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Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Reading Detective Critical Thinking Co. Originally published October 2003. Writing And Editing. Current Implications added in June, 2017. Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and detective thinking co problematic in U.S. politics and culture these days. The left still sees the writing right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes. The right likewise paints the reading thinking co left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.)More. Stereotypes (or characterizations) are generalizations or assumptions that people make about the dissertation 6th edition characteristics of reading detective critical, all members of a group, based on and editing, an image (often wrong) about what people in reading critical, that group are like. For example, one study of and editing, stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. Reading Detective Critical Thinking Co. Asians, on the other hand, are expected to writing research, be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and reading critical thinking generous; and not all Asians are reserved.

But according to writing, this study, others commonly perceive them this way.[1] Stereotyping is detective thinking especially prevalent -- and writing a sociology research problematic -- in reading critical, conflicts. Groups tend to christian writing contest, define themselves according to who they are and co who they are not . And others, especially enemies or opponents are often viewed in very negative ways. The opponent is expected to a sociology research paper, be aggressive, self-serving, and reading critical deceitful, for concluding essay example, while people in one's own group are seen in generally positive ways. Similarly, if problems occur, blame is reading detective thinking often placed on writing paper, the enemy, while one's own contribution to the problem is ignored. For example, problems may be attributed to the opponent's lack of reading thinking, cooperativeness, not one's own; or the enemy's aggressiveness, not their fear of one's own aggressive stance. Even similarities between parties can be viewed differently: one's own competitiveness may be seen in a positive light as tough, effective negotiating, while the opponent's competitive actions are seen as hostile and deceptive. Such stereotypes tend to be self-perpetuating. If one side assumes the christian writing other side is deceitful and aggressive, they will tend to reading detective critical thinking, respond deceitfully and aggressively themselves. Contest. The opponent will then develop a similar image of the first party and critical co respond deceptively, thus confirming the initial stereotype.

The stereotypes may even grow worse, as communication shuts down and write about your favorite teacher' escalation heightens emotions and co tension. Although stereotypes generally have negative implications, they aren't necessarily negative. Writing. Stereotypes are basically generalizations that are made about detective groups. Such generalizations are necessary: in apa citation, order to be able to interact effectively, we must have some idea of what people are likely to be like, which behaviors will be considered acceptable, and which not. For example, elsewhere in this system there is an reading detective thinking co, essay about high-context and low-context cultures.

People in writing paper, low-context cultures are said to be more individualistic, their communication more overt, depending less on context and shared understandings. Detective Thinking Co. High-context cultures are more group-oriented. Their communication is essay of our environment more contextually based, depending more on reading critical thinking co, shared understandings and inferences. Such generalizations are, in dissertation, essence, stereotypes. Detective Thinking. They allow us to on conservation of our environment, put people into a category, according to the group they belong to, and make inferences about critical how they will behave based on good concluding essay, that grouping. There will still be differences between individuals from reading critical co, one culture, and with the same individual in different situations. Divorce Has On Children. But the stereotype is critical co reasonably accurate, so it is useful. Stereotypes are only a problem when they are inaccurate, especially when those inaccuracies are negative and hostile. Additional insights into stereotypes and characterization frames are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants.

What Can Be Done to Deal with Negative Stereotypes: The key to essay, reversing negative stereotypes is to contradict them, in direct interactions between people, in the media, and reading through education. Between Individuals . Effects Children. Once people get to know a person from the other side, they often will determine that the reading detective thinking other is not nearly as bad as they originally had assumed. Your Teacher'. (Though sometimes they might find out detective co, they are just as bad -- or even worse!) More often, however, people really are much more reasonable than their stereotypes would suggest. In that case, getting to story, know people personally helps to break down negative images. This is especially true when people determine that they actually have things in common with people from the other side. Such things can range from enjoying the same music, hobbies, or sports, to having the same worries about children or aging parents. Even when people learn that they share fear or sadness, they can begin to understand each other more. When they come to understand that the other is afraid of being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people together.

Such shared emotions make people seem human, while stereotypes typically dehumanize people. Likewise, shared emotions make empathy possible, which opens the door to new forms of reading critical, interaction and trust building, at apa citation, least among the reading detective critical thinking co individuals involved. Depending on the context and other interactions, the image of the creative contest group as a whole may become more positive as well. (At other times, people rationalize that their one new acquaintance is not like the detective critical co others.) But even learning that one person can deviate from the stereotype is your a start. The challenge then is to expand such transformative experiences beyond the individuals involved to larger groups, communities, and eventually whole societies. Reading Co. Developing such mutual understanding is the goal of many intervention efforts in war-torn areas, and in environment, places rocked by critical co social unrest. Dialogue groups and apa citation dissertation problem-solving workshops are two common ways of doing this. So are joint projects such as war-reconstruction efforts, children's programs, recreational programs, medical programs -- any kind of program that brings individuals from opposing groups together in a cooperative venture. Although they have additional goals beyond the detective critical thinking breaking of stereotypes, working together cooperatively can do much to break down negative images people hold of the enemy.

In the Media. The media also plays an important role in both perpetuating and in breaking down stereotypes. If they characterize particular groups of people in certain ways, their viewers (or readers) are likely to essay, do the critical same. So if a movie -- or the write an essay about favorite teacher' motion picture industry in general -- characterizes a group of people negatively, they are likely to be perpetuating negative stereotypes and critical co making conflicts worse. If they emphasize the short positive aspects of reading critical thinking, groups that contradict prevalent stereotypes, they can have a significant role in building mutual understanding.

In Education. Educational institutions and good essay teaching materials also have the opportunity to affect stereotypes, and hence influence inter-group relations. Detective Thinking Co. Efforts to effects children essay, teach about detective critical thinking different cultures, and writing a sociology research paper the history of different racial or ethnic groups can help build inter-group understanding if it is critical co done in an effective and on conservation of our sympathetic way. Critical Co. However, the opposite writing, is also true. If textbooks teach about the reading detective critical treachery and write an essay about your favorite teacher' villainous actions of the enemy, this, obviously, will only detective perpetuate stereotypes from write an essay favorite teacher', one generation to reading, the next, entrenching the and editing conflict for many years to co, come. Descriptive. This does not mean that history should be ignored.

The holocaust, for example, did occur and co must be acknowledged. But it can be acknowledged as a grave mistake that is now recognized as a mistake, rather than painted as typical or acceptable behavior. What Individuals Can Do to Breakdown Negative Stereotypes. And Editing. Changing stereotypes is largely the critical job of writing, individuals. Detective Critical Thinking Co. Each of statement essay, us should examine the assumptions that we make about others and critical co ask ourselves where those assumptions come from.

Upon what information are they based? Are they based on writing, personal experiences with others? In what context? Might the critical other be different in different situations? Are your assumptions based on things you have heard from story essay, others?

Learned from the TV or movies? Learned in school? Is it possible that some of reading detective thinking, your negative images are wrong -- at least for some people? In most cases, the essay answer to that last question is detective likely to statement essay, be yes. Even in detective, the most escalated conflicts, not all of the christian enemy is detective thinking co as vicious and essay immutable as they are often assumed to be. Most groups have moderates and reading critical co extremists, people who are willing to writing and editing, listen and work with the reading detective critical co other side, and those who are not. Rather than assuming all of the enemy are evil and unwilling to hear your concerns, try to dissertation, get to detective co, know people as individuals. Christian Creative. Just as that will reduce the stereotypes you hold of others, it is also likely to detective thinking, reduce the writing paper stereotypes others hold of reading co, you. Steps the story essay media can take to reduce stereotypes are dealt with elsewhere in detective thinking co, this system, but fundamentally, it is apa citation dissertation important that the media paint as accurate a picture of critical co, both sides of writing a sociology research, a conflict as is critical thinking possible.

This generally means painting a complex picture. While extremists tend to make the most noise and write an essay about hence the reading detective critical thinking most news, the media can do much to a sociology, lessen conflict by focusing attention on moderates and peacebuilders as well. Heartwarming stories of reconciliation can replace or at least stand side-by-side with heart-wrenching stories of violence and loss. Showing that there is hope -- helping people visualize a better life in critical co, a better world -- is story descriptive a service the critical media can do better than any other institution, at least on a large scale. What the and editing Educational System Can Do. This, too, is dealt with elsewhere in this system, but the educational system (teachers, schools, textbooks) needs to reading detective critical thinking, also try to paint a fair and accurate picture of the and editing conflict and the different people involved, being aware that different sides of a conflict will view (frame) what is happening very differently.

Through stories, discussions, and exercises, teachers can help students (of all ages and reading critical thinking co levels) understand the complexity of the conflicts that surround them, and develop age- and situation-appropriate responses to the current conflicts in short story descriptive, their homes, communities, and nations. Reading Detective Critical Co. To the extent that classrooms contain students from writing and editing, both sides of the conflict, teachers can help students learn to understand and appreciate each other better, while protecting the reading thinking co safety (physical and writing contest emotional) of those on both sides. If the thinking co classroom only contains one group, reaching such intergroup understandings is harder, but still worth the effort through books and apa citation dissertation articles, discussions, TV and movies, and detective thinking co when available, online exercises (such as those provided in essay environment, the links below). Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and problematic in thinking, U.S. politics and culture these days. Research Paper. The left still sees the right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes. The right likewise paints the reading critical co left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.) These stereotypes make it practically impossible to befriend, relate to, or understand the short story descriptive other side enough to detective critical co, work with them or live in write, harmony with them. Detective Critical Co. The same dynamics appears in almost all escalated conflicts, and if allowed to writing contest, go to far, results in catastrophe. Before and reading detective during the Rwandan genocide, Tutsi's were referred to on conservation of our, as cockroaches rats, and enemies.

Jews, similarly, were seen as non-human or less than human enemies by the perpetrators of the reading critical thinking co Holocaust, so too were the Blacks who were captured in Africa and brought to has on essay, the Americas as slaves seen as less than human. Reading Critical Co. (Even the U.S. Writing. Constitution validated such beliefs by counting slaves as 3/5 people!) One hopes that the critical thinking U.S. has not and christian writing contest would not go to reading detective co, such extremes again But we are currently seeing it happen with respect to Muslims who are, apparently, not deserving of the same rights as other people according to Trump and some of children essay, his followers. We saw it with respect to Mexicans during Trump's campaign, where he accused them of being criminals and rapists. Both groups now are under siege, Mexicans and detective thinking co other undocumented immigrants fearing deportation daily, and Muslims increasingly being attacked and even killed for apa citation their relgious beliefs. It's time to turn this pathology around. Reading Detective Critical. Both this article and creative writing the linked article on Enemy Images have suggestions about ways such negative stereotypes can be combatted. It is incumbent upon reading thinking, everyone who wants a safe, secure America to enact such measures wherever possible. --Heidi Burgess, June, 2017. [1] Breslin, J. William. 1991.

Breaking Away from an essay your, Subtle Biases in reading, Negotiation Theory and Practice, eds. J. William Breslin and on conservation Jeffrey Rubin (Cambridge, Mass., U.S.: Program on Negotiation Books, 1991), 247-250. Reading Critical. Use the following to cite this article: Burgess, Heidi. Writing A Sociology Paper. Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Critical. Guy Burgess and on conservation environment Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/stereotypes. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the detective new site. Story Descriptive. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer.

The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to reading thinking co, constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the apa citation 6th edition problem and detective how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Apa Citation 6th Edition. An extensive collection of detective thinking co, resources covering the destructive dynamics of intractable conflict, strategies for limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and equitably resolving disputes. Concrete and apa citation realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. Critical Thinking Co. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to a sociology research, difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for reading critical thinking more constructively addressing these conflicts. About Your Teacher'. Beyond Intractability in detective thinking co, Context Blog. Placing conflict and and editing peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and critical co equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and divorce children reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Thinking Co. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts!

Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the short story essay authors and reading thinking co do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Beyond Intractability Essay. Writing A Sociology. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of thinking co, Colorado; All rights reserved. Write An Essay Favorite Teacher'. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Reading Detective Critical. Current Implications Sections. All rights reserved.

Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Good Concluding Essay. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

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Reading detective critical thinking co

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nyu example essay Your paper must offer an detective critical argument. It can't consist in the mere report of short essay your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the reading critical co, claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is effects that P. Reading! You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for statement, P. Detective Thinking Co! Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. And Editing! or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for reading detective critical co, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.

It usually begins by concluding statement essay, putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and reading detective thinking weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to paper the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in reading thinking, the light of divorce has on some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to reading detective thinking explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. Story Descriptive Essay! But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to thinking co persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of concluding statement essay persuading people, you have to start from reading co, common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper.

The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of good these papers is for you to reading detective critical thinking co show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to writing and editing come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to reading detective critical human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to christian contest other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.

But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at co, in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to good statement sit down and start making an detective critical outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on and editing, its structure. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to reading thinking write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and story of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write.

This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to detective critical thinking co write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out contest what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)

I find that making an outline is at detective thinking, least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a sociology research, a day or two. Then you should come back to it and detective thinking co rewrite it. Several times. Research Paper! At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. Critical Co! So you should start working on your papers as soon as the apa citation dissertation, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out reading detective a lot of basic explanation and writing and editing write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. Reading Co! I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and writing frustrating.

The authors in reading co, question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is writing contest going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Reading Thinking! Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to writing make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the thinking, structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. Good Concluding Statement! These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference.

Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by reading critical thinking, claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to dissertation my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q.

There are three reasons to believe Q. Co! Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for and editing, the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers.

A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the thinking co, views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in apa citation dissertation, doubt about whose claims you're presenting in reading thinking, a given paragraph. You can't make the research paper, structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Detective Critical Co! That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and and editing the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both.

We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to detective critical show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out effects divorce has on everything else. It is reading detective always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of writing paper your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and detective thinking co why it is a problem.

Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to short essay say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to reading detective thinking co be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of writing and editing what you're being graded on is how well you can do that.

Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. Reading Detective Critical Thinking! This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and creative writing contest definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person.

What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus.

For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Reading Detective Critical Thinking! So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. Christian Contest! You just have to make it clear that you're doing this.

For instance, some philosophers use the detective critical co, word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in writing, this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. Reading Critical Thinking Co! And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for writing, the sake of critical co variety. If you call something X at good concluding essay, the start of your paper, call it X all the way through.

So, for instance, don't start talking about reading critical thinking co, Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in christian creative contest, all three cases, then call it by the same name. Detective Critical Co! In philosophy, a slight change in creative writing contest, vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about critical thinking co, something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and effects children Methods to reading detective critical thinking co make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand.

Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. Good Concluding Statement! But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like.

Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the reading critical, special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the good concluding, same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible?

Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Thinking! Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument.

You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). Good Statement Essay! But don't treat the detective critical co, philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at descriptive, them. If you can't see anything the detective, view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them.

Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the christian writing, view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Reading Detective Co! Use your imagination. Writing Paper! Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. Co! So tell the concluding statement essay, reader what it is you think X is saying.

Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about reading, X's views, though. You have to go on good statement essay, to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to reading detective critical co argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. Apa Citation Dissertation 6th Edition! It is permissible for reading critical thinking co, you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so.

Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to creative writing contest quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to reading detective co quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to concluding statement say so. (And here too, cite the reading detective co, pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words.

If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the descriptive essay, quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to reading thinking illustrate the author's point. Divorce Children Essay! If necessary, you may want to reading co distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words.

They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the creative writing, perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and reading detective critical ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon concluding essay, the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and reading detective emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. And Editing! Here's an critical co example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. Writing A Sociology Research! The difference is in critical thinking co, how much force and liveliness they have in writing and editing, our thoughts and consciousness.

The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the detective, faint images of our thinking and reasoning. Essay! There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in reading detective co, his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. Writing! My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the reading detective critical thinking, same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of and editing our thinking . These are not the detective critical thinking co, same. Short! So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage.

A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the detective co, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. Apa Citation 6th Edition! It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. Reading Detective Thinking Co! It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome.

Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to apa citation dissertation ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at reading critical, the end of the paper. But make it clear to effects divorce has on children essay the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about detective thinking, how the writing a sociology research paper, question might be answered, and about what makes the critical, question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is writing and editing unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the reading detective thinking, view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is christian creative correct.

If you're assessing two positions and co you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to writing be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is detective critical a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. Writing Research Paper! You should try to provide reasons for reading detective co, this claim that might be found convincing by writing and editing, someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to reading critical thinking co change your thesis to one you can defend.

For example, instead of writing a sociology paper writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to reading detective critical thinking co be doubtful whether P. One of paper these reasons is X. X poses a problem for reading thinking, the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Christian Writing Contest! Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for reading detective, P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.

But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to creative writing the opposition. After all, neither of reading critical these papers commits you to statement the view that not-P. Reading Detective Critical Co! They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. And Editing! P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences?

Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. Reading! If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to has on children your central discussion, then get rid of critical co it. Even if it sounds nice.

You should never introduce any points in short story descriptive, your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. Critical Thinking Co! For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the descriptive essay, same thing as aborting Kennedy?

Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. Critical Thinking! But you shouldn't write this way. Apa Citation 6th Edition! Even if your TA is able to reading thinking figure out creative what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to thinking co be sure to apa citation 6th edition say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on reading critical thinking, the draft's structure and research overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there.

Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for reading thinking co, that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of divorce essay every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to reading detective be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to essay other students in the class, and reading detective critical thinking get their comments and advice. I encourage you to apa citation dissertation 6th edition do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of detective critical thinking co your draft unclear or confusing to short story essay them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Reading Detective Thinking Co! Your paragraphs and and editing your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to reading detective thinking read it out loud.

This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Christian Contest! Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and detective critical thinking unclear prose. You should count on apa citation dissertation 6th edition, writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!!

Check out the reading detective, following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in descriptive, everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of reading detective thinking grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on christian contest, Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like.

You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the detective critical co, reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an writing argument that. Reading Detective Co! ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to story descriptive essay be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to critical co use these secondary readings when writing your papers.

The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and writing research paper present your own arguments for or against critical thinking, some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by effects children essay, themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of critical thinking those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the divorce has on children, pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to reading detective critical get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria:

How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and a sociology research well-organized? We do not judge your paper by critical co, whether we agree with its conclusion. Essay! In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the reading detective critical thinking, structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to creative writing read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?

Explain why this is a reason to critical co believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from christian creative writing, A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is reading detective critical false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of short engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA.

Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and reading co problems we've indicated. If you got below an short descriptive essay A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to reading thinking co see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of dissertation 6th edition failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on critical co, it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to short essay improve the reading thinking co, whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to dissertation 6th edition improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Reading Detective Critical! Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to story rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded.

Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in detective critical thinking co, the public good.

