'6). It was also agreed that Tristram Coffyn would select first, in which he selected a lot on the north western coastline of the Island at a place known as Cappammet Harbour (today known as Capaum Pond). The original Nantucket record states Tristram Coffyn, Sr., had his house lot laid out at essays democracy Cappammet, by the aforesaid lot layers, at Cappamet Harbour head, sixty rods square, or thereabouts, the east side line part of it bounded by the highway; the south side by a rock southward of the pond; the north by the harbour head; the west side bounded by the lot of Tristram Coffin Jr.

In the aftermath, once all was said and buy my essay, done, Tristram had succeeded with his wish to live out his days in a free society surrounded by his friends and family. To his east side, across Cappamet Harbour was his son Peter, who didn't reside on the Island but was a frequent visitor seeing as he had secured the rights to supply the settlers with lumber for their homes. To the west was the lot of his son Tristram Jr., again not a full time resident but a frequent visitor. To the south laid the lots of his daughter Mary and her husband Nathaniel Starbuck. Mary and Nathaniel were very much a part of the Island's development. Mary owned the first store on the Island as well as being regarded in boy essay later life as a. spiritual leader, having embraced Quakerism. Mary and Nathaniel also had the buy my honour of creating for an english essay having the first white baby on the Island during the early 1660's. Also to the south lay the buy my essay lot of James Coffin.

After Tristram, James was the head of the Coffin interests on Nantucket. The first years of on tocqueville's democracy in america settlement consisted of building houses along with shelters for their livestock, mainly sheep and oxen, as well as developing pastures and common buildings. The Indians helped to develop the buy my farms and taught the black settlers a great deal about living on the Island. In turn they were given employment and some formal education. The first years were often regarded as the best years upon Nantucket, in terms of creating a society that flowed in essay harmony, where one could rely on their neighbours as though they were family. The great grandson of Thomas Macy would later write, The little community was kind and courteous to each other and hospitable to strangers. The prevalence of good feeling was remarked and felt by all who came among them. From the creative writing courses dublin beginning Tristram Coffyn and Thomas Macy were the spokesmen for the settlement. Buy My Essay. In 1671 they were selected by the group to go to New York and meet with Governor Lovelace and secure their claim to question romeo the Island.

Upon their return the Islanders nominated Coffyn to be Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. The town also selected all other officers except the buy my Chief Military Officer who was to be selected by Governor Lovelace from creating a diagram for an english, nominees chosen by the settlement. After a few more years of harmony, or about the early 1670's the first signs of trouble on the Island began to appear. The problems came through the evolution of the two classes of settlers. Essay. On one hand they had the full share owners and their partners, who by black boy essay Nantucket law had two votes each. On the other hand the half share owners only had one vote resulting in less of a say on Island affairs. They viewed themselves just as important as the full share settlers. The only thing missing for a revolt by the half share members was a leader. That changed in 1673 when it was decided that the buy my essay community needed to essays democracy expand their fishing interests by enlisting the services of a skilled tradesman by the name of John Gardner of Salem, Massachusetts. Gardner was the buy my brother of full share owner Joseph Gardner. Creative Writing Courses Dublin. Right from the start John Gardner challenged the original owners on most issues and from this began the feud between the Gardners group and the Coffin group.

Another problem arising on the Island involved the Indians and liquor. Some of the white settlers were taking advantage of the Indians' ignorance regarding liquor consumption. Laws had to eventually be implemented prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcohol to essay Indians. Creating For An Essay. John Gardner often ignored these laws which escalated the tension on buy my, the Island. Gardner also attempted to buy land from the Indians, however the final blow most probably resulted from a meeting Gardner set up with Gov. Critical Essays. Lovelace's replacement, Governor Francis Andros. One of the essay requirements of the Islanders was to pay taxes to New York. This payment was met by giving the creative government barrels of fish. Buy My. John Gardner convinced the settlers to boy essay let him deliver the payment.

While in New York, he met with Governor Andros and in turn convinced the Governor to name the main town in Nantucket, Sherborne, after his hometown back in England. He then managed. to get himself appointed as Chief Military Officer. This all came about buy my essay shortly before the Dutch takeover of New York. With the change in governments in stephn king critical essays New York, Gardners's group declared that past arrangements with the original settlers was no longer valid. The tension ran high for a short period until the Dutch were run out of New York and the old government was reinstated.

Upon this action, Tristram and Mathew Mayhew, grandson of Thomas, once again sailed for New York and had their agreements with the government reinstated. In 1676 Thomas Mayhew became Chief Magistrate on essay, Nantucket with Peter Coffin, a new resident on the Island becoming Assistant Magistrate. Creating For An English Essay. Peter and James Coffin had returned to the Island as a result of the conflict on essay, the mainland between the Indians and the white settlers known as King Philip's War. Essay Question. This appointment of Macy and the election of buy my Peter Coffin infuriated the Gardner group. Not only was Peter a Coffin he also held government positions back in Dover and was not considered a full time resident of Nantucket. A few years later the tension eased with the elections of James Coffin, John Gardner and Nathaniel Starbuck who would all be elected as Assistant Magistrates. The feud continued toward the late 1670's in a period that would result in Tristram Coffyn being selected as Chief Magistrate by Governor Andros in critical essays the hopes of buy my trying to pull the community back together. Coffyn was regarded by most of the settlers as the one person who could rectify Nantucket's struggle with growth. Unfortunately, for everyone, a shipwreck on the Nantucket shoals diverted any plans that Tristram had for the Islanders. In September 1678 a French ship ran aground during a storm, forcing the crew to abandon ship. Shortly thereafter the cargo was salvaged by certain parties and sold for profit.

This action put Tristram, who was chief magistrate, in violation with maritime law which stated that the cargo should have been secured until claimed by the owner. In failing to do so, Tristram subjected himself to be responsible for the lost cargo. Geoffrey Research. The courts came down hard on him with a stiff penalty which would ruin him financially. The action cast a dark cloud over Coffyn, who was now in his early 70's. His family rallied to his side but the strain of the penalty along with the feuding years had worn him down. His son James made financial arrangements to pay the fine.

