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Bill Clinton#8217;s Doctrine of Enlargement of outlines papers, Foreign Policies. Bill Clinton’s Doctrine of Enlargement of Foreign Policies Tommy Wong American History Mr. Violation In India? McCarthy May 2, 2011 During his inauguration from 1993 to 2001, United States President William Jefferson Clinton, also known as Bill Clinton, promoted democracy and improved foreign relationships by using non-aggressive policies. These policies were based on for research on teenage pregnancy, Clinton’s belief and principle, which was also known as the Doctrine of Enlargement. The Doctrine of Enlargement asked for a free competition in global trade and promoting democracy with minimum intervention in foreign political affairs while America to be remaining as the term paper on alcohol global leader. Clinton had planned and created this doctrine of enlargement before he inaugurated as the for research papers President of United States. His education at the Georgetown School of Foreign Service also marked his specialty in dealing with foreign affairs. How To Comparative Research Paper? In a speech he made before the congress on February 17, 1993, only a month since his inauguration, Clinton gave his view on global economy: Standing as we are on the edge of a new century, we know that economic growth depends as never before on opening up new markets overseas and for research pregnancy, expanding the volume of world trade. And so, we will insist on fair trade rules in international markets as a part of a national economic strategy to expand trade, including the successful completion of the how to do a research latest round of world trade talks and the successful completion of a North American Free Trade Agreement with appropriate safeguards for our workers and for the environment. In his speech, Clinton implied that a free global economy is the outlines for research on teenage key to American’s economical growth.

During his presidency, Clinton will follow his doctrine and reform the ap prose essay American financial system and outlines for research, foreign relationships. Yet Clinton had only withdrew the on the college education troops in order to decrease deficiency and unnecessary deficit. For Research Papers Pregnancy? His action is also based on abuse, his beliefs of minimizing intervention in for research papers on teenage pregnancy, foreign affairs. Term On Alcohol? Despite of papers on teenage, some missteps in victory essay, issues in outlines papers, Somalia early on in his presidency, Clinton did bring some exceptional accomplishments in foreign affairs. In 1994, he successfully persuaded Russia to withdraw its troops from Baltic Republic of Estonia and importance education, Latvia. In dealing with Russia, Clinton help created the outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy North Atlantic Treaty Organization including Poland, Hungary and steps on writing research paper, the Czech Republic. It restricted the number of papers on teenage, troops and victory essay, nuclear weapons allowed into the Russian regions. Together with the Nunn-Lugar Act, which reduced Russia’s nuclear weapons, Clinton helped unbuilt the tension developing between Europe’s greater powers, thus decreasing the possibility of papers pregnancy, a devastating world war of nuclear weapons in the near future. Clinton’s Doctrine of of school, Enlargement also planed to keep peace in the world by international alliances and intervene foreign affairs only if necessary. An organization that represents such qualities is the United Nations. In his remarks to outlines for research on teenage, the U. Steps On Writing? N. general assembly in papers, the White House on October 22, 1995, Clinton gave a speech of steps on writing research paper, his thoughts about the United Nations: The U. On Teenage? N. helps the peacemakers, the paper abuse care providers, the for research on teenage pregnancy defenders of freedom and victory essay, human rights, the architects of economic prosperity, and the protectors of papers, our planet to essay pages, spread the outlines for research papers on teenage risk, share the burden and increase the impact of our common efforts . . . the United Nations has not ended war, but it has made it less likely, and helped many nations to turn from 500 words essay pages war to outlines for research on teenage, peace.

The United Nations has not stopped human suffering, but it has healed the wounds and lengthened the lives of millions of essay of school, human beings. The United Nations has not banished repression or poverty from the Earth, but it has advanced the outlines for research pregnancy cause of freedom and rights in india essay, prosperity on papers on teenage pregnancy, every continent. The United Nations has not been all that we wished it would be, but it has been a force for how to, good and a bulwark against evil. From his speech Clinton explained the outlines for research on teenage importance of the United Nations is and what effects it has brought and ap prose essay, can bring to on teenage pregnancy, the world. On Pleasures Of School? Clinton actively participated in for research, the United Nations during his presidency as a fulfillment of his doctrine. He believed that reforming the United Nations is an efficient way to how to, make the outlines papers world a better and safer place. William Clinton, as a part of ap prose essay, his Doctrine of Enlargement, encouraged free global trade, which America has always not been able to do. Outlines On Teenage? He promoted several plans to allow free trade with other countries. One of do a comparative research, which was the papers North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in ap prose essay, December 1993, which removed the for research papers pregnancy trading barriers with Mexico and ap prose essay, Canada.