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Space Exploration Is a Waste of reading detective co Money. Billions of dollars are spent every year by the world's space agencies, but does this money bring us any benefit, or should we pull the divorce children plug and spend it elsewhere? Please cast your vote after you've read the arguments. You can also add to detective co, the debate by leaving a comment at the end of the page. Science may well give us good things. We all know Velcro came from NASA. But why bother spending all this money exploring space and finding out there was water on Mars at effects essay some point in the last few thousand years (we have water in Earth) when these same great minds could be applied to finding better ways to power humanity's insatiable desire for energy, to feeding the starving millions around the reading critical thinking globe, and generally making life down here better before looking up into dissertation the heavens. It seems the authoritative powers have their heads way, way up in reading critical the clouds. The needs of humanity should always come first. While there are people on Earth who need help, they should be helped, rather than seeing money spent on sending robots onto other planets. Humanity is the number one priority; keeping the human race alive is and editing, a necessity.

Alternatively, space exploration is critical, a desire. Short Story Descriptive Essay? If we put our desires before our needs, then everyone loses out on a better standard of living. Sure, it's great that NASA can elevate technology to the next level time and time again, so why not make technology that directly benefits us? And as there are millions round the world who are starving to death, when people spend more and reading detective critical more money on space technology they should realize they are the killers. Also, why take so much time and money to learn about Mars or any other planet, when we know so little about our own? We should learn more about Earth and the ocean before wasting time and money on Space exploration. spends the time and money to develop these products for use in space, but usually there are many civilian applications for the same products. Production of these product leads to redevelopment, sales and story descriptive essay distribution - all of reading critical thinking co which leads to more jobs; somebody has to build, sell, and repair. One last point, we know that Russia and China have both put men in space and statement essay now even more countries are getting involved. Reading Detective? Obviously we have seen the power of Google Maps (and that is only at the civilian level).

Imagine now, that other powerful countries have satellites to children essay, spy on us and can position weapons directly above our country, dont you think it would be a good idea to be abloe to stave that off. If we decided to stop wasting money on detective thinking, space programs, we can say goodbye to many new developments that will be out of reach of garage scientist and writing and editing we can expect to be overwhelmed with visitors in the skies above the US. Did you know that to build a space elevator (a space-platform constructed with the intent of lifting substances into Earth's orbit) would only cost $40 billion with 100% contingency, and half that for the baseline construction cost? There are endless possibilities, ranging from solar energy farms to critical thinking, revolutionary and cheap intercontinental transportation. Imagine a solar farm, capable of harvesting the solar winds; this translates to an unlimited supply of apa citation 6th edition energy for not just the United States, but the entire world!

The human race is changing, and expanding. Soon, the Earth will simply not be big enough and we need to start considering our future as a species. There are issues that do plague us as a race. There is poverty and injustice in the world. While these issues exist and should certainly not be ignored, the reading critical funds put forth to space exploration have a quantifiable impact and are no less of a priority. These problems will likely not be solved by the evolution of invention and space exploration alone, but as technology improves so will the lives of every man, woman, and child regardless of gender, skin color, or wealth.

Space exploration needs focus and and editing funding, it is reading critical, representative of our future, and will secure it. Space exploration is arguably the single-most important investment we could possibly make. Space exploration gives us no direct benefit. There have been no direct benefits from writing space travel; the only 'good things' to come from it are indirect, and not the end aims. NASA weren't aiming for velcro, but the moon.

We got velcro, the moon gave us nothing except some pretty pictures of the planet below. Scientists and inventors could give us the same by-products for a lot less cost if the associated space exploration was removed from the equation. All the by-products of the space race could have been developed by commercial companies aiming to make a profit by developing good products and selling them, at a fraction of the cost: the Post-it note is possibly as useful as velcro, but was developed by 3M at a fraction of the cost. Furthermore, a lot of the 'advances' space exploration bring us is irrelevant to daily life: why bother spending money developing a pen that works in zero-gravity when a) a pencil will do and b) the vast majority of the world's 6 billion people will never experience zero gravity? However indirect they might be, the advances would not have come were it not for the space programmes of NASA, as there would have been no technological need. Space exploration gave impetus to projects that have been useful, as well as providing valuable scientific knowledge.

For example, the laser-targetting of thinking mirrors left on dissertation, the moon by Apollo astronauts helps test and understand basic physics, which in detective turn leads to advances in very earthly things like electronics, hyper-conductivity, etc. Anyway, space exploration absolutely does give us a direct benefit. When space technology has advanced far enough, we will be able to leave this planet in large numbers and live among the stars. Effects? This will solve our population/environment/resource/energy problems for a long, long time. Detective Critical Thinking Co? It may take centuries, even millenia, but we will not get the technology without experimenting with it. The Earth itself is not fully explored yet. Space exploration has always been a gimmick.

The USA was doing it only to look better than the good concluding statement USSR and reading detective critical co vice versa; it has never really been about the science. There are far more valuable scientific endeavours to statement, fund, such as the detective critical exploration of our own planet. The seabed, especially around volcanic regions, is relatively unexplored, as is Antarctica. One recent news story about a ‘lost tribe’ also highlighted the fact that we are not in contact with all indigenous peoples across the writing a sociology research planet. The scientific knowledge obtainable from our own planet, particularly organisms that inhabit locations with extreme conditions, offers far more value than that of space.

Potential organisms to reading thinking co, be found in divorce has on children space (such as on Mars) offer exactly the same value to the scientific community, and perhaps more, as the conditions would be far more extreme than those found on the Earth. Also, though it is true that much of earth, including the thinking co ocean and Antarctica, are unexplored, it's not as though we're exploring space instead of our own planet. The effort being made to explore the ocean is just a great as that of divorce children essay Space Travel. Besides, learning about the ocean floor, while that is important, is no more important than space. What is critical thinking co, there that we absolutely have to know about the sea floor?

Basically, I think that the only reason that we are so interested in exploring our own planet is because it is our planet, and we are under the absurd impression that we must know our own environment before branching out into others, when truthfully, doing both at the same time is an ideal opportunity that we seem to be taking for descriptive granted. A commercial space industry is taking over. Even if space exploration was a good target of reading detective co funding in effects divorce the past, it is now a growing target of venture capital and private ingenuity. For example, SpaceX's reusable rocket that is expected to reduce launch costs for commercial satelites, Bigelow Aerospace's investment in space tourism, and Virgin Galactic's expected space-faring plane, among others. Now that private companies are intending to supply space access on reading detective critical thinking co, the cheap, it is useless to spend all that money on 6th edition, expensive platforms such as the space shuttle. the corporations will move in reading whenever they see opportunity for solid profit, but it is always science, and often government funded research, that finds those opportunities in the first place. for example you mention satellites which are an integral part of the global communications industry, which in itself would not exist without first having the invention of telephone wires, radio waves, etc., all which have led up to space satellites. as for the prospects of space tourism again that is effects divorce essay, simply a result of the fact that governments have funded space research for all these years and finally it is getting to detective critical co, a point where it's cheap enough and safe enough to send paying citizens up there. corporations will not do anything that doesn't guarantee profit so will they investigate whether there is water on apa citation dissertation, the moon? whether it is possible in co the future to colonize it? no. it's too much of a risk so the government has to pay for it. the new crisis on planet earth: finish your priorities before starting new ones.

there are two major crisis going on at your home planet. Christian Creative Writing Contest? global warming and the world wild economic crisis, both are severe. if the government doesn't handle the economic crisis with care we all will end up poor. how can we feed the detective co poor,fend for our selves and christian writing take care of really expensive space travels? space travel is thinking, a unwanted business for now. how many of you'll know that NASA lost count of there budget after the first billions of dollar after the first year? is this more important than caring for the needy? when so many people are dieing as we speak can we just neglect them and say the money we just spend went for a good cause, and these few hundreds of people who died are nothing because if we don't find a another planet to escape the cultures of global warming we all will die is christian creative writing, that fair for them?i say no and reading what will you say? Global warming is the second most severe issue the earth is apa citation dissertation, going through. Detective Thinking? we have to take care of our planet before we go roaming other planets. if the great legendary tribes of yesterday were here to see all this they would not believe that long time ago there used to be pure air to breath e and man and animal lived side by side.now everything is destroyed. if we take care of christian this problem with with care we would be able to overcome this disaster. what if the space shuttle launch and detective critical thinking co then fall?then what?the government is going to have to pay more money for that.plus they might get sued.our government is dumb for going along with this. First priority is to teach people to help themselves so that they can help us when it is time to explore space, so let's prioritize. Writing Contest? We would not have most of the problems of today if our parents taught us better than to steal and hurt others, so let's teach the thinking co next generation so that they can explore space when they are well grounded. Our goal here is to create a balance, not to give up one option for another.

It's sickening to effects children essay, see all of these people going on and on about saving the critical starving and impoverished. Well then sell your computer. Stop commenting on here, go dedicate your life to dissertation 6th edition, helping the reading detective co starving and needy. Christian Contest? And how many tons of rice and grain do we need to keep dropping on these countries before they get their act together and FEED THEMSELVES. I know it sounds heartless, but it's their fault.

I don't care if they don't have money. Man lived for thousands of years off of the land and many (dumb) animals still manage to pull it off. Reading Detective Critical Co? Why do we have to send some christian missionaries over to dig them a well? Why can't they dig their own well? Why can't they plant their own grain? Why can't they hunt their own game or raise their own livestock? Why can't they move OUT of the areas of drought? Why is it OUR problem? You feel guilty because you live better? We shouldn't help people that will not help themselves.

And something is going to happen and we will ALL be dead or starving on this planet because we refused to move on and advance the survival of our species; all pissed away on statement essay, supporting some people that would probably just as soon let us starve if we were the ones without food and they were the rich ones. Most humanitarian organizations simply give poor countries money to fend for their sick and hungry when they can instead teach them how to plant crops that survive in their harsh conditions and educate people who are illiterate and turn them into doctors or farmers. Detective Thinking? When money is just thrown at their feet, what will happen if the descriptive essay money runs out? When they send people to give them prepared food and medication, what will happen when they leave? Give a man a fish and thinking co you feed him for a day. Descriptive? Teach a man to fish and reading detective thinking co feed him for a lifetime. Money is better used to help human lives in their own country. Imagine you own a house that you have ruined over the years and never bothered to fix any of the integral parts of writing contest it, like the hole in the roof, the foundation, running water, garden, and it has become unsanitary, you need 1 Million dollars to fix it up. Instead you plan to abandon this house since you don't like the neighbourhood anyways, and you want to buy yourself a new one. You're really picky and won't settle for anything less then a perfect new home, no matter the cost.

You hire a Realestate agent, his fee to search for your dream home is $1 Billion Dollars, and reading thinking co the potential new home you're looking in that perfect neighbourhood will cost you more then 100 Trillion dollars. Writing Research Paper? You're conviced to go with the latter option, cause you're under the immpression that some really interesting girls live there, but you're agent has yet to confirm anything of this information. His search still continues. We know that us humans exist but we don't know if space creaters exist so why bother. If there are things out detective critical there they don't hurt us. We people in your country we are like family and you have to help family. Really? This is actually your analogy? Well, to begin there's usually more than one person living in a country. Secondly I'm assuming the 1 million dollars to fix it up means government spending on education, healthcare, policing not to mention military (which is short descriptive, considerably more than scientific space exploration if you live in reading co the US). So your suggesting that governments spend doubly-doubly-doubly-triply-quadruply the amount they spend on writing research, those areas on thinking co, space travel.

Needless to say, this simply isn't the case anywhere. Thirdly, some really interesting girls is by far the writing and editing best analogy based metaphor for scientific knowledge I have ever heard. Not joking, thank you for that. However flawed your analogy is the title money is better used to reading, help human lives in their own country is good essay, interesting. Thinking Co? But here's the writing problem with that argument, the reading detective critical thinking by-product of short essay space exploration is reading detective co, scientific knowledge that has helped an unquantifiable number of humans since the beginning of space explorations. Has On? How do you propose to critical, purchase MRI machines without the christian creative digital image processing NASA developed[http://techtran.msfc.nasa.gov/at_home/hospital3.html]]? And how are you going to stop your troops from reading critical being blown to pieces by land mines without using a NASA Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) scrap propellant[http://techtran.msfc.nasa.gov/at_home/landmine.html]] based device? There are numerous more examples that you can Google for yourself.

The knowledge that space exploration provides is crucial for good developing areas from medicine to the military. Without it development would stall. To attack space exploration in this manner is to reading detective critical thinking co, attack the purpose of short descriptive scientific research in general. Science may be done for science's sake occasionally, but the knowledge generated always benefits humanity. Go and search space shuttle disasters on Google you will find tons of information on how NASA failed on some of its missions risking the lives of there astronauts. Nasa scientists have lost contact with the reading detective thinking co latest unmanned spacecraft sent to Mars, the $165m Mars Polar Lander. In September, the $125m Mars Climate Orbiter mission also failed, after an embarrassing mix-up over metric and imperial measurements. The history of failed missions to Mars stretches back 40 years, so are they a waste of taxpayers' money, which would be better spent on more earthly needs? Is the cost of space adventure unjustified while poverty exists in many parts of the world?

NASA, yes, is hazardous. In space flight missions at good concluding statement least 18 people have died, and reading critical thinking millions of good statement essay dollars have been spent on rovers that have, yes, been unsuccessful. So that means we should give up? Of course not. if at first you don't succeed, try try again, right. Critical? And NASA has succeeded. And while its very true that being an astronaut is writing and editing, a risky, hazardous job, more people die from car crashes in one city in one month than people have died expanding exploration for the last forty years! And so what if failed mars missions stretch back for forty years. Poverty stretches back to beginning of detective critical thinking history. If you want to hold of on exploration until we end poverty then I hope you don't care if we ever explore again. Concluding Statement Essay? Additionally, all of the hazards of detective co Space exploration are made public knowledge, if you take the time to look, and the Astronauts, which are really the only ones threatened, are fully aware of and editing what they're signing on for.

Their willingness to critical thinking, risk their own lives only serves to emphasize the imprtance of continued exploration in the Universe. Thinking that the budget devoted to space exploration is wasted money , we believe that this kind of exploratin is effects divorce has on essay, a wild dream that we cannot achieve and the huge amounts of money are gone in smoke rather than to critical co, spend these amounts to relieve poverty in the Third World and medical researches should be encouraged instead these explorations. Good Concluding Statement Essay? In addition we have to explore our planet and solve its problems before thinking in reading critical thinking co SPACE INVASION. The Space exploration program is in no way wasted money. Anything we learn is apa citation dissertation, cool because there are ninjas. You see, while we have ninjas here on earth we lack the destructive and detective critical mental capability demonstrated by the space ninjas.

Wielding their flammable cupcakes, the ninjas will descend upon the earth and kill the enemies of those they work for. Unfortunately, these ninjas can only survive in Neptune's atmosphere. But we best be usin' some money to go to space and and editing get them cuz there's this dude named Daniel who needs a damn cupcake in his face. Last thing, I wouldn't apply to it as Space Invasion until we find actual life on a planet besides our own, which will never happen unless we explore, therefore, until we explore space more, your argument is invalid. The resources and reading co efforts focused on space exploration could better humanity. How much money is devoted to space exploration? Hundreds of good concluding essay Billions. They are paid through grants and funding to reading, and from government agencies, paid to companies to develop or innovate current models or ideas, and in turn, those companies pay for writing research paper the materials and critical thinking co the manpower to manifest those ideas. This time and dedication could be focused on ending famine or building developing countries.

It could be used to increase the writing efforts to combat terminal illnesses or to battle pollution. We could have a workforce teeming with brilliant scientist working on how to ameliorate the efficiency of our consumption of energy. Detective Critical Thinking? Money could be allocated for good statement education. We need to focus our resources and efforts to detective critical co, one problem at a time according to priority. At least a tenth of writing research paper our resources and efforts should be used by a taskforce for one goal/problem at a time. Education should be our first priority to thinking, get everyone on dissertation, their feet to reading detective critical, then help the writing and editing rest of the world in a cycle of progress, so exploring space can wait until we are healthy on the ground unless there is some reason that exploring space is going to improve our condition within the next ten generations more than education would improve our condition, that would be hard to argue in favor of exploration. The future is in the stars. The discoveries that await humanity warrants excitement unlike anything else. If this website that I am posting this to, this laptop that I am typing on, and this internet we all are using is the reading detective product of the discovery of America, then the possibilities are endless if we look to the heavens.

Space Exploration is a waste of resources. Instead of decreasing resources by christian contest, space travel and detective thinking co such, we must deal with problems on Earth first. Why bother spending all this money on exploring space when we could be helping our own planet that us humans live on. Concluding? NASA is thinking co, very damgerous. Concluding Statement? So many accidents and problems happened in the space shuttles such as explosions, pieces falling off, and missing the gravity on Earth.

That is even more money to fix those problems. Space Exploration is a waste of money and a waste of time. Also, we know we exist, but we don't know if anything out there exists. Spend time and money on our planet also know as our home. space exploration is a waste of critical money. you can use the short essay money for japan who just had a horrible earth quake. What if a disaster happens in the U.S? if we dont have money to fix it hten we will just have to deal with it. space exploration is a waste of money. but in some points its not. If we have to thinking, use the money for something i would strongly approve that we use it for space exploration.

Lets say the world is on effects divorce children essay, its edge and we have to detective thinking co, get off of the earth then we could take rocket ships and good statement we could live on the moon. If we continue space exploration we could probably find a planet that has water or oxygen. The movie wall-e was a great example. the grown ups and children had to go into thinking co space and divorce has on children essay live in reading thinking co a giant space ship because the dissertation 6th edition world ended. that is most likely to reading detective critical thinking, happen to us if the creative contest earth just becomes a dump. Could have been used for more impactful endeavors. Imagine only if we would have pursued alternative energy resources with the effort, time and co money we had spent in the space program. Where would we be by now?.

Probably in christian writing contest a better position to reading detective, explore space with better, cheaper, more reliable technology. 13. Your dead wrong Not a DIME HAS BEEN SPENT IN OUTER SPACE; NOT ONE DIME ; IN THE PAST 50 YEARS CONTRACTORS AND SUB. SUB SUB SUB CONTRACTORS HAVE RECIVED BILLIONS OF $ $ $ $ $ DOLLARS TO BUILD BILLIONS BILLIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PARTS TOOLS FOR THE SPACE INDUSTRY ! Think how this has put food on the tables and roofs over the heads of millions of employed people, Millions of men and women have found a way to earn a living with out being on writing, welfair. or unemployment insureance; ! They are the contributers and hard workers the real backbone of AMERICA, The best the very best from reading critical co astronauts to the. floor maintainence people; Every person since the 1950s that was employed in the. Space Industry worked long hours. I BET YOU CAN'T DEBATE THAT ! Mr, Joseph Salomon,

I look forward to your replys ! Friendly or Hostile , Scientific knowledge has value beyond the measurements of descriptive essay cost. Knowledge is reading, invaluable. Writing Research? Furthering our understanding of how the universe came into being, and reading critical co ultimately how we came into writing being, cannot be measured as useful solely in terms of reading detective thinking cost. What price to pay for knowing that in the future, humanity can be saved because there are other planets out there capable of sustaining life? Scientific knowledge has intrinsic worth. Space exploration is just one aspect of statement science that seems to reading detective critical, have little impact on our daily lives. Who cares if the Higgs-Boson exists? Very few people. But governments have funded a new particle collider at CERN to find it because they recognise the importance of finding it to story descriptive essay, understanding the universe.

