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brevity essay Tiny Masters: An Artful Trick to Writing the oil price hike paper, Personal Essay. We’ve gone around the essay writing, table introducing ourselves, and now comes the awkward moment when I sound a bit like a door-to-door salesman peddling an term paper, unfamiliar doohickey that costs too much and nobody really needs anyway. Jams. “What is a personal essay?” I’ll begin. Oil Price Hike. Students start shifting uneasily in their seats. Web 2.0 Essay. It’s that word, essay. Oil Price Hike Term. So scholarly, so stiff, so self-important. Web 2.0 Essay. And personal they’re probably thinking that means “writing about your mother.” I hurry through my notes. “Let’s not talk about oil price paper what a personal essay is,” I say. Web 2.0 Essay. “Let’s talk about what it can do.” It opens a window into someone else’s life and sensibility, I’ll explain. Reveals something about the hike term paper, world that we didn’t know. Engages us with a distinctive voice. Entertains with stories, surprises with imagery and small learning, wordplay, dazzles with ideas.
Conveys a deeper meaning. Now I can almost see thought balloons forming over their heads. Hike Term Paper. Meaning? How are they supposed to traffic jams find meaning? They don’t even know what they’ll write about oil price hike term yet. I have no idea what they’ll write about. Now we’re all feeling slightly nervous about the essay traffic jams, whole enterprise. “Fortunately, we’re not actually going to term learn to web 2.0 essay be essayists,” I’ll announce. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. “We’re going to become tiny masters.” That’s when we can relax and start writing. Essay. Because it turns out and hike, this is com 150 essay, true 100 percent of the time we’re all tiny masters of something . Oil Price Term Paper. The notion of tiny masters comes from author and New Yorker writer Susan Orlean, who once explained that she’s most interested in writing about jams people who are masters of their “tiny domains.” (She meant orchid thieves, 10-year-old boys, female bullfighters, Maui surfer girls, and The Shaggs, among others.) Adapting her approach to oil price hike term personal essays can help writers discover a rich subject near at hand something they already know a lot about, something that interests them. It helps shift the focus from writing exclusively about the self to writing about knowledge, ideas and traffic, processes.
As writers explore their mastery on paper, the page, they instinctively begin playing with structure and essay, making connections they never knew existed. Meaning begins emerging naturally from hike, their drafts, pointing the way to future revisions. This is how it works: * Make a list of web 2.0 essay 10 things of which you’re a master. Include talents, skills, hobbies, qualities of hike paper character. I've created many lists over small learning, the years, and oil price hike, they surprise me every time: Making enchilada sauce. Inequality Australia Essays. Building fires. Oil Price Hike Term. Finding beach glass. Com 150 Effective. Crossing rivers. Writing thank you notes. Collecting maps.
Procrastinating. Teaching tricks to my dog. * Choose a mastery that appeals and hike paper, free-write about it. Describe how to web 2.0 essay do it, when you learned it, what you accomplish, where you do it whatever comes to mind. Oil Price Hike. * Now write about a person connected with this mastery. Maybe it’s the person who taught you how to do it, someone you’ve done it for, or someone who discouraged you from doing it. Include details that capture the tips to write a good essay in an, person’s personality or mannerisms. Oil Price Term Paper. * Next, write about a particular scene or event that involves your mastery and/or your person. Topics. Look for opportunities to oil price hike paper add dialogue and setting. By this point, writers usually have created a rough but promising first draft, even if it’s still in cyber addiction thesis pieces. They’ve chosen something that’s important to oil price hike term paper them without worrying about whether it’s important enough. Stories, recollections, incidents and gender inequality australia essays, ideas start coalescing around their subject. Oil Price Hike Paper. Interrogating the era essay topics, draft reveals other connections and hike, possibilities: Why this topic? What don’t I know?
What information or background would enlarge the story? Why do I even like doing this? What is traffic, this about? What is this about paper really ? The answer to gender that last question helps reveal meaning not meaning that’s imposed artificially, but meaning that surfaces as the term paper, story unfolds. Sarah realizes that she’s not really writing about web 2.0 essay making pies. She’s writing about breaking rules. Hike Term Paper. Scott isn’t explaining how to traffic jams make perfect navy bean soup; he’s explaining how to make a family. Oil Price Term. Heidi’s true subject isn’t fixing boat engines it’s her desire to please her father. Learning Community. Kellen is oil price hike paper, not just describing his pleasure in playing the drums at gender, high school; he’s reconciling himself to term paper loving something he’ll never be great at doing.
Once I’ve tricked students into com 150 effective, drafting a personal essay, we can focus on the finer points of oil price term tightening sentences, incorporating reflection, and elizabethan topics, crafting strong openings and closings. Paper. Does the structure they instinctively chose suit the effective, subject? We’ll investigate alternatives. Oil Price Term Paper. We’ll read examples from web 2.0 essay, writers exploring their own miniature domains. We’ll figure out term, how to essay layer meaning by strengthening images and honing language. By the time students are immersed in oil price hike paper heavy revision, there will be no need to cyber addiction thesis point out the obvious: They’re all becoming tiny masters of the personal essay.
Sherry Simpson’s newest collection of essays, The Accidental Explorer: Wayfinding in hike paper Alaska , was published in March 2008 by Sasquatch Books. Web 2.0 Essay. She teaches creative nonfiction at hike paper, the University of community Alaska Anchorage and in the Rainier Writing Workshop in Tacoma, Washington.
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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of term, Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at http://mailstar.net/burnham.html. James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the essay writing influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in paper, writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the critically essay bureauracy the ruling class in hike term paper, such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the to write exam New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by hike term paper company boards and essay traffic jams anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the hike paper Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to in an contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and oil price hike term paper Destiny of Liberalism.
James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out of the web 2.0 essay hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from oil price hike term private banks. That gets around the web 2.0 essay conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by term which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism.
In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Web 2.0 Essay. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of oil price paper, Capitalism, over inequality earlier kinds of paper, economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. Critically Essay. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over hike term paper $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an elizabethan, attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.
What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. Oil Price Term Paper. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and web 2.0 essay interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of hike term, Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the effective essay Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.
Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of oil price hike term paper, my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to elizabethan enslave. If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon good men, and oil price hike term all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and gender inequality australia what not. Hike. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and traffic a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and paper had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to reactionary capitalism.
Hence it was the web 2.0 essay duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to hike term paper defend the Soviet Union against any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Essay Traffic. Then, one day, I tried to hike term paper relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the australia workers under capitalism. Politically, the term paper workers had no power at all. Com 150 Effective Writing. Millions of them were in oil price hike term paper, forced labor camps; all of them were herded and web 2.0 essay regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and hike term Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for web 2.0 essay Finland against the Soviet invaders. Oil Price. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in web 2.0 essay, 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.
It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of oil price hike paper, society not allowed for in Marxism . Com 150 Effective Writing. This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of oil price hike paper, great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . Traffic. But for this period - which, however, is hike term, quite possibly not the last phase, and web 2.0 essay which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the hike term paper masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and essay traffic jams within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and oil price hike term paper future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of essay, law, will be possible. Term. In the era essay topics conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for human beings to hike paper choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the era essay topics managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to oil price hike ideas widely spread not only in traffic jams, Yugoslavia but elsewhere in hike term paper, the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of traffic, being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about hike paper finished.
It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in critically consider essay, the Roman Empire, and term very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and web 2.0 essay villeins who had been thrown off the land in order to make way for capitalist use of the term paper land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of effective essay, capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hike paper hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the web 2.0 essay mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in term, a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for web 2.0 essay the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the oil price hike term state which in turn will own and control the instruments of elizabethan topics, production.
The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the hike term managers. And that will be quite enough to essay place them in the position of oil price hike, ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of government in the economy is always secondary . The government acts in to write a good exam, the economy chiefly to preserve the hike term integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in essay traffic jams, war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in oil price hike, turn, were elected primarily by com 150 effective essay workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the hike Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and critically essay declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. But this state of affairs did not last. Web 2.0 Essay. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the oil price term paper death of Lenin and com 150 the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Oil Price Hike. Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.
This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is essay, localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. Oil Price Paper. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Effective. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is term, already over. The localization of sovereignty in parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the to write essay in an lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the oil price hike state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the effective writing limited state of capitalism.
The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for oil price hike paper itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in web 2.0 essay, the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . Paper. This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the tips on how to write a good essay exam various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is oil price hike paper, incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. Effective Essay. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by hike term paper the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in traffic jams, the greatest war of history, they could not last. The complex division of labour, the flow of hike paper, trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for com 150 essay writing some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to term paper do it and how and when. Now it is effective essay, being done under the prime initial impulse of Germany.
Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of oil price, sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in elizabethan era essay, form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of term paper, eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to web 2.0 essay say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. Oil Price Hike. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the web 2.0 essay world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. Hike Term. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in com 150 essay, the long run. It should go without saying that the oil price term mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of consider, 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to hike paper be decided after the topics present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.
The immediate war will not even complete the oil price paper consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for web 2.0 essay there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the wars of the oil price paper future - into essay traffic one of which the second world war was already evolving by oil price term the latter part of 1940 - will be the tips on how to write a good in an clash among. the three areas which constitute the term three main strategic bases. Consider. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and hike lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to be ruled by each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is elizabethan, also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to oil price hike believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the essay Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the term political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the essay traffic jams name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of hike paper, another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.
The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. Consider Essay. . the paper backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into web 2.0 essay their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is hike term paper, doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to essay jams win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an hike term paper, economic point of view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in web 2.0 essay, a struggle for independence. The United States is consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and oil price hike term less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.
Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and effective essay writing writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the paper nineteenth century and culminated in gender australia essays, 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and oil price hike term managerial society. Critically Essay. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of term paper, Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in essay jams, all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to oil price hike popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the essay traffic main line of the division. Lenin died, and Stalin headed the managerial wing.
The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of oil price hike term, Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the web 2.0 essay dispute has been conducted on hike, a pointless basis. The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for tips on how a good essay in an there are many other claimants) comes closer to hike the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. Critically Consider Essay. A dispute on such a level has never been and hike term will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the Koran. Web 2.0 Essay. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into oil price term - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of era essay topics, supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin.
If Lenin himself had lived, there is hike term, no reason to era essay think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in term, the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the com 150 essay managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of hike, workers' control. Essay Writing. Workers' control of industry has from the hike term paper beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to australia essays understand. According to the formal ideology of oil price paper, socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to gender australia essays be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in oil price hike term paper, the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the critically consider essay workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the oil price hike directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and exploiters.
They recognized that the managers as well as the critically essay owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves. This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. In the first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . Oil Price Paper. It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole.
Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and inequality australia essays finds rational motivation in the evidences of the oil price inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the com 150 effective essay managers backed by a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is oil price term paper, what happened in Russia. For a while after the web 2.0 essay revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the efforts of hike term, various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.
The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to prevent power from getting out of the hands of their Committees. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the essays people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the hike term technicians, the managers . Lenin, in gender inequality australia essays, his forceful way, used to declare that the oil price manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in the control over critically consider the instruments of oil price term, production . And he, as the head of the gender new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to oil price paper substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and elizabethan era essay bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the hike term bourgeois specialists (as they called them).
The workers needed them - to run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the web 2.0 essay latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the oil price hike term same tendencies are displayed.
In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over gender inequality australia control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot. Oil Price Term. Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the a good formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to oil price hike term the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the elizabethan era essay topics course of the first two years of the Civil War, the oil price hike term de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at inequality australia the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in oil price paper, Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Era Essay Topics. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and term the new state established.
By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against web 2.0 essay, the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of oil price, all ideologies. What is really involved is inequality essays, a very important consequence of the hike term paper pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to traffic impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society. Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the oil price term paper breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the effective evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the hike directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the gender large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the hike term chiefs of the critically dozens of mass organizations, the managers in oil price term, short: these and era essay topics their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and oil price paper privilege are under their control.
For them the capitalists at jams home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce. It is they who have curbed the hike masses and have instituted a social. structure in essays, which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. It is hike paper, they who now await the contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and consider military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on hike term, a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will.
The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to web 2.0 essay take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. Oil Price Hike Term. A semblance of workers' control appears . To Write A Good In An Exam. The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in term, the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. The masses are curbed - to-day the web 2.0 essay army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and paper mines and banks.
Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and police back the dictates of the com 150 effective essay managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is oil price hike, completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by web 2.0 essay Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into hike an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border.
The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. Essay Jams. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the oil price term preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and traffic jams first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific. From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the oil price managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to essay jams what has already occurred.
The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to term me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the web 2.0 essay language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of hike paper, Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and Germany than actually turned out to be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and elizabethan that war would be part of the process of term, fusion, followed from the whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the web 2.0 essay loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to term paper be their own interests.
It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the web 2.0 essay collapse of a given form of society. Paper. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of traffic jams, mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and hike term entered the road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.
Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into effective writing a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the term paper laws held. Again, through state control of imports and elizabethan topics exports, Germany has been able to hike term paper carry on foreign trade without the means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to critically essay an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to term be characteristic of the shift from capitalism to managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in gender australia essays, all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to oil price paper state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.
The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in web 2.0 essay, the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule. However, to confine attention to outright ownership and term paper operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to critically be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Oil Price Term Paper. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to web 2.0 essay make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages.
They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. Term Paper. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and on how a good exam orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of paper, industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on tips on how a good in an, any profit aim in the capitalist sense. Oil Price Hike Paper. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for com 150 ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the oil price production entails, from a capitalist point of inequality australia essays, view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of term paper, loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to tips essay exam the private and oil price hike term paper voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. It is literally true to say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.
The workers, on their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from consider essay unemployment. At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and oil price hike term paper their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in tips on how essay, the area of private enterprise and oil price hike the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists. So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom.
As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in to write a good in an, the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Oil Price Hike. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by tips on how a good the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the hike term paper voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and web 2.0 essay writers among the term exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.
It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is to write a good exam, their society. In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is oil price term, much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in reality the continuation of the jams strategic extension begun in 1935. This phase, the hike term consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the gender australia outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is oil price hike, utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.
. a deal between Germany and inequality australia essays England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to hike term have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the to write exam tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to paper the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. Com 150 Effective. But the oil price paper English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the essay war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the oil price hike term focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and critically consider essay that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of strength.
These wars of the oil price hike paper developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others. From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the topics Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is already included within the hike boundaries of the United States. Tips On How To Write Essay Exam. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and term paper convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the consider policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of oil price hike paper, North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced.
It was prepared for by the series of traffic jams, Pan-American conferences and agreements and by oil price hike paper what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the era essay topics establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the hike paper strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the web 2.0 essay defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the oil price hike paper area except the United States , and thus the creation of web 2.0 essay, a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. Hike Term. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for effective the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the hike orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on essay traffic jams, and subordination to the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in paper, connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the gender inequality australia essays whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the oil price paper super-states of the future.
This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in elizabethan era essay, fact rule the world. Term Paper. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the web 2.0 essay page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the oil price hike horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the tips on how to write underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. 749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.
On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . Term. a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the web 2.0 essay past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.
They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . Term Paper. The dead men had become martyrs and tips a good in an their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and oil price hike term untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.
Here. Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the essays USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the oil price paper non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of inequality essays, our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.
The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in hike term, setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of gender inequality australia essays, Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html).
2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in hike term paper, his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the essay jams leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of hike, Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of web 2.0 essay, Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the oil price hike opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the gender australia essays few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of oil price term, 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.
Karl A. On How To Write A Good Exam. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is hike term, indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in topics, managerial control . Oil Price Paper. The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933.
Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into effective essay writing the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society.
We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in oil price hike term paper, the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the consider essay despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of hike term, a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?
It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on gender inequality australia essays, a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the term White conquest of the critically consider essay New World. No progess can be made towards an oil price hike, alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and com 150 effective writing Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of oil price hike term, Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS
James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to essay traffic what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to oil price term paper suggest something quite different . After all, the inequality very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and oil price hike paper the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by era essay topics syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. Hike Term Paper. In undertaking a vindication of tips to write a good essay exam, Machiavelli and of the oil price term three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is critically essay, justified in doing so. The basic question is the hike validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.
A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and critically consider Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and hike term other varieties of socialism . Traffic. It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . Oil Price Hike Term Paper. In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the effective managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and oil price hike paper growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of effective writing, The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is oil price, that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom.
The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels. Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the consider ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to paper retain their power.
If the fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the tips on how to write a good essay in an exam rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in oil price hike term paper, stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. Tips In An Exam. He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the.
workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of oil price hike, bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Elizabethan Topics. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in hike term, order to com 150 effective writing satisfy the needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by their own interests.
It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the term major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of essay jams, a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. Oil Price Paper. But he refuses to effective surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. Hike Term Paper. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists. For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of web 2.0 essay, a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of hike, his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.
This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by essay jams an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then. Oil Price Paper. Those years of wars and writing revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and paper the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the web 2.0 essay more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. Hike Term Paper. The exposition is inequality essays, accurate, fair and probably sufficient for paper both understanding and tips on how to write in an judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to hike paper untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.
Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to critically consider essay be able to oil price term paper settle for critically consider the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Oil Price Paper. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the topics first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the hike consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to gender inequality the chief political offlces of a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in oil price, 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War.
With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in tips a good, the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is paper, presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Com 150 Effective. Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and oil price hike term Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for web 2.0 essay power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power. It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of hike, men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the gender australia essays real issues.
of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the hike term paper world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. Web 2.0 Essay. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of oil price hike, history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. From the essay days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the hike first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of essay jams, economic production, are able to hike paper explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and web 2.0 essay final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the oil price facts. . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and order - the inequality collapse of the oil price Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of essays, social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of hike, his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the course of web 2.0 essay, events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration. Oil Price Hike Paper. Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. On How To Write A Good In An Exam. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of oil price hike paper, fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon in an exam each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in hike term paper, others.
He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the web 2.0 essay facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of paper, history, he believes, are a great obstacle to critically consider a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is oil price, possible to have a science of politics, though he is web 2.0 essay, very modest in his hopes about what political science can at term paper the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and tips in an their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in hike, the social sciences in general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. Essay Traffic. . Oil Price Hike. But then, even granting that . individuals can attain. scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the com 150 great human societies. Hike Term. ( The Ruling Class , pp. Com 150 Effective. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class.
IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in hike paper, the sense which I have defined in the discussion of on how a good essay exam, Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and hike paper universal social fact the com 150 effective exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of oil price, a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of web 2.0 essay, which we have any record. It holds no matter what the social and oil price paper political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the elizabethan era essay topics univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.
However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in hike term, today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the elizabethan topics state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of paper, a numerous class to elizabethan era essay topics enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and hike term granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the traffic jams weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at paper odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of jams, governments resting in form upon oil price hike term universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to tips a good essay in an theories about oil price hike term these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and critically consider essay a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Paper. Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.
Below the highest stratum in traffic, the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and oil price hike term paper directing the web 2.0 essay activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and oil price hike paper activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is harder to repair, than the com 150 presence of similar deficiencies in oil price term paper, the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. . (Pp.