The NAFTA was an extended version of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement, and the purpose was to foster trade between the outlines for research three countries by comparative research paper, lowering the tariffs, and thus creating American jobs over the borders. For Research Papers Pregnancy? While the agreement sounded beneficial to the American economy, some argued that it would lead to moving American jobs to Mexico, where the wages and working conditions were lower than that of violation, United States. For Research Papers Pregnancy? Some also argued that the lack of of human, antipollution laws in for research papers on teenage pregnancy, Mexico would also damage the environment. Term Paper On Alcohol Abuse? President Clinton made his remarks to for research papers on teenage, such arguments in term abuse, the White House: So when people say that this trade agreement is outlines for research on teenage, just about how to move jobs to Mexico so nobody can make a living, how do they explain the on the fact that Mexicans keep buying more products made in outlines for research, America every year? Go out and tell the American people that. Mexican citizens with lower incomes spend more money #8212; real dollars, not percentage of their income #8212; more money on ap prose essay, American products than Germans, Japanese, and outlines for research on teenage, Canadians. That is a fact. Essay College? And there will be more if they have more money to spend. That is what expanding trade is all about. His response to papers on teenage, the anti free-trade argument explained how the NAFTA would bring more financial benefit to the American economy, and on the importance education, losing some jobs is inevitable. For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy? The trading deficit of United States with Mexico has decreased from 5. 7 billion dollars in 1987 to 5. 4 billion surplus in steps paper, 1993 after efforts lowering the tariff by the President Salinas of Mexico, even though they had lower wages than many other nations.

Mexico was also the largest consumer of outlines on teenage pregnancy, US products per capita. Pages? Clinton also believed that the first five years of NAFTA would create a millions jobs by for research on teenage, looking at of human rights in india essay, previous trends. The side agreement of the on teenage pregnancy NAFTA would also sanction countries that did not enforce the paper on alcohol environmental laws. The establishment of NAFTA was America’s attempt to outlines for research papers pregnancy, prosper from the importance education global economy by lowering tariffs, thus creating jobs. Outlines Papers On Teenage Pregnancy? While the NAFTA promoted trading with Mexico and Canada, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) focused on promoting trade with Asia-Pacific countries. President Clinton was also actively involved in comparative paper, the cooperation. Outlines For Research On Teenage? Currently the Member Economies consisted of United States, Australia, China, Canada, Japan, Russia, and ap prose essay, other countries to outlines papers, a total of twenty-one countries. The three pillars of the APEC were trade liberty, business facilitation, and economic cooperation, which were the also the goals of the steps on writing research paper Doctrine of Enlargement.

Clinton started the outlines on teenage trend of essay on the importance college education, annual APEC Economic Leaders’ Meetings, which increased the outlines for research significance of the APEC. The meetings generated ideas to rights, reduce trading barrier among the country members. The APEC had reduced the for research papers pregnancy average trade barrier from essay of school 16. 9% at for research, the beginning of establishment to only 5. 5% in 2004. Clinton’s contribution to APEC helped promoted global trade, which was a part of essay on the, his doctrine. Clinton’s administration also changed the relationship between America and for research papers on teenage pregnancy, China. American government has been reluctant to trade freely with China because of violation rights essay, its human right violations and its influence on outlines on teenage pregnancy, local industries. Essay Education? In 1999, however, Clinton signed an agreement with China to outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, lower trade barriers. Although both democrats and republicans hesitated to support free trade with China, the congress voted in 2000 to share permanent normal trading with China and comparative, support China’s World Trade Organization membership.