It's sickening to see all of these people going on and on about saving the starving and impoverished. Reading Critical Co? Well then sell your computer. Stop commenting on apa citation dissertation 6th edition, here, go dedicate your life to detective critical thinking, helping the starving and needy. And how many tons of rice and grain do we need to keep dropping on writing, these countries before they get their act together and FEED THEMSELVES. I know it sounds heartless, but it's their fault.

I don't care if they don't have money. Man lived for thousands of years off of the land and many (dumb) animals still manage to detective critical co, pull it off. Why do we have to send some christian missionaries over to dig them a well? Why can't they dig their own well? Why can't they plant their own grain? Why can't they hunt their own game or raise their own livestock? Why can't they move OUT of the short essay areas of drought? Why is reading detective critical thinking, it OUR problem? You feel guilty because you live better? We shouldn't help people that will not help themselves.

And something is going to and editing, happen and co we will ALL be dead or starving on 6th edition, this planet because we refused to move on and advance the thinking co survival of our species; all pissed away on supporting some people that would probably just as soon let us starve if we were the ones without food and they were the rich ones. The argument that humanity will need to find a new habitat to survive is a stretch and paranoid. Contest? Humans are already dying due to poverty and the lack of food etc. The millions of dollars of government funding that goes to space exploration could instead be used to save the humans who are already dying in our world. No-one is going to argue against reading detective thinking, the value of knowledge but there is a greater value in spending more on food supplies which has a certain result of feeding the hungry, whereas certain results are not present in the theory of discovering a sustainable planet.

Compared to christian creative, other areas of government spending (e.g. military), the cost of space exploration simply isn't ridiculously high. There have been space vehicles built in the private sector for as little as $25m, a drop in the ocean compared to critical, US spending in essay Iraq, and the net benefits outweigh even these figures. Although the reading detective critical thinking co cost is not high relative to writing and editing, other government expenditure, it is reading detective critical, still an additional cost that the creative writing taxpayer is detective, burdened with. Christian Writing? If this debate is saying that space exploration is pointless then it means spending money on reading thinking, nothing so is definitely a waste. Even if it's a small amount it is still an amount that could be spent elsewhere.Everyday in Delhi B.P.S buses are are getting blasted due to the default in the engeenering.So we shouldspend money on writing, it not for the space exploration.We should spend money on the coton bags and detective critical thinking co jute bags.We should spend money on Afforestation .We live on the earth so I request everyone to spend money on and editing, the Earth not on space. It is in man's nature to explore his environment.

Without the urge to ‘see what’s out there’ the continents would still be populated by the indigenous races. North Americans would all be Native Americans, Africans would all be black, and Australia would have only Aborigines and kangaroos. Let’s take this argument to its extremities: Suppose no one had ever wondered if there was another little village somewhere in the world. Then every group of civilised people would have to grow in detective their own shell of ignorance. The printing press would have remained in writing a sociology research Germany unless some other nation happened to stumble on the same process. The same would apply to…well, the reading detective critical thinking co list is just too long and life is a sociology research paper, too short.

Indeed it is our nature to explore our environment - but that environment is not zero-gravity, extremes (and not the bearable extremes we experience on detective, earth) of temperatures and terrain. Indeed, there is still a substantial area of our own planet we have yet to fully explore. Why rush off to effects has on, space when we've not seen all of our own planet yet? If people had just stayed in their own locations they would find ways to become highly advanced in regards to those locations. lIkely, it wold get to reading detective critical, the point that if they tried exploration they would be able to benefit most anyone that happened upon dissertation 6th edition their civilization, and vice versa. Think about reading critical thinking co, it as you would from ancient events in Eurasia. Writing? The the chinese were only reading detective thinking co, able to help Europe so well because they were isolated from them for so long, even though it did really only lead to much conflict and apa citation dissertation war, but that was only because of the Europeans greed.

Many discoveries have been made as a result of Space Exploration. Many discoveries and detective products have been developed from the knowledge gained from space exploration. For example, NASA created Velcro which is now used in many clothing items, bags and so forth. Non-stick pans and surfaces were also created as a result of short story space exploration. Detective Critical Thinking? Now we can cook without worrying whether or not our cakes will stick to the sides of apa citation 6th edition our pans.

Overall, space exploration has provided us with new knowledge and as a result of this, many new and intriguing inventions have been made. It's sickening to see all of these people going on and on about saving the starving and impoverished. Well then sell your computer. Stop commenting on reading detective critical thinking, here, go dedicate your life to helping the starving and needy. And how many tons of rice and grain do we need to keep dropping on these countries before they get their act together and FEED THEMSELVES. I know it sounds heartless, but it's their fault.

I don't care if they don't have money. Man lived for thousands of years off of the land and many (dumb) animals still manage to pull it off. Why do we have to send some christian missionaries over to dig them a well? Why can't they dig their own well? Why can't they plant their own grain? Why can't they hunt their own game or raise their own livestock? Why can't they move OUT of the areas of drought? Why is it OUR problem?

You feel guilty because you live better? We shouldn't help people that will not help themselves. Story? And something is going to happen and we will ALL be dead or starving on this planet because we refused to detective, move on and advance the survival of our species; all pissed away on concluding statement, supporting some people that would probably just as soon let us starve if we were the ones without food and they were the reading thinking co rich ones. Although these discoveries have been made, do you really think that velcro and non-stick pans are more important than feeding the starving, solving the current economic crisis or dealing with the environmental issues? Though these inventions may be useful, we can survive without them. A normal pan still cooks your meals, buttons and zips can do up your jumpers or clothes. These items are simply a luxury we cannot afford and we do not need them. The thousands of starving people cannot survive without food so why spend money on products which we do not need. No one has ever said that space was not meant for us to cross, who is to say that the oceans were meant for us to cross into America? How many men died crossing the ocean to concluding statement, the Americas and other contintents?

Much more then seven I can bet you, but I am not saying their death was pointless and for waste. They knew the risks, and they took it for the sake of knowledge. It is also not meaningless, how is thinking, it meaningless? Many many many technologies have come out of it. Statement? (See The Largest Benefits) Beyond the side effects, which were revolutionary in and of themselves, we may need Space more than we think. Detective Co? We all know, unless we're dillusional, that our planet won't last forever (found out and editing through Space exploration, BTW), and that how long it lasts relies heavily on critical thinking, our surrounding environment. The more we know about out own Galaxy, and even just the Universe, the safer we can potentially make out planet. Besides, if we're not carefull, we're going to writing, be emigrating to reading, one of those planets out there sooner than we think. Where would we be if Earth became uninhabitable and we, having cut our Space program, were unable to find a substitute? Space travel has given us a lot of new things for example the micro chip, the CAT scan and so on. You might say that we could just put together a group of scientist to figure it out, but and idea has to come from something, and a sociology research they wouldn't just make a CAT scan if someone told to to make something to scan a brain, and even if they would, it would take a lot more time.

Also, space travel could benefit our future, if we ended up making settlements on the moon or mars, we might be able to mine there and get rare minerals, or a huge supply of a mineral, boosting economy. Think of America, if someone had put a stop to earth's exploration due to poverty, we wouldn't have one economically strong country(USA) to help the poor. a false answer, those things would have been developed WITHOUT a space program. Plastic were invented by material engineers working on the space program. Thinking? it is a large, profitable, and useful industry. Parts of your computer are made of it. Innovations in computing were needed. Good Concluding Essay? More efficient fuels were researched. The Internet was a joint military and NASA project.

Obviously you are taking advantage of them right now. Space Exploration is a waste of resources. Detective Critical Co? Instead of decreasing resources by concluding essay, space travel and such, we must deal with problems on Earth first. Detective Critical? Why bother spending all this money on good concluding statement essay, exploring space when we could be helping our own planet that us humans live on. NASA is very damgerous. So many accidents and reading thinking problems happened in the space shuttles such as explosions, pieces falling off, and missing the gravity on Earth. Divorce? That is even more money to detective thinking, fix those problems. Space Exploration is a waste of has on essay money and a waste of time. Also, we know we exist, but we don't know if anything out there exists.

Spend time and money on our planet also know as our home. All the other Earth-Like Planets (needs exploration too) Why do people wan't more money, just to have smex with different women (Like at the South park episode Sexual Healing) or they just to stay at Earth not knowing that one day Earth maight be reduced to a Mars-Like planet. Reading? There are extraterrestrials or Extrajovians (not Jupiter or any thing else outside the writing research paper habitable zone) that seem friendly (Hollywood makes them evil just so humans can feel good about themselves). A Solar System is detective critical, not a Galaxy as many people who believe in sky spirits still discredit today. There is always a way to travel there not just by using simple rockets or shuttles or anything that the people that don't know what the new things that the scientists thought about.

There will come a time when an organism is taken from Gliese, COROT or PSR to good concluding essay, Earth and shown to those guys who still believes in magic making and reading critical they'll say Oo thats fake thats just a cat in dissertation 6th edition FrogChickenleg costume and aliens don't exist blah blah blah like some thing that you pray to actually help you? I tried once and all I get is embarressment and mockery and everything bad that happens. (whoever reads this and notices that i'm off the subject please don't comment dude you suck all I read was blah blah i hate religion blah blah aliens exist. Reading Critical Thinking Co? ) please hesitate to type. Space Exploration has given us many,many technologies that are essential. Satellites were some of the first venturers into short essay space and reading critical thinking are another critical part of our society. Weather Forecasting (Satellites. Very important for hurricanes and dangerous storm systems, have saved lives and help us prepare for the worst.) Velcor and non-stick pans! (Mostly a joke, but hey, they work!) (General Technology.) GPS (Very critical if your lost somewhere, has saved lives!) (Satellites.) Long range television! (Satellites.) Long Range Communication (Phones,Cellphones,etc.) (Satellites.) Internet. (Satellites, and power lines of course.)

Now onto divorce has on children essay the somewhat psyhcological and green-wise part of why we need Space Exploration. If we stopped warring with eachohter and wasting precious minerals that we have on this Earth -on- war, we would have a lot more resources to reading detective critical thinking, spend on concluding statement essay, more important things such as daily life, and reading critical thinking co hey, space exploration wouldnt mind some more attention either. If we spent our time looking for other planets, and other areas of expansion. We would be a much more healthy planet and society. Our Earth is apa citation 6th edition, also nearlly completely explored except for detective critical thinking the oceans depths which are frankly impossible to get to the bottom too. The pressures are far far too powerful and some even say its more dangerous to trek to the bottom of our oceans then it is into space. Our bodies and steels cannot handle the apa citation dissertation intense pressure they have for critical more then a half hour. (The window of an children, exploratory sub cracked and the crew nearly died before they had to immediately go back up.) Look at reading detective critical thinking co the casualties of war and the waste of resources and land. Oil spills are causing massive damage to the eco-system, the recent gulf spill has me worried that the entire balance might just be at stake.

We have seen that solar powered cars can convert it to electricity and has just as much if not more power then gas cars. (Instant accelereation* and some have gone to 100 mph.) * You have to and editing, rev your engine on detective co, a gas car to get gas into the engine before accelerating. With electricity the power is instant. Solar Power is infinitely renewable (Until the sun dies.) and infinitely powerful, why waste money on christian, oil rigs? Your going to get alot more money on solar power and less expenses with minor maintence. There are so many more things I can name at this time, but here are just a few as I must go eat for now.

Exploration/investment is Necessary for critical thinking Progress. Space exploration entails research and development on essay, multifarious fronts, all of which require monetary investment and a period of trial and error in innovation before any outcome, whether positive or otherwise, can manifest. An example is critical co, RD in the pharmaceutical industry. The cost may be fairly high, but if any discoveries that benefit mankind directly or via a spillover effect are made, the advantages will be vast. If it's being explored for the right reasons. If it's being explored for contest the right reasons. Okay, well, if it's being explored for useful reasons. To put it bluntly, if aliens were discovered on thinking, the face of Mercury, wouldn't you be interested in hearing about it? I know I would. Just as man could help but wonder if the short descriptive essay Earth was really flat, or if there was anything outside the 'Known World'.

We now feel the same about space, human kind has always needed answers, questions temp us, pull us together and satisfy us when we find the reading answer. The question's being asked at the moment are: 'How did the universe begin?' and 'Is there life outside of Earth?'. Short Story? These questions drive so many people that calling space travel a 'waste of money' seems to be an insult to so many people's lives and careers! There are many things in reading critical our world that have not discovered yet; do cures to AIDS and cancer ring a bell? And what about over coming poverty? The point is, space exploration is extremely expensive. We should find a solution to what we don't know in our world before exploring a different one. We simply don't have the money or resources. Besides, if it's unemployment you're worried about, more people to devote their lives to over-coming the problems we know about, and not digging up more for us to solve. New products are created as a by-product. There are a lot of examples for that such as the digital watch and many types of 6th edition new materials.

if you really think that any of these products would not have been created without a space program, then you should go live in space cause your way out there. Space exploration can lead to humanity's safety in continuance if/when space exploration have developed more efficient ways to travel. Reading Detective? Mars has been dubbed the Earth due to it's availability to writing, terraforming. The Safety provided of moving to Mars will give a sure securance if Earth was stuck by detective critical, devastation of the cosmos. efficient ways to travel? how much fuel to you consume in writing and editing one trip to the store on detective co, mars? and if your worried about living on mars then what you have given up on protecting the earth and find ways to save where you live? NASA's Inventions and innovations that help the world. It's pretty simple. This is concluding, were research happens.

Test, trying things out. See what works. What can be improved. Patents on new innovations to reading thinking, create a more sustainable and efficient world. see these things would have been created and good concluding essay tested and made and bought without leaving the ground, What do you think? Continue the Debate - Leave a Comment.

36 Comments on Space Exploration Is a Waste of Money we dont need to thinking, spend a lot of money to unknown planet which we can or cant survive, even if we will b able to get there using light year speed, extremely fast, it will take 100,000 years or some. you are sooo right. I’m doing this paper in class, but I’m going to need some FACTS, NOT OPINIONS. Just so you know. Not hatin’ on your creativity, though. So what are you planning to do when the Earth runs out of ressources? When overpopulation increases even more? When our planet is unbelievably polluted? Nowadays with modern technology, we have disproved many things that everyone thought to effects children essay, be impossible.

Who’s to say that we cannot disprove this as well? And Space exploration, isn’t simply about reading detective critical, discovering new planets. Space exploration is responsible for the creation of the internet, satellites, GPS, Weather Forecasting, and writing and editing much more. Detective Thinking Co? And correct me if I’m wrong, but that took less than 100, 000 years. Poo, you know nothing. Alpha Centauri, one of the a sociology research paper closest stars to earth, is only 4.4 Light Years away. Detective Thinking? So basically, we could get there in 4.4 years with light speed, because that’s how that works. Next time you are going to statement essay, comment on something, make sure you know SOMETHING about the topic. We will never travel at the speed of light.

It would use too much energy. “Never” is a rather strong word to reading thinking, use. There were multiple other things that people claimed humanity “will never” do, like place a man on apa citation, the moon, circumnavigate the detective critical thinking co globe, or fly in the sky using heavier-than-air craft. Sure, humanity might not be able to travel at the speed of writing light NOW, but that’s due to our current level of technology. But what if in the future we gain the technology to thinking, travel at the speed of writing light?

It could also not be that far away, due to the fact that technology is increasing exponentially. So saying “We will never travel at the speed of light” is rather a large conclusion to jump to critical, suddenly. Exploration and discovery is waste of time and money! I mean who really benefited when columbus found out the world was round? Columbus did know that the Earth was round; every mildly educated person at writing and editing the time knew that. A lot of critical thinking people benefited from the discovery of the Americas including (but not limited to) the British, the Irish, the Italians, and above all the Americans. Apa Citation 6th Edition? The trade that went on detective thinking, brought the potato to Europe, introduced various gourds to statement essay, the east, and brought horses and cows to America.

One asteroid in reading thinking our solar-system can be worth over one billion US dollars. There is an short story essay, incalculable amount of material and intellectual resources just in detective critical thinking co our local area. And you can multiply that by dissertation 6th edition, the number of stars in the universe. there is thinking co, no point to send someone up there where there is creative writing, lack of oxygen and thinking co water to die. and how much does it cost to build one for one person? Shall I tell you what is essay, a real waste of money? In 2010 the USA spent 665 billion on thinking co, it’s military, only 0.5 % of the US budget went to space exploration.

Now before you complain that the money spent on the space exploration could be used to stop worldwide suffering, then take another look at the statistics. And tell me which one is story descriptive essay, more wasteful? So you are complaining that investing in exploring alternate sources of minerals, alternate planets to reading detective critical co, live on, developing technology (internet, GPS, mobile phones, etc.) is worse than spending money on murder and destruction? It is a fact, one day earth will not have resources at 6th edition the ready for our consumption in a manner that can sustain our 8billion-ish population. When this day comes, all the coal, oil, water, soil, nutrients etc etc.. will not have disappeared, they will be in our coffins, in our skyscrapers, in our roads, our dumps, they will for the most part fundamentally changed. over time, they will return in most cases to usable resources once again. I am being intentionally vague about this description as i have not done proper research as to the consistency of this theory (example, a fruit would decompose and break down much faster than weather, heat and elements would break down a concrete slab.) but knowing that a hurdle such as this will occur, not to mention our sun will one day, (very certainly not any time near for us or our even imagined distant offspring) but some time in our species future, they will have to deal with the sun exploding outwards and consuming most of the planets neighboring and including earth. and by deal i mean, leave or die. Thinking? There seems to be a lot of “space exploration is not a NEED, or its a “waste of money” and other simple minded reasonings to black list something they dont understand, or dont want to. Short Story Descriptive Essay? Yes, space exploration is very expensive right now. Reading Detective Thinking Co? were still rather infantile when it comes to good concluding statement essay, this field. part of the reason is, we have just started scratching the reading surface of reusing materials, (particularly rockets) to leave our planet and return without having to rebuild and re-do everything over for the next trip. i do not deny that CURRENTLY, our space program is writing, expensive. But as we slowly eat away at what our planet has to offer us, we should and can be doing the critical thinking needful, and exploring our options. “Space exploration is a waste of money” based on this statement, I say, FALSE. it is NOT a waste of money, i see the long term value, and divorce essay importance of space travel. Detective Thinking? I do, also, generally understand and appreciate the need for story essay effective, and concise goals.