In the end, surprisingly, it was John Gardner, who had become the essay new Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, who stood up to the courts with a touching appeal on Coffyn's behalf. He convinced the courts to reduce the penalty substantially. When all was said and writing, done what remained was Coffyn's ill health. Buy My. The year was 1681, and autumn was closing in. Coffyn had made the arrangements that were to follow his death back in 1678. Boy Essay Hunger. He made no will but instead disposed of his rather large estate through deeds to his family, mainly his youngest sons John and Stephen. Buy My Essay. To his numerous grandchildren, 60 in essays democracy all, he granted 10 acres of land to each one upon the Coffyn's Island of Tuckernuck, off the west coast of Nantucket.

In 1681 Tristram owned two houses on his property, the first dwelling house he deeded to Stephen and the new house upon the hill was to go to John. His son Stephen was asked to care for their mother, Dionis up until her death. On October 3, 1681 Tristram Coffyn died, he was 72 years old at the time of his death. His funeral brought out all the Islanders including the Gardners to mourn his passing. It has been suggested that his old friend Edward Starbuck read from the bible and then Tristram's body was taken to a favourite location on his property and buried.

Through the years the exact site of his grave has wandered from memory, however, the man himself lives on in each one of his descendants. In just forty years after his death his descendants numbered 1,138 born in America. In 1728 the number had increased to 1,582. All of them descendants from one couple, Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. Stephen Coffyn cared for his mother up until her death which occurred on November 6, 1684 in Nantucket.

The Children of Tristram and Dionis Coffyn: Honorable Peter Coffin was born in buy my England in 1631. He was the first child of Tristram and Dionis. On Tocqueville's. Peter married Abigail Starbuck, daughter of buy my Edward Starbuck. He resided in black boy essay hunger Dover, New Hampshire for a good portion of his life before moving his family to Nantucket. He later moved his family to Exeter, New Hampshire, where he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire and a member of the Governor's Council. The Coffin's had ten children including their son Jethro whose house is considered the buy my essay oldest house still standing on Nantucket having been built in stephn king critical 1686. Tristram Coffin Jr. Buy My. was born in England in creating essay 1632. Buy My. He married Judith Somerby of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. Tristram was a weaver and filled many notable positions on geoffrey burbidge paper, the Newbury Town Council.

He was named Deacon to buy my the first Parish of juliet Newbury. His house in Newbury is known as the buy my essay Old Coffin House. Tristram Jr. and his wife Judith's graves are marked in the cemetery of the First Parish of Newbury which is located across the street from the Coffin house. Democracy In America. Together they had ten children along with Judith's three children from her first marriage. Elizabeth Coffin was born in England in 1634. She married Stephen Greenleaf in Newbury, Massachusetts, on November 13, 1651.

From this family the Greenleaf's of New England have descended. Elizabeth died in 1678 at the age of 44. The Greenleafs had ten children. Hon. James Coffin was born in buy my essay England in 1639. He married Mary Severance, daughter of burbidge John and Abigail Severance of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1663. Buy My. James was the first settler to settle on Nantucket after the purchase. He later became a leading figure in Nantucket politics.

He served many terms as Chief magistrate on the Island. James and Mary had fourteen children with twelve surviving into essays democracy, adulthood. John Coffin was born in England but died shortly after the crossing on October 30, 1642. Deborah Coffin was born two weeks after her brother's death and buy my, died three weeks later on. December 8, 1642. Mary Coffin was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1645 and black boy essay hunger, married Nathaniel Starbuck at the age of 17. Mary was a most extraordinary woman. Not only did she raise a family of ten children but she operated the Island's first store. Her open mindedness gained her respect from everyone who knew her.

Later it was her interest in Quakerism that laid the ground work for essay that particular religion on black boy essay hunger, the Island. Mary and Nathaniel held the distinction of having the first white child born on Nantucket. Mary died on November 13, 1717. Lieut. John Coffin was born in Massachusetts, on October 30, 1647, exactly five years to the day of the death of his brother John.

John married Deborah Austin daughter of Joseph and Sarah Austin. Shortly after his father's death he moved to Martha's Vineyard, where he found employment as a blacksmith. He died in essay Edgartown in 1711, where today one can still locate his tombstone. Stephen Coffin was the for an essay last child born to Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. Buy My. He was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, in boy essay hunger 1652. He married Mary Bunker in 1668 and had ten children with Mary.

Stephen took over his father's estate on buy my, Nantucket where he lived out his life as a farm manager. He died on November 14, 1734. HONOURABLE JAMES COFFIN. Pioneer of Nantucket Law and Order. James Coffin was born August 12, 1639, in Brixton, Devonshire, England. Essay. He was the fourth child of Tristram and Dionis Stevens Coffin. James was only three years old when his father immigrated to America.

The family first settled in Salisbury before heading down the Merrimac River to Haverhill where after only essay, a short time they relocated once more to the town of Newbury. James' family operated a ferry on the south side of the Merrimac River. They also operated a Tavern/Inn which was located near the hunger landing. During the 1650's with the older brothers and sisters going off in their own directions, James took over their responsibilities. Of the older children, it was James who was showing the most interest in Nantucket. Essay. James' brothers had already established enterprises on the mainland and wanted to remain there, however, they were willing to invest in burbidge research the plan financially. James was only buy my essay, twenty when the plans to investigate the Island came about. Depending on whose account of history one would study, James did go with his father on the voyage that took them to english essay Nantucket for the first time. After negotiations with the Indians and Thomas Mayhew, the Island became the property of the Salisbury group, with ten full share members and ten partners.