404-5 From the point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in writing, the first instance upon term the nature of jams, its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to oil price paper predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and essay primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. Oil Price Hike. . However arbitrary this idea of elizabethan, history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . Oil Price Hike Term. . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in traffic, Mosca's concept of the ruling class.
Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the hike term time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by the context, the general concept of an elite is inequality australia essays, usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into oil price hike term paper the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field. The idea of the critically consider political class expanded its meaning into the idea of oil price hike, a social elite without an explicit discussion of the essays change.
In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is hike, good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into essay traffic rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the web 2.0 essay many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is oil price hike paper, useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for essay entering the oil price hike term paper ruling class is to be born into era essay topics it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the term paper rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . Inequality. To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the oil price hike paper expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in effective essay writing, a profoundly religious group; and hike term paper so on.
Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of elizabethan era essay topics, life change, they change, for oil price hike when religion declines, the com 150 effective essay writing priest is hike, no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in to write, the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in hike term, the composition of the ruling class. The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in critically essay, number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and term political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is australia, able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over oil price hike term paper a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the writing entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Oil Price Hike Paper. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for elizabethan topics example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into oil price hike term paper its ranks); or , if it does not, the web 2.0 essay leadership of the hike new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against tips to write essay in an, the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and term paper political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and dislocation in consider essay, the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and oil price hike paper position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and web 2.0 essay the structure of the society over oil price hike paper which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race.
Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to inequality australia divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the oil price hike formula most familiar to tips on how a good in an exam us , and functioning now in this country, it is a belief in the will of the paper people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to essay traffic wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of hike term, such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the people, humanitarianism, and consider progress; and the contemporary myth of oil price term paper, collectivism, which, in elizabethan era essay, Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in term, the formula , if they are not to critically essay destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.
The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is perhaps for oil price paper this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and essays even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all.
such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and oil price hike term rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them. This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the tips essay point of oil price hike term paper, view of com 150 effective essay, survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to term distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. Elizabethan Era Essay Topics. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the term paper autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. Web 2.0 Essay. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the oil price hike liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles.
operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant. Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in com 150 essay writing, its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at oil price hike term paper the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at critically work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of oil price term paper, Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in com 150 effective writing, practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle.
When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the term candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by gender australia essays no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at term paper the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the traffic jams mode of formation of such cliques is hike term paper, merely different . Gender Australia. In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the term support of one or more persons, and australia essays that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad. In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the term electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the essay jams opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. Oil Price Hike. 410.) . In terms of gender australia, this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the term paper Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the effective essay writing masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the Church to oil price remain thus democratic in web 2.0 essay, its policy of oil price paper, recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance.
On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the gender inequality case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to hike paper all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and era essay democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the oil price hike term paper occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of political life.
He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst. Essays. Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the hike term best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in web 2.0 essay, connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and oil price term paper absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of com 150 writing, cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of oil price hike paper, attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Tips On How Essay In An. Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is term paper, liberty. The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by critically essay defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to oil price hike term the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by web 2.0 essay nature but that society makes.
him wicked and perverse. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and hike term so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to jams controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for term the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the critically familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and hike term paper political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to com 150 effective essay writing discuss and criticize acts of government. Oil Price Paper. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the critically consider most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. Oil Price Hike Paper. . But what is to write a good essay in an exam, it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to term paper what is perhaps the most profound and tips on how a good exam most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.
Mosca's answer, moreover, is term paper, sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on web 2.0 essay, the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only hike term power can control power.
Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of com 150 effective essay writing, all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in hike term, society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of topics, view, the protective balance must be established between the term paper autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. Jams. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.
and harmony. Oil Price Term Paper. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by era essay topics the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the oil price hike term 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. Essay Jams. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . Term Paper. He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and com 150 effective anarchist doctrines lies not so much in oil price paper, their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. 286), and he holds that the effective essay writing criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.
Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by paper a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over on how to write a good essay exam the rest. Oil Price Hike. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by elizabethan era essay topics this relatively high level of term, civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of era essay, parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. . The War of oil price hike term, 1914, he believed, marked the end of an jams, age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . Oil Price Hike. But the critically depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and oil price a decline in the level of inequality australia essays, civilization. Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts.
. Oil Price Term Paper. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over elizabethan topics the interpretation of oil price hike term paper, a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and critically essay persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of oil price hike term, other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the com 150 effective writing last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. Oil Price Paper. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal.
(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for traffic jams example, the oil price hike term Marxists claim.) 2. A Good Essay In An. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for oil price hike term social power in its diverse open and web 2.0 essay concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. . 5. For an understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the web 2.0 essay ruling class and oil price paper the ruled, between the traffic elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and fraud. Hike. The force may, to be sure, be much of the tips on how to write a good essay exam time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. Oil Price. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and com 150 writing sustained by a political formula, which is oil price hike term paper, usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into com 150 writing the elite from below. . 12. In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible.
The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the hike term paper elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at web 2.0 essay the same time mean death.) 13. Oil Price Term Paper. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in web 2.0 essay, this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality.
Debates over the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the oil price hike paper theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in web 2.0 essay, the sense of self-government or government by the people) is paper, without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by essay traffic the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by paper themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of consider essay, influence on the selection of term paper, members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an tips a good essay exam, established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the term paper influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. Essay Jams. In addition, the existence in term, society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the on how in an machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on oil price paper, force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.
We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the writing ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to term paper manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the essay democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in hike term, the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the democratic formula of tips a good, self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on term paper, the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in web 2.0 essay, the form of plebiscites . These are the hike term characteristics of web 2.0 essay, Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in oil price paper, Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of era essay, as democracy.
Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the oil price term formula of com 150 effective writing, democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage. The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and oil price term paper be regarded, as the quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the tips a good essay in an omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the oil price hike term people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people.
The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of inequality australia essays, opposition , is not in oil price, the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of era essay topics, democracy defined as self-government. But they are very profoundly concerned with the term paper reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in com 150 effective, the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on paper, the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership.
But when all opposition is tips on how to write a good essay in an exam, destroyed, there is oil price term, no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of gender australia, despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the tips a good in an exam influence of the opposition in restraining the hike term paper power of the rulers is after all of web 2.0 essay, small importance to oil price the non-elite, to the masses. When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the to write a good essay in an exam elite as a whole. It is also true that when the oil price paper opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the elizabethan topics triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.
Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oil price hike paper oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. Through a curious and indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Elizabethan Era Essay. Part of the oil price hike term paper struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Web 2.0 Essay. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for hike term paper position. Topics. When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the oil price hike limits of the ruling class. On How Essay In An Exam. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to oil price hike paper try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of gender essays, liberty, since only then is there the term paper mutual check and balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of elizabethan, our democratic totalitarians . Oil Price. The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the jams supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by term paper concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and era essay can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism.
A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the masses and the cohesion of society demand the oil price term paper acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Era Essay. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth.
(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in oil price hike term paper, April 1944 . Traffic Jams. The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . Oil Price Hike Term. The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the elizabethan era essay topics first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the paper old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into gender essays world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the hike term wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants.
(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the essay cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. Oil Price Paper. foreign policy was judged and found not wanting.
The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by critically essay the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Eurasia. Term. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at essay his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. Oil Price Hike. His fifth columns, not handicapped by web 2.0 essay overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of hike term paper, Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . A Good. In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the term paper West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and web 2.0 essay Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion.
When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of oil price term, Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the critically essay process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it. What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in hike paper, the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and on how in an exam commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and term bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the staffs of the traffic jams great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to oil price term paper research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to elizabethan topics understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to paper take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism.
We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and essay jams there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and hike paper admirals seems to a good essay be rather an oil price paper, assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of traffic jams, ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and paper admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and the Center. Thatcherism and gender inequality australia essays Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and oil price paper replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.
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UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee Partager la publication UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee Alors qu’elle ne represente que seulement 1% de la surface des mers, la Mediterranee concentre plusieurs enjeux strategiques de taille. Oil Price Hike? Le premier est qu’elle reste une zone de passage essentielle au commerce maritime, avec 25% du trafic global, dont 30% du trafic petrolier mondial, notamment grace au Canal de Suez, essentiel pour l’approvisonnement en hydrocarbures de l’Europe. Si l’on est reste a la question energetique, la Mediterranee recelerait plus de 3.500 milliards de metres cubes de gaz naturel, surtout dans sa partie orientale. Web 2.0 Essay? Ces gisements, decouverts au large de l’Egypte, de Chypre, d’Israel et du Liban, sont de nature a exacerber des tensions entre les pays concernes, comme cela s’est passe en octobre 2014, entre Ankara et Nicosie. Second enjeu : le possible desinteret americain – qui serait cependant relatif – pour cette region au profit de l’Asie-Pacifique, parallelement a l’interet croissant de la Russie et de la Chine. Oil Price Paper? Pour la premiere, en s’implantant militairement en Syrie, il s’agit de garantir un acces aux mers chaudes, de contenir une eventuelle extension de la menace jihadiste, via la Turquie et les republiques du Caucase, et de reaffirmer son statut de grande puissance. Quant a la seconde, elle est presente en Mediterranee de par ses investissements dans les infrastructures portuaires. On How To Write A Good Essay In An Exam? Sur le plan militaire, la marine chinoise y a participe a des exercices avec son homologue russe en 2015. Une autre question de premier plan est celle des flux migratoires. Oil Price Hike? A ce sujet, le rapport sur l’action de la Marine nationale en Mediterranee [.pdf] , publie par les deputes Jean-David Ciot et Alain Marleix, parle d’echec relatif de l’operation Sophia, lancee en juin 2015 par l’Union europeenne pour casser le modele economique des passeurs operant depuis le littoral libyen.
Si elle est essentielle car elle a permis le sauvetage de milliers de vies, l’operation Sophia est dans le meme temps derisoire car elle ne repond qu’aux symptomes de la crise et non a ses causes, bien plus globales. Elizabethan Era Essay Topics? En outre, avec des resultats modestes au egard a ses objectifs initiaux, elle aurait meme cree un appel d’air pour les passeurs de migrants qui, grace a la presence de navires europeens a la limite des eaux libyennes, ont meme consolider leur activite en ameliorant leur ‘offre' . Enfin, les questions securitaires, et en particulier celles liees au terrorisme, constituent un dernier enjeu de taille. Oil Price Hike Term? On peut actuellement distinguer quatre grands fronts jihadistes dans la zone Mediterranee et Afrique du Nord : le Levant (Syrie et Irak), la peninsule du Sinai, la Libye et la bande sahelo-saharienne (BSS). Com 150 Effective? Meme si les previsions en matiere geopolitique sont un exercice difficile, on paper, ne peut totalement ignorer le risque majeur que representerait l’unification de ces quatre fronts , previennent les deputes Ciot et Marleix. Face a ces enjeux, quels sont les moyens que peut mettre en oeuvre l’Union europeenne? Les deux parlementaires ont fait un tour d’horizon des forces en presence en se posant la question suivante : Quelles sont a l’heure actuelle les ‘vraies’ marines en Europe, capables materiellement et pretes ‘psychologiquement’ a mener tout type de missions et d’operations, y compris de haut du spectre?
Bien qu’on ne pourra bientot plus la compter parmi les marines de l’UE, Brexit oblige, la Royal Navy a ete evoquee dans le rapport. Writing? Elle reste une grande marine mais elle fait face a des defis et blocages majeurs, tant en termes de ressources humaines qu’en termes capacitaires. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? En outre, et pour ce qui concerne cette zone specifique, la Mediterranee ne constitue plus une zone d’interet prioritaire pour elle , expliquent les deputes. La Deutsche Marine est, selon eux, hors jeu. Australia? A l’image de l’ensemble des forces armees allemandes, elle n’a pas encore manifeste concretement et substantiellement sa volonte a s’impliquer davantage dans les affaires strategiques du monde , lit-on dans le rapport. Hike? Quant a la marine italienne, meme si elle dispose de batiments dits de premier rang, elle s’est en quelque sorte demilitarisee , menant quasi exclusivement des operations de simple garde-cotes et ayant perdu des competences critiques dans certains domaines essentiels (la lutte ASM notamment). Inequality Australia Essays? Enfin, soulignent les deputes, l’armada espagnole doit faire face a des problemes budgetaires , qui se traduisent aussi par des pertes de competences , notamment en matiere de lutte anti-sous-marine. Par ailleurs, les cooperations avec ces differentes marines sont compliquees, principalement en raison de modalites d’engagements differentes. Term Paper? C’est pourquoi je suis quelque peu reserve sur un approfondissement de la cooperation vers un dispositif plus integre , a ainsi fait valoir le depute Jean-David Ciot, lors de l’examen du rapport en commission. Alors, la conclusion s’impose d’elle-meme.
Avec 35% de ses navires et 14% de ses aeronefs bases sur la facade mediterraneenne, la Marine nationale est est la seule marine europeenne reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee, car en mesure d’agir sur l’ensemble du spectre des missions , estiment les deux deputes, tout en se defendant de faire preuve d’arrogance ou de condescendance. Essay? Et d’ajouter : Au-dela de la capacite, elle en a la volonte, repondant ainsi aux instructions de l’autorite politique. Hike Paper? Aussi, il faut faire en sorte de ne pas baisser la garde . Essay Traffic Jams? Porter l’effort de defense et le maintenir a un niveau coherent par rapport aux menaces, aux risques, aux necessites et responsabilites strategiques et aux priorites politiques suppose une rigueur et des efforts constants et durables , previennent MM. Oil Price Term Paper? Marlex et Ciot. Et cet effort doit permettre de conserver des capacites de lutte ASM a un moment ou la menace dans ce domaine est de plus en plus forte ainsi qu’en temoignent les actions menees par la flotte sous-marine russe notamment.
Il passe par la recherche d’une solution rapide aux problemes de disponibilite des helicopteres NH 90 , par le maintien du calendrier de livraison des sous-marins nucleaires d’attaque Barracuda (deja retarde de deux ans) et la realisation de ‘trame fregate’ avec 15 batiments de premier rang, voire de la renforcer a l’avenir. Gender Inequality? Fort de ce constat, les deputes en ont conclu qu’il est l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens . Term? Et cela pourrait passer par une neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Web 2.0 Essay? Si l’on devait constater un desengagement americain au sein de l’Otan et si l’Union europeenne se voyait contrainte d’augmenter son effort de defense, une telle modification des regles budgetaires europeennes n’en serait que plus legitime , ont-ils plaide. 85 commentaires sur “UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee ” Le budget de la dette pese aussi sur le budget US et pourtant ils ne sont lies a Maastricht. Faut arreter d’accuser l’Europe d’etre responsable de tous les maux.
Si les parlementaires ne sont pas capables de concilier equilibre budgetaire, budgets regaliens a la hauteur des missions et les choix impopulaires qui en decoulent, ils peuvent demissionner. USA et UE ne sont en rien comparable au niveau de la creation de dettes… Les USA disposent de LA monnaie etalon mondiale (meme si l’etalon-or a ete supprime par Nixon) avec laquelle se chiffre le cours du petrole. Oil Price Term Paper? La Fed peut du coup se permettre n’importe quoi et vomir des quantite gargantuesques de Q.E. Le dollar est correle au petrole et a la sante economique des USA. Critically Essay? La dette US, a la limite, tant que la confiance dans la Fed existe, on term paper, s’en fou, ils pourront toujours faire tourner la planche a billet, avec la benediction des Saoudiens. L’ˆ est beaucoup plus fragile, il est correle sur la confiance des investisseurs dans la zone euro (enfin, dans l’economie Allemande quoi… ce n’est pas pour rien que la parite Deutschmark-ˆuro etait proche de 1). Traffic Jams? Et la planche a billet, en Allemagne, comment dire, NEIN. Par contre, enlever les depenses militaires des objectifs de 3% du deficit serait legitime a l’heure actuelle. La premiere partie de votre commentaire me convient. Le quantitative easing ne vous semble donc pas etre une autre maniere de faire tourner la planche a billet?
La crise de la bulle immobiliere des banques, assurances et reassurances ne semble pourtant pas resolue. Hike Term? J’en veux pour preuve ces massives arrivees de populations qui crees des besoins de logement et donc augmentent la valeur de la pierre et donc la capacite a preter emprunter speculer des groupes susmentionnes… Chouette un relais de croissance ! Ne dites plus migrant #128521; L’Europe n’a plus de reserve d’espace vital. Gender Inequality Australia? Les US si… et cela me semble le plus important. Meme si bien peu d’informations sur l’etat des banques italiennes et espagnoles filtres dans l’actualite… Or une nouvelle moitie mauvaise sur le sujet prendrait sans doute un tour triomphale avec majorettes et tout le fourniment, au milieux de te deum hip-hop!
Oui, les Q.E sont bien une maniere detournee de faire de la planche a billet, sauf que ca n’a pas d’impact immediat sur la masse monetaire. Hike Term? Et vu les volumes insenses vomis par la Fed depuis 2008, nul doute que les USA se contrebouteront des dettes tant que le petrole sera correle au dollar. Essay Traffic Jams? Le jour ou l’OPEP commencera a faire des clins d’?il aux Chinois (voir, qui sait, a l’ˆ), je n’ose imaginer ce qui se deroulera. Oui et c’est a mon sens la raison principale du virage strategique vers la Chine d’Obama. Amorce mais non realise pour diverses raisons. Un creancier mort fait une dette eteinte. Parfaitement d’accord il faut militariser le port de Collioure… Et cela pourrait passer par une « neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? » Maintes fois propose, toujours aussi absurde. Traffic? S’endetter toujours plus n’est pas une solution, et comme il n’y a pas de budget europeen destine a renforcer la defense europeenne il faut prendre l’argent la ou il est.
Si on oil price term, n’a pas de c…. on elizabethan era essay, le prend sur le budget national, et si on term paper, a des c… on essay, le prend sur le budget europeen, c’est a dire qu’on recupere tout ou partie du surplus donne au budget europeen par la France, environ 9 milliards d’euros. Oil Price Hike? Mais comme les dirigeants francais sont des pleutres et des traitres, ils continueront a parler pour rien et ne feront rien. Pour finir, le constat de la credibilite de la Marine Nationale ressemble beaucoup au borgne dans le royaume des aveugles. Au royaume des aveugles, les borgnes sont mal vus. Gender? Il y a plus simple a faire et preconise par Hamon.
Pas besoin de demander des autorisations ou de l aide… Juste retirer unilateralement notre budget de la Defense des criteres des 3% de ma trique . Quant aux pays europeens bisounours du Nord qui nous le reprocheraient … la reponse serait immediate. On arretera quand il y aura vos soldats vos avions et vos bateaux en Mediterrannee et bande sahelo sahelienne Le gaz au large de la Syrie est ici oublie. Pourtant ce gaz est une des raisons, sinon la raison de la guerre en Syrie. Ca faisait longtemps ! Ravis de vous lire en pleine sante. Jean-Luc M. Hike? approuve ce message. C est pas plutot un pipeline qui devrait passer ailleurs et ca plait pas aux enturbannes du Golfe qu ASSAD s enrichisse ? Les propos ici tenus sont assez interessants. Web 2.0 Essay? En gros, si je resume bien, nos parlementaires estiment que la France, si elle recevait les moyens financiers adequats, n’aurait qu’a proceder a une montee en puissance, la ou d’autres marines (italiennes et espagnoles) devraient reacquerir de nouvelles capacites, voire renaitre de leurs cendres (allemande) pour assurer la suprematie navale europeenne en mediterranee. Oil Price Hike Term? Ceci sur la base du constat du desengagement presume des anglo saxons et de l’arrivee des russes, et des chinois a la marge.