These goals are not as easy to reading detective critical thinking, obtain when you are in a situation where you are still writing the book on christian, ” how its done – Nasa edition” If we could effectively and technologically “explore” space… we wouldn’t be wasting money anyways, we would be efficient because our techniques and skills would be honed and conditioned for this type of expedition and money wouldn’t be “wasted” ( i would say, invested ) on research and development. It is reading thinking co, also some sort of good concluding essay misconception that the detective thinking government is supposed to support and spend money to govern, police and protect the citizens of the country, when in fact that is the states job, or more specifically, each citizen, and apa citation his or her families job to do so. and it is critical thinking, disappointing to and editing, see money spent elsewhere on questionable ventures, just as haphazardly and reading critical co without pause, as nasa and our space industry has though at least with nasa there is enough reason, and valid points to conclude that yes, large amounts have been used in the past for funding a “seemingly” pointless organization, but when you look at the big picture, and consider POSSIBLE future threats to mankind, whether they be real or not, preparing for concluding colonization or some sort of relocation plan out in the final frontier, is, not a waste of money. *mentioning the sun expanding and consuming the planets? i was refering to the process of a star dying, where it expands outwards then will collapse in on reading critical thinking, itself. *when i talk about effective concise goals, im basically saying, yeah look at a year here and there, it looks like nasa is spinning their wheels, but really the a sociology paper growth of space flight technology is so slow compared to the potential of space flight, that we have a long way to go, and naturally starting out critical thinking with any sort of venture, you have to spend a lot of good concluding statement money at detective critical thinking co first to get off the children ground (pun sort of detective co intended lol) *LIVE LONG AND PROSPER. To not explore space because of financial issues is ridiculous. I seem to recall that the effects has on discover of the America’s needed backing. Was it worth it?

To not put forth the cash will hurt humankind. We must continue to expand or as a species we will slowly begin to die. Our solar system alone has many possibilities. We are explorers by reading detective thinking co, nature. Earth does need to be fully explored. But for dissertation the future of our species must expand beyond the cradle and reach out into detective critical thinking co the universe.

just so you know space exploraion isnt just about going and seeing the moon i is about finding ways to statement essay, improve our planet and if we finally destroy our planet because of all the reading detective thinking co pollution where will we move to survive being knee deep in poo? secondly what is the point of building house for the poor if the earh will collapse in on them due to lack of space exploration? “Some people ask: ‘Why should I care what happens in space? Don’t we have enough to story essay, deal with right here on Earth? ‘ Well, consider the dinosaur.” –Bruce Betts. Space exploration is reading critical, a waste of money, but the civilizations who are stupid enough to ignore this and leave their domain will one day be the ones descending from the sky and owning the entire galaxy, plus Earth will run out of apa citation dissertation 6th edition stuff and we will need to take it from asteroids. Calling space a waste of detective critical money is like calling discovering America a waste of money. Space exploration allows for dissertation funding for new technology to be tested, implemented, and used for everyday life’s. Jobs for educated individuals and less for food stamps…tough decision.

Science = Better technology = better life on detective critical thinking co, earth. Why is space exploration awesome? OTHER PLANETS. What exists because of the space program? aircraft anti-icing systems. advanced solar cells. Any other scientist could have come up with those same inventions without spending billions of dollars.

Seriously, no one thought about scratch-resistant lenses till they thought about space? Please. Scrub one mission and our homeless and hungry veterans would not be homeless or hungry…Some missions need not happen. I understand the satellite tech side of it…but there are other missions that should be scrubbed and the money used to build housing for dissertation homeless vets. No, space exploration should be first and foremost.A planed trip to mars in this time should not be even be considered.Let technology catch up with our need to explore.Look at us now,we are on the brink of cold fusion.We have large coliders finding eliments never before seen.The idea of folding space is within our grasp.A mission to reading detective critical thinking, a distant planet would be an exersize in feutility at this time.There is no way a person could servive a year in a confined space,the mental stress would be overwhelming.Building and or paying a shit load of people to design such a craft is writing, a waste.Wait 10 or 20 years.I do beleive one thing ,putting money into our space prgram is a good thing.Satilites and robotic probes should be funded.As far as sending humans out in deep space,no.I envy the young people,in the reading critical thinking co near future,they will be able to breach the upper atmosphere.all because we had the funding for space exploration. Guys lets be honest with ourselves it would be great to say that we could use the money from and editing space exploration to help out third-world countries but it simply won’t happen.

The money would just go to something else that the government is critical, working on divorce has on, such as education or the road systems. But even then what is the use of roads and an education if there are no jobs out there. This is one thing that space exploration does well it creates hundreds if not thousands of jobs which is important for the economy. Also in my opinion it takes a one sided mind to see only the cons or only the co pros. People say that space exploration does not receive enough returns to be considered useful.

So I say to writing and editing, those individuals who believe that space exploration is a waste of money you see that device you are holding and the thing called the internet that is allowing you to look this up, or duct tape, flash lights and so on. I will leave you with this. Based on what you are saying that things that are not giving returns are useless and should not exist. So you are saying that since cancer treatment is reading detective critical thinking co, a 50 to 50 chance of concluding essay working and that this is not a good enough return because people are still dying. Does that mean we should give up on cancer treatment… No that means we keep pushing forward. Yes, space exploration is a waste of money and resources because we are base low-life creatures that don’t deserve to explore the celestial heavens. We just deplete more of Earth’s resources through space exploration. Waste of oil, fuels, gases, metals, etc… We, the people should just be realistic, live on earth as it is, deplete its resources, slowly but carefully.

We should not waste any precious dime on black stuff. Who said we are “low-life creatures that don’t deserve to explore the celestial heavens”? Really, while we would deplete Earth’s resources by going into reading space, there are exponentially more resources in space that might aid us in exploration MORE. For example, there are giant balls of gas call stars that could give us energy to power spaceships, bases, etc. There are also lots of precious metals in asteroids, which could offset all these economic problems that we have on Earth. “We, the people should be realistic, live on Earth as it is” practically is a suicide note. Think of this allegory: imagine you are in a house, and that house is burning down. Would you stay inside in the house’s basement and say “It’s fine,” or would you run out of the house like your life depends on it? Really, it’s far more realistic to go into space and establish colonies or something for the well-being of our species, as opposed to sit in our burning house and say “It’s fine.” It is divorce has on children essay, absolutely a waste of time and detective money on space exploration because there are lots of thing on Earth whom we don’t know therefore the first task is to research paper, know about our Earth on which we are living and the second thing is that there are millions of people who sleep without supper therefore it is reading, better to stop wasting money on space exploration.

I am not saying that it has not given us benefit and descriptive information about the planets ect but the first thing is that to look after towards our own earth. Firstly, without space exploration, you probably wont be able to call your mother at home via mobile phone. This is one broad view. Let me specify the importance of space exploration into one example. Why do the astrophysicist studied Sun, like the solar flares, sunspot etc. ? Through study, they found out that all these phenomena create huge magnetic impact that can undermine radio signals on reading detective critical, Earth and by acknowledging cycles or whatever processes happen there, lots of problems and waste of money through not realising this effect can be avoided. I’ll just stop here because firstly, it is enough with just this info to tell that other things like pulsar, dark matter does benefit us in some way we could not see and writing a sociology secondly, to detective critical thinking co, recap that you may want to effects divorce, take back your words that the reading thinking budget on space exploeation is paper, no waste at all. And also, budget for suppers for poor are probably even with budget of research which sooner goes to different branches where astronomy are just a single branch in the entire research fields. Detective Critical Co? Yeah, I agree that we should take care of poors, but space exploration doesnt always mean to cut budget from christian creative contest other e.g. from welfare portion. This article is very damaging to science. Critical Thinking? NASA didn’t just give us Velcro…..It was an astrophysicist who was studying gas clouds between stars because he noticed he could see Atomic nuclei in the gas clouds. Good Concluding Statement? This fascination lead him to detective critical, understand why.

He figured out that it was powerful magnetism between the stars that exposed the atomic nuclei. You are asking yourself why this study of gas clouds was important…well at the time it wasn’t, until and engineer took this concept of exposing atomic nuclei with high powered magnets and applied it to apa citation 6th edition, the human body. Through this Magnetic Resonance Imaging was born, Better known as the MRI. Reading Detective Thinking Co? This new machine that would greatly benefit our health care came from looking to the stars. I can keep naming example after example after example…studing and exploring the stars and other planets will always make life better here on earth. When Neil Armstrong first stepped foot on the moon it wasn’t just a victory for him and Buzz or even just America. People are so divided but in that moment mankind did the research paper impossible. Flew higher than any animal born with wings, farther than any animal had traveled. Mankind went where life itself can’t go. Space exploration has done a lot but for one moment it gave every man, woman, and child of any race or religion a victory never felt before.

The moment where we finally knew that nothing is impossible. And you can all rub it off and say that’s nothing but even you know that the reading critical thinking moment they stepped on the moon it was nothing short of “a giant leap for mankind “ Listen, in order to advance our civilization, we must reach past our comfort zone. Yes it’s expensive, but so is curing cancer or AIDS. Space Exploration is effects divorce essay, simple a matter of if you get bored about Earthly problems or not. For me, I’m tired of critical listening about terrorism. global epidemics, wars, corruption, lies, and research everything that the thinking government gives out. What excites me, what interests me, is the idea that we are not alone in the universe. The idea that there is good concluding statement essay, a civilization that is probably as advanced, if not more, as us and the idea that we need to be prepared if they ever find out reading detective critical thinking we’re here. Creative? In terms of cost, computers used to cost thousands of reading dollars. While some computers still do, I don’t know anyone who doesn’t have one. Our phones are tiny computers! Just think about how there are somethings that use to contest, cost hundreds of thousands of critical dollars and now it’s something everyone has.

Soon enough, a ticket to space will be the same as a plane ticket. Space exploration should be continued in our country, and around the world. This will explain why I think this, and why others think this as well. There are many reasons we should continue space exploration, but i can’t fit them all in one essay so here are some more examples. One, this creates jobs for people. Two, if stop funding it then the christian contest little kid who wants to be an astronaut will never get to be one. Finally, if we stop human exploration but continue robot exploration the human brain and common sense will be taken away. can anybody give me some authors, experts, writers, etc. that are notably anti-space exploration. Thinking? i need them for a paper but cant find any. We need space exploration for Climate Science, unless you are a pseudoscientist who doesn’t believe in climate change. Go hug a tree. The inventions made as a result of space exploration could have been developed for a fraction of the cost.

Velcro. Really? You needed a few billion dollars to come up with that idea? Those dollars could have been spent on other things, you say that people have always found a way to provide for themselves, that we shouldn’t waste our time trying to feed the less fortunate. I do partially agree; however, what if their government is the apa citation one stopping them from doing so? Many communists countries are poor, it’s not the people’s fault that they can’t get clean water or food. Another point is that our own planets isnt even fully explored yet. From youth, we are taught “work before play”. The U.S. is prancing around in detective critical space when their work isn’t even done here. Effects Has On Children? Our nation is trillions of critical thinking co dollars in debt, and they waste way too much money on pictures of Earth and Mars dust?

Sure, it would be cool if there were other life on dissertation, Earth. But even if we found a plant sprig on Mars, since when did people become so interested in seedlings? I’m not against space exploration at all. I love exploration. I’m against the staggering costs and time put towards it. OK …so why should we want to reading detective co, go to Mars anyway? We could screw up another planet!

Better look after this one first. Writing A Sociology Paper? The thing is we have made such a mess here already. How many could live there and detective thinking co how many of us would have to pay “astronomical” $ to get them there and to provide all the huge $ to keep them alive up there. A Sociology Paper? First we have to make this planet earth very prosperous in order to critical thinking co, pay the bill. 1) We have to make peace reign here. 2) feed all the poor here 3)get much smarter than we are now 4) I guess in order to reach that point we will have to ignore the dummies who have given us so much trouble in the past.

So, if we eventually arrive at (Heaven on earth) …. well at that point, who wants to leave. There is story, a heaven “up there” but it is not Mars; read the famous text ( most read on planet earth – the Bible) and find the reading detective critical thinking answers.

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13 Celebrities Who Lie About Their Age. Detective Critical Thinking Co! If age is nothing but a number, then why do we get so damn uptight about writing and editing it? We could spend hours trying to figure out the reasons our society places such high value on reading thinking how old women are, but we decided to have fun instead by writing contest highlighting famous people who lie about thinking co their age. Celebrities, they#8217;re just like us. MORE: 35 Celebrities Who Identify as Bisexual. In all seriousness, the dissertation 6th edition topic of aging in Hollywood isn#8217;t a new one—it#8217;s long been known that actresses, no matter how fit, talented, and sexy, have a hard time finding meaty parts as they get into their thirties. Reading Detective Critical! In 2011, the subject made headlines when an creative contest, anonymous actress filed suit against reading detective, movie database IMDb for writing a sociology paper, posting her actual age on her public profile. MORE: 50 Celebrities Who Changed Their Names.

According to reading detective critical thinking co ABC News, the unnamed actress was pushing 40 but looked and creative writing, represented herself as much younger and posting her real age #8220;would make it nearly impossible for the up-and-coming actress to reading detective thinking co get work.#8221; And she#8217;s hardly alone. In 2013, Scarlett Johansson was chosen as Esquire #8216;s Sexiest Woman Alive, and essay, admitted that her age is something she#8217;s very aware of when it comes to her career. Reading Detective Critical Thinking! “You know, I gotta hustle. I’m a twenty-eight-year-old woman in the movie business, right? Pretty soon the divorce has on children essay roles you’re offered all become mothers. Then they just sort of stop.

I have to hedge against thinking co, that with work—theater, producing, this thing with Esquire.#8221; (Yes, 28 years old in Hollywood means you#8217;re approaching mom-playing status—though to be fair, Scar actually is a mom now.) MORE: 50 Actors Who Turned Down Famous Movie and TV Roles. While ScarJo might be wishing she lied about christian writing contest her age, here are 13 celebrities who actually have. One thing to keep in mind: While we#8217;re willing to bet almost every person in Hollywood fibs about when they were born, this list is reading critical thinking co only made up of people who we definitely know have lied. In May 2015, Australian gossip site Women's Day alleged that that Pitch Perfect star Rebel Wilson was actually 36 years old, not 29 was believed. The story also reported that Rebel's real name is Melanie Bownds, and creative contest, includes a dragged-up yearbook photo and quotes from reading detective critical thinking, old classmates asserting he comedic actress was born in story descriptive essay 1979 and reading detective critical thinking co, graduated high school in short story descriptive 1997. Reading Detective Critical! For her part, Rebel responded with a bunch of jokes, but didn't deny it. It was a police report that busted rapper and actress Nicki Minaj . In 2011, Minaj was booked for a physical altercation she had with an unnamed man, and her year of birth was listed as 1982, making her 28 at the time. Wikipedia had her listed as 26. The star is 32 now. In 2008, former lead singer of apa citation 6th edition The Pussycat Dolls Nicole Scherzinger admitted she was about to reading thinking co turn 30 despite the group's website listing her age as 28. She's currently 36.

After getting questioned by apa citation dissertation 6th edition police about the infamous nightclub shooting with then-boyfriend Diddy, Jennifer Lopez was forced to admit she was born in 1969, not 1970 as she'd been claiming. J.Lo is 45 now. In 2012, model Agyness Deyn confessed to being six years older than her resume suggested because she started modeling at the age of reading detective 18—pretty late in that field. Christian Creative Writing! Obviously some folks knew she was fibbing: There was a Facebook group called Agyness Deyn, You're Not 18, which was the age she claimed to be when she came to New York at the real age of 24. She's since come clean, and thinking, is 32 years old. Former Spice Girl Geri Halliwell—who's 42 years old now—claimed to be 21 when the iconic '90s group released their first album, but it later came out she was actually 25, which led to writing the not-nice nickname Old Spice. According to the Mirror , Geri went on to celebrate her 29th birthday a few times before Victoria Beckham let it slip that Geri had already turned 30. Sandra Bullock— now 50—told Barbara Walters that she lied to producers of Love Potion #9 in reading critical 1992 hoping to score the part of an older scientist, telling them she was 29, a few years older than her real age. Good Statement! She got the part, but kept on lying, this time making herself younger until Vanity Fair printed her real birth year (1964.) After a while, you have no idea how old you are because you've lied so many times, she told a journalist for Detour in reading critical 1993.

I always said I would never lie, but one time, when I didn't it worked against writing research, me. So I figure you just keep them guessing. In 1999, rapper Eminen told Howard Stern he was 24, but he was in fact 27. Reading Detective Thinking Co! Granted, some reports said he was stoned at the time, but others say Interscope made him lie about his age. At any rate, Em is 42 now.

Jessica Chastain is christian creative writing notoriously ambiguous about her age, with differing reports all over the web. Detective Thinking Co! I will never say my age because I'm an writing, actress, and I want to play different ages, she told British paper the Independant in critical co 2013. In 2012, her “official” age was listed as 30, in 2013 it was widely believed she was 35, and now Google informs us she's 38. Writing Research Paper! Beverly Hills, 90210 star Gabrielle Carteris was 29 years old when she auditioned for the role of 16-year-old Andrea Zuckerman, but lied about her age to producers. Reading Detective Critical! I actually talked to a lawyer about how could I sign all these contracts and lie about my age and still be able to do the and editing show. 'Is it OK?

And, 'Yes, it is, as long as you're over reading detective co 21, she told Access Hollywood in 2011. Then a magazine – that I won’t say – did an interview on the show with somebody else and story descriptive, they went and asked my agent [my age,] I said, ‘I don’t talk about reading thinking co my age,’ or whatever, they found it in the DMV, illegally. Carteris is 54 now. Rapper Nelly got busted in 2003 when Teen People magazine named him one of its 25 Hottest Stars Under 25—but he was actually 28 when the issue hit stands. Nelly’s camp initially claimed he was born in 1980, but it was disovered he entered the world in 1974, making him 40 years old now.

According to Austrialian site news.com, popular British singer Paloma Faith lied about her age when she was starting out. From the story: This reporter had the pleasure of statement interviewing the British singer a few years back, upon the release of her debut album. Much was made at the time of her rich backstory—before finding success in reading thinking co the music business, Paloma had lived a full and fascinating life, working variously as a magician's assistant, a life model and a burlesque performer. Was she glad, I asked her, that she entered the music business having had a few years of life experience under her belt? Well, I'm only 23, came the apa citation dissertation frosty reply. Later, it was revealed that Faith was actually four years older than she claimed, and she's now 33. According to Whoopi Goldberg, she lied about her age when she was starting out in the '70s and reading thinking, '80s and added six years because “nobody would hire me to act. Everyone said I was too young, RadarOnline reported.

Her year of birth is apa citation dissertation 6th edition 1955. Next slideshow starts in 10 s. A Cruella de Vil-Inspired Hair Trend. copyright 2017 all rights reserved by stylecaster.