Thomas Macy, James Coffin, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman proceeded quickly to inhabit the Island before the next winter. Edward Starbuck was a former resident of Dover N.H.. His daughter Abigail married Tristram Coffyn's son Peter. Starbuck had lived in Dover since 1643. In the 1640's he refused to join the essay church in the ordinance of creative writing courses baptism so he and the church parted company. In 1648 he was charged for disturbing the essay peace of the church. He apparently disapproved of the submersion of babies during baptism. Others had been tied to stephn king critical essays ox carts and whipped for similar crimes, however, Starbuck got off with a lighter sentence but never again respected the Puritan rule. In the book Nantucket by W.O. Stevens, he states that the first white inhabitants on the Island spent their first winter on the western side of the buy my Island near the area now known as Madaket.

The first few months on Nantucket were harsh ones for the newcomers seeing as they arrived in the fall with barely time to prepare for the winter. Had the Indians not been so accommodating the new settlers would have found it hard to survive the essays on tocqueville's in america winter. In the following spring, Starbuck headed back to Salisbury for a meeting with the owners. Soon after, Tristram came to the Island to scout out a good location for a home. After surveying the layout of the land they decided to essay build on the back side of Capaum Harbour, on the north side of the Island. It's interesting to note why the small Capaum Harbour was more appealing to the settlers than the larger harbour to the east.

One can only speculate but it has been suggested that Capaum might have had fresh water springs running close to it. Tristram sailed back to. Salisbury to organize the move while his son James stayed on, and with the help of essays on tocqueville's in america two Indians, he built their first house overlooking Capaum Pond. During the following years, 1661 to 1664 the flurry of essay traffic between the mainland and the Island increased as provisions and building materials made their way to their new found home. James on critical, numerous occasions travelled back and forth from essay, Nantucket to Salisbury as well as Nantucket to Dover.

James' interest in Salisbury might have laid with his desires to be close to a young woman named Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance. While in Dover, James held property along the Cochecho River near his brother Peter. Geoffrey Research. It is likely that James was involved with trade back to Nantucket during these years, mainly lumber and essay, livestock. On December 3, 1663, James married Mary and the two moved to Nantucket where their first child James Jr. was born, however, shortly after James and his family moved off the Island back to Dover, New Hampshire. It was during this period that I feel James along with his brother Peter became interested in studying law. On March 10 1666, James was named as an arbitrator to a diagram settle disputes in buy my essay the settlement along with five other members of the town. Brother Peter was already an established member of the community who owned large tracts of lands in what is now downtown Dover. Peter's land was on the south side of the Cochecho River, near the falls. Names such as Coffin Woods and Coffin Orchard were common landmarks to the settlers. Essay Romeo. Peter also owned a mill on the Lamprey River as well as land by essay the Cochecho Falls. Peter manufactured masts for the British navy and was paid by grants of juliet question romeo land in Dover.

Peter was also involved with erecting the meeting house which later became fortified to protect the settlers during the Indian uprisings. The fort was 100' square with a log wall and gate. Essay. It was situated on the mound of earth that is summer courses dublin, still seen today in an area that was called the essay neck. Boy Essay. A brief history of Peter taken from the book Historical Memoranda of Ancient Dover states that Peter was a Selectman in 1660, the town treasurer by 1661, a member of the jury of trials in 1666 and a lieutenant during King Philip's war. Buy My Essay. In 1666 Peter was on summer writing courses dublin, a committee to fortify Portsmouth N.H. James was in Dover in 1668 through 1671, where he appears on buy my, church records and was made a freeman. King Critical Essays. James also appears on the lists of taxpayers for the Cochecho area as early as 1662. He was splitting his tax expenses with Robert Ewen and essay, John Church during these years. In 1675 a bloody conflict broke out between the Colonies and the Indians, this was known as King Philip's War. Indians were attacking many settlers throughout the juliet question romeo Colonial settlements, including some attacks in the Dover area.

It was during this time, that James decided to relocate his family to Nantucket for their safety. His brother Peter was also forced to temporarily relocate his family to the Island after the Indians gave him a close call. Buy My. In June of 1689, Peter's house was the target of an Indian raid. The Indians first sent a squaw to the locked gate seeking shelter for the night. During the night, while all were sleeping, she opened the gate, letting the waiting war party in and taking Peter's family prisoner. Word had spread in recent days that twenty-three settlers had been massacred by this war party. Once they captured Peter and his family the Indians marched them over to his son Tristram's home and threatened to kill the hostages unless the gates were open there.

Once inside, folklore states, Peter distracted the Indians by king throwing handfuls of coins into the dirt and over the gate. Essay. The Indians scattered to collect the coins giving the hostages time to escape into the. Back in Nantucket, the Indians were aware of the war being waged on essay juliet question, the mainland but despite pressure from essay, other tribes, they decided to black boy essay hunger stay neutral. Buy My. This decision was of great relief to the white inhabitants of the Island, seeing as they were badly outnumbered and critical, out gunned. Nantucket only had about essay forty able bodied white men on the Island during this time, again giving us a clue that relations were good between the two parties on the Island. John Gardner first came to Nantucket around 1673 from Salem Massachusettes.

He was a fisherman/mariner who was invited to Nantucket by his brother Richard, to help develop the Islands' fish trade. From the very first meeting Gardner and Tristram Coffyn disagreed on most matters. Both being determined and proud men, they would not easily be swayed. Surprisingly, James had some sympathy for Gardners position, whereas his brother, Peter's dislike for king critical essays the man was as strong as their father's. Buy My. In the latter part of the burbidge research paper 1670's it was often James and his sister Mary who would attempt to smooth over the bad feelings between the two groups. Buy My Essay. The tension never really ended until after Tristram Coffyn's death in 1681 and boy essay, later, the essay marriage of a Gardner to a Coffin. In September 1678, a French ship's cargo of furs from the Colonial mainland, ran aground on the Nantucket shoals. James Coffin among others made matters worse by innocently asking permission from his father, who at the time was the Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, to remove the king essays cargo of two thousand furs from the essay shipwreck. Unfortunately for the Coffins the a diagram for an owner later came forward and wanted someone held accountable.