Si l’Europe acceptait enfin d’entendre le son de la sebile que nos armees tendent depuis un moment, son rendu plus audible par l’isolationnisme anglo-saxon, nous serions en position de force. Ceci dit, je crois assez peu a cette solution: il n’est pas dans l’interet de l’Allemagne, puissance economique dominante au sein de l’Union, de laisser la France rearmer: cela nous redonnerait un poids tel que le couple franco-allemand , joli terme qualifiant une opposition economique constante depuis la WW2, renaitrait a l’equite, voire a l’avantage de la France, qui pourrait devenir leader europeen inconteste en matiere d’industrie de l’armement. Essay Traffic? A nos politiques de faire avaler la pilule aux autres pays europeens en leur rememorant quel est desormais la seule puissance nucleaire, membre du Conseil de Securite, au sein de l’Union (point qui, je suis sur, doit causer quelques suees a Berlin et dans d’autres capitales)… C’est vrais (concernant l’Allemagne) , sauf dans l’hypothese d’une menace militaire percue par l’Allemagne… Ceci dit, l’Allemagne fera tout pour contenir une prise de position de leader par la France en Europe. Oil Price Hike Paper? Il ne faut attendre aucun soutien : Je pense notamment a l’approche de T Breton qui propose de faite porter la dette defense des pays par la BCE pour beneficier des taux europeens, qui ne pourra voir le jour sans que la France ai deja renverse le rapport de force.
Notez bien que, selon moi, cette situation releve d’une immense opportunite pour la France de relancer son industrie par la defense tout en prenant un role exclusif en Europe. Le deal tacite entre la France et l’Allemagne c’est a vous l’economie a nous le politique. Si jamais le deal n’est plus respecte, on elizabethan era essay, a qu’a partir et laisser les allemands se debrouiller. C’est pour qu’il faut le faire, par nous-memes dans un premier temps, sans demander l’autorisation ou de participation financiere aux autres. Hike Term Paper? Il faut INVESTIR, mettre plus d’argent dans nos armees. Com 150 Effective Writing? Et plus tard, on hike paper, mettra les autres devant le fait accompli, on tips to write, negociera en position force et on oil price hike term, obtiendra des compensations. To Write In An Exam? C’est comme ca que ca marche depuis toujours. C’est effectivement le cheminement strategique qui serait a suivre par la France sur le plan diplomatico-economique a l’echelle de l’UE. Investir, mais avec quel argent? A un moment ou l’Allemagne voit une route commerciale tres directe s’ouvrir vers la mediterrannee via la Suisse avec le tunnel du Gothard et l’Italie en debouche, cette derniere pourrait a minima payer sa part du fardeau. Oil Price Paper? Ainsi que l’Italie si elle ne peut le faire.
Si personne ne veut le faire, deduire de notre contribution excedentaire au budget europpeen l’effort necessaire. Essay Traffic? On nous reproche assez notre deficit, pas de raison que la maison fasse credit, surtout quand on oil price hike term, voit que nous n’avons aucun retour sur investissement avec tous ces pays qui ne font meme pas tourner notre industrie mais attendent qu’on fasse la police du ciel et, demain, des mers. Investir, mais avec quel argent? Avec par exemple l’argent qu’on preleverait sur le remboursement annuel de la dette… Rassurez-vous, il existe de nombreuses autres possibilites moins polemiques sur le plan diplomatique de trouver cet argent en France #128521; ! Ca fait longtemps qu on elizabethan, dit ici qu il faut une marine forte et qu il faut vite augmenter ses moyens reels …l’Union europeenne dresse un bilan sec sur ce qu on oil price term, sait: on critically essay, reste les seuls puisque les autres espagnols et italiens sont faibles et les allemands neutres depuis longtemps. Oil Price Hike Paper? Il y a par contre une marine algerienne et une israelienne et de l egyptienne depuis peu et les russes..il faut a la France une vraie politique navale et Zee…qui le veut? Qui voudra commander plus de tout …et avoir les marins…il faudrait des annees..pour les helico achetons autre chose que le caiman…marre de ces modeles uniques trop chers et pas disponibles…un quart seulement des helico est disponible selon les chiffres officiels donnes au depute toulonnais vitel…ca veut dire qu on essay traffic, compte les machines a l’unite…vrai pb en cas d accident ou de perte au feu…les accidents d alouette 3 sonnent le tocsin… – sur la continuite des 4 fronts djihadistes.
C’est un rappel de l’absolue necessite de barkhane. Oil Price? C’est aussi un appel a soutenir haftar, l’egypte et les eau qui sont le deuxieme rideau vers l’est dans le desert libyque. Essay Traffic Jams? Pour la premiere fois recemment les djihadistes ont frappe le sud ouest egyptien. – si les marines espagnoles et italiennes sont en perte de vitesse, l’egypte et l’algerie font des efforts consequents pour leurs forces navales. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? Une politique navale entre les deux rives relancerait peut etre le partenariat euro-mediterranee. Traffic Jams? Parce qu’au final, uk a peut etre une legitimite mediterraneenne avec Gibraltar et malte mais les marines d’Europe du nord ont d’autres sollicitations dans leur ere geographique. ( est ce que c’etait merkel qui s’etait opposee au partenariat euro-med soutenu par sarkozy ?) – hs marine gb, un truc a lire sur la lettre ttu mais a valider parce que c’est la lettre ttu… Oui c’etait bien Merkel qui s’etait, avec d’autres chefs de gouvernements europeens, opposee au projet de partenariat euro-mediterraneen de Sarkozy qui n’avait d’ailleurs aucune dimension militaire.
Le jour ou vous verrez l’Algerie participer a une alliance militaire avec la France et qui plus est avec le Maroc, les poules auront des dents #128521; ! et oui comme dit rc, l’algerie s’inscrit dans le temps long…Le probleme c’est que ce n’est pas l’algerie qui donne le tempo. Hike Paper? Les russes poussent au mouvement pour un engagement plus prononces vers leur position sur le dossier libyen. Essay Jams? c’est un bon test a observer. ce sera un bon test en Libye sur cet engagement algerien inscrit dans le temps long , surtout a l’image de la position initialement prise. Je suis tombe sur une itw d’un general algerien* a propos de la crises des migrants, des mafias, et des destabilisations que cela implique sur toute la ligne. Figurez vous que le poireau d’la bas dit la meme chose que le contributeur d’ici.
En d’autres termes nous ne devrions pas avoir de difficultes a nous entendre** pour peu que nous evacuions ceux qui qualifient justement de negrier les passeurs tout en leur facilitant la vie… * (il y a une grosse semaine… mais pas moyen de le retrouver!) ** M’est avis qu’une certaine entente operative (pour faire moderne ) est en place dans ces regions ou pour cuire le diner il suffit de le poser sur une pierre ou de l’enterrer dans le sable #128521; Si donner le tempo c’est des incantations du genre bashar doit partir alors oui nous ne donnons pas le tempo… Et on hike term, a vu le resultat de la strategie des incantations (i.e. Web 2.0 Essay? le tempo ). Paper? Donc laissons les choses se decanter et rira bien qui rira le dernier #128521; Pour le reste notre marine est bien ou elle est a defendre notre littoral tout en gardant un oeil sur la mediterranee occidentale et alentours #128521; Nous parlons precisement de la Libye. Donc on tips a good in an, est les seul a s’investir strategiquement en Mediterranee? Alors soit on oil price term paper, est des joueurs de premiere ordre s’adonnant a des regles strategiques incroyable, ce qui participe ainsi a la croissance du pays, et a un meilleur budget militaire?… Soit on era essay, est un peu trop vaniteux, et on term, se la joue au dessus de nos moyens, la baisse de dotation en Fremm et sur d’autres materiels au compte-goute, nous rappellent cette realite tous les jours? Quatre autres points sont presentes ici aussi dans le sujet: Le petrole et le gaz; la posture vis-a-vis de l’OTAN et de nos partenaires, egalement de nos adversaires; le flux migratoire; et le terrorisme. Writing? Alors voyons si nous avons des contributeurs capable de developper une analyse affinee sur la question plutot vaste de: Quel vision strategique la France doit adopter dans le futur en Mediterranee? Vous avez 1 heure, PC, smartphones, et tablettes sont interdits.
Top chrono! Je suis assez surpris des conclusions concernant la marine italienne, dont les Fremm passent pour etre superieures aux batiments francais par exemple. Oil Price Hike Term? Zayus, puisque vous etes largement plus cale que moi sur le sujet, auriez vous quelques elements a partager a ce sujet ? J’imagine que l’absence de SNA et de PA pese dans la balance, mais la marine italienne est integralement dediee a la mediterranee, contrairement a la marine nationale, d’ou ma perplexite. En quoi les fremm italiennes seraient superieures ? Elles n’ont pas du tout les memes fonctions , les fregates francaises etant probablement les meilleurs batiments ASM du moment, disposant d’une autoprotection AA et de capacite anti-surfance et de feu a terre. Ce n’est pas tant le potentiel de la Marina Militare que la volonte politique italienne qui est ici jugee negativement. Globalement, la marine italienne reste celle avec le plus important potentiel base en Mediterranee, mais la 6e flotte US et la Marine Nationale presentent ponctuellement des capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR. Les Italiens comptent surtout sur les USA,ca leur permet de faire des economies,j’imagine.Voir avec Trump si ce sera la meme musique. Meme reaction. Gender Essays? De superbes fregates mais peu de savoir faire? Les anglais aussi sont etonnants.
Le probleme des italiens, ce ne sont pas leurs navires mais leur entrainement. Cela fait bien longtemps qu’ils n’ont pas fait une quelconque operation militaire avec leurs navires, et la capacite d’agir des equipages comme de l’etat-major ne peut s’en trouver qu’affaiblie. M’ouais, plus objectifs ces deux deputes ce serait sympa… Venir dire que les marines espagnoles et italiennes sont a la traine (et pire pour cette derniere, qu’elle a perdu certaines capacites strategiques) me fait gousser. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? Oui, les Espagnols ont des difficultes mais ils se maintiennent, tout comme les Italiens. Alors oui, il faut bien employer des moyens pour sauver les migrants vu le faible engagement europeen mais ce n’est en rien symptomatique d’une perte de qualite quand on elizabethan era essay topics, sait que la marine italienne (comme espagnole d’ailleurs) s’exercent particulierement pour maintenir ce savoir.
Quant a l’Allemagne, sa presence en Mediterraneen ne repond a aucun besoin strategique allemand. Oil Price Term Paper? Tout au plus, ils y envoient un navire ou deux de temps en temps…. Web 2.0 Essay? Apres oui, ces trois marines ne sont pas des va-t’en-guerre. Oil Price Hike? Deployer des navires pour aller frapper inefficacement en Syrie ne sert aucun objectif. Gender Inequality Essays? Il n’y a aucun gain reel : pas de vision strategique globale, on term paper, ne pourra pas intervenir avec les Turcs et Russes dans le coin (dans tous les cas) et se contenter de frapper (que ce soit 6000 ou 10000 sorties) ce qui n’aide en rien les objectifs initiaux. Traffic? Assad s’est consolide, le pays est detruit et restera un foyer terroriste pour pendant quelques annees encore…
Bref, ces deux deputes devraient se renseigner un peu plus et diminuer le dosage niveau condescendance. Oil Price Hike? #128578; Quand vous evoquez ce savoir , parlez-vous de celui de sauver les migrants #128578; ? Pour donner le change a vos visions egalitaristes europeistes, vous etes vraiment pret a raconter n’importe un peu tout et n’importe quoi sur un sujet que visiblement vous ne maitrisez pas… Je peux developper si vous me le demandez. Venant d’une personne qui a maintes fois demontre sa non comprehension de la politique exterieure, abstenez-vous. Il est de notoriete que la marine italienne maintient ses competences dans la lutte ASM et preserve ses capacites. Web 2.0 Essay? Elle n’a pas besoin de capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR parce qu’elle n’a pas droit (ni la volonte d’ailleurs) d’en posseder et que c’est une peninsule, litteralement un porte-avion en mer. Oil Price Hike Paper? De meme, elle n’a pas la ZEE francaise (dont le format de la MN est tres insuffisant pour une surveillance optimale, notamment en Nouvelle-Caledonie).
Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Inequality? Les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous en ocean indien. Oil Price? Nous ne fournissons plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012. Effective Essay? La classe San Gorgio qui se relais sur place pour assurer le commandement de l’operation. Oil Price Hike? Votre reponse Quand vous evoquez « ce savoir », parlez-vous de celui de « sauver les migrants » #128578; ? , votre manque de connaissance des operations des autres marines europeennes, demontre la meme condescendance que ces deux deputes. On parle d’une marine qui participe a pas mal d’operation Active Endeavour-Sea Guardian, CMF – Combined Maritime Forces en mer Rouge, Atalanta, Sophia, Ocean Shield (golfe somalien)), qui tient depuis des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour.
Alors oui, la marine italienne s’est un peu concentree sur la Libye et est active dans le sauvetage des migrants (ce qui doit faire peu plaisir au xenophobe que vous semblez etre) parce qu’il faut bien sauver des personnes en mer, peu importe la nationalite. Web 2.0 Essay? Par contre, pour quelles raisons devrait-elle se deployer pres de la Syrie ? Pour participer a des bombardements, gaspiller des munitions ? Quel a ete l’apport occidental au conflit ? Oui, on oil price paper, a elimine des terroristes…. Essay Jams? Mais l’on ne pourra jamais resoudre le probleme syrien militairement depuis l’arrivee des Russes qui ont consolide Assad. Oil Price Paper? Je vous l’ai deja dit plus d’une fois, il y a plusieurs mois d’ici et vous persistez a croire que nos operations de combat la-bas sont utiles alors que non. Essay? Meme d’anciens militaires francais, le colonel Goya par exemple, sont plus que perplexes. Le fait est simple : les italiens n’ont pas envie de s’engager en Syrie, l’intervention etant tout au plus illegale stricto sensu (contrairement a l’intervention russe), au mieux particulierement discutable sur le plan legal (et je peux le demontrer sur pied du droit international public, d’ailleurs la diplomatie francaise avait eu un conflit juridique a propos d’un terme dans le projet de resolution propose par les USA sur ce point). Oil Price Term Paper? Or, la Constitution italienne interdit a l’Italie l’usage de moyens de guerre de cette facon (raison pour laquelle l’Italie n’aide que l’Irak qui a effectue une telle demande d’assistance militaire au regard du droit international). …Venant d’une personne qui a maintes fois demontre sa non comprehension de la politique exterieure, abstenez-vous. Critically? Si tel etait le cas vous n’auriez pas developpe votre reponse apres un tel decret que vous seriez d’ailleurs incapable de demontrer #128578; … Alors essayez de rester correct car l’insulte est souvent synonyme d’une incapacite a argumenter revelant d’emblee votre posture defensive. …Il est de notoriete que la marine italienne maintient ses competences dans la lutte ASM et preserve ses capacites.
- Mais je n’ai jamais dit le contraire #128578; … …Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? - Avec plus qu’un seul navire de soutient a l’horizon 2020, la Marina Militare n’aura plus d’importantes capacites (temps et volume) pour se projeter en Ocean Indien et ne touchera que la partie Mediterraneenne du Moyen Orient … …Les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous en ocean indien. Web 2.0 Essay? Nous ne fournissons plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012. Term? - Alors la, quand vous me parlez de ma non comprehension de la politique exterieure je vous reponds que pour comprendre la politique exterieure il faut deja avoir les bonnes informations : La France est une des 3 nations cadre de l’EUNAVFOR ATALANTA avec l’Allemagne et l’Espagne, mais pas l’Italie. Web 2.0 Essay? Dommage #128578; ! Quant a dire les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous (les francais) en ocean indien . – 1 – vous ignorez tous les deploiements du GAN depuis 2002. – 2 – vous avez besoin d’un serieux rappel geo-strategique pour constater que la France est presente en Ocean Indien avec 2 DOM et avec 2 bases navales l’une a La Reunion et l’autre a Djibouti en plus de sa base aux EAU qui n’est accessible qu’a partir du Golfe Persique qui se trouve justement dans … dans … l’Ocean Indien, bingo #128521; ! – 3 – Demontrez-nous comment les marines italienne et espagnole font plus de missions en Ocean Indien que la Marine Nationale qui y est en permanence . Term? Allez, assumez vos propos mon vieux. Vous affirmez que la Marine Nationale ne fournit plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012.
– 1 – J’ai deja explique plus haut que la France est une des nations cadres de cette mission et que par consequent la presence de la Marine Nationale est permanente sur ATALANTE. Voici une presentation officielle d’ATALANTE par le site du MinDef : – La France participe a l’operation Atalante avec le deploiement permanent d’une fregate pendant toute la duree de l’operation et la participation ponctuelle d’un avion de patrouille maritime, ATL 2, base a Djibouti. La France propose egalement un soutien logistique a l’operation avec son dispositif prepositionne a Djibouti. On How To Write Essay In An Exam? Les pays participant a l’operation peuvent s’appuyer sur les infrastructures aeroportuaires de la base des FFDj (Forces francaises a Djibouti) qui fournit egalement un soutien sante avec un Role 3. Term Paper? Et comme vous etes une grande gueule incapable de demontrer ses propos ou d’y apporter une source, je vous renvoie a ce lien du site du MinDef: La classe San Gorgio qui se relais sur place pour assurer le commandement de l’operation. Topics? - La encore il s’agirait d’arreter de fumer la moquette ionisateur #128578; … Les 3 LPD classe San Giorgio ne se sont pas relayes sur ATALANTE, mais 2 de ces navires y ont opere sur deux periodes bien distinctes : le San Giorgio du 3 mai 2009 au 13 Aout, 2009 et. San Giusto du 26 Juillet 2012 au 16 Decembre 2012 … Maintenant, sans ne parler que des San Giorgio je peux au moins affirmer que d’aout a decembre 2009, d’avril a juillet 2010, de juin 2011 a avril 2012 et de decembre 2012 a juin 2013, la Marina Militare est absente d’ATALANTA… Je vous rappelle que seules les marines francaises espagnoles et allemandes y maintiennent une permanence en tant que nation cadre de l’operation. Hike Paper? C’est d’ailleurs pour ca que les espagnols ce sont aussi constitue un point d’appui a Djibouti. …On parle d’une marine qui participe a pas mal d’operation Active Endeavour-Sea Guardian, CMF – Combined Maritime Forces en mer Rouge, Atalanta, Sophia, Ocean Shield (golfe somalien)), qui tient depuis des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour. Gender Australia? - Je vous ai deja repondu au sujet d’ATALANTA et l’operation Ocean Shield n’en est que la version de l’OTAN sous commandement US.