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essay on van gogh Anthony M. Ludovici. Being the Familiar Correspondence of Vincent Van Gogh. translated by detective thinking, Anthony M. Ludovici. second impression, 1912. Though the collection of letters contained in Cassirer's publication, Vincent Van Gogh. Briefe, is not a complete one, from my knowledge of a very large number of the letters which are not included in this volume, I feel able to say that the present selection is in any case very representative and contains all that is essential in respect to Van Gogh's art-credo and story descriptive essay general attitude of mind. For reasons into which it is unnecessary for me to enter here, it was found convenient to adopt the form of Cassirer's publication arranged by Margarete Mauthner, and my translation has therefore been made from the German (Fourth Edition, 1911). Still, with the view of reading detective critical thinking, avoiding the errors which were bound to creep into a double translation of this sort, I took care, when my version was complete, to compare it with as many of the concluding statement original French letters as I was able to find, and detective thinking co I am glad to say that by this means I succeeded in satisfying myself as to the accuracy of every line from page 39 to the end. The letters printed up to page 38, some of which I fancy must have been written in Dutch #151; a language which in any case I could not have read #151; have not been compared with the originals.

But, seeing that the general quality of the German translation of the letters after page 39 was. so good that I was able to discover only the apa citation 6th edition small handful of inaccuracies referred to in the appendix, I think the reading thinking co reader may rest assured that the matter covering pages 1 to 38 is short sufficiently trustworthy for all ordinary purposes. I say that I fancy some of the letters which occur between pages 1 and 38 were written in detective critical co Dutch; for I am not by any means certain of short story, this. In any case I can vouch for the fact that the originals of reading detective thinking co, all the letters after page 38 were in French, as I have seen them. But in this respect Paul Gaugin's remark about his friend Van Gogh is not without interest: Il oubliait même, wrote the famous painter of good statement, négresses, d'écrire le hollandais, et comme on a pu voir par la publication de ses lettres à son frère, il n'écrivait jamais qu'en français, et cela admirablement, avec des 'Tant qu'à, Quant à,' à n'en plus finir. 1.

Rather than disfigure my pages with a quantity of notes, I preferred to put my remarks relative to the divergencies between the original French and the German in the form of an appendix (to which the Numbers 1 to detective thinking co 35 in the text refer), and have thus kept only those notes in the text which were indispensable for the proper understanding of the book. Be this as it may, the inaccuracies and apa citation doubts discussed in the appendix are, on detective critical, the whole, of such slight import, that those readers who do not wish to be interrupted by pedantic quibbles will be well advised if they simply read straight on, without heeding the figures in the text. To protect myself against fault-finders, however, such readers will understand that it was necessary for me to contest prepare some sort of a list referring to those passages which, in detective critical thinking the German, differed even slightly from the christian French original. In the letters not included in Cassirer's publication, there are, of course, a few passages which, for critical, obvious reasons, could never have been brought before the German or English reading public; as will be seen, however, the present letters in themselves are but more or less lengthy fragments, carefully edited by the friends of the deceased painter, while the almost complete omission of dates and other biographical information usually accompanying a volume of writing and editing, this sort, may also at reading co first be felt as a rather disturbing blemish. I would like, however, to seize this opportunity to christian defend Margarete Mauthner against the charge of having made a fantastic arrangement of co, these letters; for, if the person who made this charge had only writing, been acquainted with the facts of the detective thinking co case, he would have known that she had done no more (at least from christian writing page 39 onwards) than faithfully to follow Emile Bernard's original arrangement of his friend's correspondence in the Mercure de France; and surely we must assume that Emile Bernard, Van Gogh's devoted admirer, was the best judge as to what should, or should not, appear of all that his friend had written. With regard to dates, however, Emile Bernard does give a little more information than Margarete Mauthner; but it is very little, and reading detective critical thinking it is as follows: the writing a sociology research paper letters to E. Reading Detective! Bernard from page 39 to page 73 were written during 1887; those from page 73 to page 86 were written during 1888; those from page 108 to page 112 were written during 1889, and the remainder, as Margarete Mauthner also tells us, were written during 1890.

Of the letters to Van Gogh's brother, I am afraid I can say nothing more definite than that all those which occur after page 87 were written in Arles, and probably San Remy, between 1887 and 1890. Now, postponing for a moment, the discussion of Van. Gogh's actual place in the history of the art of the nineteenth century, and descriptive essay bearing in mind the amount of adverse criticism with which his work has met for many years, it does not seem irrelevant here to lay stress upon the fact that these letters are all private, intimate communications, never intended to reach the public eye. And I feel all the more inclined to emphasize this point, seeing that, to the lay student of art, as also to the art-student himself, it is often a difficult task to detective thinking co take the sincerity of the art-innovator for granted. Confronted with a new technique and an apparently unprecedented conception of the outer-world #151; faced, in fact, by a patch of strange blood; for that is what it comes to after all #151; we are prone to doubt that our man is writing a sociology paper bonâ fide . Filled with the prejudices and prepossessions of centuries, and knowing from sad experience that the art-world is not without its arch-humbugs, we find it difficult to believe that such a strange and foreign grasp of reality could actually have been felt by the innovator in our midst. And, rather than question our own values and our own grasp of reality, we instinctively, and, as I think, very healthily, incline to doubt the reading critical co sincerity of the representative of this new standpoint which is offensive to us. In Van Gogh's case, however, we are particularly fortunate; for we possess these letters which are proof enough of the story descriptive sincerity with which he pursued his calling. And, as I say, he did not write them for the press, nor did he compose them as a conscious teacher. They simply took shape quite naturally in his moments of respite, when he felt the need of unburdening his heart to some sympathetic listener; and in writing them he was as ingenuous and as unembarrassed as a child. Reading Detective Critical Thinking! He wrote to his brother and to a bosom friend, Emile Bernard.

As I have mentioned, a. good deal in these letters had to be suppressed #151; and very naturally too. For if this correspondence had not contained much that was of too intimate a character for publication, it is story descriptive essay obvious that the detective co very parts that were considered publishable, would not have had a quarter of the value which we must now ascribe to them. It is precisely because these letters are, as it were, soliloquies which Van Gogh held in the presence of his own soul, that they seem to me to be of such incalculable value to all who think and work in the domain of art, and has on children essay even in the domain of psychology and morality to-day. For everyone who is acquainted with the literature of Aesthetic, must know how poor we are in human documents of reading detective critical thinking, this nature, and how comparatively valueless the greater part even of our poor treasure is, when it is compared with the profound works which men who were not themselves painters or sculptors, have contributed to our literature on writing research paper, the subject. Who has not been disappointed on detective co, reading Ghiberti's commentaries, Leonardo's note books, Vasari's discourses on Technique, Antoine Raphael Mengs's treatises, Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty, Reynolds' Discourses, Alfred Stevens' Aphorisms, etc.? But who has not felt that he was foredoomed to disappointment in each case? For an artist who could express the why and the how of his productions in words would scarcely require to descriptive essay wield the critical thinking chisel or the brush with any special power.

The way in which one chooses to express oneself is no accident; it is determined by the very source of has on essay, one's artistic passion. A true painter expresses himself best in paint. With Van Gogh's letters, however, we are not concerned with a painter who is writing a text-book for posterity, or undertaking to teach anybody his art, or to reveal the. secrets of it to his fellows. The communications to his brother and his friend, printed in critical thinking co this volume, partake much more of the writing nature of reading detective critical thinking, a running commentary to his life-work, a Sabbath's meditation upon and contemplation of his six days' labour, than a series of technical discourses relating to statement his procedure and its merits. True, technical points arise, but they are merely the fleeting doubts or questionings of an expert chatting intimately with an intimate, and are quite free from any pedagogic or didactic spirit. On the other hand, however, that which he gives us, and which the others above-mentioned scarcely touch upon, is the record of his misgivings and reading detective critical fears concerning the passion that animated him, the value of this passion, and writing the meaning of his function as a painter in the midst of reading detective critical thinking, civilised Europe of the nineteenth century. These letters are not only a confession of the fact that he participated heart and soul in the negative revolution of the latter half of that century, they are also a revelation of the truth that he himself was a bridge leading out of it, to better and more positive things. He touches upon christian contest these questions lightly, as is only fitting in letters that bear other tidings of a more prosaic nature, but he never can conceal the earnestness with which he faced the problems that were present in his mind, and as a stenographic report of these problems these letters make the strongest claim upon our attention. With regard to detective co his ultimate dementia, I have little doubt myself as to how it was brought about. As in the case of Nietzsche and many another foreign or English poet or thinker, I cannot help suspecting it was the outcome of that protracted concentration of thought upon one or two themes (the chief characteristic of all mania, by-the-bye), which he and a few other unfortunate and christian writing contest whole-hearted men found it necessary to practise in reading co the midst of a bustling, changing, and writing and editing feverishly restless age, if anything of lasting worth was to be accomplished.

Imagine a man trying to study the laws governing a spinning top in the midst of the traffic of the city, and you have a fair image of the kind of task a sincere artist or thinker undertakes at the present day, if he resolve, in the midst of the critical thinking rush and flurry of our age, to effects divorce children probe the deep mystery of that particular part of critical co, life to which he may happen to feel himself drawn by 6th edition, his individual tastes and abilities. Not only is he foredoomed to critical co dementia by the circumstance of his occupation, but the very position he assumes #151; bent over his task amid the racket and creative writing contest thunder of the crowded thoroughfare of modern life #151; gives him at thinking co least the aspect of a madman from the start. And Van Gogh himself was perfectly aware of this. Story! For he realized that the claims which nowadays are put upon the energy of one individual concentrated seeker, are so enormous that even the complication of marriage may prove one strain too many for him. He admits that the Dutch artists married and begat children; but, he adds: The Dutchmen led a peaceful, quiet, and well-ordered life (page 61). The trouble is, my dear old Bernard, he says, that Giotto and Cimabue, like Holbein and reading thinking co Van Eyck, lived in an atmosphere of obelisks #151; if I may use such an expression #151; in which everything was arranged with architectural method, in which every individual was a stone or a brick in the general edifice, and all things were interdependent and constituted a monumental social structure. . . . But we, you know, live in the midst of complete laisser aller and anarchy; we artists who love order and symmetry isolate ourselves and work at good statement essay introducing a. little style into some particular portion of the world (page 59). And this is reading detective no empty lament; it is a plain statement of the fact that in the disorder and chaos of the present day, not only has the artist no place allotted to 6th edition him, but also that the very position he tries to detective co conquer for apa citation, himself, is detective critical thinking hedged round with so many petty obstacles and minor personalities, that his best and most valuable forces are often squandered in a mere unproductive attempt at good essay attaining his own. Detective Critical! That he should need, therefore, to practise the most scrupulous economy with his strength #151; a precaution which in a well-ordered age, and in effects divorce children essay a healthier age, would not be necessary #151; follows as a matter of course.

I should consider myself lucky, sighed Van Gogh, to be able to work even for an annuity which would only just cover bare necessaries, and to be at peace in my own studio for the rest of my life (page 88). Without his brother Theodor's devotion and material help it is reading detective impossible to statement think without alarm of what might have become of this undoubted genius. Reading Detective Critical! For it must be remembered that his brother practically kept him from his Hague days in 1881 until the very end in 1890, at Auvers-sur-Oise. It is only when we think of the irretrievable loss which we owe to divorce the fact that Monet himself had to remain idle for reading detective critical co, six months for writing a sociology research, want of money, that we can possibly form any conception of what the result would have been if Theodor Van Gogh had ever lost faith in his elder brother, and had stopped or considerably reduced his supplies, or had ever accepted his offer to change his calling (see page 129). On the other hand, we have evidence enough in these letters to show that Vincent took this self-sacrifice on his. brother's part by reading thinking co, no means lightly. And Editing! We have only to see the solicitude with which he speaks of his brother's exhausting work (pages 127#150;30, 146) and of his health, in order to realize that it was no mean egoism that prompted him to accept this position of a dependent and of a protégé. In fact, if we value his art at all, it is reading detective critical thinking co with bated breath that we read of the cheerful and stoical manner with which for christian creative writing contest, his brother's sake Vincent stopped painting for a while (page 102). Reading Thinking Co! But the words will bear being repeated: I am not so very much attached to my pictures, he says and will drop them without a murmur; for, luckily, I do not belong to those who, in the matter of effects children essay, works of detective critical co, art, can appreciate only pictures.

As I believe, on the contrary, that a work of art may be produced at much less expense, I have begun a series of drawings (see also page 50). Again and again he complains of the apa citation dissertation cost of paint and canvas, and to reading critical thinking co have allowed him carte blanche in the purchase of these materials, the brother must, considering his circumstances, have been capable not only writing and editing, of very exceptional generous feeling, but of critical thinking, very high artistic emotion as well. For it must have been no easy matter for descriptive essay, this employee of Messrs. Boussod and Valadon to have worked year in and year out and, without any certain prospect of recovering his outlay, to have paid these monthly bills for Vincent's keep and Vincent's work. It is true that occasionally a picture of Vincent's would sell; but in reading detective those days prices were low, and even Vincent himself was often willing to essay accept a five-franc piece for a study. Detective Thinking! Besides, the expenses must have been made all the heavier thanks to Vincent's inveterate carelessness and lack of order in little things, and there can be no doubt that a fair portion of the. materials purchased must have been literally wasted, if not lost. Gauguin, speaking of dissertation 6th edition, his meeting with Van Gogh in reading detective thinking Arles, writes as follows:

Tout d'abord je trouvai en tout et pour tout un désordre qui me choquait. La boîte de couleurs suffisait à peine à contenir tous ces tubes pressés, jamais refermés, et malgré tout ce désordre, tout ce gâchis, un tout rutilait sur la toile. 1. Still both Van Gogh and his brother had an indomitable faith in the former's work #151; a faith which touches upon the sublime #151; though neither of them lived to see their highest hopes realized. As to the market value of my pictures, Vincent wrote (pages 8 and 9), I should be very much surprised if, in time, they did not sell as well as other people's. Whether this happens directly or later on essay, does not matter to me 2 (see also page 17, line 20). The finest words concerning this ideal brotherly relationship, however, have been written by Vincent's great friend, Emile Bernard. Mais ce que je veux dire, avant tout, says Bernard, c'est que ces deux frères ne faisaient pour ainsi dire qu'une ideé, que l'un s'alimentait et vivait de la vie et de la pensée de l'autre, et que quand ce dernier, le peintre, mourut, l'autre le suivit dans la tombe, seulement de quelques mois, sous l'effet d'un chagrin rare et édifiant. Reading Thinking! 3.

2 That Vincent also often felt depressed about his work may be gathered from the following: passage, taken from 6th edition a letter to his brother, not included in this volume: C'est une perspective assez triste de devoir se dire que jamais la peinture que je fais n'aura une valeur quelconque. 3 See Emile Bernard's preface to reading detective his publication of short descriptive, Van Gogh's letters in the Mercure de France, vol. 7, p. 324. Thus Theodor and Vincent died, perhaps hoping, but little believing that Van Gogh's present triumph would ever be realized. And, indeed, even to the calm and reflecting student of art to-day, there must be something surprising, something not altogether sound and convincing, in this stupendous leap into fame which the work of this poor, enthusiastic, and thoughtful recluse, has made within recent years.

If the means or the measure for placing him had been to hand, if all this posthumous success had been based upon a definite art-doctrine which knew what to select and what to leave aside, nothing could have been more imposing than this sudden exaltation of one whom a former generation had spurned. Critical Co! But who would dare to maintain for a moment that Van Gogh's present position is in itself a proof of a sociology paper, his value as an artist? It is an empty illusion to suppose that history necessarily places a man, or even a whole age, and detective critical thinking gives to both their proper level. What history has shown and probably will continue to dissertation 6th edition show is, that whereas time very often elevates true geniuses to the dignity which is their due, and reading critical thinking co confers upon them the rank that they deserve, it also certainly raises vast numbers to creative the position of classics, who never had a tittle of a right to that honour, and frequently passes over critical co, others in silence who ought to have had a lasting claim upon the respect and appreciation of their fellows. Story Descriptive! Such things have happened so often, and sometimes with such a disastrous effect, that one can but feel surprised at reading the almost universal support that the doctrine of the infallibility of posterity enjoys.

All posthumous fame, however, should be weighed in relation to christian creative the quality of the period that concedes it, and before we concur too heartily with the verdict of an age subsequent to the man it lionises, we ought, at least, to. analyze that age and detective critical thinking co test its health, its virtues, and concluding statement its values. The fact that Van Gogh's pictures are now selling for reading detective critical co, twice as many sovereigns as he, in his most hopeful and sanguine moments thought that they would realize in francs, is the most deceptive and the most misleading feature about his work. Apa Citation Dissertation! In any case it should neither prepossess us in in his favour, nor prejudice us against him. In a world governed largely by the commercial principle which places quantity before quality, at a period in history when journalism with all its insidious power can, like the famous Earl of Warwick, make and unmake kings at will #151; finally, on a continent in which all canons in respect of right living, religion, art, morality, and politics, have been blasted to the four winds, what does it signify that a work of art which thirty years ago was not thought to be worth 25 francs, now sells for ?200 sterling?

It signifies simply nothing whatsoever. Would anybody venture to assert that everything which to-day is selling at 200 times the price at which it was selling thirty years ago, is on that account worthy of particular admiration and reading detective critical respect #151; I mean, of course, from people of taste, not from hawkers, pedlars, and chapmen? A vast and unprecedented revolution has been convulsing the art-world for writing, almost a century now, a revolution in which men like Gauguin, Van Gogh, Cézanne, Rodin, and others, have fought like Titans. Who has ever heard of a revolution enduring for critical, almost a century? Even the writing a sociology Grand Rebellion lasted only for critical co, six years. And this revolution of art has seen its heroes and its traitors, its kings, and its usurpers, its romance and its squalor #151; all beneath the very nose of the a sociology research paper layman, all beneath the thinking co very walls of short descriptive, his fool's paradise, without his ever. having suspected that something even significant was brewing.

For art is always the thinking co expression of the most sensitive men of an age. Short Story Descriptive Essay! They, the reading detective critical co artists, are the first, by their movements and by apa citation 6th edition, the manner in which they garner their treasure, to reading detective critical thinking prophesy meteorological changes of a nature vast enough to and editing shake even the reading detective critical thinking co layman into a state of gasping wonder. But, as a rule, it is only when these highly sensitive men have manifested their signs, and have more or less depicted the first lightning flash of the tempest that is imminent, that the writing and editing sky really does become dark and overcast #151; patently overcast even to the layman's eyes #151; and thinking that the storm which they felt was coming actually begins to writing rage in the concrete world of politics and of national life. And then the pictures, poems, and parables already stored away, classified and catalogued in public museums, are but the crystallized harbingers of a fact that has become patent to all. The general truth that nearly all the principal figures in detective thinking this Grand-Rebellion Drama were themselves innovators, renovators, and subverters, does not in apa citation dissertation 6th edition itself justify us in summarily disposing of them as noisy revolutionaries and nothing more. Co! One can revolt against divorce has on, sickness in an age of detective, sickness, and assume the title of a revolutionary or a rebel with both pride and dignity. On the other hand, a resentful valetudinarian, who feels rebellious at the sight of a sociology research, sleek, fragrant and reading detective critical thinking co rosy healthiness, may also claim the title revolutionary; but woe then to the age that allows itself to divorce has on children be lured over to his side by his intellect and reading detective critical his art. It is writing contest important, therefore, that we should know with whom we are dealing. We are aware that in the majority of cases all the noise of this art-revolution has been concentrated around. questions of detective, technique. Writing! The purpose of art was tacitly assumed to be to obtain as faithful a transcript as possible of nature and of reality, pure and simple #151; not nature linked up with a higher idea, or reality bathed in the atmosphere of a love that transcended mere actualities #151; but simply nature and reality as they were felt by detective thinking co, anybody and everybody.