This soon became beneficial to the America’s economy as it opened a billion people market. Outlines Pregnancy? Aside from promoting global trade, Bill Clinton also improved foreign relations by offering financial aid. During his presidency, Clinton organized several loans to on alcohol abuse, help out countries in trouble. In the January of 1995, he organized a 50 billion loan to the Mexican government to overcome a financial crisis, which the price Mexican currency peso drops significantly. The Mexican government repaid all the money in 1995, three years before the for research proposed schedule. The International Monetary Fund together with the World Bank and ap prose essay, Japan organized a 17. 1 billion dollar loan despite the for research papers on teenage pregnancy unpopularity. In 1997 to 1998 Clinton helped also a currency crisis in Thailand, South Korea, and several other Asian countries by giving more power to of a college education, the International Monetary Fund, assisting developing economies to build regulations, and asking private sectors to outlines for research pregnancy, assist the steps research paper situation. Clinton helped other countries that were financially struggling by for research papers on teenage, organizing loans, thus improving the global economy and relations. Clinton’s administration proved to be a success in globalization by promoting free trade, reducing mass destructive weapons, and victory essay, offering assistance to countries in financial crisis.

These achievements were based on the beliefs of Clinton’s Doctrine of Enlargement. Bill Clinton was the first democratic president for over thirty years to on teenage, be reelected for term paper abuse, the second term of office. For Research On Teenage Pregnancy? Footnotes Clinton, William Jefferson. #8220;Address Before a Joint Session of Congress. #8221; Speech, U. S. Congress, February 17, 1993 2 William Jefferson Clinton #8220;Remarks by comparative, the President to the U. N. General Assembly #8221; (speech, United Nations, General Assembly Hall United Nations Headquarters, October 22, 1995). Papers On Teenage? William Jefferson Clinton #8220;Remarks by the President Clinton, President Bush, President Carter, and Vice President Gore in signing of NAFTA Side Agreements” (speech, United States, White House, September 14, 1993). Bibliography 1. #8220;REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT TO THE U. N. Victory Essay? GENERAL ASSEMBLY . #8221; Speech, United Nations, General Assembly Hall United Nations Headquarters, October 22, 1995. 2. Issues and for research papers pregnancy, Controversies. #8220;Key Events in on alcohol, Clinton#8217;s First Term, 1993-96 (sidebar). #8221; Issues and on teenage, Controversies. Last modified February 2, 2001. http://www. 2facts. com/icof_story. aspx? PIN=ib600110term=clinton.

3. Issues and Controversies on victory essay, File. #8220;The Clinton Presidency. #8221; Issues and outlines for research on teenage, Controversies. Violation In India Essay? Last modified February 2, 2001. http://www. For Research On Teenage Pregnancy? 2facts. Term Paper On Alcohol Abuse? com/ icof_story. aspx? PIN=i0600100term=clinton. Outlines For Research On Teenage? 4. Violation Of Human Rights In India Essay? Melanson, Richard A. #8220;Post-cold War Policy. #8221; Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Last modified 2002. http://ic. Pregnancy? galegroup. com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow? displayGroupName=ReferenceprodId=UHICaction=ewindowstate=normalcatId=documentId=GALE|CX3402300118mode=view. 5. NEUMANN, CARYN. How To Do A Comparative? #8220;Clinton Administration (1993–2001), United States National Security Policy. In Encyclopedia of outlines papers on teenage pregnancy, Espionage, Intelligence and Security, edited by Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and victory essay, Lee Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2004, 3 Mar. 2011. http://ic. Papers On Teenage? galegroup. com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow? displayGroupName=Reference;prodId=UHIC;action=e;windowstate=normal;catId=;documentId=GALE%7CCX3403300152;mode=view;userGroupName=s0965;jsid =3436a7b1e80c61f11c08c92784b65d74.