The burden of responsibility fell on Tristram Coffyn's shoulders. He was the Chief Magistrate of the Island and it was his responsibility by law to launch a salvage of any wrecks that ran aground on the Island, and securing the contents until they could be claimed. Having failed to do so, the courts ordered Coffyn to pay the penalty of buy my 343 pds., ten shillings. The harsh decision would have ruined Tristram Coffyn financially, and lay a deep financial burden upon the Coffin family. By the year 1681 the Coffins owned approximately one quarter of the Island, including. Tuckernuck Island off the west coast. Peter Coffin was constantly attacked for hunger being a full share partner allowed to make important decisions, and yet he didn't live there as a full time resident. The bad blood between the Coffins and buy my, the Gardners was now really only black, between Peter Coffin and John Gardner, so it must have been a topic of amusement for buy my the Islanders when it was learned that Peter's son Jethro had fallen in love with Gardner's daughter Mary. To make matters worse for the two fathers, the black boy essay two later decided to buy my wed and reside in Nantucket. It was decided in 1686 that John Gardner would supply the property for the newlywed's house while Peter Coffin was to supply the lumber from his mill. During the wedding ceremony Peter Coffin realized that the geoffrey paper appropriate deed for the property had not been transferred to his son Jethro and essay, so he stood up just prior to essays in america the wedding vows and buy my, exclaimed in summer creative a threatening tone that the wedding be put to a halt right then and there until the appropriate paper work was signed by all parties.

John Gardner assured Coffin that it would be taken care of as soon as possible but Coffin persisted until finally Gardner grudgingly had to get the papers in question and sign them and only then did the wedding continue, much to the embarrassment of the bride and groom. Jethro Coffin's house was and still is one of the focal points of Nantucket's history. Not only did it mark the end of the Coffin/ Gardner feud, but it still stands today as the oldest house still standing in Nantucket. Essay. Also, of interest, is the brick work on essays on tocqueville's democracy in america, the houses' chimney, it has the pattern of an upside down horse shoe, inlayed into the brick. In the 1600s the settlers believed this would ward off witches and evil spirits from entering the home. It was also about this time in Nantucket's history that the first interest in whale catching was seen on the Island. Apparently one incident in the 1670's captured the imagination of buy my essay some of the Island's more adventurous souls. One day a stray Scrag whale wandered into the harbour and stayed there for three days. During this time the juliet romeo Islanders took it upon themselves to buy my devise ways to capture and kill the whale which led to constructing the Island's first harpoon.

A few of the braver Islanders headed out and proceeded to paper harpoon the whale and drag it to shore. Although the ease with which the whale was caught stirred much excitement to continue the pursuit, it would be many more years until whaling became a serious industry. During the 1690's James Coffin was appointed by the Islanders as their spokesman. He was elected by the town of Nantucket to be the first representative to the Great and General Court under the Royal Charter granted by William and Mary in 1691. He was also the representative sent to negotiate the essay terms in which Nantucket would fall under the jurisdiction of Massachusettes instead of New York. Besides his political interests, James was also referred to stephn as a successful trader.

To fulfil his trading commitments he had a 25 ton vessel built in buy my essay Boston in essay 1696 which he named Dolphin. By the 1690's James and his wife, Mary had a family of fourteen children, all but two, Benjamin and Experience, lived into adulthood. It is widely accepted that a majority of Coffin descendants in North America can trace their roots through James Coffin. At most of the essay Coffin Reunions when the guests are asked to stand up to the son of Tristram in which they are descending from, James' representatives always out numbered any of the other sons' descendants. In the early 1690's John Gardner became the first Deputy of Nantucket to sit in black the General Court of Massachusettes. After his term the position was held for the next two decades with only a few exceptions by James Coffin. One of Coffin's first acts was to request that the taxes of Nantucket be forfeited for one year, so the Island could build proper defences.

This act came about from an essay, incident that happened on the Island at Madaket. Geoffrey Burbidge Paper. A French privateer raided the Island, kidnapping two residents and attacking seven boats. James was also Judge of Probate from 1706 to buy my 1718 retiring at king critical the age of 78. A large majority of the courts work load dealt with Indian matters. Alcohol was forbidden to be sold to or consumed by the Indians but this law did little in the way to stop it from happening. Other issues dealt with petty theft and even the occasional murder.

Penalties ranged from fines and lashings for buy my essay the minor crimes to imprisonment and execution for the more serious matters. The first records of Probate Office were made during James Coffin's administration. Later in 1707 he became a representative in the General Court until 1712. On July 28, 1720 James Coffin died in Nantucket at the age of 80. In 1881, Allen Coffin wrote in his book entitled The Coffin Family, From James Coffin have descended, perhaps, the stephn king critical essays most remarkable representatives of the Coffin family, as doubtless the most numerous and buy my essay, generally scattered. Summer Creative Courses Dublin. This family furnished the families of Boston who stayed loyal to the Crown during the Revolution. Essay. General John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin as well as the most distinguished woman which America produced, Lucretia Mott, all descend from James Coffin. James was buried in essays Nantucket, his wife Mary was most certainly buried there also, however her date of death was never recorded. Children of James and Mary Coffin:

Mary Coffin was born in 1665 and married Richard Pinkham of Portsmouth and her second marriage was to James Gardner, son of Richard and essay, Sarah. James Coffin was born in Nantucket on July 9, 1664. He married Love Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah. In 1692 he married Ruth Gardner, daughter of on tocqueville's democracy in america John and Priscilla. Nathaniel Coffin was born in Dover, New Hampshire in 1671. Buy My Essay. He married Demaris Gayer, daughter of summer creative writing William. Nathaniel was a sea captain and essay, great grandfather to Gen. John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Nathaniel died in 1720. John Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Hope Gardner, daughter of Richard and geoffrey, Sarah.

He died in 1747. Dinah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married her cousin Nathaniel Starbuck Jr. in 1690. She died in 1750. Deborah Coffin was born in Nantucket and buy my essay, married George Bunker on October 10, 1695. She died in 1767. Ebenezer Coffin was born March 30, 1678 in Nantucket.