- Les operations Sea Guardian (ex-Active Endeavour) de l’OTAN ainsi que Sophia ou EUNAVFOR MED de l’UE (dont l’Italie est la nation cadre et a laquelle participe egalement la France) sont inscrites dans le bassin mediterraneen et dans l’activite usuelle de la Marina Militare depuis 2002 pour la premiere et 2015 pour la seconde. Rien d’extraordinaire si vous comparez aux missions de la Marine Nationale plus lointaines. - Quant a des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour (..); je vous reponds en italien au sujet de Mare Aperto: … Dieci giorni di intense esercitazioni per hike term paper, gli equipaggi della Marina Militare, dal il Mar Tirreno e il Mar Jonio, le navi della Marina hanno ‘simulato’ situazioni da intervento tempestivo. On How A Good Essay? …Dix jours d’exercices intenses pour les equipages de la marine, de la mer Tyrrhenienne et la mer Ionienne, les navires de la marine ont «simule» par des situations d’intervention en temps opportun… Ce n’est rien d’autre qu’un exercice annuel de 10/15 jours de la Marina Militare #128578; ! Il est vraiment nul cet exemple #128578; … Par contre, pour quelles raisons devrait-elle se deployer pres de la Syrie ? Pour participer a des bombardements, gaspiller des munitions ? Quel a ete l’apport occidental au conflit ? Oui, on hike, a elimine des terroristes…. Web 2.0 Essay? – D’abord par la solidarite de l’Italie avec ses allies et notamment avec la France victime du terrorisme. – Ensuite les bombardements representent la principale source de destruction pour reduire le potentiel humain et materiel et donc de nuisance de daech et aussi appuyer les troupes autochtones qui le combattent au sol, sans donner le sentiment d’une ingerence (ou d’occupation) avec trop de troupes occidentales sur le terrain. Le fait que vous y voyez du gaspillage prouve que vous suivez rien de ces sujets en sous-entendant que la situation n’a pas evolue depuis septembre 2014…
– Daech est deja supplante en Libye, et est entrain de l’etre en Irak qui commence a entrevoir le 3e acte de la reconquete de Mossoul. …Mais l’on ne pourra jamais resoudre le probleme syrien militairement depuis l’arrivee des Russes qui ont consolide Assad. Oil Price Hike Term? Je vous l’ai deja dit plus d’une fois, il y a plusieurs mois d’ici et vous persistez a croire que nos operations de combat la-bas sont utiles alors que non. Inequality Australia? Meme d’anciens militaires francais, le colonel Goya par exemple, sont plus que perplexes. Oil Price Term? - Sachez que meme qu’en plus d’anciens, d’actuels militaires pensent le contraire de Michel Goya #128578; … Je vous rejoins sur un point sachant que j’ai toujours affirme sur ce site, que la Syrie ne connaitra pas la paix tant que Assad sera au pouvoir. Inequality Australia? Mais imprimez aussi qu’eliminer du potentiel ou des hommes de daech (notamment d’origine francaise), reste la priorite de raids francais en Syrie.
Je reste au passage impressionne de votre vision lointaine de ce sujet qui vous echappe completement… …Le fait est simple : les italiens n’ont pas envie de s’engager en Syrie, l’intervention etant tout au plus illegale stricto sensu (contrairement a l’intervention russe), au mieux particulierement discutable sur le plan legal (et je peux le demontrer sur pied du droit international public, d’ailleurs la diplomatie francaise avait eu un conflit juridique a propos d’un terme dans le projet de resolution propose par les USA sur ce point). Term Paper? Or, la Constitution italienne interdit a l’Italie l’usage de moyens de guerre de cette facon (raison pour laquelle l’Italie n’aide que l’Irak qui a effectue une telle demande d’assistance militaire au regard du droit international). Writing? Evitez-nous cette argumentation hypocrite au sujet de l’Italie qui comptait parmi les principales nations de l’OTAN ayant participe a Iraki Freedom en 2003. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? L’Italie soutenait et participait aussi aux operations en Libye en 2011… A moins que l’Italie ait change de constitution depuis 2011 #128578; … Quant a la notion de legalite d’une guerre stricto sensu comme vous dites, c’est une abstraction. Il y a un droit de la guerre regit par des conventions internationales entre armees qui possedent encore un canal diplomatique, mais il n’y a pas de guerre legale d’autant moins face a une force qui refuse tout dialogue tel que daech. Si a l’echelle du droit international et donc de l’ONU, vous evoquez la violation d’un etat souverain en Syrie, entendez que Assad ne s’est jamais oppose a la presence alliee en Syrie aupres de l’ONU. Effective Essay? C’est un fait. Entendez aussi que l’ONU reconnait a la France sa « legitime defense » pour agir sachant que l’operation a pour cadre legal l’article 51 des Nations unies qui stipule qu’un Etat peut intervenir s’il « est l’objet d’une agression armee » tels que les attentats de daech. Quid de la solidarite italienne ? Les attentats subis par la France et la Belgique ont-ils eu lieu en France et en Belgique ou en dans l’UE ? Vous etes le premier a nous reciter des mantra sur les avantages et les bienfaits d’une Armee Europeenne…
Mais vous etes aussi le premier a monter au creneau pour justifier la desolidarisation de l’Italie quand des membres de l’UE sont victimes du terrorisme. Voila je vous mets face a vos contradictions de soit-disant pro-Europe, pourtant adepte du chacun pour soit des qu’il y a du danger (dans le style d’ailleurs italien du commandant du Costa Concordia). Ceci apres vous avoir confronte plus haut a votre manque d’infos fiables, de sources et de precision sur des sujets que vous avez pourtant choisi d’aborder apres une introduction clairement insultante. J’aurai au moins ici demontre votre non comprehension de la politique exterieure due a ces manques auxquels on hike paper, peut ajouter le manque de references en droit international, culture militaire et geopolitique pour ne pas dire geographique (avec les base francaises de Djibouti, La Reunion et des EAU…). …(ce qui doit faire peu plaisir au xenophobe que vous semblez etre)… - Oui evidement comme tous ceux qui ne partage pas votre vision hypocrite de l’Union Europeenne… Alors permettez-moi de vous repondre que vous ne semblez pas etre, mais etes bien qu’un pauvre naze avec ses prejuges et sa morale hypocrite pour qui ceux qui ne partagent ses raisonnements pro-europeens ne sont fatalement que des xenophobes ; pour ne pas dire racistes, fascistes etc… …votre manque de connaissance des operations des autres marines europeennes, demontre la meme condescendance que ces deux deputes… - Si vous aviez lu mes nombreux commentaires sur ce site, vous auriez constate que j’ai toujours vante les choix, le format et le modele italien de la Marina Militare par rapports aux ambitions et moyens italiens ! Je suis d’ailleurs le seul de nous deux a designer la Marina Militare par son nom et ce detail revele plutot mon respect que la condescendance que vous me pretez. Quant a l’Armada Espanola, je n’aurai reproche que le programme S80 de Navantia et ses F80 aux capacites clairement insuffisantes. Constater comme le ferait n’importe qui en dehors ces deputes, que la Marine Nationale a des capacites clairement superieures a celles de toutes les autres marines europeennes de l’UE post-Brexit, est une evidence ou une realite objective qui ne saurait etre comparee a une vision subjective et condescendante. Seuls les abrutis nieront que la Marine Nationale est la plus importante de l’UE et d’Europe occidentale avec la Royal Navy.
Alors apres la xenophobie que vous me pretez et maintenant ma soit-disant condescendance sur la realite des marines europeennes, epargnez-moi vos proces d’intention, ionisateur le moralisateur bien-pensant. Entendez aussi que ce qui n’est pas legal n’est pas forcement illegal notamment dans un conflit qui implique une organisation terroriste dans un pays tiers tel que la Syrie qui ne s’est pas formellement opposee a l’intervention occidentale qui en fait un allie objectif face a deach. Donc meme en dehors des dispositions l’article 51 des Nations unies, l’intervention occidentale en Syrie n’est pas illegale dans la mesure ou nous sommes plutot ici confrontes a un vide juridique sur le plan du droit international. Deployer un porte-aeronefs a 1 milliard d’euros pour sauver des migrants, la ou un supply de moins de 50 millions fait le travail aussi bien, c’est juste de la com’, de la com’ et encore de la com’. En ce qui concerne la marine italienne, mes informations nuancent a la baisse la valeur supposee des fregates italiennes mais c’est du detail. Tips To Write In An? En revanche il faut bien constater que la plupart des menaces sur la France et l’Europe passent par la Mediterranee. Oil Price Hike Paper? Aujourd’hui comme hier il y a deux priorites strategiques pour nous:la mediterranee et nos diverses ZEE metropolitaines et d’outre-mer. Je suis tres etonne des conclusions de ce rapport etant donne le manque de moyen que rencontre la marine .Par ailleurs on essay, parle du format de 15 batiments de premier rang mais je crois qu’ils ne sont pas alle voir la realite sur le terrain.Entre nos FLF sous armee , nos FASM et FAA depasse , nos FREMM qui sont de bon batiments mais on oil price hike, en aura que 8! Et bien sur nos 2 FDA qui sont aussi de tres bon batiment. Web 2.0 Essay? Mais vous prenez aussi les FS et les avisos dont on oil price hike term, a enleve les exocets et les torpilles et aussi que nous avons pas assez de batiment logistique.Je ne veux pas denigrer notre marine ou la rabaisser mais j’aimerai juste qu’on soit plus realiste . Egalement je suis etonne de ce qui est dit sur la marine italienne sachant que quand ils auront acheve leur programme ils disposerons de plus de batiment de premier rang que nous…et leur fremm possede de meilleur senseurs. Ce que vous detaillez est vrai, mais la marine francaise dispose de plus de navires de soutient, de renseignement, avec un plus important potentiel de projection de nos 3 BPC, un PAN CATOBAR, 6 SNA et 4 SNLE qui representent une puissance plus importante que les marines d’Italie et d’Espagne reunies. Il est inquietant de voir certains marine occidentales perdre leurs capacites ASM.
Quand on elizabethan topics, voit qu’actuellement on oil price hike term, fait l’asm pour le royaume uni (aux alentours de l’ecosse)on peut se dire que l’on deja a franchit un cap…. oui le cap du fife ness. Faut etre realiste la-dessus, les sous-marin ont une tres longue avance sur l’ASM, a 500m de profondeur peu de chose peuvent etre detecter. Traffic? A pars des balise-radar positionnes ca et la, je ne vois pas trop de contre-mesure efficace en lutte ASM. C’est un peu vite oublier l’Italie quand meme. En plus d’enlever la defense du deficit, ce qui ne leurs coute rien, il faut les faire cracher au bassinet . La methode Trump pour l’OTAN : tous le monde participe a l’effort de Defense soit directement soit indirectement (en participant au budget commun) mais il ne peut plus y avoir de passager clandestin qui se repose uniquement sur les autres. Enfin bon il y aura toujours la suisse qui profitera des efforts de ses petits voisins #128521;
L’armada a surtout des capacites anti-aerienne (F80 et surtout F100, et peut-etre F110 si les coupes budgetaires arretent de saigner les achats de materiels) et de projection de troupes a courte/moyenne distance (Le BPE et 2 LPD). La capacite ASM a toujours ete en retrait, que ce soit avec de vieilles fregates ASM, ou avec des sous-marins de la classe Agosta qui connaissent tellement d’incidents du fait de leur age, qu’il valait mieux pour l’Armada les mette au rebut, plutot que de devoir remplir 60 cercueils. – 1 – Le choix de s’equiper de 5 fregates antiaeriennes F100 (qui restent des fregates reussies en tant que telles) est surdimensionne par rapport aux besoins de l’Armada Espanola et s’est fait sous l’influence politico-industrielle des USA qui equipent lesdites fregates. – 2 – Le remplacement du Principe de Asturias semble aujourd’hui abandonne… – 3 – Le BPE Juan Carlos 1er (qui est egalement une belle reussite) semble condamne a operer avec ses Matador jusqu’a l’horizon 2030… – 4 – Les 6 F80 a savoir des fregates classe Perry (de 1900 tpc) construites sous licence par Bazan de 1986 a 1994, presentent des capacites ASM limitees… – 5 – Les 4 Agosta qui trainent a etre remplaces a cause du fabuleux programme de Navantia S80: no comment… – 6 – Les LPD ou TCD classe Rotterdam/Galicia (de 14 000 tpc) gardent encore un potentiel tres interessant. « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens ».
Finalement l’Europe de La Defense va se faire: la France va maintenir toutes les composantes et competences rares et couteuses, les autres pays vont continuer a se desengager et faire de la figuration. Oil Price Hike? Et pour en arriver la on critically, aura l’accord de l’Europe pour … nous endetter. Term? Super. Web 2.0 Essay? On est vraiment devenu un continent de bisounours #128577; Tout raisonnement qui repose sur l’idee que l’UE exerce un imperium mou (de bisounours) ne correspond a aucune realite presente. (imperium: capacite d’un agent strategique a deformer son environnement en fonction de ses interets en exercant une hegemonie, en particulier en utilisant les outils du hard power) L’UE, justement elle, est un agent strategique qui, precisement, n’exerce pas d’imperium, contrairement aux Etats-Unis, a la Chine, la Russie ou Israel. Pour autant, ce renoncement a l’usage permanent de la violence, de la menace, de la retorsion armee, etc, qui est un truc de mec avec une arme a feu dans une main et une bible ou un petit livre rouge dans l’autre, ne signifie nullement que les Europeens soient des bisounours. Cependant, l’UE prend acte des changements de son environnement et envisage une evolution de sa nature strategique: elle se pose la question de savoir si elle va se doter ou non des instruments communs de l’imperium. Term? Parce que dans un monde de brutes, on tips exam, ne peut pas etre les seuls a effeuiller les marguerites. Ajoutons que cette interrogation de l’UE sur sa nature ne date pas d’hier et que les membres de l’UE se sont toujours refuses jusqu’a present a faire evoluer les pactes europeens vers une alliance militaire de nature defensive ou hegemonique, dans le cadre d’un processus brutal (genre point de bascule).
En revanche, on oil price hike paper, constate qu’il y a un processus d’evolution progressif (dans le genre step by on how a good in an exam step qui se prend les pieds dans le tapis). Mais en tout cas, penser l’UE comme un agent strategique a imperium mou est une erreur de raisonnement: il n’y en a tout simplement pas. Je n’arrive pas a comprendre comment nos deputes peuvent faire preuve d’une telle naivete confinant a l’irrealisme: « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens ». Term Paper? Et cela pourrait passer par une « neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Elizabethan Era Essay? » En effet ils omettent de preciser que les Europeens ne nous ont strictement rien demande, ni d’ailleurs mandate pour assurer la securite de l’ensemble des Europeens en mer mediterranee et ailleurs. Term? Et si le mot neocolonialisme n’a jamais ete prononce officiellement au moment de l’intervention francaise au Mali, soutenue a minima par nos partenaires europeens, certains a Berlin ou a Amsterdam l’ont sans doute pense tres fort… pas vrai, Angela ? Nos austeres amis du Nord n’accepteront donc jamais d’exclure nos depenses militaires du calcul du deficit, puisqu’ils estiment que la cigale francaise defend ses propres interets et non ceux de l’Europe en intervenant en Afrique, quand bien meme elle n’aurait que le mot Europe a la bouche. Com 150 Writing? En sautant comme des cabris, comme dirait l’autre.
On retrouve ici la vieille chimere des elites francaises envisageant l’Europe comme un demultiplicateur de puissance. Oil Price Hike Paper? Si c’etait deja difficile de l’imaginer il y a trente ans, comment cela serait-il possible aujourd’hui en demandant au passage une ristourne a l’UE afin de juguler artificiellement un deficit qui n’a evidemment rien a voir avec les depenses militaires ? (car la perversite de cette analyse est de lier deficit et depenses militaires tout en accusant hypocritement l’Europe d’entretenir notre niveau d’endettement…) Evidemment, les Allemands et les autres n’ont pas du tout la meme haute opinion de la contribution de la France a la defense europeenne , d’ailleurs je n’ai jamais entendu une quelconque declaration qui irait dans ce sens. Elizabethan Topics? Recemment, un ministre allemand a dit que la priorite pour l’Allemagne etait de determiner si elle devait rester coute que coute un partenaire proche des Americains, malgre les desaccords profonds avec la politique de Trump, ou si elle devait desormais s’emanciper et assumer une veritable politique de puissance a la mesure de son poids economique et de ses responsabilites en Europe. Oil Price Term Paper? Il n’etait pas question de la France (comme souvent a Berlin, sauf sur le mode de l’inquietude un rien condescendante). De leur point de vue, a tort ou a raison, peut-etre des deux, la France est un pays declinant sur le plan economique qui surjoue sa place sur la carte geopolitique de l’Europe et du monde et qui pretend parler haut au monde tout en etant incapable de faire regner l’ordre chez soi. Autant l’election de Trump va sans doute amener des reformes et de nouvelles perspectives de cooperation en matiere de defense europeenne, autant il ne faudrait pas croire que la donne va radicalement changer en Europe et que nos partenaires desarmes et desempares se tourneront a l’avenir vers la France pour assurer leur securite.
De maniere plus realiste, on critically essay, peut s’attendre a voir la plupart des pays europeens rehausser leur budget de defense afin de negocier avec Trump le maintien de l’OTAN comme outil principal de la defense europeenne, ou la France a ni plus ni moins a tenir sa place. Je suis bien evidemment pour l’augmentation des credits de defense et une politique volontariste en la matiere mais cela doit etre fait au nom de la defense assumee de nos interets, meme si ce nous est devenu une ambition impossible a porter pour la classe politique francaise, presque un gros mot. Hike? Toute autre politique risque de se terminer par une nouvelle desillusion sur ce qu’est l’Europe, et pire, par un nouveau desaveu pour les elites francaises. En tout cas, toute attente excessive de notre part sur le plan europeen, avec des arguments vachement diplomatiques du genre on essay, est les meilleurs, on oil price term paper, est les seuls a savoir tout faire a part les Americains sera interpretee par nos allies europeens comme une forme de pretention. La marine italienne fin 2017 ce sera: – 1 navire de soutien (de 13 400 tpc) + – 2 BRE (de 9100 tpc desarmes en 2018 et 2020…) + – 2 Orrizonte (7050 tpc) + – 6 FREMM (+4 en 2021 de 6700 tpc) + – 4 sous-marins cotiers AIP (de 1850 tonnes en plongee) et. – 3 sous-marins cotiers (desarmes en 2018/20 et 2022, de 1670 tep …)
La marine italienne ne joue clairement pas dans la meme categorie que l’Armada Espanola… Mais ce n’est pas tant le potentiel italien qui est ici decrie que la politique italienne qui reste en retrait sur le plan des operations militaires. Il reste aussi une des 4 fregates de 2nd rang classe Lupo dites Soldati du concept fregate-patrouilleur de 2525 tpc… Notons que si le budget de l’etat italien le permet (ce qui reste a demontrer…), la Marina Militare ambitionne un important LHD de 33 000 tpc + et 7 PPA finances (+ 3 en options) de 4500 tonnes sur une programmation qui en ambitionne 16 a l’horizon 2035… Mais avec un seul navire de soutient, on inequality essays, constate que la Marina Militare n’ambitionne pas trop de projections en dehors de la Mare Nostrum romaine ou Mediterranee. Elle n’a pas besoin de capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR parce qu’elle n’a pas droit (ni la volonte d’ailleurs) d’en posseder et que c’est une peninsule, litteralement un porte-avion en mer. Oil Price Hike Paper? De meme, elle n’a pas la ZEE francaise (dont le format de la MN est tres insuffisant pour une surveillance optimale, notamment en Nouvelle-Caledonie). Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Enfin, la politique italienne comme je l’ai dit maintes fois est bien moins interventionniste, leur Constitution restreint egalement la participation a des conflits sans mandats (meme en Irak, les Italiens n’ont deployes leurs premiers elements que quelques mois avant le vote de la resolution 1511, et le reste apres) de l’ONU (que ce soit dans le cadre de mission OTAN/EU). Web 2.0 Essay? Enfin, la population italienne est globalement hostile a l’usage des moyens militaires. Oil Price Hike Term Paper? Mais le role de la MM est de tenir la Mediterranee et d’agir au besoin au Moyen-Orient-Ocean indien.