6. University of term abuse, Virginia. Outlines For Research Papers Pregnancy? #8220;Bill Clinton: Foreign Affairs. #8221; Miller Center Public Affairs. On Alcohol? http://millercenter. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage? org/president/clinton/essays/biography/5. 7. CNN Politics. Essay On The Of A College Education? “Clinton to sign China trade bill Tuesday. CNN. http://articles. Papers On Teenage Pregnancy? cnn. com/2000-10-10/politics/clinton. pntr_1_wto-membership-china-global-trade-regime? _s=PM:ALLPOLITICS 8. Deng, Yong. “Promoting Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Perspectives from East Asia”. Gale U. Ap Prose Essay? S. On Teenage Pregnancy? History In Context. http://ic. galegroup. com/ic/uhic/AcademicJournalsDetailsPage/AcademicJournalsDetailsWindow? displayGroupName=Journals;disableHighlighting=false;prodId=UHIC;action=e;windowstate=normal;catId=;documentId=GALE|A21135725;mode=view #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212; [ 1 ]. Clinton, William Jefferson. #8220;Address Before a Joint Session of. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and outlines for research on teenage pregnancy, full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned. . They were well-built, with good bodies and pages, handsome features. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by for research papers on teenage the edge and violation essay, cut themselves out of ignorance. For Research! They have no iron. Their spears are made of on the of a college, cane. For Research! . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.

These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the steps paper frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and outlines for research papers, its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in on the college education, the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to papers the Catholic Church, expelled all the essay how many Jews, driven out the Moors. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy! Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in do a research, Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.

Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for outlines papers, bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. He was a merchant's clerk from the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and on the college, Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and outlines papers pregnancy, his crew had left the 500 words essay Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water.

They saw flocks of for research pregnancy, birds. These were signs of land. How To Do A Research! Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and on teenage pregnancy, cried out. Rights In India Essay! It was an on teenage island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to get a yearly pension of on pleasures life, 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them.

The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of outlines for research papers on teenage, them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in essay on pleasures, the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of papers, timbers from the Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the steps research first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and for research papers on teenage pregnancy, his men wanted.

Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is essay pages a miracle. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy! Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and violation of human essay, beautiful . the harbors are unbelievably good and outlines papers, there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . Steps Research! . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.

He concluded his report by asking for outlines papers pregnancy, a little help from their Majesties, and in essay how many, return he would bring them from his next voyage as much gold as they need . and outlines papers on teenage, as many slaves as they ask. He was full of religious talk: Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of how to do a comparative paper, Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from outlines on teenage pregnancy, island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and 500 words essay, more empty villages. Outlines! On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in steps research paper, gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for outlines papers, sex and labor. Now, from his base on victory essay, Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.

Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and victory essay, were put up for outlines for research on teenage pregnancy, sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were naked as the day they were born, they showed no more embarrassment than animals. Columbus later wrote: Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold. But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. Victory Essay! In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to for research papers pregnancy exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months.

When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and how many pages, were killed. Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.

When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. On Teenage! They were worked at a ferocious pace, and essay pages, died by the thousands.

By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. On Teenage! They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of essay how many pages, captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon outlines on teenage pregnancy, total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man's head or at his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at paper, one time . made of outlines for research papers, very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. . In Book Two of his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by of human rights black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the papers on teenage pregnancy Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to violation of human in india be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and for research on teenage pregnancy, pacific temperament of the natives. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to victory essay kill one of us now and then. The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians. Las Casas tells how the outlines papers on teenage Spaniards grew more conceited every day and after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the backs of essay on the importance of a, Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on outlines for research papers on teenage, hammocks by violation rights essay Indians running in relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings. Total control led to papers on teenage pregnancy total cruelty. The Spaniards thought nothing of 500 words pages, knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades.

Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and on teenage pregnancy, died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help. He describes their work in the mines: . mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in of school, the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the mines, the most arduous task of all is to papers on teenage pregnancy dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in essay of a college, the mines, which was the time required of each crew to outlines for research pregnancy dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the men died. While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of how many, digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides . they ceased to procreate.

As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and outlines pregnancy, famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at importance of a education, work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . was depopulated. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy! . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. Violation In India! . When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from papers on teenage, war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas.

That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. Violation Of Human Rights! When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the for research on teenage Harvard historian, was the 500 words essay pages most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and outlines on teenage pregnancy, the killing: The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and violation of human rights in india, pursued by his successors resulted in outlines on teenage, complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the violation of human in india defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.

Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy! He does not omit the pages story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the outlines for research on teenage pregnancy truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and not of others. This is as natural to 500 words essay how many pages him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against for research on teenage pregnancy selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps.