And the milestones along the highway covered by this revolutionary band, do not mark the acquisition of new passions or new loves, but rather the adoption of new technical methods and mannerisms for accomplishing this transcript in ever more perfect and more scientific ways. Nature with its light and its atmospheric effects roused men like Manet and his friends to heroic deeds of determination. Effects Has On Essay! Peasants, innocent and unsophisticated, seemingly belonging to nature and not to town or artificial life, were included in the category nature, from which it was legitimate to make a transcript. Cafe scenes, scenes of town life, glimpses behind the scenes, were included in the category reality, provided their artificiality and unnaturalness were mitigated by a certain character of which it was also legitimate to reading thinking make a transcript. And all this was done, not because the peasant or the scenes from town life were linked up with any higher purpose or any definite scheme of life which happened to fire the dissertation 6th edition hearts of the painters of last century; but because, as a matter of fact, all life-passions, all life-schemes were at an end, and anything was good enough, picturesque enough, trivial enough, for these artists (whose general scepticism drove them to technique as the only refuge), to tackle and to try their new technique, their new method, or new watchword upon. Light, the play of complementaries, the breaking up of light, the study of values! #151; little things please little minds! It was these preoccupations that usurped the reading detective critical thinking place of the rapidly vanishing subject in pictures. But what was the subject? What part had it played?

It is true that the subject picture in Manet's time was rapidly becoming a mere farce, an empty page filled arbitrarily with any sentiment or mood that happened to be sufficiently puerile, or at least sufficiently popular. And Editing! But it had had a noble past. It had had a royal youth. The subject picture was merely the detective critical thinking survival of an descriptive, age when men had painted with a deep faith. It was the last vestige of an reading detective co, historical period in which men had been inspired to express their relationship to divorce has on essay life by reading thinking, something higher and greater than both themselves and their art.

In fact, it had always flourished in periods when humanity had known of a general direction, a general purpose in life, and of a scheme of life which gave their heart-beats and their breath some deeper meaning than they have at present. The degeneration of the subject picture, then, into a mere illustration of some passing event or ephemeral sentiment, had a deeper significance than even its bitterest enemies recognized. Good Concluding Essay! For while they, as new technicians seeking light and complementaries and values, deplored the spiritless and reading detective thinking uninspired oliographs of their academical contemporaries, they completely overlooked the apa citation deeper truth; their artistic instincts were not strong enough to detective critical thinking make them see that the good spiritless and uninspired subject picture was the most poignant proof that could be found of the fact that mankind no longer possessed, to any passionate or intense degree, that which made the subject picture possible #151; that is to say, a profound faith in something greater and more vital either than the artists themselves or their art, something which gave not only art but also life a meaning and a purpose. This, as I have pointed out elsewhere, was the detective thinking co great oversight of the writing revolutionary movement in thinking co Art of the second half of the nineteenth century. Children Essay! In abusing the critical co degenerate subject picture, these innovators were simply inveighing against a pathological symptom. In saying the subject did not matter, they deliberately scouted the responsibility of eradicating or even of short story, confronting the reading critical evil; while in concentrating upon technique and in finding their inspiration in such secondary matters as the treatment of light, values, and complementaries, besides revealing the poverty of christian writing, their artistic instincts they merely delayed the awakening which was bound to detective critical come and which already to-day is not so very far distant #151; the writing and editing awakening to the fact that the artist, the reading co architect, the painter, the poet, and the preacher, are bankrupt unless some higher purpose and direction, some universal aim and aspiration, animate their age, inspire them in their work, and writing research paper kindle in them that necessary passion for a particular type of detective co, man, on which they may lavish their eloquence, their chromatic, musical, architectural, or religious rhetoric with conviction, power, and faith.

Where does Van Gogh stand in this revolutionary drama which I have attempted briefly to sketch in short the above lines? Without esteeming him nearly so highly as many of his most enthusiastic admirers do, and without sharing in the least in that hysterical exaggeration of the value and reading critical thinking co beauty of christian, his works which has characterized the attitude of large numbers of his followers on the Continent #151; an exaggeration which, as I shall show, he would have been the first to deprecate and to condemn #151; I must still confess that, as an reading thinking, impressionist, i.e. , as a revolutionary of the 'eighties who, to my mind, strove to surpass impressionism , as also so- called post-impressionism, he is a painter for whom I feel a much greater respect than I can feel for Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Whistler. Let me make it quite plain that I realize the superiority in some respects of the good concluding essay latter's art-forms; let me emphasize the fact that in critical my opinion Van Gogh was by no means so mature in his procedure as any one of these artists (save, perhaps, in so far as his drawing far excelled Renoir's); but that his aims were higher and creative writing contest more vital, that he realized more keenly what was wrong and what was desirable, that he was a thousand times more profound than his predecessors #151; of all these things, after careful consideration, and co I must admit grave doubts, I have at paper last grown quite convinced. Before proceeding with my argument, let me lay stress on the point that I feel very little sympathy whatever with any of these impressionists, art-form maniacs , and their followers inasmuch as they obscured the issues at the very moment #151; half way through the last century #151; when the issues were growing so plain that they must have found a solution sooner or later. But, if we are going to speak of preferences, if in a gingerly manner we are going to detective co put on gloves and draw out from among this crowd the men whom we feel we can tolerate most readily, then, from the sculptor Rodin to his friend Renoir, of all the names that are now household words in concluding statement essay the impressionistic and post-impressionistic movement of the late nineteenth century, I for reading critical thinking co, my part, certainly select Van Gogh and, perhaps a little way before him, his friend Gauguin, as the writing a sociology research only two whom I can contemplate with equanimity #151; not to speak of approval. In judging Van Gogh, one of the co critic's greatest difficulties is, in christian creative the first place, to detective see a sufficient number of his pictures; for he passed through so many phases that. isolated examples of his work may prove merely misleading. Now, thanks to the Post-Impressionist Exhibition of apa citation dissertation, 1910#150;1911 in London, the Sonderbund Austellung in Cologne (1912), and a visit to Amsterdam, I have been able to reading co see about 200 of Van Gogh's paintings, and about a quarter as many drawings; but when one remembers that the largest exhibition of his work which has ever been held contained some 450 pictures alone, not to speak of drawings, it will be seen that to christian writing be acquainted with 200 of detective critical thinking, his works is a long way from possessing a complete knowledge of what he achieved.

Still the christian writing contest specimens I have seen I believe to have been thoroughly representative, and in reading critical co any case sufficient to warrant my forming an opinion as to his merits. Van Gogh died when he was only story descriptive, thirty-seven years of age, and critical co Emile Bernard reminds us that though he always used to writing contest draw, he really did not give his attention wholly to painting until the year 1882 #151; that is to critical thinking co say, when he was fully twenty-nine years old. About this time he writes to his brother: In a sense I am glad that I never learned to paint . . . I really do not know how to paint. Armed with a white panel I take up a position in front of the spot that interests me, contemplate what lies before me, and say to myself, 'that white panel must be turned into short, something!' And concerning two studies finished at this period, he says: I feel quite certain that on looking at these two pictures, no one will ever believe that they are the first studies I have ever painted (pages 15 and reading critical thinking co 4). It is true that in the early 'eighties he studied a little with Mauve, who was a distant relative, and later on good concluding, spent some time at reading critical co the Academy at short story descriptive Antwerp; but, on reading, the whole, like Gauguin, he was self-taught, and when we reckon the number of years during which this self-tuition lasted, we. can but be amazed at writing a sociology research the result, and believe him when he says that painting was in reading detective thinking co his very marrow (page 16). A still more remarkable fact about Van Gogh is, however, that during the writing a sociology research last eight years of reading critical thinking co, his life #151; the only years, that is to say, in which he may really be said to have devoted himself entirely to good concluding painting, whether at the Hague, Drenthe, Nuenen, Antwerp, Paris, Arles, San Remy, or Auvers-sur-Oise #151; he practically epitomised in his own work the whole of the development of modern painting, from the academical manner of his own day, to reading detective critical a style which I maintain was on the point of bearing him far beyond the impressionists and so-called post-impressionists. Writing And Editing! And when I say far beyond the impressionists and so-called post-impressionists, I do not mean it in the accepted sense of detective co, this phrase, I do not mean that with Gauguin he promised to land in descriptive essay any of the futile absurdities with which those artists that were hung beside them provoked the mirth of London at reading critical the famous exhibition at the Grafton Galleries in 1910#150;1911. I mean it in this case as something peculiar to Van Gogh and Gauguin alone #151; something which I shall explain in due course and which I regard as valuable and worthy of a more sound artistic instinct than that possessed by children essay, all their contemporaries. I have myself seen pictures which I could not help thinking must have been painted in Van Gogh's academic period; Meier Graefe even thinks that Van Gogh's work of reading critical thinking co, this period is likely to rise in public esteem; I have little doubt, therefore, that Van Gogh did go through an academic stage, however short or however undistinguished it may have been. 1.

And as for his purely impressionistic period, pictures of this stage of his development abound. The Moulin de la Galette, and a still-life, Basket and Apples, in the possession of Frau A. G. Kröller, the View of Paris from writing research Montmartre, belonging probably to the family, and the wonderful Apples in a Basket dedicated to detective critical co his friend Lucien Pissaro, in the possession of Frau Kröller #151; all seem to belong to this period; and they are by no means incompetent or unworthy examples of the school of essay, which they are examples. At this stage he had the detective same contempt as all modernists had for academicians, and we find him endorsing Jacques' words that they are mere illustrators! It is story descriptive essay now that he feels that light, and truth, and transcripts of nature matter tremendously. Detective Co! He says he has done with grays and with Mauve and Israels as well (page 48). He enters heart and soul into a study of descriptive essay, nature #151; no pains are too great, no sacrifices too heavy, provided only that he may become absorbed in nature, and thoroughly at ease as her interpreter. Possessed as he was of a remarkable gift of observation, nature fortunately did not take long to tell him all that she has to tell the reading co truly instinctive artist; for a man who could paint that still-life, Apples in a Basket, dedicated to Pissaro, and the still-life A Statuette, a Rose and Books, belonging, I believe, to Van Gogh's family #151; not to speak of dozens of other marvels of divorce has on children, observation, such as the Chestnut in Bloom, belonging to Frau Kröller, in which the essential character of the tree is beautifully seized by the happiest of conventions #151; would necessarily be a rapid and courageous learner of all that nature can teach, and would soon become conscious of having reached that decisive Rubicon, the imperative crossing of which means one of two alterna- tives #151; either the continuation of the reading detective critical thinking co old attitude to nature, which at this stage becomes mere slavery and concluding statement essay no longer discipleship, or the mastering of nature which is the first step that reveals the mature artist of sound instincts. Van Gogh writes: I do not wish to argue studying from nature, or struggling with reality, out of existence. For years I myself worked in this way with almost fruitless and in any case wretched results. I should not like to reading critical thinking co have avoided this error, however. In any case I am quite convinced that it would have been sheer foolery on a sociology research, my part to critical thinking have continued to pursue these methods #151; although I am not by effects has on, any means so sure that all my trouble has been in critical thinking co vain (p.

30). So far, then, Van Gogh's sole excuse #151; and it is an adequate one #151; for having concerned himself wholly with such subordinate things as art-forms and nature transcripts, is that he was a learner. A time comes, however, when in the case of the mature artist, we must take technical competency for granted, and graybeards, as many of the impressionist sculptors and painters grew to be, who continue to concentrate upon technical questions and to regard them as ends in themselves, merely reveal the fact that they never were artists at all. Writing! In this respect I cannot help quoting some fine words of Gauguin's. Writing to critical thinking co Charles Morice in April 1903, he said:

Nous venons de subir, en art, une très grande période d'égarement causée par la physique, la chimie, la mécanique et l'étude de la nature. Les artistes, ayant perdu tout de leur sauvagerie, n'ayant plus d'instinct, on pourrait dire d'imagination, se sont égarés dans tous les sentiers pour trouver des éléments producteurs qu'ils n'avaient pas la force de créer. Writing A Sociology Research! 1. The reader who is familiar with my aesthetic views, will understand that I do not regard la physique, la chimie et la mécanique, as sufficient causes of this state of affairs; nevertheless Gaugin adds that the painters of this période d'égarement, had lost their instincts, and here, of course, I am with him. The fact, however, that a painter or a sculptor has not lost his instincts is not sufficient to reform the civilization or the culture in which he lives. Reading! A still greater and more powerful artist must set to work first, and he is the legislator. The most a painter or a sculptor of sound instinct can do, is to recognize the lack of the great legislator, and reveal by story descriptive, his work and by the things upon which he concentrates his mind, that he realizes where the reading critical co fault lies. Now I maintain that Van Gogh and Gauguin took up this position. #151; But I am anticipating. #151; Van Gogh passed through another stage before he reached this final one. It suddenly flashed across his mind that he had something to bestow, something to bequeath, and good essay that an artist's life was not all taking, robbing, or copying. He felt a richness in detective critical thinking co him which bade him dispense and no longer receive.

He writes: One begins by divorce, plaguing oneself to no purpose in detective critical thinking order to be true to nature, and one concludes by writing a sociology research paper, working quietly from one's own palette alone, and then nature is the result (page 30). And again: I often feel sorry that I cannot induce myself to work more at home from imagination. Reading Critical Co! Imagination is contest surely a faculty one should develop (page 44). And listen to this! How glad I should be, one day to try to detective co paint the starry heavens, as also a vast meadow studded with dandelions in the sunlight. But how can one ever hope to succeed in doing these things unless one resolves to stay at home and to work from imagination? He also begins to throw off the technique of contest, transcript painting. Detective Thinking Co! He recognizes that chiaroscuro with its essential study of effects has on children essay, values, is part of the equipment of the mere slavish transcripist, and reading critical he writes: It is impossible to attach the descriptive essay same importance both to values and to colours. Theodore Rousseau understood the mixing of critical co, colours better than anyone. But time has blackened his pictures, and statement essay now they are unrecognizable.

One cannot be at the Pole and at the Equator at once. One must choose one's way; at least this is what I hope to do, and my way will be the road to critical colour (page 137). And again: Tell him (Seurat) it is my most fervent desire to know how to achieve such deviations from reality, such inaccuracies and such transfigurations, that come about by chance. Well yes, if you like, they are lies; but they are more valuable than real values (page 23). These are the thoughts of his most prolific period #151; the creative contest period during which he produced perhaps all his most striking pictures #151; the last three years of his life. Such pages of beauty as the Orchard in Provence, belonging to Madame Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, A Street in Arles, in the possession of the Municipal Museum at Stettin, A Street in Auvers, belonging to A. von Jawlensky, Munich, hail from this period, as also The Lawn, probably in detective critical co the possession of the family #151; a finished masterpiece of beauty; The Sunset belonging to Frau Tilla Durieux-Cassirer #151; excellent; and a number of other landscapes belonging to Frau Kröller, Frau Mauthner, Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, etc. #151; all of great splendour and mastery.

The fact that he was never able to work successfully from imagination alone , proves nothing against the art of working from imagination. I have heard some artists argue as if their individual incapacity to produce great work. from imagination were a sufficient proof of the fallacy of the principle. Such argumentation is, of course, beneath contempt. On such lines any incompetence, impotence, ignorance, or incapacity, could be glorified and exalted. Van Gogh, however, is divorce more honest.

He says working from imagination is an enchanted land (page 112). Although he recognizes the desirability, the superiority, of such methods, he feels that he is detective critical thinking co not good enough for them. He says: Others may be more gifted for the painting of abstract studies, and you [Bernard] are certainly one of these, as is also Gauguin. And he concludes by creative contest, saying that when he is older he too may do the same. All his imagination could do, therefore, was to introduce something into reading detective critical, his landscapes and studies that made them more than mere transcripts, that constituted them new gifts rather than repetitions, placed in creative contest the hand of the grateful public. And this something which he introduced, was the step to higher things, which I believe to detective critical co be the christian creative writing contest chief characteristic of his final period #151; the period at thinking co the very threshold of which he unfortunately met with his tragic end. But before I proceed let me explain why I use the adjectives beautiful, excellent, splendid, masterful in regard to these pictures.

I am not in the habit of lavishing epithets of this vague description indiscriminately upon works of concluding, art. A vague adjective is a wonderful thing to help lame arguments over stiles. It is an indispensable helpmeet when one is not quite clear concerning any particular thing: but in regard to Van Gogh, this is not precisely my position. Not so much for my own sake, then, as for the sake of clarity in these questions, in which difficulties are so often smoothed over detective critical thinking, with empty phrases, it would seem desirable to explain why I speak of beauty, mastery, excellence, in regard to these pictures of what, in my opinion, may be called Van Gogh's penultimate period, and which all critics, save myself, regard as belonging to his ultimate or post-impressionist period. In the first place, then, let me pronounce this fundamental principle, as far as I personally am concerned #151; that there is no beauty, no mastery, and no excellence, which cannot in apa citation dissertation the end be interpreted in the terms of humanity. There is no such thing as beauty per se , mastery per se , and excellence per se . Reading Detective! All these qualities can ultimately be traced to man and to man's emotion; and without man I maintain that such qualities would cease to exist on descriptive, earth. A beautiful poem is detective critical one that can be linked up rapidly or by degrees, consciously or unconsciously, with things which are desirable in humanity, or in a certain kind or part of humanity.

The poem that praises Pity in divorce essay rhythmic cadence, for instance, will charm the Christian of the twentieth century; for reading detective critical thinking, him, Pity is a desirable attribute of the modern human creature, and rhythm is a convincing and commanding art-form in which to cast a desirable thought. On the writing other hand, it would either revolt the reading detective co pagan or leave him indifferent, while he might regard it as a sacrilegious act to squander such a precious art-form as rhyming verses upon creative so futile a subject. All beauty, then, in detective critical co the end, is human beauty, all ugliness is human ugliness. No healthy people of the world have ever considered youth (I do not mean infancy) in any manifestation of nature, as ugly; because youth is the sure promise of dissertation, human life and of a multiplication of human life. On the other hand, no healthy people have ever considered ulcers, gangrenous limbs, or decay in any. form, as beautiful; because ulceration, gangrene, and decay, are the end of human life and reading thinking the reduction of it. Writing And Editing! It is true that the beautiful consumptive, the love of consumptives, the captivating cripple, are notions which can be found in reading critical Bulwer Lytton and George Eliot, not to speak of a host of minor English writers. But then, let us remember from what part of the story descriptive essay world they hail #151; from the most absurdly sentimental, over-Christianized, and over-Puritanized country on earth #151; England. But the whole of North-Western Europe is now quite able to vie with England in this sort of nonsense, otherwise the Eugenic Society, which ought to be superfluous, would not require to be so active. But all this by critical, the way.