He married Eleanor Barnard on December 12, 1700. He died in 1730. Joseph Coffin was born in Nantucket on February 4, 1679. Joseph married Bethiah Macy. Joseph died in black hunger 1719. Elizabeth Coffin married Jonathan Bunker and essay, her second marriage was to Thomas Clark. She died in for an english Nantucket on March 30, 1769. Benjamin Coffin was born in 1683.

He was washed overboard and drowned between Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard when he was young. Ruth Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Jospeh Gardner, son of Richard and Mary. She died in buy my essay Nantucket in 1748. Abigail Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Nathaniel Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. She died March 15, 1713 in Nantucket. On Tocqueville's Democracy. Her burial was the essay first in black boy essay hunger Gardners burial ground. Experience Coffin (yes they were running out of names) was born in Nantucket in the early 1690's.

She died in infancy. Jonathan Coffin was born in Nantucket on August 8, 1692. He married Hepzibah Harker in 1711. Jonathan died in 1773. The Early Years of the buy my essay Whale Trade.

James Coffin was born July 9, 1664, on Nantucket Island. He was the first child of the Hon. James Coffin and Mary Severance. The birth date of James is surrounded by controversy. Most records show his birth to be between 1667 and a diagram for an english, 1671, while his parents were living in buy my Dover, New Hampshire. Essay Juliet Question Romeo. However, the Nantucket VR (P.R. 38) shows his birth as 09/05/1664. James grew up in a very large family, that eventually included seven sisters and six brothers, with James being the eldest.

Being of the second generation of settlers to the newly established colony, James was exposed to the hardships of developing the first farms on Nantucket. The sandy soil supported little in the way of crops. They brought sheep to the Island, in hopes of exporting the wool to the mainland in exchange for provisions needed to buy my essay support their colony. Although some farmers found some success with livestock, the herds of scrawny sheep were still not enough to support themselves. During these first few years, about 1665, James' father decided to move the family off the Island, to Dover, New Hampshire where he had land holdings from earlier years, however, with the Indian uprisings during King Philip's War, in the 1670's, the boy essay Coffin's moved back on to Nantucket to stay. Buy My. They returned during the years of development in the fishing industry. John Gardner had been commissioned to develop the fish trade, while the rest were trying their best to develop productive farms. Both Peter Folger and Tristram Coffyn, James' grandfather, were said to have had productive grist mills which indicates that there was some evidence of success with farming, however if the colony was to develop, more would have to be done.

What Nantucket lacked could probably be summed up in a few words; resources and spiritual direction. The initial goodwill was running thin. It was a time of squabbling between settlers. The full share holders were quarrelling with the half share holders. The Coffins feuded with the Gardners and the Indians were becoming disenchanted with the white settlers' rule. Upon Tristram Coffyn's death, the feud between Tristram and John Gardner slowly faded. Tristram's grandson, Jethro, married Gardner's daughter, Mary, and now James was showing interest in Love Gardner. In the late 1680's, James was the romeo second Coffin to marry a Gardner. Love Gardner was born May 2, 1672 and was the daughter of Richard Gardner, one of the original settlers. James who was a farmer was thought to have had one child named Benoni with his wife. However, the child died in essay infancy.

Shortly after James' wife Love also died, although evidence is sketchy as to whether or not she died during child birth. Soon thereafter, James courted Love's cousin, Ruth. The Coffin House, Newbury, Mass. The Jethro Coffin House, Nantucket, Mass. Gardner, daughter of John Gardner.

On May 19, 1692, James and Ruth were married. At about the time that James and Ruth were married, a group of Nantucket settlers atop of Folly House Hill were observing whales spouting a short distance off shore. Question Romeo. One commented,There is a green pasture, where our children's grandchildren will go for bread. This isn't the first time that the buy my essay Islanders had taken notice of the abundance of whales off their shores, nor was it even the research paper begining of the New England whale trade, for whales had been captured for over fifty years upon the coast of Long Island and Cape Cod. In the 1670's a whale was captured for the first time in Nantucket, and later on the Islanders took it upon themselves to buy my hire a whaler named James Loper from Cape Cod, to come to the Island to summer creative courses dublin teach the ways of whaling.

Up to that time whaling on Nantucket consisted of waiting until a dead whale carcass washed up on shore. All the buy my Islanders would rush for their claim including the black boy essay Indians. Buy My Essay. Other evidence of early whaling could be found in the inventory of the estate of Tristram Coffyn, who had died in 1681. It showed 45 lbs. of a diagram for an essay whale bone, valued at 10d. It is also thought that the Indians were the first to show interest in the large mammals. The actual pursuit of whales on the Island was a slow but steady progression taught by the mainlanders and Indians over twenty years. They showed the essay settlers the ways in which a whale was to be approached to prevent the animal from getting frightened.

Men such as Loper, showed how to extract the oil from the carcass, and where to thrust the english essay harpoon. In 1690 the Islanders hired a whaler named Ichabod Paddock to help refine their new found trade and from this time on whaling quickly became the trade of choice for the young Island men. It was no accident that the settlers took to whaling with such ease. The Colony could not survive without a profitable resource. Farming the sandy soil was not very productive, and their livestock were poor in quality. On the other hand their offshore location placed them close to migrating whales and their harbour at essay Shelburne offered good protection for their boats from bad weather. In the beginning of shore whaling the Islanders divided the south shore of the Island into four equal parts, each consisting of three miles of shoreline. Each section was equipped with a hut and a mast along with a crew of five to six men. From the mast the signaller would spot the spray from a spouting whale and the chase would begin. The men would rush to the beach and launch their boats into creating essay, the surf rowing with all their might.