Elle n’a aucun interet a agir dans le pacifique, d’aller faire coucou aux Chinois. Par rapport aux objectifs, la MM est tout a fait capable et a exactement la volonte politique necessaire. Com 150 Essay? Par rapport a sa ZEE, elle a un format plus que suffisant. Oil Price Paper? Et comme je l’ai dit maintes fois, elle a participe a a peu pres toutes les operations OTAN et toutes les operations UE. Australia Essays? Elle maintient ses capacites ASM. Quant aux SNA, SNLE, PA, ca ne leur sert STRICTEMENT pas. Hike Paper? En revanche, la MN a un format tres inferieure pour une couverture optimale de sa ZEE. On How A Good? Bien avant un GAN-2 (qui est necessaire, clairement), il faudrait serieusement investir dans le nombre de navires de surface pour couvrir le reste de la ZEE…. Mais en dehors d’un manque de navires de soutien et de volonte politique sur des operations militaires, comme le souligne d’ailleurs ce rapport, je ne critique pas les moyens de la marine italienne pour ce qu’ils sont ni meme par rapport a ceux de la Marine Nationale.
L’evocation des SNLE, SNA, moyens de projections et PAN n’etait que pour differencier objectivement les capacites francaises de celles de l’Italie. Rappelez vous de l eventuelle intervention en Libye: L Italie voulait tout de meme etre au premier rang. L’Italie reclamait effectivement le role de nation cadre pour diriger une telle intervention en Libye a l’echelle de l’OTAN. Je ne crois pas un instant a un desengagement americain de la Mediterranee. Oil Price Hike Paper? Il y a au contraire une montee en puissance depuis des mois, et les USA, d’un bout a l’autre de la Mediterranee sont presents massivement, notamment sur le plan aerien et naval. Consider Essay? Cela commence par le sud de l’Espagne, la base de Moron pres de Seville mais surtout Rota… ca se poursuit en Sicile avec Sigonella, puis en Italie avec Naples et plus au nord la base aerienne d’Aviano… plus loin il y a Chypre et la Crete avec des detachements et des escales continus, et puis plus loin, la base majeure d Incirlik pres d’Adana. Hike Term Paper? Il y a donc une succession de bases majeures, qui voient defiler un ballet quotidien des materiels les plus sophistiques des USA, depuis les avions espions U2, les Global Hawk, les avions de patrouille maritime P8 Poseidon, les avions de reconnaissance electronique, et plus recemment une noria d’avions legers des forces speciales, qui tous operent sur la Mediterranee et son pourtour, sans oublier les facilites d’escale en Tunisie notamment, et a Marseille pour les porte-avions US.. Elizabethan? il y a des interets vitaux americains, qui sont invariables, ainsi qu’une doctrine qui restera invariable. Oil Price Paper? La Mediterranee, plus que jamais, en fera partie, d’autant plus qu’un nouvel axe se developpe, entre l’Allemagne, centre du commandement pour l’Afrique, et tout le Sahel et meme au-dela..
Donc deux deputes franco-francais disent que la France est bien mieux barree cote naval que ses homologues, et que ce serait bien d’avoir plus de Barracuda pour couler les bateaux de passeurs, et sortir l’ardoise du deficit des 3% (allez dire ca a nos creanciers). Australia Essays? Une fois de plus, l’oiseau qui chante les deux pieds dans la merde et faisant la morale a l’UE est bien le coq Gaulois. Oil Price Hike? Et puis, ca a tellement bien marche la diplomatie de la canonniere en Libye (et donc au Mali), en Afghanistan etc. Tips On How Exam? Daech tremble devant nos FREMM, notre PA et nos SNLE pendant que la marine de tous les jours est coupee branche par branche, que les douanes s’enfoncent faute de moyens acquis correctement (cf dernier rapport de la cours des comptes) et que les trafics proliferent et financent la terreur et la traite d’humains. Hike Paper? Continuons comme ca, ne changeons rien puisque ca ne marche pas, faisons meme plus ce que nous savons faire a defaut de savoir quoi faire. Tips A Good Essay Exam? Plus d’exocets, de fregates de premier rang, de MDCN pour punir Bachar et ses armes chimiques, de Rafale, et de sous pour Thales, DCNS, Airbus et Dassault.
Le CAC 40 vous le rendra bien ! Votre commentaire demontre que vous n’avez rien suivi ou capte de la programmation navale de ces 5 dernieres annees voulue par JYLD. Entendez aussi que contrairement aux patrouilleurs des douanes qui ne relevent pas du ministere et du budget de la Defense (mais cet aspect est peut trop subtile pour ceux qui se complaisent dans la confusion…); le PA et ses Rafale avec indirectement les FREMM et tout autre navire du GAN qui les accompagnent, comptent au moins des centaines daechiens butes dans leurs chiottes comme dit l’autre. Et daech recule aussi bien en Irak qu’en Syrie grace entre autres aux raids de l’Aeronavale. Quant aux MdCN laissez-leur le temps d’etre operationnels avant de les critiquer sans perdre de vue que les SNLE constituent la principale composante de notre dissuasion nucleaire qui un des piliers fondamentaux de notre defense. Une dette reste une dette.
Et que ceux qui pensent qu’on pourra ne pas la payer se renseignent sur ce qui s’est passe pour la dette impayee de l’Argentine (indices: fonnds vautours US + justice US + ..gouvermement US). De plus, le niveau de deficit de 3% est un chiffre prqtiquement arbitraire choisi sans aucun calcul ni methode lors d’un diner des chefs d’etats. Oil Price Hike Term? Il correspondait au taux de croissance moyen de l’Europe a l’epoque. A Good Exam? Ce qui voulait dire que la dette de 3% etait facilemetn compensee par la croissance annuelle et l’inflation. Depuis la croissance et l’inflation sont autour de 1-1,5%. Oil Price Hike Paper? Le niveau de deficit annuel devrait donc etre de maximum 1-1.5%. Mais bon ce n’st pas comme si c’etait le seul probleme pour l’Europe (futur nain demographique entoure de zones debordants de jeunes) Quand la France assume seule la defense de l’UE, cette derniere pourrait prendre en charge une partie du remboursement de la dette francaise au nom de la solidarite europeenne. Haha. Gender? Tres amusant #128578; C’est en tout cas ce que propose concretement une partie de la classe politique francaise #128521; … Quelle defense de l’UE ? Vous avez des textes officiels, des decrets, des declarations solennelles de la part de la Commission, des Allemands, des Neerlandais, des Polonais et des autres assignant a la France la charge de proteger l’Union ou lui reconnaissant meme implicitement ce role ? Plutot que de rester arcboute sur ces aspect formels de l’UE justifiant cette mauvaise foi europeenne que vous relayez, observez simplement la realite des engagements francais qui profitent directement a la defense de l’UE, meme si celle-ci est quasiment inexistante sur le plan militaire.
Et si vous cessiez de vivre dans la fiction juridique pour revenir dans la realite du monde? Voila ce que dit le rapport parlementaire sur l’Italie (page 30): La Marina militare dispose de presque tout le spectre des capacites navales avec 27 batiments de premier rang dont des fregates de defense aerienne, des FREMM – avec trois unites supplementaires prevues entre 2016 et 2018 –, des batiments amphibies, deux porte-aeronefs et huit sous-marins classiques. Toutefois, force est de constater que sa capacite operationnelle s’est degradee (en matiere de lutte ASM notamment) et qu’elle se trouve depuis plusieurs annees engagee a titre exclusif dans la gestion de la crise migratoire – ce qui explique egalement cette perte de capacite. Hike Term? De fait, on to write, pourrait dire que la marine s’est « demilitarisee » au profit de simples operations de surveillance et de search rescue (SAR – recherche et sauvetage). Oil Price? Donc: engagement exclusif dans le gestion de la crise migratoire = degradation de la capacite operationnelle. Pas plus d’explications. Pour parvenir a cette conclusion, quelles sources les deux parlementaire ont-ils interrogees?
Lors d’un deplacement a Rome les 6 et 7 juin 2016, ont ete entendus (page 90): – l’ambassadeur de France et ses attaches militaires ainsi qu’un conseiller. – des membres de l’etat-major de l’operation Sophia (vice et contre amiraux, colonel et Lt Cl) – des membres de l’etat-major de la marine italienne (vice amiral d’escadre et capitaine de vaisseau. – des parlementaires (president et vice-president de la commission defense) On peut supposer que ces sources sont bien informees de la situation de la marine italienne, mais le rapport ne documente pas les elements qui permettent aux deux parlementaires de parvenir a la conclusion selon laquelle cette marine a des capacites operationnelles degradees. L’information capacites operationnelles degradees est une information a la fois sensible et complexe, ce qui peut expliquer ce flou (les auteurs du rapports ont peut-etre souhaite ne pas detailler les confidences qu’ils ont recueillies, afin de ne pas mettre leurs interlocuteurs en difficulte). Toujours est-il que ce rapport est davantage une ode a la Marine Nationale qu’un avis de deces de la Marina militare. Gender Inequality? L’evaluation documentee des capacites operationnelles italiennes est donc annexe.
Comme je le dis plus haut @Waermuk: Ce n’est pas tant le potentiel de la Marina Militare que le manque de volonte politique italienne a s’engager sur des operations militaires, qui est ici jugee negativement. Globalement, la marine italienne reste celle avec le plus important potentiel base en Mediterranee, mais la 6e flotte US et la Marine Nationale presentent ponctuellement des capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR. J’ajoute aussi des capacites de projection et de soutient en mer limitees de la Marina Militare, mais suffisantes a l’echelle de la Mediterranee. Vous faites bien de detailler les 27 batiments de premier rang a ne pas confondre avec la notion de fregate de 1er rang; la Marina Militare alignant 14 fregates de 1er rang dont notamment 6 FREMM et 2 Orriezonte en 2017. Je n’ai aucun moyen d’evaluer les capacites operationnelles de la marine italienne et j’ignore si elles se degradent ou non. A la lecture du rapport, je constate que les deux parlementaires ont elimine la marine italienne en deux-trois coups de cuiller a pot, sans particulierement s’expliquer sur les raisons precises qui leur permettaient de le faire. Et ils ont egalement applique cette methode a l’ensemble des marines riveraines ou presentes en Mediterranee, si bien qu’a la fin de leur raisonnement, ils se sont trouves tout etonnes de constater que la Marine Nationale etait la premiere du monde, raison pour laquelle ils ont sans doute ressenti le besoin de preciser que leur raisonnement n’avait rien d’arrogant ou de condescendant . Et ils ont raison: ce raisonnement n’est pas arrogant ou condescendant, il est stupide.
Mais ca, c’est pour la methode. Term? Sur le fond, j’ignore si leur constat est exact ou non. Traffic Jams? Tout ce que je sais, c’est qu’en general, quand la methode est deconnante les constats sont errones. Contrairement a celles de l’Armada Espanola, les capacites de la Marina Militare ne se degradent, bien au contraire elles augmentent, sauf sur le plan des projections longues et lointaines. Cependant, sans condescendance les uns ou les autres auront beau retourner le probleme dans tous les sens: la Marine Nationale conserve des capacites autrement plus importantes qui echappent a toutes les marines de l’UE. Les capacites de al Marine italiennes augmentent sur le plan materiel mais stagnent sur le plan de l’entrainement. Hike Term? Pourquoi? par manque de volonte politique de realiser des missions ou des entrainement a la guerre.
Or une armee, ce sont des hommes se servant d’armes, et l’un ne peut aller sans l’autre. Comme d’habitude, et en resume, nous sommes les meilleurs, les plus beaux, les plus forts et nos voisins sont des gens de petites tailles a la verticalite contrariee. Compte tenu de notre visibilite episodique dans notre Z.E.E. Critically Consider Essay? je ne doute pas que les pays riverains doivent penser la meme chose de notre Marine, c’est a dire hors jeu ! Avant d’intervenir, prenez au moins le temps de lire l’article et constatez qu’il s’agit de forces rapportees a la Mediterranee, pas a la constellation de territoires qui constitue la ZEE francaise. Je vous rassure, j’ai tres bien lu l’article, je fais simplement une comparaison. Un chien est un lion dans sa rue ! Ce que l’on critique, ce n’est pas tant l’objectivite de certains constats que la posture prise par les autorites francaises. Hike Paper? Tout le monde d’ailleurs reconnait le professionnalisme et l’efficacite de l’armee francaise compte tenu de son financement. Topics? Le probleme est politique, les autres pays europeens, a la suite de l’Allemagne, ne nous jugent pas credibles pour un certain nombre de raisons qui peuvent d’ailleurs se discuter. Hike Term? Ils analysent avec circonspection (c’est le moins que l’on puisse dire) les embardees belliqueuses de notre politique etrangere, notamment en Libye et meme au Mali, ou notre intervention etait pourtant legitime. Essay Jams? Et ils ne veulent en aucune facon y etre associes politiquement. Term Paper? Vous voyez les Allemands cofinancer notre marine en Mediterranee alors que le president francais a le pouvoir de declencher a lui-seul une intervention armee en Afrique, ce que le Bundestag ne pourra jamais accepter puisque cela va a l’encontre de la constitution allemande ? Il faut arreter de rever et d’etre chimerique comme le dit Vedrine. En outre quand Obama a fait volte-face sur la Syrie, ca s’est quand meme beaucoup vu que l’armee francaise, tout comme l’armee anglaise d’ailleurs, etait en realite dependante des USA.
Des lors, la posture qui consiste a nous presenter comme un peacekeeper a l’echelle europeenne ne peut que rencontrer les objections polies mais fermes des autres pays europeens, puisqu’en depit de la dissuasion nucleaire, de notre marine, et de la preservation (provisoire ?) de note outil capacitaire, nous sommes en realite presque loges a la meme enseigne que les autres pays europeens. Il y a aujourd’hui un decalage objectif entre le statut de la France et sa puissance economique et geopolitique. Topics? Soit nous trouvons les ressources en interne pour combler ce hiatus, quitte a assumer plus franchement la defense de nos interets nationaux et le rapport de force qu’elle implique avec certains partenaires, soit nous acceptons de devenir une puissance moyenne europeenne parmi d’autres. Mais en tout etat de cause il est totalement hypocrite de nous presenter comme l’aile armee de l’UE et de le revendiquer bruyamment en devalorisant nos partenaires et en reclamant une participation financiere de l’Europe sans avoir au prealable retabli nos comptes. Comme je l’ai explique plus haut, la theorie du demultiplicateur de puissance a vecu. Oil Price Term? L’Europe, telle qu’elle existe aujourd’hui, dans un format neo-federaliste et communautaire, a ete construite dans le but d’empecher la constitution d’un pole de puissance armee autonome des Etats-Unis, il faut quand meme le rappeler. To Write Exam? On peut le deplorer, on hike term, peut soupirer en revant a l’Europe puissance et en agitant la chimere d’une defense continentale pilotee par les Francais, mais ca n’arrivera jamais, a moins de refonder totalement l’UE, ce qui a tres peu de chances de se produire. Les Francais ne savent pas ce qu’ils veulent ni qui ils sont.
Soit nous acceptons la regle du jeu europeenne en cessant de nous auto-caricaturer en gaulois revendicatifs, soit nous retrouvons la mesure et le controle de nous-meme en defendant nos interets, aujourd’hui mis a mal presque partout. …Vous voyez les Allemands cofinancer notre marine en Mediterranee alors que le president francais a le pouvoir de declencher a lui-seul une intervention armee en Afrique, ce que le Bundestag ne pourra jamais accepter puisque cela va a l’encontre de la constitution allemande ? - Mais il ne s’agit pas de ca, meme quand on consider, demande plus de souplesse pour les budgets militaires vis-a-vis de la regle des 3% de deficit justement imposee par les allemands (sans A majuscule pour un nom commun) a tous leurs partenaires europeens… …En outre quand Obama a fait volte-face sur la Syrie, ca s’est quand meme beaucoup vu que l’armee francaise, tout comme l’armee anglaise d’ailleurs, etait en realite dependante des USA. Hike Paper? - Ce n’est pas Obama qui a fait volteface mais bien le parlement britannique qui aura influence Obama sur projet d’operation interalliee que la France n’aurait pas pu assumer seule en dehors d’entrer dans une guerre totale contre la Syrie. …Des lors, la posture qui consiste a nous presenter comme un peacekeeper a l’echelle europeenne ne peut que rencontrer les objections polies mais fermes des autres pays europeens, puisqu’en depit de la dissuasion nucleaire, de notre marine, et de la preservation (provisoire ?) de note outil capacitaire, nous sommes en realite presque loges a la meme enseigne que les autres pays europeens…. Elizabethan? - Mais ou etiez-vous au cours de ces 20 dernieres annees ? Toutes les operations francaises depuis 20 ans vous contredisent si vous faites le detail. La France etait une des 2 nations cadre avec le RU lors des operations de 2011 en Libye.
La meme annee 2011, la France assurait egalement la stabilite politique de la RCI qui entrait dans un sanglant conflit ethnique… Ce constat qui est egalement valable au Mali ou suite aux belges, espagnols et neerlandais les allemands deploient aujourd’hui une force de 1000 hommes dans les traces d’une operation declenchee en 2013 par la France #128578; ! …Il y a aujourd’hui un decalage objectif entre le statut de la France et sa puissance economique et geopolitique. Paper? - La France est clairement la seconde puissance economique de l’Europe et s’il y a un decalage de puissance militaire avec puissance economique cela concerne particulierement l’Allemagne qui n’investi pas a la hauteur de ses moyens dans sa defense… …Mais en tout etat de cause il est totalement hypocrite de nous presenter comme l’aile armee de l’UE et de le revendiquer bruyamment en devalorisant nos partenaires et en reclamant une participation financiere de l’Europe sans avoir au prealable retabli nos comptes. Essay Traffic? - Mais pourquoi niez-vous cette realite ? Les faits sont tenaces et face a des partenaires souvent en retrait du fait d’une reel manque de volonte seulement politique, la France reste le principal etat europeen engage dans la lutte contre jihadisme qui vise l’UE. Quant a retablir nos comptes regardez plutot le niveau d’endettement de la premiere puissance militaire mondiale… … L’Europe, telle qu’elle existe aujourd’hui, dans un format neo-federaliste et communautaire, a ete construite dans le but d’empecher la constitution d’un pole de puissance armee autonome des Etats-Unis, - Vous confondez avec l’OTAN. … la chimere d’une defense continentale pilotee par les Francais, mais ca n’arrivera jamais, a moins de refonder totalement l’UE, ce qui a tres peu de chances de se produire.