The historian's distortion is violation of human more than technical, it is outlines pregnancy ideological; it is released into violation of human rights essay a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is for research on teenage pregnancy not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for on writing, long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the outlines papers pregnancy historian has been trained in essay of a college education, a society in outlines papers on teenage pregnancy, which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to of human essay de-emphasize their genocide, is outlines papers not a technical necessity but an steps research paper ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of outlines papers on teenage pregnancy, atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and steps research paper, Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of papers on teenage pregnancy, other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the same proportion of attention that teachers and on the importance college education, writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.

It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and papers, murder in victory essay, the name of progress-is only one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the outlines for research papers leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as the United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. 500 Words Pages! It is as if there really is a national interest represented in outlines for research papers, the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in essay on the education, the laws passed by Congress, the papers decisions of the research courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media. History is the memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.

From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the French Revolution was restored by outlines papers on teenage pregnancy the diplomacy of a few national leaders. Paper! But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in outlines papers pregnancy, the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own. Nations are not communities and essay on pleasures life, never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and on teenage pregnancy, slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of steps paper, victims and executioners, it is the outlines on teenage pregnancy job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in steps paper, that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in outlines papers on teenage pregnancy, history, I prefer to violation of human rights try to tell the papers pregnancy story of the discovery of America from the victory essay viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the slaves, of outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the essay on pleasures Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the outlines for research papers pregnancy Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of essay of school life, Scott's army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in for research papers on teenage pregnancy, the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by blacks in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America. Essay! And so on, to papers on teenage the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the standpoint of others. My point is not to grieve for the victims and denounce the executioners.

Those tears, that anger, cast into the past, deplete our moral energy for the present. And the lines are not always clear. Victory Essay! In the long run, the oppressor is also a victim. In the short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on other victims. Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of outlines for research papers pregnancy, governments and their attempts, through politics and culture, to ensnare ordinary people in a giant web of nationhood pretending to a common interest.

I will try not to overlook the cruelties that victims inflict on on the of a, one another as they are jammed together in the boxcars of the system. I don't want to romanticize them. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the poor is outlines not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to invent victories for people's movements. On Pleasures Of School Life! But to think that history-writing must aim simply to outlines recapitulate the failures that dominate the past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of defeat. If history is to be creative, to anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to victory essay win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to for research pregnancy the history of the United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to 500 words how many pages the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortes did to for research on teenage pregnancy the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and the English settlers of Virginia and steps on writing research paper, Massachusetts to the Powhatans and papers pregnancy, the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of violation rights, Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.

It also engaged in (let us not overlook this) the ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty of the Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Spain with an expedition financed by outlines for research papers merchants and landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. In the how many pages mind of for research papers, Montezuma, the king of the essay how many Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and for research papers on teenage, silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back. Of Human Rights Essay! (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)

Cortes then began his march of death from town to for research papers on teenage pregnancy town, using deception, turning Aztec against violation of human rights in india essay Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation to the square. And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on papers, horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the importance college education city and moved on. When their cavalcade of outlines pregnancy, murder was over they were in Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is of a told in outlines papers on teenage, the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for the same reasons- the on the importance college education frenzy in the early capitalist states of Europe for gold, for for research on teenage, slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to spur the growth of the new money economy rising out of feudalism, to participate in what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the violent beginnings of an intricate system of technology, business, politics, and culture that would dominate the world for the next five centuries. In the North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in of a college education, the islands of the Bahamas. In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and burned the whole Indian village.

Jamestown itself was set up inside the territory of an Indian confederacy, led by the chief, Powhatan. For Research Pregnancy! Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of coolness. When the essay English were going through their starving time in the winter of 1610, some of them ran off to join the Indians, where they would at least be fed. When the summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. Outlines On Teenage! They fell upon an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the corn growing around the village, took the queen of the tribe and her children into on the boats, then ended up throwing the children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to death. Twelve years later, the Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to outlines papers on teenage pregnancy try to wipe them out for how to do a comparative paper, good. They went on outlines pregnancy, a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and victory essay, children.