The signaller would stay behind to direct the boat toward their prey using signal flags. As the boat approached the buy my essay whale the harpooner would drop his oars and ready himself for the kill. Once upon the whale the boy essay harpooner would thrust his harpoon into buy my, the animal for black boy essay the capture, meanwhile the rowers would feverishly back paddle to buy my escape any thrashing of the huge tail. Once the kill was completed they had the task of rowing the dead whale back to shore and land it on the beach. The whole hunt start to finish could take hours and creating for an english, needless to say the buy my crew was exhausted by the end of the hunt. Once successfully on creating a diagram essay, shore they would start cutting the whale blubber into cubes and then used a process called trying out. This consisted of buy my essay erecting large tripod kettle holders on the beach. They would set fires under the essay juliet question romeo large kettles and essay, boil the chunks of creative writing courses dublin blubber down until the oil separated from the fibres. Then using large ladles they would scoop the oil into buy my, barrels and geoffrey burbidge paper, prepare it for shipment. Whale oil was being used in many places as a luminant and lubricant especially back in buy my Europe.

The British were purchasing much of the Colonial whale oil being shipped from Massachusetts, in turn much of Nantucket's whale oil was shipped off to Boston. James and Ruth's first child, George, was born in essay question 1693. In 1695 Sarah was born, followed by Nathan in 1696 and Elisha in 1699. During these years James was farming and taking care of livestock. The town meetings of March 19, 1707 recorded that James Jr. was appointed to take account of all fleeces at ye time of sheering. Buy My. The location of his farm was most probably near Capaum Pond, where his father Hon.

James Coffin had property. The sheep grazed on an open range with other farmers livestock, their ears were tagged for identification. During the democracy sheering, the buy my atmosphere was festive and celebrated by most of the king essays Islanders. With regards to the ocean trades the Coffin, Gardner, Starbuck, Hussey, Macy and Paddock families were in essay the forefront of Nantucket's beginnings with fishing and whaling, James' brothers, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Ebenezer were active in the trade during the 1690's and into the 1700's. James is not on record as being involved as a mariner, but it is hard to on tocqueville's in america believe that he was not, at least for part of the season, after all he was married to Captain John Gardner's daughter Ruth, whose family were all fishermen. With the whale industry on the rise the town was gradually being shifted from Capaum Harbour to Shelburne. The whale stations along the south coastline were now giving way to buy my essay whaling sloops anchored in on tocqueville's democracy in america Nantucket harbour. These boats were relatively small, 20 to 30 tons and their numbers were few in the beginning. They would apply their trade just off the Nantucket coast. In 1702 a Quaker Missionary visited Nantucket from Rhode Island and buy my essay, a meeting for creative writing the curious resulted in their first converts. Mary Coffin Starbuck was the daughter of Tristram Coffyn and essay, became one of the first Islanders to embrace Quakerism in 1704.

This was significant not only because of her ties with two of the Islands leading families, the boy essay Coffins and the Starbucks, but also because of buy my essay her valued opinion by all who knew her. Mary owned the Islands's first store, as a result much of the gossip of the day fell onto her ears. Mary, always seeing the good side helped to resolve family problems for the various patrons who came to her store, in turn she gained the settlers respect. The significance of these first converts was that they helped to give the community a religious direction as a group. The Quaker faith was a left wing Puritan sect founded by George Fox in England in 1650. Fox believed that a Ministry was not necessary in order to spread the beliefs of the creative writing bible. Instead, his followers believed that all men were equal and buy my, called themselves friends. At their meetings they would gather in silence until someone in the room felt compelled to speak.

Their belief in stephn critical essays such things as refusing to remove their hats and the refusal to buy my essay wage war got them into trouble everywhere they went. Many were imprisoned or. whipped and others were hung. The harsh Puritan rule of the Colonies made laws against summer creative writing courses, those who helped the Quakers in essay any way. These same laws were what the Islanders were fleeing from when they first came to essay juliet question romeo Nantucket fifty years earlier. Some had even helped the Quakers, so it isn't hard to understand why the seeds of the Quaker faith took root in the soil of Nantucket. Most of the Islanders were already Christians of different faiths, mainly Baptists, but the Quaker belief in hard work and plain lifestyle seemed to be more suited to the settlers way of life on Nantucket. As mentioned earlier, what the Islanders lacked was resources and direction, now with the ever increasing whale industry turning profitable, along with their Quaker beliefs in hard work, the Island was beginning to pull away from the mainland's whale trade, in buy my essay terms of productivity. Summer Courses Dublin. It was recorded by essay many visitors that Nantucket was very different from the mainland regarding its flurry of activity and plain dress of its people.

It was called a marriage of religion and commerce. In the early 1700's the writer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, described how Islanders, the majority being Quakers, methodically trained their young in all aspects of the summer creative courses whale business. The children would enter school to learn to read and write and perfect their calculations. Buy My Essay. Then at question romeo age twelve, they would apprentice in trades such as barrel making and at fourteen they would go off to sea. While working on the sloops, they would be taught the art of navigation, along with the buy my steps involved in whaling start to finish.

Upon numerous voyages and hunts the young mariners would then be called upon to fill various jobs in the industry. And so, in just a short time, Nantucket went from meagre means to prosperity with the best years yet to follow. During these years in the early 1700's, James' father Hon. James Coffin was the Chief Magistrate on the Island. It is my belief that James, being the eldest son, must have in some part helped his father manage his land holdings and king, businesses. It's known that James Sr. Buy My. had trading sloops going back and forth from the mainland. These sloops would have needed crews of up to ten men, depending on the size.

Wool and whale oil would most likely have been the exports. In 1712 the whaling trade entered a new era, with the summer writing courses historic voyage of Captain Christopher Hussey. Hussey was whaling off the shores of Nantucket when a gale blew him far out to sea. Having survived the gale, Hussey was making his way back when he observed a whale of enormous size just off his bow. With a good measure of courage, he attacked the whale and managed to be successful in buy my essay killing the animal. King Critical Essays. The whale was not of the scragg or right species, but was a sperm whale. They found the oil to be of a much better quality, burning cleaner and buy my essay, brighter and so began not only the pursuit of sperm whales by Nantucket whalemen, but also sea ventures further off shore than ever before. By 1715, Nantucket had six sloops engaged in the whale trade. Two of these vessels were owned by essays Coffins, the Nonsuch, 25 tons owned by buy my James' brother Ebenezer and the Speedwell, 25 tons owned by James' son George. Two other Coffin vessels were the 25 ton Dolphin (possibly a whaling ship) and the large sloop Hope, 40 tons, owned by James' uncle Peter.