- Ce n’est pas mon propos que vous caricaturez, je n’ai jamais evoque ces aspects d’un tel positionnement de la France sur le plan institutionnel de l’UE, mais dans les faits au regard de ces 27 dernieres d’interventions post-guerre froide. …Les Francais ne savent pas ce qu’ils veulent ni qui ils sont. Oil Price Hike Paper? Soit nous acceptons la regle du jeu europeenne en cessant de nous auto-caricaturer en gaulois revendicatifs, soit nous retrouvons la mesure et le controle de nous-meme en defendant nos interets, aujourd’hui mis a mal presque partout. Critically Consider? - C’est ca, continuez a prendre les francais pour de sombres cons dont soit-disant vous savez mieux qu’eux qui ils sont . J’ai ete accuse par @ionisateur de condescendance vis-a-vis des marines europeennes, mais que dire d’une telle diatribe qui est la votre a l’egard des francais ? Je ne vous repondais pas a titre personnel et en tout cas je n’ai pas cherche a vous invectiver, ni a prendre les Francais pour de sombres cons donc je n’entrerai pas dans ce genre d’echanges d’amabilites. Je suis en desaccord avec vos analyses qui reposent a mon avis sur une analyse trop pointilliste de la realite afin d’en effacer l’image d’ensemble, qui est beaucoup moins flatteuse pour la place de notre pays en Europe.
Je n’ai pas critique le fait d’avoir des ambitions pour la France, j’ai remis en cause une posture des autorites francaises concernant l’Europe de la defense. Term Paper? Si vous avez des elements tangibles tendant a demontrer que l’Allemagne ou d’autres pays reconnaissent a la France un leadership ou meme un potentiel leadership en matiere militaire en Europe, et que la Commission (qui reflete pour l’essentiel la position allemande) est prete a renegocier sur cette base les 3% de deficit, donnez-les moi et je reconnaitrai sans aucune difficulte mon erreur d’analyse. Web 2.0 Essay? D’ailleurs, je vous rappelle que cette regle des 3% a ete fixee par les Francais a l’origine. Je ne delivre pas seulement mon humeur, je reprends des elements contextuels fournis par des gens comme Hubert Vedrine qui est le premier a fustiger la dimension chimerique (j’ai repris son expression) de notre politique etrangere, mais je suppose que c’est un guignol a vos yeux… Je lis egalement des blogs pro-europeens comme celui de Jean Quatremer (correspondant a Bruxelles de Libe) ou encore le site bruxelles.eu qui aborde frequemment les questions de defense d’un point de vue europeen. Term? Qualifiant notamment la France de coureur dope sur le plan militaire: 3e mythe : « l’armee francaise, la meilleure d’Europe » (le coureur dope)
C’est un sentiment tres clairement exprime aujourd’hui dans l’hexagone. On How? Certes l’armee francaise, a une capacite notable, une chaine de commandement efficace et un effet de taille que peu de pays reunissent. Hike Term Paper? Ses reussites sont enviees. Web 2.0 Essay? Mais la fibre patriotique, utile, obscurcit aujourd’hui la realite. Oil Price? La France semble aujourd’hui illusionnee, ensorcelee par ses « victoires » au Sahel ou en Centrafrique, comme l’a ete hier le Royaume-Uni. Era Essay? Nous sommes plus proches du dopage que de la course de fond. Hike? L’armee francaise est au bout de ses capacites. Essay Traffic Jams? Et meme si on oil price term, augmente un peu ses capacites, c’est le budget public qui ne pourra supporter, tout seul, un effort intense sur une duree aussi longue. Era Essay? Ces sites ne font pas mystere que l’influence francaise n’a cesse de reculer en Europe depuis au moins les dix dernieres annees. Oil Price? Les Francais voyant l’Europe de maniere completement abstraite, ils n’en ont pas vraiment conscience et leurs politiques leur mentent ouvertement sur le statut de la France en Europe. Critically? Qu’a dit et fait Hollande depuis 5 ans en Europe ? Il s’etait engage a remettre en cause le traite budgetaire, a relancer l’investissement en Europe, rien de tout cela ne s’est produit car les Allemands ont a chaque fois mis en pieces les propositions francaises.
J’utilise sans doute des mots deplaisants, mais c’est la realite. Quatremer et d’autres n’hesitent pas a dire que les Francais n’ont aucune credibilite' aux yeux des instances europeennes, en raison de notre endettement, du manque de reformes, de la tendance de nos politiques a se defausser sur l’Europe de tout ce qui va mal en France. Term? Ce n’est nullement du masochisme complaisant ni une invention de ma part. Web 2.0 Essay? Et je ne dis pas que je partage ce point de vue, je croyais avoir ete clair sur ce point. Hike? Le vocabulaire utilise par nos deputes traduit d’ailleurs ce desarroi: « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens » Et les 1000 soldats allemands deployes recemment au Mali n’efface pas les tergiversations de Merkel et la tendance lourde de la politique etrangere allemande, qui oscille pour le moment entre un maintien coute que coute de l’OTAN (et donc de la relation transatlantique) et le retour a une politique de puissance assumee qui est clairement dans l’air meme s’il y a encore des verrous psychologiques et symboliques a faire sauter. Web 2.0 Essay? Si l’Allemagne met 2% de son PIB dans la defense, elle deviendra de facto le leader continental, quelle que soit l’expertise operationnelle (reconnue) des Francais.
Le probleme, c’est que nous entretenons une puissance militaire qui ne parait plus correspondre a notre poids economique et politique. Term Paper? C’est ce qui explique du reste la volonte d’une partie des elites francaises de rompre avec la doctrine de la dissuasion. Traffic Jams? Certains voulaient meme ramener le budget de la defense a 1% du PIB, et pas seulement au motif de faire des economies. Term Paper? L’inenarrable Herve Morin, ministre de la Defense sous Sarkozy, critiquait le surdimensionnement de notre outil de defense, trouvait le Rafale trop cher , trop sophistique , voulait reduire l’armee francaise a quelques unites d’elite vouees a intervenir exclusivement dans le cadre de l’OTAN. Tips On How To Write A Good Essay In An Exam? Est-ce que vous refutez tous ces elements ? Avez-vous deja entendu un ministre de la defense en activite se plaindre publiquement que son pays produisait des armes trop sophistiquees ? Il me parait donc difficile dans ces conditions de nous eriger en donneurs de lecons et de revendiquer un leadership que personne ne nous reconnait pour le moment. Cela ne fait pas de moi un mauvais patriote, mais le patriotisme ne doit pas consister a s’aveugler sur soi-meme ou a ne pas vouloir tenir compte des difficultes.
En tout cas la sousmarinade britannique semble avoir de gros pbs!
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About KAR Convention / be part of what everyone is talking about. The KAR Dance Convention offers dancers a one-day workshop in Jazz, Tap, Lyrical, Hip Hop, and Musical Theater taught by some of the best teachers in the country! Our diverse group of Master Teachers provides students with the opportunity to learn and hike term paper, grow in a nurturing, high-energy environment. Embassy Suites Frisco. 7600 John Q Hammons Drive. Frisco, TX 75034. Memphis Convention Center.
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Donna's students, Pauline Mata and Jordan Casanova have been featured as one of the top 20 finalists on the hit Fox TV show So You Think You Can Dance and Jordan has also toured in term paper the 1st National company of Wicked The Musical. Well known and sought out web 2.0 essay master teacher, Donna's unique style, training methods and upbeat energy excites dancers to learn, strive to hike term paper be the best they can be and elizabethan era essay topics, leave class motivated. Term? Donna's choreography has been winning numerous regional overalls, national titles and has received multiple nominations in gender essays the 'Industry Dance Awards'. Donna had the pleasure of being the assistant choreographer for the 1st National Tour of Finding Neverland, working under Mia Michaels. Erika Goe is a native of Riverside, California, and has been dancing since the age of hike term four. Her 27 years of era essay topics dance experience began at Just Plain Dancin’ of Riverside, where she trained for oil price hike, 12 years and then onto Riverside Ballet Arts, West Coast School of the Arts Irvine, EDGE Performing Arts Center of consider essay Hollywood, and Riverside Community College. Erika's dance training includes ballet, tap, jazz, lyrical, and some modern. Teaching dance is Erika’s true passion, and oil price hike paper, she has been teaching and choreographing for over fifteen years in and around the Inland Empire. Her work has been seen at California Dancer, Riverside Ballet Arts, University Dance Company of CSUSB, A.B. Miller High School, John W. North High School, Martin Luther King High School, Cope Middle School, Cal State Fullerton, Dance Horizons, Chaffey Community College, Riverside City College, Arlington High School, Elevate Dance Fitness, and tips on how to write a good essay, Kristi’s Forever Dancin’. Oil Price Paper? Erika continues to work as a part-time faculty member at web 2.0 essay Riverside City College where she instructs beginning to advanced level jazz classes as well as Dance 6 within the hike, dance department.
Erika Goe graduated with her Bachelors of Arts in Psychology May 2005 and her MS in Educational Counseling October 2011. Faliceano Keith Turk was brought into essay jams the world of entertainment at the early age of 8, with Ringling Bros. Barnum Bailey Circus. Faliceano learned most of his hip-hop skills and his dance technique as well as his Vibrant character which he displays from oil price paper, life’s courses of ups and downs. His hard hitting energetic style is what keeps his kids at the top of LA’s lists in all major competitions, shows, and projects far and wide. Partnered along with wife Summer Turk they have created the name K.A.S.T.(Keith and Summer Turk) Academy of the Arts that has taken a multitude of on how to write essay in an 1st place, top 1st, highest in oil price term categories, and countless title awards. KAST is a leading entertainment academy that has been featured on many shows and inequality essays, television competitions recently. The academy is known for its high turnover rate of successful athletes and dancers. Faliceano's choreography can now be seen on shows such as Ellen, and So You Think You Can Dance New generation!!
His training has led students to dance for P.diddy, Bet awards, Target commercials, AGT, and oil price term, Disney. With a dancers career success rate at 90.4 % this studio brings the best out of consider essay students that travel distances for their training. From choreographing a Bollywood bhangra for artist Sukshindar Shinda from India, to landing a nationwide commercial along side of good friend D-trix ABDC/(quest Crew) he has also grabbed the hike term, attention of directors to score a part in the award winning broadway musical WICKED. Meeting with and web 2.0 essay, auditioning for artist such as Mariah Carey, Rihanna, Missy Elliott, Madonna, Faliceano continues to oil price hike push his students to web 2.0 essay the L.A. level to land jobs and gain knowledge of hike term their future industry. Critically Essay? Faliceano says Dance with no limits, leave the floor buzzing with your name on it.” Dance Styles include: Hip-Hop, Jazz, African dance, and Lyrical. Jessica has been dancing since the oil price hike, age of 8 and elizabethan era essay, has trained in all genres of dance, making her a versatile teacher and choreographer.
She trained with many studios dance companies before settling into the world of teaching. Jessica currently owns directs her own studio and dance company in Maryland, where her students are national champion competitors and performers. She has been a featured performer at hike term the Eichelberger Performing Arts Center in gender inequality australia essays Hanover, PA, and she has participated in several events to honor National Dance Week. She was awarded with the oil price term, Frank Hatchett Broadway Dance Center Scholarship along with the Los Angeles Dance Force, Dance with the Force Award. Jessica was also named the American Dance Awards Young Choreographer of the Year,” and her award-winning choreography can be seen throughout the gender inequality essays, country on both the competition convention stages. Term? Jessica is a part of the Dance Olympus/DanceAmerica and International Dance Challenge Faculty, where she has had the opportunity to travel to numerous cities, teaching master classes, judging dance competitions, and critically essay, performing.
Jessica graduated from McDaniel College with a degree in oil price term Exercise Science and Physical Education. She was also awarded the Richard Clower Award for Excellence. Jordan Casanova discovered her passion for dance at the young age of eight. Years of training tap, jazz, ballet, hip-hop and lyrical led to many things. Effective Essay Writing? Starting at Dellos dance studio and performing arts under the direction of Bobbie Dellos from hike term paper, age 8-15. Jordan then moved to traffic jams Dance Precisions under the direction of Edith Montoya from the age 16 until she graduated. Mean while being trained by oil price hike term, amazing choreographers like Donna Shepherd-Wood and Shannon Mather. Traffic Jams? She has won many awards throughout her dance career including WCDE senior dancer of the years 1st runner up and Miss world Starpower 2010. Jordan is the hike paper, Spotlight Award winner of 2009 and also a top 8 finalist on season eight of the hit dance show “So You Think You Can Dance”.
Jordan is essay, currently living in North Hollywood California where she is pursuing her career in dance, singing and acting. Paper? Jordan Leitson comes from Cleveland, OH and essay traffic, brings over term paper 20 years of tips to write essay dance experience. He is currently the oil price, Co-Owner and Co-Artistic Director of Jordan Center Dance. He was the first worldwide recipient of the prestigious Al Gilbert Memorial Tap Scholarship. Jordan has studied at Point Park University, Alvin Ailey, Steps on essay traffic Broadway, Dance New Amsterdam, Broadway Dance center, UNLV – Ballet Seminars, and Florida Youth Ballet. Oil Price Paper? He has performed in Disney World, Jazz on Tap Festivals in Atlanta, The David Lynch Show, Doug Benz’Cinderella (danseur and Geppetto) and performances with The Next Project at web 2.0 essay New York’s City Center Theater and in Maui, Hawaii.
He was also featured in Stepp Stewarts Off Broadway hit Red Hot Broadway. Jordan specializes in contemporary, lyrical, tap, ballet and jazz technique and choreography. He has judged and taught for many outstanding dance competitions and conventions around the country. He enjoys teaching and inspiring dancers to paper be the BEST they can be. KEVIN HERMANN, now residing in San Diego, CA, began his dance training as a child in Albuquerque, NM. He went on gender inequality australia essays to receive his formal training from the University of Arizona, where he graduated Cum Laude with a B.F.A. in dance. He has had the privilege of performing works by hike paper, world-renowned choreographers Mia Michaels and Dee Caspary, and to write a good in an exam, has danced with Malashock Dance and Company and the San Diego Opera.
Kevin is a full time teacher and choreographer at The Element Dance Center in La Mesa, CA; winner of the 2008 FDC Pinnacle Cup. His students can be seen in national commercials for Welch's Grape Juice, Divaz Dolls, Target, Kraft, Mattel and McDonald's. Hike Paper? He has also been awarded Teacher of the Year and Choreography of the Year from Kids Artistic Revue National Dance Competition. Kevin has also added video and television work to his credits including commercials for Allstate Insurance, videos for Los Angeles based singer Brooke Wilkes, Melissa Lowe's The New Ballet Workout (Kultur Productions), and has appeared dancing on CBS with Miss America 2000, Heather Renee French. Mr. Hermann continues to travel from coast to web 2.0 essay coast setting his high energy, unique choreography for term, kids of all ages and web 2.0 essay, is in high demand for master classes and summer intensives. Paper? In addition, Kevin travels with the australia essays, highly acclaimed Fusion Dance Workshops, a personalized in house intensive, to studios around the oil price term paper, country.
He enjoys sharing his love and passion for dance with kids around the country! Kevin Nguyen was born in Iowa and raised in Chicago, where his interest in dance and entertainment started. He started his dance career when he moved to California in 2005 and joined Chaparral High School's all male dance team, Agi-lity. Kevin trained heavily with the Temecula Dance Company and Formality under the effective, direction of Erik Saradpon. He furthered his training with Urban FX, and Super Galactic Beat Manipulators. Kevin is happy to call Cookies (formerly known as Choreo Cookies) home. Cookies is considered one of Southern California's best hip hop dance teams, having placed at many competitions such as World of Dance and Body Rock dance competition. Most recently, Kevin was featured in a Android watch commercial and as a principal dancer for Fox’s hit TV show, “X Factor.” Kevin has worked with JIVE Records artist Jawan Harris, Pharrell Williams, Kwanza Jones, Korean Pop Artists B1A4, 2PM, JYP, and oil price, Trouble Maker. In addition to effective essay his industry work, he teaches classes at Artistic Dance Academy and Studio FX. Oil Price Hike Term? He believes that there is always something new to discover in the world of dance, and web 2.0 essay, that one must never stop growing.
Kevin hopes to continue working in the industry, while also traveling the world to oil price teach and inspire dancers everywhere. Web 2.0 Essay? Kevin Nguyen and Dea Sevilla are an accomplished, engaged dancing duo. Term Paper? They met during Keone and Mari’s project, “Daydreamer,” for critically, Dance for oil price hike, A Wish, a charity show for the Make a Wish Foundation. Elizabethan? Kevin and Dea are both technically trained in various styles including, ballet, tap, jazz and contemporary. They trained in hip hop under Jabbawockeez own, Rainen Paguio and Kevin Brewer on Future Shock San Diego and oil price hike paper, Super Galactic Beat Manipulators. Dea furthered her training with America’s Best Dance Crew’s Boxcuttuhz and Lando Wilkins.
The duo currently dances for Choreo Cookies, one of Southern California's best hip hop dance teams. They are champions at on how a good in an exam Body Rock Dance Competition, World of Dance, and Vibe Dance Competition. Over the years the duo has worked with top music artists including Pharrell Williams, Jawan Harris, Korean Pop Artists: B1A4, 2PM, JYP, Troublemaker, Sunmi, and Gee Kazz. Kevin was a featured dancer in an Android watch commercial and a principal dancer for Fox’s hit TV show, “X Factor.” Dea was a featured dancer on Fox's Mobbed, and the Ellen Degeneres show and has worked with Casio G-Shock for hike, their “Shock the World Tour” in Singapore. They are world renowned choreographers, having taught dance classes and essays, judged competitions in hike paper Spain, Kazakhstan, Hong Kong, Russia, Switzerland, Paraguay, Singapore, Philippines, Germany to name a few. Together, they’re currently touring with World of Dance as judges, performers and choreographers and are Master Teachers for KAR Dance Convention. Moving bodies while moving souls, Kira immersed myself into web 2.0 essay the dance culture twenty-eight years ago.
Studying relentlessly, I moved through Dance Connection Scottsdale, Ballet Arizona, Ballet Etudes, Edge Performing arts California and Millennium Dance Center mastering all styles and movement as well as incorporating a fierce history in oil price hike term paper theater arts. Professionally, dance led her to the Phoenix Suns Dance Team, Royal Caribbean Broadway Revue, Superbowl XXX, Miss Dance of Arizona, Ballet Arizona’s production of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” and various Industrials. Her performance credits also include a back-up dancer for writing, Ricky Martin’s, “She Bangs”, MTV’s “N-Synce Reunion Special,” “Broadway Review”, model/dancer for Matrix Hair, and local commercials for Toyota and Fiat. However, Kira’s true passion has always been teaching and choreography. Currently, she is one of the most sought after Master Dance Teachers in Arizona who is oil price hike term paper, currently teaching and choreographing for critically consider, some of the industry’s top dance students. Kristen Hibbs was born and raised in sunny San Diego. Oil Price Paper? She started dancing at the early age of 3. At the tips a good exam, age of 14, she was assisting dance classes under the guidance of San Diego Dance Centre owner, Sharon Keller. Oil Price Paper? While being mentored by Sharon, Kristen was also busy competing for SDDC in regional/national dance competitions. She was also a member of the Rancho Bernardo High School dance team. Kristen graduated from Rancho Bernardo High School in web 2.0 essay 2000.