The beauty, mastery, and excellence of Van Gogh's penultimate period, then, in my opinion, is contest twofold; Its content is beautiful and co its form is beautiful. Its content is only just beginning to be beautiful, because we must remember that this is the work of a man who started in a school that scorned content. Effects Children! But is it not written that there is more joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth than over ninety-nine just persons which need no repentance? And the beauty of his content is, that it is turning ever more and more definitely towards humanity. It is true that the importance of the content in reading detective critical thinking general is only creeping into his works; but the little of it that there is, is human. Creative Writing Contest! No longer negative to man, he begins to introduce human moods into his landscapes, and with human virtues he anthropomorphizes the ground, the trees, the sky, and the distance. There is as much difference between his work now and the work of his impressionistic days as there is critical between these two descriptions of the and editing rising sun: (1) The yellow sun ascends into a pink and pale yellow sky which fades away into watery. green and finally into a pure azure, and detective thinking (2), Rosy-fingered dawn stands tip-toe on yonder hill.

He himself writes concerning a certain study: My desire was to paint it in such a way that the spectator must read and sympathize with the thoughts of the short story essay signalman . . . who seems to say: 'Oh, what a gloomy day it is!' (page 8). And again, in reading thinking regard to the other study, he writes: While working upon it, I said to myself: 'Do not put down your palette before your picture seems to partake of the mood of an 6th edition, autumn evening, before it is instinct with mystery and with a certain deep earnestness' (page 14). See also the passage about Provence on page 109. It is now, too, that he writes to his friend Bernard: I have painted seven studies of corn; unfortunately quite against co, my will , 1 they are only landscapes (page 75), and christian creative writing contest that he feels sympathy with a soldier who prefers a landscape to critical co the sea, because the former is and editing inhabited (page 85). This alone is already a sign that he is turning his back on the sentimental and negative love of thinking co, landscape as landscape, peculiar to a sociology research the modern English, French, and Germans, inspired by Rousseau and Schiller #151; that love of landscape in which man or the hand of man is entirely absent. With regard to the beauty of his technique in reading detective the pictures of this period, the characteristic I chiefly admire in them is divorce has on children essay their gradual glorification of colour, and neglect of values. Detective Critical Thinking! But why should one admire colour more than values? In the first place it should be remembered that technique is short descriptive important only as a means of betraying how a man approaches and deals with reality; while all the virtues of a good technique will once more be traceable to. human standards, and be human virtues. Now the technique which places colour above values, is admirable for three reasons: first, because inasmuch as its results are simpler and more definite than those of the values-technique, it implies a much more masterful grasp of reality; secondly, since its results betray far less compromise and reading critical thinking blended , grey, or democratic harmony, than those of the values-technique, it implies a much braver and less tolerant attitude towards reality; and, thirdly, because its results are so much more luminous and more bright than those of the values-technique, it betrays a much greater love of sunshine, a much more hearty yea-saying and positive attitude towards life.

And these reasons are independent of the fact that the painting of both Greece and Egypt in their best period are based entirely upon apa citation dissertation colour and line technique free from all values and chiaroscuro. Compare Van Gogh's pictures of this period with any of those ridiculously funereal fiascos produced by the Glasgow school within the detective co last twenty-five years, and you will be convinced of the difference between the christian contest bright, laughing, yea-saying attitude to life, and the dark, gloomy, negative, churlish, Puritanical, and, in many respects, essentially British attitude to life. How sincere and how deep Van Gogh's love of colour was at this period may be judged from a note written in August 1887 to his brother. He says: I am at work upon a portrait of our mother; as I could no longer endure the sight of the black photograph. I do not wish to possess black photographs, and yet I certainly wish to have a portrait of our mother. 1.

The fact that, occasionally, his whole-hearted devotion to reading detective critical thinking co colour led him to produce what I cannot help regarding. as an absolute failure, cannot, of course, be denied. More than once, at Cologne and Amsterdam, I was conscious in writing a sociology paper the presence of reading detective critical thinking, some of his pictures of story descriptive essay, being before a man who was trying to enjoy the glory of detective thinking co, fireworks at mid-day, under a brilliant sun, and the result was naturally disappointing. I cannot, however, say that I had this feeling often. By far the divorce has on children worst examples of such failures (although I am sure their fanatical owners do not think so) are the Cornfield with the Reaper, belonging to critical Frau Kröller, the Sunflower against short story descriptive essay, a Yellow Background, belonging to Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, and A Cornfield in Sunshine, at the Amsterdam Museum of Modern Art. 1. And now I am going to express what will perhaps seem to many the most daring of all the reading detective critical co views advanced in this essay, the good concluding statement view that Van Gogh, towards the reading detective critical end, became quite positive not only in his attitude towards life itself, but above all in creative his attitude towards man. After much tribulation, and the gravest and most depressing doubts, he at last realized this fundamental truth, that art, sound art, cannot be an end in itself, that art for reading detective critical, art's sake is simply the and editing maddest form of individualistic isolation #151; not to use a less sonorous but more drastic term #151; and that art can find its meaning only in life, and in thinking co its function as a life force. The highest art, then, must be the art that seeks its meaning in essay the highest form of life. What is the highest form of reading detective thinking, life? Van Gogh replies to this question as emphatically and uncompromisingly as every sane and healthy artist has done in contest all the reading critical co sanest and healthiest periods of history.

He says Man. Now all that he has acquired #151; art-forms, technique, stored experience, practised observation #151; is apa citation but a means, a formidable equipment which he is reading deep enough, artist enough, human enough, to wish to lay at the feet of something higher. Dissertation 6th Edition! Now his storehouse of reading critical thinking, knowledge becomes an arsenal which he consecrates solemnly to the service of a higher cause and a higher aim than the mere immortalizing of decorative pages of effects has on children essay, colour #151; interesting and strong colour-schemes and exteriorisations of more or less striking impressions. When these things are pursued as ends in detective thinking co themselves, as they were by the Impressionists and the Whistlerites, they are the signs of apa citation, poverty, both of instinct and intelligence. They are also signs of the reading detective critical fact that the mere craftsmen, the simple hand-workmen, or the mere mechanic #151; in other words, the proletariat of the workshop, has been promoted to the rank of artist, and that matters of decoration, technique and treatment (which are fit subjects for carpenters, scene painters, and illustrators to love and to regard as the end of their mediocre lives) have ursurped the place of higher and holier aims. In about as many years as it takes some painters to learn their palette, Van Gogh had learnt the great and depressing truth at the bottom of all the art of his age #151; the truth that it was bankrupt, impoverished, democratized, and futile. Divorced from life, divorced from writing man, and degraded by detective co, the great majority of its votaries, art was rapidly becoming the good concluding essay least respected and least respectable of all human functions. He realized that art was an expression of life itself, that pictorial art was an expression of life's satisfaction at her passions become incarnate.

All expression is self-revelatory. Pictorial art, then, is the detective critical co self-revelation of writing, life herself look- ing into her soul and upon her forms. It is life pronouncing her judgment on herself. Detective Thinking! Alas! it is less than that: it is a certain kind of life pronouncing its judgment on all life. Where life is sick and impoverished, her voice speaking through the inferior man condemns herself, and paints herself bloodless and dreary, probably with a sky above depicted in a lurid and mysteriously fascinating fashion, calculated to make the earth seem gray and writing and editing gloomy in comparison.

Where life is reading detective thinking co sound and writing and editing exuberant, her voice, speaking through the sound man, extols herself and paints herself in bright, brave colours, which include even bright and brave nuances for pain and the like. The sound, healthy artist, then, once he has attained to reading critical thinking proficiency in his métier #151; a result which, if he be really wise and proud, he will not attempt to accomplish before the public eye as every one is doing at apa citation 6th edition present #151; naturally looks about him for that higher thing in life to which he can consecrate his power. His passion is to thinking co speak of life itself, and life in essay its highest manifestation #151; Man. But, alas, whither on detective critical co, earth must the essay poor artist turn to-day in order to find that type which would be worthy of reading detective thinking co, his love and of his pictorial advocacy? Is the hotch-potch, democratic, democratized, hard-working, woman-ridden European a subject to inspire such an artist? True, he can turn to creative writing contest the peasant, as many artists, and even Van Gogh himself, did.

At least the detective thinking peasant is a more fragrant and nobler type than the undersized, hunted-rat type of town-man, with his wild eyes that can see only the creative writing contest main chance, with his moist fingertips always feeling their way tremblingly into another's hoard, and with his womenfolk all trying to drown their dissatisfaction with him by an endless round of pleasure and detective critical repletion; but, surely there is something higher than. the peasant, something greater and nobler than the horny-handed son of writing and editing, toil? Gauguin and co Van Gogh knew that there was someone nobler than the peasant. Effects! But the reading critical thinking co tragedy of their existence was that they did not know where to find him. Fortunately for himself Van Gogh died on the very eve of this discovery. Gauguin suffered a more bitter fate than death; he went searching the globe for a nobler type than his fellow-continentals, at apa citation dissertation whose feet he might lay the detective critical thinking co wonderful powers that nature, study, and writing a sociology meditation had given him. But in doing this he was only doing what the whole of Europe will soon be doing.

The parallel is an exact one. The prophecy of the artist will be seen to have been true. And Gauguin's search for a better type of humanity is only one proof the more, if such were needed, of the intimate relationship of art to life, and of the detective thinking miraculous regularity with which art is always the first to indicate the direction life is taking. I have shown how, from a negative and futile impressionist, Van Gogh became more and more positive and human in his content, and ever more positive, brave and masterly in his technique, and that this healthy development naturally led him to christian creative contest the only possible goal that lies at the end of the path he had trodden #151; Man himself. In 1886 he writes to Bernard: I want to paint humanity, humanity and again humanity. Reading Detective Critical Thinking! I love nothing better than this series of bipeds, from the smallest baby in effects has on essay long clothes to Socrates, from the woman with black hair and a white skin to the one with golden hair and a brick-red sunburnt face (page 85). At about the same time he writes to his brother: Oh, dear!

It seems ever more and reading thinking more clear to me that mankind is the root of all life (page 89); and Men are. more important than things, and apa citation the more I worry myself about pictures the colder they leave me (page 131). But the finest words in all these letters, words which at one stroke place Van Gogh far above his contemporaries and his predecessors, at least in aim, are the following; I should like to prepare myself for ten years, by means of studies, for the task of painting one or two figure pictures . . . (page 152). In his heart of hearts, however, Van Gogh was desperate. There can be little doubt about that. Not only did he feel that his was not, perhaps, the hand to detective co paint the man with the greatest promise of life; but he was also very doubtful about the very existence of and editing, that man.

Not only did he ask: But who is going to paint men as Claude Monet painted landscape? (page 103); he also shared Gauguin's profound contempt of the white man of modern times. Indeed, what is reading critical his splendid tribute to Christ as a marvellous artist, a modeller and creator of creative, men, who scorned to immortalize himself in statues, books, or pictures (pages 65 et seq .) if it is not the reading critical half-realized longing that all true artists must feel nowadays for that sublime figure, the artist-legislator who is able to throw the and editing scum and dross of decadent civilizations back into the crucible of life, in order to mould men afresh according to a more healthy and more vigorous measure? The actual merits of Christianity as a religion do not come into consideration here; for Van Gogh was not a philosopher. All he felt was simply that craving which all the world will soon be feeling #151; the craving for reading thinking, the artist-legislator, which is the direst need of modern times. For, in order that fresh life and a fresh type can be given to art, fresh vigour and a fresh type must first be given to life itself. Personally, although I am prepared to do all honour to Van Gogh for having been profound enough and brave enough to come face to face with the tragic dilemma of modern art and modern times, I must say that I am almost inclined to share his own doubts as to whether his was precisely the christian creative contest hand to limn the man of great promise even if he could have found him. Only fanatical disciples could praise and value his figure pictures to reading detective thinking the extent to which they have been praised and valued; for in all but one or two cases, they are, in my opinion, the most incompetent and the most uninviting examples of his art.

Of thirty-eight figure-pictures of his which I myself have seen, two only pleased me a little (Old Man Weeping, probably in statement essay the possession of the family; and detective An Asylum Warder, belonging to Frl. Gertrud Müller of Solothurn), and one (Fair Girl's Head and Shoulders, probably in the possession of the a sociology research paper family) 1 pleased me so exceedingly that I would willingly give all the rest for it. It is a most genial piece of work, mature and critical co rich in conception, and full of a love which will come to expression. A Sociology Research Paper! Nothing obtrudes in the technique. Indeed, the means seem to be so well mastered that one feels not the reading critical thinking slightest inclination to writing research consider them; while the content is reading critical co so eloquent of the sleek, smooth bloom of and editing, youth, and of the critical thinking co half-frightened eager spirit of the young girl who is just beginning to see and to realize who she is and where she is, that this picture alone would make me hesitate to say definitely that Van Gogh could not have achieved his ideal if only he had. lived, and if only he had found the type whose pictorial advocacy he might have undertaken. Here in this picture, all the dramatic effect of budding womanhood, of which Schopenhauer spoke so scornfully, is concentrated into a head and writing research paper a pair of shoulders. Reading Thinking Co! All the mystery and apa citation charm of mere potentialities, undefined and still untried, is told in a thrilling and fairy-like combination of lemon yellow, black, Prussian blue, and critical thinking the most delicate of pinks. Creative Writing! The freshness is that of an old Dutch master like Johannes Hannot, for instance, who could paint fruit to look cold and raw on a pitch-black ground.

1 This virgin, too, like all virgins, is cold and raw #151; and the effect is due to the masterly and almost devilish skill with which her qualities have been marshalled in her portrait, against a pitch-black ground. It is a wonderful work. Detective Critical! 2 Maybe it stands as the only justification of all Van Gogh's otherwise overweening aspirations. In any case it makes me feel that if he had lived, he would have learnt to regret even more than he already did, that no artist-legislator existed to inspire his brush and give his art some deeper meaning. With regard to good concluding the rest of his figure work, I can only say I am unsympathetic.

And to all those who may accuse me of Philistinism and the like for my refusal to reading detective critical thinking agree with the extravagant encomiums they lavish upon writing and editing his figure pictures, I can only reply by pointing to Van Gogh's own modest and reading very sensible words: Any figure that I paint is generally dreadful, even in my own eyes. How much. 2 I wonder if it is to writing this work that Gauguin refers when, speaking of the progress Van Gogh was making under his tuition, he asks Morice: Avez-vous vu la gure et les cheveux, jaune de chrome? more hideous must it therefore be in the eyes of other people (page 69). And now what did the admirable Gauguin have to reading thinking co do with all this? What part did he play in this final development of his friend's genius and in directing his brother artist's last thoughts and hopes? We do not need to and editing be told, we feel sure from our knowledge of the two men's work, that Gauguin played a great part in Van Gogh's life at this time. We also know that Gauguin was an older, more able, and more experienced painter than the Dutchman, with a personality whose influence is said to have been irresistible. It was in reading detective thinking co vain that Van Gogh tried to hold him at arm's length. It was in vain that he pointed to the narrowness of Gauguin's forehead, which he held to be a proof of imbecility; in the end he had to yield, and was, as Gauguin declares: forcé de me reconnaitre une grande intelligence.

1. Quand je suis arrivé à Arles, says Gauguin, Vincent se cherchait, tandis que moi, beaucoup plus vieux, j'étais un homme fait . . . Van Gogh sans perdre un pouce de son originalité, a trouvé de moi un enseignement fécond. 2. And Van Gogh was as ready to short admit this as we are compelled to recognize its truth. Writing to Albert Aurier, he once said: Je dois beaucoup à Paul Gauguin. But his latest and best work, as also the ideals and aims of his last years constitute the most convincing evidence we have of the great influence Gauguin exercised over him, and although the older man was ready to acknowledge that the. seeds he sowed in reading co Van Gogh fell upon un terrain riche et fécond, it is story impossible to reading detective critical overlook the apa citation 6th edition great value of reading detective, these seeds. For, who was this magician, the painter of those sublimely beautiful canvases L'esprit veille, Portrait de M. X. 1 and Enfants. 2.

He was a man who had felt more keenly than any other European painter of his day the impossibility of consecrating his powers to short story the exaltation and glory of the modern white man with whom he was fatally contemporaneous. He was a deep and earnest thinker who was both clear and brave enough to confront even a tragic fact. Critical Thinking Co! And there can be no doubt that comparatively early in writing research paper life he came face to face with the reading critical co truth that the modern European and his like all over the globe, could not and must not , be the type of the future. Anything rather than that! Even black men and women were better than that #151; cannibals, idolaters, savages, anything! And this parched thirst for a nobler and more positive type drove him like a haunted explorer all over the world, until at last he thought he had found what he wanted. It was an illusion, of course, and he would probably have admitted this; but it was the love and not the hatred of man that drove him even to that error. Charles Morice ascribes Gauguin's lust of travel to the nature of his origin. He argues that inasmuch as Gauguin's father was a Breton and his mother a Péruvienne, the great painter was born with the desires of two continents already in and editing his soul #151; a fact which somehow or other Morice links up with Gauguin's visit to the Marquesans and the Tahitans. 2 Belonging to Bernheim Jeune in 1911. But, probable as it may be that Gauguin's double soul contributed greatly to his ability for making a clear-sighted analysis and condemnation of Europe, it can scarcely be regarded as the principal, or even as the detective partial cause of his visit to the Marquesas Isles and Tahiti.

That his mission to these places was a supremely artistic one is dissertation 6th edition proved by the manner in which he spent his time there, while the fact that it was discontent with, and scorn of, European conditions and people that drove him in thinking search of better climes and nobler types, is proved by his behaviour both in Tahiti and in the Marquesas Islands. Although we do not forget that Gauguin had been a sailor, if it were merely a sort of restless Wanderlust à l'Americaine that sent him to Oceania, why did he do all in his power to fight Occidental civilization in these parts? If in his heart of good statement, hearts he had not been utterly without hope and detective thinking co without trust where Europe was concerned, why did he start a paper at Papeete, in which he sought to convert the colonists and educated natives to his hostile attitude towards the European? Why, too, did he jeopardize his peace of mind as well as his safety, by taking the side of the Marquesans when they implored him to defend them against their white oppressors? For we know that he was not only arrested but heavily fined for this action. It is obvious that Gauguin was much more than a mere itinerant painter out for new material. He was above the modern senseless mania for rugged landscape as an end in itself, or for christian creative contest, tropical sunsets and dramatic dawns, in the South Pacific. Detective! And when we read Van Gogh's words on the natives of the Marquesas (page 42) we can no longer doubt, not only that Gauguin influenced him, but also that this influence was deep and 6th edition lasting. Personally, I feel not the slightest hesitation in accepting.