The Hope was a trading vessel. By the 1720's James' sons George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of the geoffrey research paper whale trade along with his brothers Ebenezer and Jonathan. It was during these years that Nantucket's whale trade suffered its first tragedy with the loss of their first young men. On April 27, 1722, James and Ruth suffered the loss of buy my their sons Elisha and Joshua. Shortly after their boat set out on a whale expedition of six weeks, Captain Elisha Coffin's ship was hit by a fierce gale, and their crew was never heard from boy essay, again. The loss was devastating for the Islanders, it was Nantucket's first tragedy in the whale trade and it left many widows. Elisha's widow, Dinah, remarried three years later and became Dinah Williams. One other period that whalemen of the New England coast had to deal with, were pirates. Since the early 1600's pirates had preyed on shipping on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean.

Most pirates were unemployed seamen and ex-navy sailors, who between wars found themselves with little to buy my do with their time. During wars, countries would hire them to attack the stephn king critical essays enemy, but most times they would wreak havoc on essay, any easy target. Blackbeard, Captain Kidd and Ned Low, were just a few of the thieves of the sea who sailed in the waters of the North Atlantic. Summer Writing Dublin. Low, was a particularly nasty animal, as Nathan Skiff, a Nantucket whaler could have attested to buy my essay had he lived to tell his tale. In June of 1723, Skiff was in pursuit of whales about eighty miles off Nantucket, when Ned Low's ship spotted Skiff's sloop.

Low, who was described by his own crew as a maniac and brute, immediately chased down the creating a diagram for an english essay whaling ship. Luckily for some of the whaling crew they were out in their small whale boats when the buy my attack occurred and managed to escape to a distant ship. Captain Skiff was not so fortunate. Low ordered Skiff stripped and black, proceeded to buy my whip the young Captain around the deck of the boat with a belt. Bored with this after awhile, Low then cut off Skiff's ears and seasoned them with salt and made Skiff eat them while Low's men were watching and howling with laughter. In the stephn critical essays end, Low decided that because the buy my Captain had been a good sport he should have a quick death. Skiff was shot in the head and essay question romeo, his boat was sunk. The remaining crew were set adrift in a small boat with no water or food and left to perish. Little did Ned Low realize that the Nantucket boys were taught the art of navigation and shortly after the Pirate ship was out of sight and they simple returned to the Island. A few months later Low's men turned on him and set him adrift.

He was picked up by a passing naval ship and once recognized was tried and hung. James and Ruth had eleven children in all. Their last born was Benjamin born in 1718, Ruth was in her mid forties and James would have been in his late fifties. Whether James embraced the buy my Quaker faith is a question requiring more research, however, most of his children seem to have had connections to it. In the 1720's there were more than 1400 Coffin descendants from Tristram and essay, Dionis with most living in the vicinity of essay Nantucket. Therefore, the records of who was who becomes somewhat confusing. Their given names give some clue as to their faith.

Names such as Elisha, Rebeka, Seth and Uriah, are most certainly biblical names and most probably Quaker names, but it is hard to say what faith they were for summer creative writing courses sure. The 1720's and 1730's saw Nantucket prosper with every year. The whale trade was putting Nantucket at the forefront of whaling in Colonial America. By 1730, Nantucket had a fleet of 25 whaling boats varying in size from buy my essay, 30 to king critical essays 50 tons. In 1726 records show Jonathan Coffin (James' brother), captured four whales.

James' son George captured one and Bartlett captured four. Buy My Essay. In all 86 whales were captured by Nantucket boats. Soon Nantucket could no longer supply the men needed to crew the boats and they recruited whalers from New York and Cape Cod. The prosperity continued on during the last years of James' life. James Coffin died August 2, 1741 on the Island. His wife Ruth died in Nantucket in 1748. His will was probated on November 6, 1741. The Children of James and Ruth Coffin: Benoni Coffin was the only child born to James and his first wife Love.

Records show he died young. George Coffin was born in 1693. He was the first child born to James and Ruth. George was a whaler upon his own vessel. He married Ruth Swain in a diagram for an essay 1717. He died in essay 1727 at the age of 34.

Sarah Coffin was born in 1695, she married John Gardner's son Jeremiah in 1711 at the age of essays 16. She died December 1, 1739. Nathan Coffin was born in 1696. He married Lydia Bunker, daughter of John and buy my, Elizabeth. Nathan was a sea captain. Geoffrey Paper. He died December 11, 1768. Elisha Coffin was born 1699.

He married Dinah Bunker daughter of buy my Peleg and Susanna. Elisha was a sea captain and a whaler. He was the first Nantucket whaleman to be lost at sea. Essay Question Romeo. He died on or about April 27/28, 1722. Joshua Coffin was born in buy my essay 1701.

He married Pricilla Bunker daughter of Peleg and geoffrey burbidge research paper, Susanna. He was lost at sea with his brother Elisha in 1722. Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1703. She married her cousin Josiah Coffin, son of Jethro and Mary of Jethro Coffin House fame. She died in 1774. Pricilla Coffin was born March 3, 1708. She married Abel Gardner, son of Nathaniel and Abigail. She died April 27, 1792.

Mary Coffin was born May 29, 1710. Buy My Essay. She married John Bunker son of George and Deborah in for an essay 1725. She died on July 19, 1775. James Coffin was born April 10, 1713. Essay. He married Pricilla Rawson, daughter of Wilson and Margaret. Essays On Tocqueville's. He died April 11, 1784.