In the summer of that same year, Kristen joined the United Spirit Association staff and taught dance camps for oil price term, high schools all along the California coast. She then went on to dance on the national championship dance team at Orange Coast College in gender Costa Mesa, Ca. In 2002, Orange Coast College won a berth to the UCA national finals in Orlando, Florida. Coast was the first junior college to win the oil price paper, national title in division 1A. It was a great experience for Kristen and her dance career. While dancing with OCC, Kristen made her way to North Hollywood to train at the nation's famous dance studios; Millennium Dance Complex and The Edge Performing Arts Center. Elizabethan Topics? Later that year the OCC dance team was asked to be part of the oil price hike, hit comedy The Hot Chick. Kristen moved home from Orange County in 2003 and became a head instructor for the San Diego Dance Centre.
Kristen has had the traffic, pleasure of training with some of the nation's most respected instructors and choreographers, including Dee Caspary, Mandy Moore, Mia Michaels, Cory Finn, and Mark Goodman. Oil Price Hike? Kristen has always aspired to one day own and operate her own dance studio. Essay? In August of 2007, Kristen acquired the oil price hike term, San Diego Dance Centre. Effective Writing? She is hike term paper, happy to be living her dream as a studio owner and is looking forward to elizabethan her future endeavors. Kristi Fair began dancing at the age of three in Riverside, California.
At the oil price term, age of 10 she began dancing for the prestigious West Coast School of the Arts in Cypress, California. During Kristi’s competition years she took top honors in tap, jazz, ballet, and lyrical. In 2001 Kristi opened her own dance studio where she teaches tap, jazz, hip hop, and lyrical. In the past four years Kristi’s students have received high top honors at competitions at both the regional and national level. Kristi has choreographed for local theaters, high schools, and colleges earning top honors. Kristi spends a lot of her time traveling teaching master classes. Kristi received her training from australia essays, teachers and term paper, choreographers such as Cory Finn, Tina D’Amato, Paula Kessinger, Amy Bates, Dawni Novak, and many teacherschoreographers in the LA area. Marco Cruz is a Choreographer, Dancer, Artistic Director, Judge, Master Class Instructor, and Leader in the Contemporary and effective writing, Hip Hop Arenas.
His musicality and attention to oil price term detail have been described as captivating, inspirational and breathtaking. His passion for dance is critically consider, what has made him one of today?s most sought after choreographers and a true original in his field. His professional persuits have no end, he has performed in, choreographed, and directed music videos, commercials and award shows for oil price term paper, recording artist such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Rihanna, Naturi Naughton, Olivia Newton John, Kenny Loggins, and Kwanza Jones; and elizabethan era essay topics, production companies including Paramount Pictures, ABC, Nickelodeon, Disney, Power of Youth, Variety Magazine, and Nigel Lythgoe’s Dizzy Feet Foundation. Cruz is no stranger to the world of competitive dance. His works have placed first against some of today’s most elite dance studios. He has earned several National Championship Titles at some of the most prestigious competitions: ShowStoppers, Hollywood Vibe, Starpower, Hall of Fame, Hollywood Connection, Jump, The Dance Awards and KAR just to name a few. Dance education and instilling a respect of the art of dance is of primary focus for Cruz. Several of his students have chosen to pursue dance education at the collegiate level. Likewise, many of Cruz’s students have excelled in hike paper dance and the entertainment industry and have moved on to dance professionally for critically consider, companies such as Joffrey, Ballet Hispanico in New York, Lines in San Francisco, Santa Barbra’s State Street Ballet, and many more. Mario Velez Jr. is oil price term paper, a professional hip-hop choreographer and dancerperformer.
Mario has toured and worked with artists such as Omarion, TLC, Rock Steady Crew, Fergie, My Chemical Romance, Brandy, Boyz II Men, Doug E. Web 2.0 Essay? Fresh, Paula Abdul many others! He has also toured with the oil price, world-renowned Harlem Globetrotters! Mario is currently performing and choreographing for tips a good essay, the National Recording Artist, Jasmine Hormez and for Automatic Response Dance Crew which was featured on the show’s first season of “ America’s Best Dance Crew!”. He has also done work with the NBA and WNBA Phoenix Suns Dance Team, The Seattle Supersonics, The Warrior Girls , The Denver Nuggets and the Phoenix Mercury Hip-Hop Squad. He has trained dancers that have worked with artist such as: Lady GaGa, The Jabbawockeez, Jason Derulo and term, pricipal dancer David Hallberg from ABT, and many others. Mario has also started an exciting and very passionate Dance Studio called Diverse Elements. His diversity also includes choreography for shows, Splash and Bottoms UP in Las Vegas NV, and Jubilation in tips on how to write a good essay Reno, NV.
This was all possible because of his long time partner and wife Melissa Velez. Mario has one saying that he lives by-Hip-hop is not just rapping and music, it is a culture, a way of hike term life! Mark Orsborn is a tap dancer, choreographer, and master teacher. Born and raised in Washington, D.C., Mark began his dance career at the age of five. Tips Essay Exam? He was a soloist with the Tap America Project (TAP) and featured in such events as the Kennedy Center 25th Anniversary and Smithsonian 150th Anniversary. Mark is a former member of the tap company, Tappers With Attitude (TWA). Hike Term? During his time with TWA, Mark had the opportunity to critically consider essay perform on a regular basis on stages and theaters across the United States.
Mark was also an original cast member in the Debbie Allen production of Brothers of the Knight. At the age of 16, Mark began assisting Laurie Johnson on the Tremaine Dance Convention circuit. He parlayed his experience and extensive training to begin teaching and choreographing. Mark quickly built a following and became an in-demand choreographer and master tap teacher. For years, Mark choreographed and taught for numerous dance studios and companies. His choreography was recognized in 2015 by the Young Choreographer's Festival in NYC and oil price hike paper, he has co-choreographed the closing number for the Fred Adele Astaire Awards for the past two years.
Mark was also a finalist for the 2016 Capezio ACE Awards which honors emerging and influential choreographers in the commercial dance world. Mark is currently on faculty for dance conventions such as the KAR Dance Convention, Starpower Power Pak, and Dance Masters of America. Mark is the co-founder of the company, The JaM Project, and topics, was recognized by Dance Spirit Magazine and The Washington Post for his choreography and concept video production. The youth sector of the company, The JaM Youth Project features tap dancers from across the United States and has recently been featured on WUSA 9 Great Day Washington and received recognition from classic rock artists The Doobie Brothers. Megan Spivey Rogers is the Director and owner of The Fever Performing Arts in Carrollton, Georgia. This will be her 8th year of teaching and choreographing for both competitive dance cheerleading teams. She is proud to be running West Georgia's premier and oil price hike paper, quickest growing performing arts centers. The Fever has been voted the #1 rated studio in her area for 4 consecutive years. Megan is an alumni dance team member of Jacksonville State University, Georgia Force Arena Cheerleaders The Atlanta Falcons Cheerleaders. She has performed on stage with Rascal Flatts and essay traffic jams, Robin Thicke, made dance appearances on Good Day Atlanta, and was a featured performer in The Varsity Seasonal Promotion.
Megan has instructed many students to multiple regional and national high point awards, convention and competition scholarships, and claimed many choreography awards. Her company dancers have held the prestigious National Grand Champion Title for both KAR Rainbow Dance Competitions. She has students dancing on full college scholarships, acting professionally, and participating in prestigious programs such as The Rockettes Summer Intensive, Joffrey Ballet, Atlanta Ballet on full or partial scholarships. Her personal experiences range from vocal performances, acting, writing, costume design, directing, and producing originally scripted shows. Aside from her full time teaching schedule with The Fever, she currently travels weekends, professionally judging dance competitions such as Rainbow Kids Artistic Revue Dance Competitions, choreographs for the her local Community Theater Program, and oil price term paper, runs a Montessori dance program. Megan is excited to be a staff member for web 2.0 essay, the KAR Dance Convention this season. More than anything, sharing her love of dance with young hearts is her favorite thing to do! Melissa Ruiz was born and raised in Miami, FL where she began dancing at the age of oil price hike paper 4 and continued her training in Ballet, Jazz, Hip Hop and critically essay, Modern throughout her school years. Later moving to Orlando, Fl brought her many opportunities in the dance industry performing for local recording artists, MTV, Nickelodeon Studios, McDonalds, Miller Beer and Surf Expo.
In addition, she has choreographed for NBA’s Orlando Magic Dancers, Orlando Predators, FSU's Golden Girls, along with countless dance studios, high school and college dance teams throughout the country. Oil Price Hike Paper? She currently teaches and inequality, choreographs Hip Hop, Jazz and Contemporary along with directing 5 Hip Hop competition teams in the Central Florida area. Melissa is now owner/creator of hike term paper Underground Dance Xperience and continues her determination to essay bring more opportunities to the Florida dance community. Oil Price? Michelle has studied under the guidance of Joe Tremaine, Gus Giordano, Dave Massey, Doug Caldwell, Sean Greene, and several others. She has also had the privilege of performing as a member of the jazz-based Eastside Moving Company and the modern-jazz Company Fusion, both in Seattle. After three years at Chapman University in Orange, California and a Bachelor of Arts in Dance and Theatre, she began her teaching career in Bellevue, Washington at Backstage Dance Studio.
Several of Chandler-Smith’s students have won title awards regionally and nationally and gender, have gone onto careers with Holland America, Carnival Cruise Lines, Stiletto Entertainment and are seen in many industrial pieces in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Las Vegas and New York City, as well as Company work in Seattle, Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Pennsylvania, Saipan and London. Michelle also sits on the judging panel regionally and oil price, nationally for KAR, Rainbow Dance and other esteemed Dance Competitions. Michelle continues to teach master classes, convention classes on web 2.0 essay staff at Kids Artistic Revue (KAR) and Dance Masters of oil price hike America (DMA), and shares her choreography across the country, all of which she feels so honored and blessed to continue to do. Michelle is consider essay, now Co-Owner/Director at Inspire Academy of Dance which opened this past summer 2016 in paper the Seattle area. Michelle is gender australia, truly excited to be sharing her choreography, knowledge and insight with students willing to pursue the heart and soul of hike paper dance as an innovative and expanding art form. Michelle has taught Dance for 24 years and has taught for the KAR Convention for the last five years. Her training includes all forms of dance from local and world-renowned instructors.
Michelle has won numerous awards and web 2.0 essay, national titles, and has been awarded scholarships to Broadway Dance Center in New York, and Tremaine Dance Center in Los Angeles. Her credits include Capezio Model, Taffy’s Model, HBJ Model, “Welcome Freshman”, “Clarissa Explains It All”, “Fifteen”, “Mickey Mouse Club”, SeaWorld, Wet-n-Wild, Florida Lottery, and “Parenthood”.She has also choreographed for popular musical acts “NSB”, “REAL”, “2 for oil price hike paper, 1”, Emily Amy Pratt, and “Next Generation Kids”. Her dancing has taken her to tour South America with Pollyanna Dorough and Howie D of the “Backstreet Boys”. Michelle owned and traffic, operated her studio Starz Studios Inc/Starz Dance Galaxy for 15 years. Her instruction earned her studio the honor of oil price paper being in Dance Teacher and Dance Spirit Magazine naming Starz one of the top 50 studios in the country. The Federation of Dance awarded her studio in consider essay the top 25 for five consecutive years. Oil Price Term? Also naming them 7th in the country in 2011. Michelle’s love for dance has led her to a successful career in dance instruction.
She had the honor of being the choreographer for the Orlando Magic Minis for to write exam, Eight NBA seasons. In 2012 her dancers and choreography were selected to be a part of the NBA ALL STAR GAMES. Oil Price Hike Term? She feels that she can make every child a “star” by giving them the proper training, love and encouragement necessary to help each student reach their full potential. Currently she continues to share her love of dance with her new students in inequality australia Southern California. Michelle received her education in dance from Long Beach State and CSUF. She worked for United Spirit Association (USA) for 6 years as a songleading head coach.
For over oil price hike 10 years, Michelle made her home at elizabethan era essay topics Disneyland® Park, performing in both parades and live shows such as the “Queen Mary” and the “Spruce Goose” show. She has performed for many superstars like Milton Berle, Dustin Hoffman, Michael Jackson and Frankie Avalon. Her most recent choreography credits include “Grease”, “Anything Goes”, “Cabaret”, “Oliver”, “Peter Pan”, “Bye Bye Birdie”, “Godspell”, “The Wiz” and “Beauty and the Beast”. Michelle also was the proud owner of MKR Productions, which is now part of the Dance Precisions family. Her choreography and students have been the recipients of many regional and national titles. Many of her students have performed on TV and in music videos, receiving scholarships to major universities, and become nationally ranked choreographers themselves. Michelle also works for Kids Artistic Revue and is in oil price term her 7th year on staff for KAR conventions. Michelle is currently a teacher and an award-winning choreographer at Dance Precisions.
She is known for her warm heart and huge hugs! Molly has been training in all style of dance since the age of inequality essays two. She grew up at her mother’s studio where she has now been teaching for 10 years. She is now co-director at Kathy’s Dance Co, who is now entering their 30th year of business. Throughout her career, Molly has studied under industry-leading instructors. As both a dancer and choreographer, she has received top honors at regional and national levels. Even when not working with her competition team, dance is who Molly is. She looks forward to working with KAR and hike paper, appreciates the opportunity to be around young dancers who share her passion for dance. Nicole Doerr is an award-winning dancer and choreographer with many accomplishments. She owns and directs a studio in Farmington Hills, MI with her mother.
Her students have received many top awards at regional and national competitions, including 2 National Championships in 2016. She was the co-director of Burn The Floor. with the consider, Doerr's Performing Arts Camp, an annual camp that took place in term paper Fenton, MI that drew in dancers from all over the USA for 10 years. Web 2.0 Essay? Nicole developed a love for term, dance growing up in gender essays her mother's studio. She was a member of the Detroit Pistons Dance Team: Automotion. During her time with Automotion she was hand-selected by Brian Friedman to perform with him in the opening number of ESPN's PRODANCE along with many other great opportunities. Nicole also performed at oil price hike a Superbowl XL event in essay traffic jams Detroit and helped to promote Britney Spears' perfume line, Curious. She graduated from the University of oil price term Michigan, Ann Arbor, was accepted into the dance program, and was a member of Impact Dance Theater while she was there. Nicole has traveled all over the United States through her dancing, and she also toured in Australia performing and taking master classes from Australian teachers. Nicole has trained with the Joffrey Ballet of New York and many professional choreographers and instructors. She was also accepted into the National Ballet of Canada School.
Many of Nicole’s students have went on com 150 effective writing to pursue college dance programs, college dance teams, performing arts schools, Cirque de Soleil, Broadway, and many have continued on to be dance teachers. She has been judging nationally for many years and also teaches on convention circuits throughout the United States and Canada. Nicole strives to instill her love, passion and knowledge for term, dance with all dancers. Patrick 31, began his dancing career at a very early age growing up and training at his Mother's dance studio in gender australia essays Bowie Maryland. His professional career started right out of oil price hike high school with off broadway shows and traffic jams, national tours of the Broadway musical Footloose choreographed by AC Ciulla. Oil Price? He then went on and was a backup dancer for 2 years for essay traffic jams, Toni Braxton's Las Vegas show Revealed. He has backup danced in term music videos and web 2.0 essay, shows for artists such as Toni Braxton, Amerie, Mario,Lupe Fiasco, Cassie, and Corbin Bleu to name a few. He was featured in the major motion picture Step Up 2 The Streets choreographed by Jamal Sims.
His television debut was a 4 episode stint for ABC's One Life To Live and oil price hike term, performed on NBC's The View. Pat has also performed with Rasta Thomas' Bad Boys Of Dance. Pat has been on the KAR Convention faculty for 6 seasons. He is extremely passionate and loves nothing more than working with young artists and passing on his knowledge and love for com 150 effective essay writing, dance. Raymon Ashley found his passion for dance at the young age of 8 years old, while residing in Northern California. He went on to attend the University of Arizona where he continued to study dance and furthered his training extensively in the styles of Ballet, Modern, Jazz and oil price hike paper, Tap where he graduated with his BFA in Dance. Raymon immediately went on to pursue a professional career in dance, booking jobs with the Cleo Parker Robinson Dance Ensemble as well as the David Taylor Dance Theatre, both companies located in Denver, Colorado. Raymon has had the honor and privilege of working with legendary educators and choreographers, Donald McKale and web 2.0 essay, Milton Meyers.
After pursuing his career in the company world of dance, Raymon made his way to San Diego as well as Los Angeles where he turned his sights to oil price hike paper the commercial industry of essay dance. He booked steady work dancing in oil price term Industrials, Pepsi and critically, Ford commercials as well as Music Video's with some of the music industries top recording artists. Oil Price Term Paper? Once Raymon fulfilled his passions as a dancer, he began pursuing his career as a dance educator. Essay? His fresh, upbeat approach to teaching has made him one of the most popular and in demand teachers in Southern California as well as across the Country as a guest teacher. When not traveling as one of our fabulous Directors, Raymon spends much of his time traveling with Fusion Dance and KAR Dance Conventions. The VERY MOST rewarding opportunity in Raymon's life, is being the proud father of his amazing son, Rylan. Renee Ritchie has been dancing for many years starting her dance training in Tasmania (Australia) at the age of 5. In 2007 at age 17 she made the move to Sydney to pursue her dance career studying full-time at hike paper Brent Street Dance Studios. Since graduating, Renee has had a very successful journey in Australia being a contestant on inequality essays Season 3 of So You Think You Can Dance, making it to the Top 12. Renee also has worked as a dancer for Artist such Major Lazer, MO, J Balvin, Farruko, Wisin, Gente De Zona, Nicky Jam, Omi, Fitz and the Tantrums, Reedfoo, Kylie Minouge, Kelly Clarkson, Tina Arena, many more. Renee is hike term paper, trained is consider essay, all styles of dance from Contemporary, Ballet, Jazz, Hip Hop, House, Wacking, Ballroom many more. Renee recently performed in Vegas on oil price term paper the latin grammy’s with Artist Farruko and Gente De Zona and performed at Univision Telethon in los angeles for latin artist Wisin and Chiquis Rivera.
In 2015 Renee did TV series Every Single Step on App Go90. Looking for Americas new upcoming Choreographer. Mentored by Brian Friedman and web 2.0 essay, produced by oil price, Niguel Lithgow. Making it to the top 6 of the series. Renee choreographed Seasons 4 SYTYCD Australia and working closely with many other choreographers and dancers throughout the season.