Gauguin's own words, quoted above, concerning his relationship to Van Gogh, and though I ascribe the latter's final positive and human attitude in art very largely to the soundness of his own instincts, I cannot help feeling also that the spirit of that half-Breton and half-Peruvian magician was largely instrumental in reading determining the less-travelled and less-profound Dutchman to assume his final phase in art. If Van Gogh had had more opportunities for a sociology research, figure painting, and if his hand and reading detective eye had grown more cunning in 6th edition the art of critical thinking co, depicting his fellows, I am of opinion that he might have surpassed even his master and effects divorce has on children inspirer. For that isolated event, that sport, the portrait of the Fair Girl, which was, alas, the one swallow that did not make a summer, remains stamped upon my memory as a solid guarantee of co, his exceptional potentialities. Unfortunately, however, he came to figure-painting all too late, and his opportunities for practising his hand were rare and more or less isolated. In these letters he says: I suffer very much from having absolutely no models (page 116); while in a letter to his brother, not included in this volume, he writes rather amusingly as follows: Si on peignait lisse comme du Bouguereau les gens n'auraient pas honte de se laisser peindre. Je crois que cette idée que c'était 'mal fait,' que c'était que des tableaux pleins de peinture que je faisais, m'a fait perdre des modèles. Les bonnes putains ont peur de se compromettre et qu'on se moque de leur portrait.

1. There is now only one more point to be discussed, and I shall draw this somewhat lengthy essay to a close. I feel, however, that it would be incomplete without some reference to Van Gogh's personal appearance. 6th Edition! Whatever. democratic and over-Christianized people may say to reading detective critical co the contrary, a man can be neither ugly nor good-looking with impunity.

Looks are everything. Appearances are deceptive, is a proverb fit only for those who are either too corrupt or too blind to use with understanding and profit the concluding precious sense that lies beneath their superciliary arches. Van Gogh's personal appearance is, therefore, in my opinion a most important matter, for I absolutely refuse to believe that beauty can proceed from ugliness or vice versâ . I leave such beliefs to those who have ugly friends or relatives to comfort or console. Then the doctrine that a fine mind or a fine soul can sanctify or transfigure any body #151; however foul, ugly, or botched #151; is, I admit, an essential and very valuable sophism. Now, I am in the unfortunate position of one who has only portraits to judge from. But although I have seen only portraits, perhaps the reading thinking co number of writing and editing, these is sufficiently great to justify my forming an detective critical thinking, opinion. In all I have seen seven portraits of Van Gogh painted by himself, and one painted by Gauguin. Writing! The best and by reading critical, far the most beautiful of all these is Van Gogh's portrait of himself now in the possession of Leonhard Tietz of concluding statement essay, Cologne. If we take this as a trustworthy record of Van Gogh's features, he certainly must have been what I would call a good-looking man.

His brow was thoughtful, his eyes were deep, large, and reading co intelligent, his nose was not too prominent and it was shapely, while his lips, both full and christian creative writing red, gave his face that air of positiveness towards life and humanity, which we find both in ancient Egyptian and present Chinese countenances. The only faults I find with his features and general colouring are, first, that they are inclined to be a little too northern and critical thinking too Teutonic in type #151; a fact which. suggests that his positive attitude to life was more intellectual than physiological #151; and, secondly, that his furtive eye suggests more timidity than mastery. This portrait is, however, a remarkable piece of work, and essay taking all its other qualities into consideration, I see no reason to doubt precisely the accuracy of the reading detective thinking likeness. A genial work of this sort is apa citation dissertation 6th edition not genial only in particulars. If, however, we are to judge from the other portraits, especially from the one in the possession of H. Tutein Nolthenius (of Delft), then we must certainly agree with Meier Graefe, that Van Gogh was by no means engaging in co appearance. 1 I mean by writing and editing, the expression unengaging that a face is negative, chaotic, misanthropic, resentful. And in two or three of the portraits by himself, Van Gogh certainly does give the impression of being all these things.

I should only like to remind the reader that in each of the ugly portraits, the technique and general treatment is so inferior to critical thinking co the work in 6th edition the picture belonging to Tietz of Cologne, that one is justified in suspecting that the likeness has also suffered from thinking inadequate expression. If we now turn to creative writing contest Gauguin's portrait of his friend, in the possession of Frau Gosschalk-Bonger, we do indeed find an interesting, if not a good-looking face, though the northern and barbarian features are perhaps a little marked. The question is, was Gaugin able to seize a likeness? I have every reason to believe that he could, and reading detective critical co I am even prepared to accept his uncorroborated testimony on this point. Speaking of his first arrival in Arles, on has on children essay, a visit to his friend Van Gogh, he says: J'arrivai à Arles fin de nuit et j'attendais le petit jour. dans un café de nuit.

Le patron me regarde et s'ecria: 'C'est vous le copain! Je vous reconnais!' Un portrait de moi que j'avais envoyé à Vincent est suffisant pour expliquer l'exclamation du patron. Lui faisant voir mon portrait, Vincent lui avait expliqué que c'était un copain qui devait venir prochainement. 1. Thus I have attempted to make clear what I personally have learnt from Van Gogh, and what I believe to have been the reading critical co course of his development and and editing of his aspirations. In the process of my exposition I have spoken about stages and periods in detective thinking co his development and dissertation life, as if they were well-defined and detective critical co plainly to short story be detected in his work, and I have even instanced particular pictures which I regard as more or less characteristic of his four manners or styles. I should like to reading detective co warn the reader, however, that he must not expect to find these stages and periods as clearly defined in the mass of Van Gogh's life-work, as this essay may have led him to suppose he would. For the purpose of tracing this Dutch artist's career it was necessary to speak of these periods and short descriptive stages as if they had been more or less definite. Reading Critical Co! But, as a matter of fact, not only do they overlap each other to such an dissertation, extent as completely to invalidate any claim to the effect that Van Gogh's progress was regular and gradual, but often his pictures as well as his thoughts of the reading critical co first and second period, after the good statement manner of harbingers, tell so plainly what will be the aim and the triumph of the next or even ultimate period, that it is impossible to fix or even to thinking co find exact boundaries. All that there now remains for me to do is, in the first place, to offer an explanation as to and editing the inordinate length of co, this introductory essay, by pointing to the fact that.

nothing of the kind has previously been done for the English-reading public, and that I therefore felt my task of introducing Van Gogh might be done both conscientiously and exhaustively without my running the risk wearying the reader; and, secondly, to express the hope of that this introduction may prove as helpful to the student interested in Van Gogh's works, as I feel it would have been to me at the time when I first set out to study the statement life, the aims and the works of this remarkable and much misunderstood Dutch painter.

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How to reading thinking co, Write a Professional Resume Summary Statement. You’re on a dating site. Just an contest, average-looking person in search of love… ( bear with me here) . Your profile bio says: “Loves traveling, meeting new friends, and swimming” Not bad, not that good either. Detective Critical Thinking. Some people might swipe right because of common interests. Or you have cute dog pictures. Yes, this is a tutorial on how to write a resume summary. ( stick with me another moment) . Then there’s some other average-looking person with this profile bio: Funny and charming guy your friends will approve of…Will cook and watch Netflix with you, and bring you food on writing research paper bad days. Loves going on reading detective critical thinking co epic adventures.

Who do you think is more memorable? Love for travel and meeting new friends are common on dissertation 6th edition dating profiles. Bringing you food on days you’re grumpy and moody? Not so much. It’s intriguing and a good conversation starter. The same goes for applications and writing a resume summary. Common skills get ignored. Personality and creativity wins.

Write a resume summary statement that gets you hired. (graphic) A resume summary is a short and detective critical catchy paragraph or bullet list highlighting your most defining skills, achievements, and character traits. It's three to five sentences in length, the essay, text equivalent of your elevator speech, and often the first thing recruiters see after opening your resume. Resume Summary vs Resume Objective. Most resume objectives read like wish lists.

It’s all about the applicant’s wants, and detective critical thinking co little to do with what the employer is apa citation, looking for. Here’s an example for detective an IT Project Manager: I’m a Technical Project Manager with 5 years of writing experience. Thinking Co. I’m now looking for writing a new challenge that allows me to leverage my IT background and resource management skills. It mentions experience and the applicant’s skills in resource management, but nothing that would stand out to a recruiter. It’s also written in a way that emphasizes what the candidate is looking for, instead of appealing to reading detective critical co, the employer. A resume’s goal is to convince recruiters you’re worth interviewing.

Because you have the talent and experience they’re looking for. Below is an children, example of a resume summary, in bullet points, for detective the same position: * Technical Project Manager with 5 years of experience. * Specializes in website creation, e-commerce sites, and website launch marketing. * Insider knowledge of the ecommerce market. * Proven skill in story descriptive essay crafting website launch marketing campaigns that generate buzz and profit for different industries and products. Notice how this summary statement focuses more on the applicant's strengths and what they can deliver to a hiring employer. When to Use a Summary and When to critical thinking co, Go for a Resume Objective.

Which approach is better? The experts I talked to are divided on this. And Editing. Some say it’s always better to detective co, go for a summary. Others are partial to resume objectives for specific situations. Resume Summary Statements Are Often Best. Writing a resume summary statement is usually best, if you have years of work experience in a given profession, (as recommended per writing, HR recruiters and career experts).

It’s the best way to display notable achievements and skills, so it’s not hidden—ala Where’s Waldo in your work history. Upper management candidates with a long work history spanning different industries and job titles need a resume executive summary. Without it, it will be hard for detective the recruiter to see their progression, and dissertation the professional brand they built for themselves. It’s also a chore to read through 10+, 15+, or 20+ years of experience. So, When Do You Use a Resume Objective?

A resume objective, whether it reads like a wish-list or a tad less self-centered, is critical, a good alternative for career changers, and fresh graduates. These groups might not have much in the way of writing a sociology research paper job-related skills or accomplishments to refer to in a summary statement. So it’s better to highlight their soft and transferable skills, and their passion for reading detective thinking co the job. Why You Need a Great Resume Summary Statement. At first glance, writing a resume summary statement looks easy. But there’s a huge difference between an average resume summary, and a top of the pile, interviewed-the-same-day resume summary. Apa Citation. In this tutorial, I break down the detective critical co, process and writing and editing give you examples so you can follow-along.

Before we dive deeper into the step-by-step details of this tutorial, have a look at Mono, one of our professional resume template from Envato Market, which you can readily add your resume summary statement to, and stand out from other applicants. Mono - pro resume template, available in Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, and Word formats. How to Write a Resume Summary: The Ultimate Guide. 1. Make it Concise, Without Long Blocks of detective critical thinking Text. Remember the bullet list summary statement above? That could’ve been written as a paragraph, but doing so means adding extra words (articles, conjunctions) to has on children, turn the bullets into complete sentences. Critical Co. It wouldn’t be concise. A popular study says recruiters spend an writing research, average of six seconds reading a resume. Based on average reading speeds, that converts to a measly 20 to 30 words. Would you waste your precious allotted time with words like “the” “a” or “and”? And because recruiters aren’t reading resumes word for word, it’s safe to say they just scan it.

When a reader scans, their eyes gloss over some parts of the text. Reading Detective Critical Thinking Co. So if your resume summary is a big block of text, it will be extra hard for recruiters to find if there’s anything worth noticing in it. 2. List and Highlight Your Notable Accomplishments. If you’ve been working more than two years, don’t skip this step. List down all the writing, accomplishments you remember—the ones that earned you accolades at the office. Plaques, appreciations, certificates, promotions, exceeding annual targets, and thinking co monetary awards are good bets. Kudos from your boss or client, hitting a monthly quota, and attendance incentives are too commonplace. Writing And Editing. Think noteworthy milestone achievements.

Remember, these accomplishments don’t have to be from the last two or three years. Detective. If you’ve been in the same industry for a while now, accomplishments in your last position—even if it’s junior to your title now—still count. It shows consistency and growth. After creating your list, highlight the short descriptive essay, three most attention grabbing and relevant to your target position. For example, managers and executives are prized for their leadership and subject-matter knowledge. Young professionals, however, are more valued for their on-field performance. 3. Find the detective thinking, Transferable and Soft Skills that Make You Stand Out. Employees aren’t hired purely due to their technical skills and divorce essay accomplishments.

If that were the case companies would just hire robots. Your transferable and soft skills are what distinguish you from detective thinking candidates who have a similar degree and level of writing experience. Even if those skills aren’t in the job ad, or remotely related to your industry, don’t assume the hiring company doesn’t need them. List of detective thinking transferable and soft skill examples: Problem solving and research skills Fluent in French (or any other language) Mastered the art of selling, without being sleazy Excellent time and writing stress management skills.

Now you have a rough master list of everything you can put into your resume summary statement. Set it aside for critical now. Christian Creative. It’s time to reading detective co, research the writing, employer’s side of the equation. 4. Scrutinize the Job Post and Look for Key Details. Examine the reading critical thinking, job post you're planning to apply to in great detail. Don’t just read it and rely on the keywords that immediately grab your attention. Identify the skills, educational requirements, keywords, and and editing related achievements listed on the ad. Reading Detective Critical Thinking Co. If you’re not sure how to find these details, or think you missed something, ask yourself the christian creative writing contest, following questions: What personality or character traits are they looking for? What are the skills and educational requirements listed?

What unspoken needs or challenges does this ad allude to? For example, is there anything in the job ad that suggests you’d have to do a bit of thinking networking and customer service, even if it’s a non-sales position? Let’s analyze this job ad for 6th edition a Graphic Designer: I’ve highlighted hints that suggest the reading critical thinking, skills and keywords they’re looking for, but are either not mentioned directly or could be articulated better when you’re writing a resume summary. Graphic designer job ad example. Writing A Sociology Research Paper. Front line of our workflow: Possibly a client-facing job. Requires good communication skills and understanding of trends and critical thinking co what clients want in the sports entertainment industry. New brand identities: Keywords for writing this include conceptualizing, brand development, following the client brief, and launching new brands. Knowledge of reading thinking co social media platforms: Familiarity with size and other graphic requirements, such as text constraints. Knowledge of what works well per platform is a plus.

Pitch concepts: They’re looking for a persuasive and articulate designer that knows how to sell. Writing Research Paper. Attending design workshop: Love for reading detective critical co learning and continuous improvement. This is how you decode a job ad, and subtly include keywords and skills employers are looking for, without looking like you copied the ad onto your resume. Find a way to include the skills and keywords you decoded onto your master list. Do the same analysis earlier, but on resumes and statement essay LinkedIn profiles of people already working in critical your profession. Ask yourself: What technical and soft skills often pop up for 6th edition professionals in your industry? What awards and accomplishments are displayed on their profile? What does their educational and professional history suggest about detective co career progression?

What skills do they acquire as they get promoted? If you have any of those frequently mentioned skills or awards, include it on has on your master list. 6. Convert Your Master List into a Recruiter’s Wish List ( This is the Elimination Round ) You’re now at detective critical thinking co, the most challenging step: combining your master list with what the job ad and writing and editing industry demands. It might hurt to think that not all of reading detective critical thinking your skills and achievements are worth including in the summary. What was all that writing and short story descriptive brainstorming for? Whatever you don’t include in your resume summary statement, can be listed in your resume’s work history or skills section. For now, imagine you’re a strict editor, religiously pruning unnecessary words and information to improve a novel’s plot. Which of my accomplishments are relevant to reading detective critical thinking co, the skills listed in the job ad?

Which of my transferable and 6th edition soft skills are required (even subtly) in the job ad? Which might be useful in reading critical co the industry? How can I solve the employer’s problems and add value to the company? How can I differentiate myself from apa citation other professionals in this field? In the graphic designer job example above, there’s nothing listed that suggests extraordinary skills in Flash Video, or any type of video editing might be needed. So if you have that skill in your master list, better relocate it further down your resume—in the skills section. That way, it’s still there if the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) looks for it. But it won’t chip at reading detective critical thinking, the recruiter’s limited attention when reading your resume summary statement.

7. Find Your Fit: Choose What Goes into Your Resume Statement. Drawing from your newly refined master list (see previous step): What are your top three selling points as a candidate? This includes job-specific skills, soft and transferable skills, and character traits Based on the job ad, which problems or goals, are you the best person to solve? That’s it for christian writing the tutorial. It’s time to learn how to write a resume summary through examples:

Here’s a Rough Template You can Use. This template combines a one or two sentence short intro, with a list of bullet points so you have the best of both worlds: Delivers top notch (tangible result) related to (skill) (Notable certifications if any) Excellent (soft skills) that help with (employer problem or issue) Known for providing the best (transferable or job related skill) in (job task) IT Manager with 8 years of experience in web development and operations management. You’ll get the combined expertise of an employee-centered leader and critical thinking co analytical problem solver that retains and develops top talent, while running multiple profit-generating projects. * Expertise in web and a sociology research paper software structuring, and security that lead to less client problems and troubleshooting pains later. * MCSE and MCSD Certification, with in-depth knowledge of SQL, Python, and Java. * Well-known for providing the best translation of reading detective critical co geek speak into client-friendly language. Research-driven and versatile Freelance Writer that combines journalism and data analysis with copywriting experience to deliver content that generates a buzz. * Writes articles and press releases that drive up pageviews and sales conversion.

* Professional yet persuasive communication skills used for helping clients build relations with influencers and the press. * Known for writing revenue-driving landing pages for startups and christian authors. None of the examples in this piece have an “ I ” or “ me ” to avoid the first person, self-centered tone sometimes found in resumes. Reading Detective Thinking. Since a resume summary statement is read by a recruiter, it should be written for their benefit. Changing a sentence’s structure so it’s focused on “ you ” (the employer) reinforces the message of the value you bring to the table. A professional summary for your resume should be detailed. So much so that potential employers can see a vivid image of the ROI you can deliver—and how you’re going to do it. Try adding numbers, percentages or any other quantifiable metric when writing a resume summary.

Here’s an example of a resume executive summary for a Sales Director: * 17 years of combined field and management experience in short story essay sales. * Increased sales in the southwest region by 25% via creative loyalty programs and co sales incentives. * Hired and mentored two award-winning sales teams that ended up generating profits above 7% the national average. Have famous clients, customers, or vendors? What about an Ivy-league degree or industry recognized certification? Include it when writing a resume summary to short essay, boost your resume’s social proof. When name dropping clients or vendors, just make sure you’re not bound by any confidentiality clauses. Final Reminder: Don’t Include Tasks and Achievements You Don’t Care for? Good in detective critical thinking Excel but hate typing formulas and analyzing numbers?

Don’t include it. Good. Same goes for every other skill you have but don’t enjoy. Doing so will pull you into detective thinking co, a job that you might not like. After you've applied the tips above to make your resume summary statement stand out professionally, turn your attention to other critical components that will add the polish your resume deserves. If you need more assistance with writing a killer resume, work through these Envato Tuts+ tutorials ( or browse through our resume tutorial category ):

Also, there are a number of story descriptive professional resume templates on Envato Market, with creative examples features in this article curated by our Envato Tuts+ staff: Crafting a resume that lands you the reading critical thinking co, job you're aiming for effects has on children takes a deft hand with: applying the right strategy, writing approach, and attention to detective critical thinking co, detail. Good luck applying! Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!