Ruth Coffin was born on January 17, 1716. She married her cousin Cromwell Coffin, son of Ebenezer and Eleanor. She died September 30, 1801. Benjamin Coffin was born November 16, 1718. His first marriage was to his cousin Rebecca Coffin, Daughter of Bartlett and buy my, Judith. His second marriage was to Hannah Bunker, daughter of Jabez and Hannah. He died on December 28, 1793. John Richardson's Meeting - Painting by Margaretta S. Hinchman.

from the collection of the Nantucket Historical Assn. There is something extremely painful in the destruction of a whale. yet the object of the essay romeo adventure, the value of the prize, the joy of the buy my capture, cannot be sacrificed to feelings of compassion. Capt. W. Scoresby 1820. Benjamin Coffin was born on writing courses dublin, Nantucket Island on November 16, 1718. He was the buy my youngest child of James and Ruth (Gardner) Coffin.

Benjamin's early years were during a time of financial and spiritual security on the Island. After years of struggle, the small community had found success with the a diagram for an whale trade along with spiritual direction being given by the Quakers. Benjamin's great aunt, Mary Coffin Starbuck, had launched the buy my faith of the Quakers on Nantucket, guiding the Islanders to a frugal, hard working lifestyle. Although the early years of Benjamin's life were good years for the Islanders, they were not without hardships. When he was only essay juliet question, four, his family suffered the Island's first loss of life involving the whale trade, with the drowning of Benjamin's older brothers, Elisha and essay, Joshua during a violent storm.

Benjamin himself was named in honour of another drowning victim, his father's baby brother, who was washed overboard many years earlier, during a crossing from Martha's Vineyard to Nantucket. The Nantucket boys learned early through these losses that the ocean demanded respect and through this respect came the foundation that eventually made the stephn king crews from the Island some of the bravest and skilled sailors in buy my essay the world. Benjamin would have grown up surrounded by the whale trade. His brothers George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of it, as well as many uncles and cousins, too numerous to name. By 1730 Nantucket had a whaling fleet of twenty five boats, all under fifty tons.

The yearly average of whales harvested between 1725 and 1730 was about seventy, with the Coffins accounting for a good many of the catch. Many natives were employed by the whale trade, however it is summer creative courses, not totally clear if they were treated as equals. Essay. Judging by reports of unrest among the Indians, it's likely they were not always treated kindly. One report in 1738 tells of fears amongst the creative writing courses whites to leave Nantucket on whaling expeditions due to essay rumours of the natives who were left behind plotting to kill the boy essay hunger settlers and setting fires to their homes. Buy My Essay. This event never happened, however it gives a picture of bad relations between the research two parties. Where Benjamin was living during his early years is a mystery.

His father James was a farmer, so therefore they wouldn't have been located in the town of essay Shelburne, but more likely to the west, back toward Capaum Harbour. During the second half of the 1730's, Benjamin was. courting a lady named Rebecca Coffin, daughter of Captain Bartlett and Judith (Bunker) Coffin. Rebecca's father, Bartlett, was a descendant of geoffrey burbidge research paper Hon. James Coffin's brother, Lt. John Coffin. In turn, this made Benjamin and essay, Rebecca, second cousins through their fathers.

Rebecca's father, Captain Bartlett Coffin later commanded the whaling ships, Conway and Alliance, both of Nantucket. If by this time there were any thoughts that the Coffin blood was thinning in writing courses this line, due to outside the family marriages, they were put to essay rest, when on March 22, 1739, Benjamin and summer dublin, Rebecca were married. Rebecca came from a Quaker family, and through Rebecca, came the essay Quaker roots that would be carried on through this line of the Coffins for the next generations. Quakers were only to summer marry other Quakers so the question was whether Benjamin was already a Quaker, or did his love for Rebecca convert him into being one. It is also worth mentioning at this point that Rebecca had two brothers, Uriah and essay, Peleg, who would in later years come with our Coffins to creating essay Nova Scotia. On March 21, 1740, just one day before their first anniversary, Rebecca gave birth to their son Elisha. Buy My Essay. The name Elisha derives from the old testament prophet Elisha (850B.C. - 795B.C.), but in this case, the black boy essay name was almost certainly in honour of Benjamin's older brother, Elisha, who drowned at buy my the age of twenty three. One year later, on February 21, 1741, their daughter Rebekah was born, followed by Benjamin September 1, 1744, Luranna September 1, 1746, Susanna August 25, 1748, Eliakim 1761, Seth June 25, 1753, followed by Ruth and Bartlett born in 1755 and 1756. Benjamin worked in the whale trade but on black boy essay, which ship? It is probable that he worked for buy my his father-in-law Captain Bartlett Coffin aboard one of his boats, or possibly he worked with his brothers on one of their numerous boats. One account has him listed as Captain Benjamin Coffin, however, I haven't been able to confirm this and his name is not listed on the Captain's list in the book The Coffin Family.

By 1740, the Spanish and French privateers were once again attacking British ships, which included the Nantucket whale fleet. At a period of time when the whalers were venturing further and further from Nantucket, in pursuit of sperm whales, they found themselves increasingly at risk from these hostile forces. The mainlanders in Colonial America preferred to democracy whale close to home, whereas the Nantucketers were venturing far north off the Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Lawrence region and buy my essay, south as far as the essay question romeo Bahama Banks. As the buy my essay distance from home grew, so did the size of the whale ships. As ships got larger, they no longer had to return home once a whale was captured, they began the process of cutting up the huge catch on board the ships and storing the blubber in barrels below their decks, returning periodically to extract the oil before the blubber spoiled. The early 1750's marked some important years for the whale trade. The discovery of the black boy essay spermaceti candle by Benjamin Crabb of Rhode Island put the buy my essay sperm whale oil in great demand, this along with the introduction of tryworks aboard the essay question whale ships put Nantucket at the forefront of Colonial whaling. The tryworks were brick furnaces placed on buy my, the deck of the ships.

They.