She co-choreographed Paula Abdul's Check Yourself Music Video. Gender Australia Essays? Winning an term paper award at the World Choreographer Awards. Also she recently choreographed Music Video for one of Australia’s biggest pop stars Dami Im. New hit song “Fighting For love”. Renee currently works with company LUX Convention as a faculty member and Judges for KAR Live and Legacy Dance Championships. Renee is a very well rounded and experienced teacher/choreographer that has a passion for teaching, giving and bringing her own style to elizabethan share with other dancers around the hike, world. Sara Brendel is a native of St.louis, MO and has years of dance training and performance experience. Web 2.0 Essay? She started her professional career dancing for Norwegian Cruise Lines and Princess Cruise Lines. She has worked industrial shows and special events for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Nissan Motors, Siemens Technologies, and several other companies with Event Show Productions. She performed in Branson, Missouri with the production shows Dino's - Somewhere in Christmas and hike, The Shoji Tabuchi Show”. Sara also danced in the Broadway-style production of Katonga at Busch Gardens, Tampa Bay.
Sara has performed beside talented dancers with the com 150 effective essay writing, Les Grand Ballets Canadians and oil price hike paper, appeared in the musicals “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat”, The Music Man, and 42nd Street. Sara received her education from Columbia College Chicago and Webster University as a dance major with a concentration in choreography. She has choreographed numerous nationally award-winning pieces and effective writing, has received several choreography awards as well as having her work featured on ESPN. Her work has also been performed by the SueMo Dance Company in Milwaukee,WI. Term? Sara's students have been accepted into prestigious dance programs at the Edge Performing Arts Center, Oklahoma City University, Chapman University and several other universities. Many of her students have successful dance careers performing with world tours, professional dance companies, production shows, music videos and cruise lines. Sara is a faculty member for KAR Convention and a judge for Rainbow Connection and Kids Artistic Revue Dance Competition. She has had the honor of effective writing teaching and judging talent across the country as well as internationally with Kids Artistic Revue in Australia. Sara encourages her students to oil price hike term paper push their boundaries and to critically never settle. Tiffany has over thirty-five years of dance experience in oil price ballet, jazz, lyrical, hip-hop, musical theater and several styles of tap dancing including Broadway to Hoofing.
She served as Dance Captain in the production “Kizmet” at the Ohio State University at on how a good exam age 16 and received a full dance scholarship to the prestigious Gus Giordano Dance Center in Chicago, Illinois. She has performed at the Capital Building in Washington D.C., the Chicago Theater, in the promotional tour for oil price, the movie “TAP”, various industrials, charity events and on television. Tiffany has performed with Gus Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago, Savion Glover, Lane Alexander, the late Gregory Hines and was an original member of the “ETC” Tap Company. She has also had the honor of era essay studying under such greats as Gus Giordano, Henry LeTang, Sandman Simms, Jimmy Slyde, Derick Grant and the Emmy winning Jason Samuels Smith. Tiffany has earned the titles Teacher Of The Year Top Choreographer on Regional and National level and her choreography has been featured in the New York City Tap Extravaganza and Industry Dance Awards in Hollywood, CA and Las Vegas. Term? Her students can be found on television, Broadway, movies and professional dance companies. Tiffany has been recognized by Stanford Who’s Who of America, Ohio House of Representatives for her dedication to the Arts and is a member of the International Tap Association. She now serves as a National Adjudicator, Master Teacher/Choreographer, NYC Tap Legacy Foundation Ambassador and the Elite Company Director at australia essays Judy Dollenmayer Studio of Dance in Columbus, Ohio. Oil Price? Tiffany is era essay, committed to sharing her love of dance through mentoring, educating and oil price hike term paper, teaching proper technique across the country. Convention Price list / 5 classes + showcase at tips on how essay exam only $99. *Registration to classes, Audition Workshop, and hike term paper, Observer Bands are NON-REFUNDABLE. Register now / don't m?ss this fun, inspiring educational convention!
Sample Convention Schedule / the one for your event might be slightly different. The KAR Dance Convention Showcase is an informal showing for the parents to see what the tips essay, dancers have learned throughout the day. Parents are encouraged to take photos and videos of their dancer to capture the fun and excitement of the weekend. Oil Price Hike Term? The showcase lasts approximately one hour and era essay topics, includes: Master Teacher Introduction. Master Teacher Autographs. The showcase is free of term paper charge and we encourage all family members to come and australia essays, watch what the dancers learned throughout the day. Any and all dancers who are not attending via a previously received scholarship. The dancers are selected by the master teachers. Hike Paper? Yes, in order for a parent to observe class they need to consider purchase an Observer Band for $20. Hike? Click here to purchase yours today!
Teachers are allowed to take class one of on how a good exam two ways. They can pay to take class, or the following must be followed to take for free: 10 Dancers = 1 Free Teacher. Hike Term? 50 Dancers = 3 Free Teachers. 30 Dancers = 2 Free Teachers. No more than 3 teachers may take class free of charge. 10 Dancers = 1 Free Teacher. 30 Dancers = 2 Free Teachers. 50 Dancers = 3 Free Teachers. Australia Essays? No more than 3 teachers may take class free of charge. No.
All classes (Including the oil price hike term, Audition Workshop) as well as the Parent Observer bands are all NON-REFUNDABLE. Gender Inequality Essays? KAR Convention Audition Workshop. 2015 National Title Winners Assisting at KAR Convention. Testimonials / See What People Say About KAR Convention. We had so much excitement from our parents at the studio. Oil Price Term Paper? I thought my dancer would be a walking zombie the next morning. She surprised me when she jumped out of bed showing me some of the choreography she remembered!, Thank you for essay jams, hosting this event having these awesome teachers come into our studio!, It was AWESOME!, Can we do this EVERY YEAR?! Our KAR In-House convention was just what we needed to reignite the spark in our dance team. The teachers were fabulously upbeat, professional, and inspirational. Our dancers learned age appropriate, FUN, and engaging material. We could not have been happier with our experience!
Carissa Christensen - Starz Studio of Performing Arts, Oak Grove Missouri. This has turned into a tradition at KDC. Paper? The staff and elizabethan era essay topics, teachers are amazing. Hike Paper? Our parents love this as much as our students! We are so excited and can't wait for next season. Kathy Najmolhoda - Kathy's Dance Co. Jams? There are a lot of things I love about KAR dance convention! It is a fun, educating, and positive experience.
I love to have my studio attend because of the hike term, energy and challenges given in the individual classes. Also because of the friendships, memories, and knowledge that they gain in the 5 hours of classes throughout the day. KAR Convention is web 2.0 essay, another product that shows you how it truly is oil price term, all about the dancers experience and elizabethan era essay, memories at KAR. It's a must attend for KFD. The KAR faculty is one big family and they make the students, parents, and studio owners feel as though they are included in something so great!
A great dance teacher is a very special person. Being a fantastic dancer isn't always enough to be a good teacher, and I feel that KAR has provided dancers with a special group of people that embody all of the qualities that teachers should have.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.
Are you an entrepreneur looking to paper, download a free business plan? If so, you have come to consider essay, the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to oil price hike, reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in effective essay writing the blank template: In the oil price hike term first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the inequality australia 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is hike paper, worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and gender inequality australia Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the term legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team.
If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and inequality deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Term Paper. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of essay growth and behavior. Term. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Topics. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Oil Price Term Paper. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and on how to write a good in an exam strategic alliances. Oil Price Hike Term. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the inequality financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan.
What’s included in paper the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at web 2.0 essay, no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an oil price paper experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to inequality essays, help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an term paper existing company, crafting a solid plan is elizabethan, equally important if you’re hoping to oil price hike term paper, attract investment and web 2.0 essay expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached.
Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and oil price hike term sales to elizabethan era essay, your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for oil price term, each chapter: “How to effective essay, Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about oil price term paper, what makes your business strong and worthy of elizabethan era essay topics investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to oil price hike, take it, and why your business idea will be successful.
If you are seeking financing, the critically consider executive summary is oil price term, your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the elizabethan first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . Oil Price Paper. First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is essay, sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to hike, be interesting and convincing to capture the web 2.0 essay attention of hike term investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to on how a good exam, provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors.
First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs:
Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of oil price hike term debt financing to expand a store location) as well an web 2.0 essay overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the hike term venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the elizabethan topics management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the term paper organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and com 150 essay writing Services section. Products and oil price Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in elizabethan era essay topics the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them.
Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the oil price term logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance.
7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and com 150 effective essay writing when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is hike paper, important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections.
Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on web 2.0 essay, how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for oil price hike term paper, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the web 2.0 essay company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is oil price hike term paper, meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to jams, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for oil price term, any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the web 2.0 essay creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over hike your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the australia essays relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the term company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Critically Essay. However, similar to hike paper, sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for com 150 writing, the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in oil price paper that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for gender australia essays, businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to oil price, a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to topics, shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).
Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and hike your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and elizabethan era essay topics especially those seeking financing, the oil price hike Management Team section is especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to era essay, gauge the hike future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on web 2.0 essay, the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader.
Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the term information you want to present is the tips on how to write essay in an same. Oil Price Hike. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of inequality australia Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in oil price term the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of topics investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and oil price industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to web 2.0 essay, set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for oil price hike paper, company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of tips on how business leaders that can help guide your company and oil price term provides it with assistance when needed. Essay. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in hike term paper your company . Gender Australia. While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company.
Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of oil price paper your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Elizabethan Topics. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board.
Feel free to oil price hike term, shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the era essay topics reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Hike. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and inequality australia essays debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is hike paper, already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when?
What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to critically consider essay, raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Hike Term Paper. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in essay traffic its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to oil price hike term, grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when?
The financial statements provide the answer to elizabethan era essay topics, the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). Oil Price Hike Paper. To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on web 2.0 essay, this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is oil price, worth? The third question is critically consider essay, much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science).
However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to oil price hike paper, facilitate the on how a good negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by oil price, analyzing the market value of elizabethan era essay its assets. In other words, in this approach the term paper company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by traffic jams, the asset). However, for many companies the value of oil price hike its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of tips to write a good essay exam similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. Oil Price Hike Term Paper. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth.
Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to gender inequality essays, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for hike paper, cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Gender Inequality Australia Essays. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is term, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to gender essays, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of oil price hike paper loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of essay traffic jams detail should be at oil price, a high level ; if the era essay investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement.
Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of oil price term paper credit may be a good choice. Tips On How To Write Essay In An. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. Oil Price Paper. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to web 2.0 essay, get better terms.
In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over oil price hike paper the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the elizabethan era essay family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and hike paper VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return.
You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in com 150 effective essay writing hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to oil price hike term, sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.
The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and web 2.0 essay customers can get behind. Some tips on oil price term, writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.”
Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to a good essay, in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and hike term paper “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for essay writing, customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. Hike Paper. It is a pharmacy retailer and gender it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).
Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to term, the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the web 2.0 essay highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to hike term, local and federal laws)?
Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the web 2.0 essay company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and term completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to era essay topics, date, milestones achieved, etc.
Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of oil price term paper detail you want to include. This is to write a good in an, dictated by the relevancy of the term paper information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to effective essay, build credibility for your company. Every company is made of oil price hike term milestones. Milestones for on how essay exam, a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of hike paper your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the elizabethan era essay topics better valuation you can get for oil price hike, your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of web 2.0 essay your plan.
Information you may want to term paper, include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Com 150 Effective Essay. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is hike, important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Essay. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for hike, in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on elizabethan era essay topics, the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and term paper water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. Gender Australia. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing.
For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and hike paper financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and web 2.0 essay Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to hike term, help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Web 2.0 Essay. Your products and services section should include the oil price following sections. Products and era essay topics Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and hike paper Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the elizabethan era essay topics secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied.
Thinking in term paper terms of com 150 effective essay writing benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only paper, buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of australia your product/service are also important. Depending on oil price hike, what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is critically, indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is term paper, expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services.
Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over web 2.0 essay time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in oil price term paper days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to to write in an exam, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and term be on web 2.0 essay, the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step.
You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to oil price hike term paper, start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is com 150 essay writing, competing in paper yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on elizabethan era essay topics, hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to hike paper, your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to elizabethan topics, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to oil price paper, order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is tips to write a good essay in an, standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of oil price term customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is a good essay, assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in hike quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Critically Essay. Too little inventory and term you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and traffic make sure you account for seasonality.
Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in hike paper today’s business environment is topics, becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and oil price hike paper shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and essay jams times, which enables it to ship to oil price term, practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations.
If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about web 2.0 essay, your disaster preparedness and oil price hike contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and era essay software, routine security checks, and oil price hike term securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to consider, a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies).
If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of oil price hike paper a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for com 150 effective, a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and hike artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.
In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and on how to write a good downloaded. IP and oil price term paper your employees and australia contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and oil price term paper contractors. Everyone should be required to web 2.0 essay, sign an oil price hike paper invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for essay writing, employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is term paper, a good idea to describe the critically product roadmap and strategy behind it . Term Paper. A key concept is web 2.0 essay, that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the hike term paper life of tips on how in an exam a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the oil price hike word out.
You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the com 150 effective essay writing fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in hike term steady decline.
After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the tips on how a good essay exam products and services chapter. Writing the oil price term paper Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an com 150 opportunity to hike term paper, describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the inequality australia essays total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in hike paper several distinct levels.
At the highest level is an essay writing estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at oil price term paper, this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Era Essay Topics. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for term, your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami.
To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and tips to write essay in an exam research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Paper. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and effective essay determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an hike term paper equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market.
Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is consider essay, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Oil Price Hike Term. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy.
We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on consider, the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to oil price term paper, a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of inequality essays taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is hike, critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in consider the market growth section.
Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on oil price hike paper, some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an essay traffic industry, so it is hike term, imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in tips to write in an exam private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for oil price, crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on critically essay, the bottom line. For example, if you count the hike term paper Dept. of elizabethan era essay Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of oil price hike paper a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in inequality essays a less advantageous position.
Knowing technology trends is valuable in oil price hike term ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of traffic technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to hike paper, price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from web 2.0 essay, one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the hike second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to critically essay, demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to oil price term, you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue.
For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and consider Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on oil price paper, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete.
If your industry is inequality australia, supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from term paper, those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of a good in an exam buyers, or there are many alternative products to oil price paper, choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is com 150 essay, mature with little growth (so the oil price term paper only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of tips to write exam customers, you want to focus on hike term, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from web 2.0 essay, a small percentage of paper your customers. Tips To Write Essay. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of oil price hike coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers.
If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Web 2.0 Essay. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to hike, move on to the next chapter!
Writing the gender australia Marketing and oil price hike term paper Sales Chapter. The marketing and tips sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to hike, close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to essay, include: Positioning: Are you going to be the oil price hike lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product?
Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at traffic jams, the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and oil price hike term stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at on how a good, the cheapest price point in term the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:
Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the elizabethan era essay topics cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to oil price hike paper, enter the market since you have fixed assets and inequality essays experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is oil price term, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is traffic, not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Term. Likewise, if you are going for inequality australia essays, the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on hike term, price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. Essay. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers?
Depending on your business, traditional media may be an hike term important component of topics your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of oil price hike options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and web 2.0 essay consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by hike, far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business.
New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to on how to write essay, continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of term paper mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to consider, like your business on Yelp and hike paper Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of essay traffic jams their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and oil price hike paper competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in traffic jams turn sell to consumers. Three common models:
Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Hike Paper. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is gender australia essays, only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an term paper unparalleled opportunity to inequality australia essays, reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to hike, reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.
It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the web 2.0 essay company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to paper, measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the web 2.0 essay company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed.
Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is term, a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the essay opportunities open to oil price term, your business and jams the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as:
Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the hike lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to gender inequality australia, achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer?
This is hike paper, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to critically consider, better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by oil price paper, the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of com 150 effective essay a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for oil price hike, a partnership in the future and essay traffic jams that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and oil price term paper provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in web 2.0 essay revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is oil price hike term paper, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for gender inequality, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the hike term official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished.
Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and essay writing sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of oil price intelligent assumptions about the size of the tips to write a good market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the term paper red meat of your plan — these are the web 2.0 essay chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and term Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and gender inequality essays Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for oil price hike paper, Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast.
It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the consider essay production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to hike term paper, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to web 2.0 essay, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the term paper cost as a % of sales on com 150 effective, a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the term paper more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to era essay, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on hike paper, time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell.
My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over topics time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. Oil Price Paper. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the gender australia sales forecast is oil price hike, accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the web 2.0 essay largest expense of any business. Hike. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire.
The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is era essay topics, more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Term Paper. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. Tips Essay In An. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and oil price hike term come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations.
Changes over web 2.0 essay time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the term United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and era essay topics other benefits. This is oil price term paper, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of elizabethan total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to oil price, enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to gender australia essays, define the oil price hike term paper personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product.
Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to australia essays, make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of oil price hike term your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for web 2.0 essay, more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Hike. You will enter these in com 150 effective writing the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and oil price hike term intangible assets.
Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over com 150 essay its useful lifetime. Oil Price. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by essays, gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and oil price hike term paper Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over consider essay its useful life. These might include:
Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on hike, the month it which it was made. This type of gender expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is hike, spread out over a 12-month period of time and on how can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of oil price Prepaid Lease that is remaining at tips on how in an exam, the end of the hike accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is essay, covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is hike term, only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the tips a good exam company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at term, the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of essay traffic jams your business model work out; then you can work backwards and paper determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running?
For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of com 150 any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Oil Price Term. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of inequality australia essays their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to oil price term paper, avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on consider, credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to hike, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to elizabethan era essay, define when they are to pay you back.
The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to hike term paper, suppliers and banks. It is to traffic, your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at oil price term, accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to traffic, pay your vendors on the purchases made on oil price paper, credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to essay traffic jams, collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the hike term paper payment arrives. Web 2.0 Essay. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on paper, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of web 2.0 essay inventory you wish to term paper, keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is com 150, tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry?
The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and oil price paper business to business. A good place to find more information is web 2.0 essay, trade associations for your industry. In order to hike term, improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to critically essay, start by collecting good records on hike term paper, your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an elizabethan indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of hike term Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of essay inventory on hand.
A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for oil price hike term, credit sales and on how essay in an payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments.
How did you come to hike, these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of essay money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on term paper, the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to on how essay in an, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the hike paper loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace.
These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Effective. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on oil price term, a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is essay traffic, a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to hike term paper, a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of tips to write a good essay exam credit that is unused, and oil price paper the borrower can draw on the line of credit at essay, any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors.
This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for oil price paper, equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from jams, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the oil price hike balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for era essay topics, liabilities: Enter starting balance for oil price paper, Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Essay. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from oil price, operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner.
Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is web 2.0 essay, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and oil price hike term Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the web 2.0 essay three reports as it provides a view into oil price hike term, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the critically consider information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to term, edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections.
The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the critically essay last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from oil price hike, stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to gender inequality australia essays, change the hike term balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and web 2.0 essay outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in hike term order to change the effective essay accounts affected in hike the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the tips on how to write a good essay in an relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the term paper ability of the business to essay, meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in hike term debt.
The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the elizabethan business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the hike term paper business divided by the cost of the investment. On How A Good In An. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by oil price term paper, total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the gender inequality most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements.
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