From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the outlines on teenage Indians, and not able to essay how many live with them, the English decided to exterminate them. Edmund Morgan writes, in his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the English and virtually impossible to track down, the method was to feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and plant their com wherever they chose, and then, just before harvest, fall upon them, killing as many as possible and burning the corn. . Within two or three years of the massacre the outlines on teenage English had avenged the deaths of that day many times over. In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out essay, prophetic. On Teenage Pregnancy! How authentic it is steps research may be in doubt, but it is papers on teenage pregnancy so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of it: I have seen two generations of my people die. I know the difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to my two sisters, and 500 words essay how many pages, then to my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Outlines Pregnancy! Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?

What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and essay importance education, run into the woods; then you will starve for outlines papers on teenage pregnancy, wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of us? We are unarmed, and willing to 500 words essay how many give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner, and not so simple as not to know that it is outlines papers pregnancy much better to eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and children, laugh and be merry with the English, and violation of human, trade for their copper and hatchets, than to run away from them, and to lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Take away your guns and swords, the cause of all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to on teenage pregnancy New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to violation in india territory inhabited by tribes of Indians.

The governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to take Indian land by outlines pregnancy declaring the area legally a vacuum. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the land, and therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. And to justify their use of essay on the importance of a education, force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the outlines pregnancy ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in uneasy truce with the Pequot Indians, who occupied what is now southern Connecticut and Rhode Island. But they wanted them out of the way; they wanted their land.

And they seemed to want also to violation establish their rule firmly over Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to make war on the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the papers on teenage Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to how to do a comparative research paper spare the for research papers on teenage women and children, and to bring them away, and to take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and rights, other English, and one thousand fathom of wampum for damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in the thick forests of the island and the English went from one deserted village to the next, destroying crops. Then they sailed back to the mainland and raided Pequot villages along the for research coast, destroying crops again. One of the officers of that expedition, in essay on pleasures, his account, gives some insight into the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in multitudes along the water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on cheerfully. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. The English developed a tactic of warfare used earlier by Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the enemy.

This is ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of for research papers on teenage, Captain John Mason's attack on victory essay, a Pequot village on papers pregnancy, the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. How To Research! Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to outlines papers on teenage the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and immediately stepping into the Wigwam . brought out on the importance of a college education, a Fire Brand, and putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the outlines papers on teenage pregnancy Wigwams on Fire.

William Bradford, in his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at the time, describes John Mason's raid on the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the importance sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fyer, and the streams of blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stincke and sente there of, but the victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and they gave the outlines for research papers on teenage prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to inclose their enemise in essay on pleasures of school, their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.

The war continued. Outlines For Research! Indian tribes were used against one another, and never seemed able to college join together in fighting the English. Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the Indians, but in time they came to meditate upon its foundations. For Research Papers Pregnancy! They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the English way of war had no limit of scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Indian making were almost useless against weapons of European manufacture. These lessons the pages Indians took to heart.

A footnote in Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of Pequots now in Connecticut is twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage Pregnancy! This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the how to do a comparative paper Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by the English) became chief. The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and for research papers, they began a war of conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to take their land. They were clearly the aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.

As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to violation essay maintain their wars to be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and often refused to outlines on teenage fight. 500 Words Pages! The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. When it was over, in 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Yet the Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it was back to for research pregnancy annihilation. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Huge numbers of Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . affirm, that before the arrival of the Christians, and before the smallpox broke out violation rights in india, amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and outlines papers on teenage, that their population had been melted down by this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.

When the English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. There were no wars on that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to 1,500 in 1662, and by 1774 were reduced to fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on on pleasures of school, private property. Outlines Papers Pregnancy! It was a morally ambiguous drive; the importance of a need for space, for land, was a real human need. But in conditions of on teenage, scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of whole peoples.

Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams and shadows of this vanishing life, great portions of on pleasures life, land, land in outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, this wilderness, as if men were in as great necessity and danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and stormy, a long and starving passage. This is one of the gods of New England, which the living and how to do a, most high Eternal will destroy and for research, famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the Puritans-a necessity for steps paper, the human race to progress from savagery to civilization? Was Morison right in for research papers on teenage pregnancy, burying the story of 500 words how many pages, genocide inside a more important story of outlines for research on teenage pregnancy, human progress?

Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for steps on writing paper, industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Dresden and Hamburg, and for research on teenage, Truman explaining Hiroshima. But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to violation rights essay the middle and upper classes of the conquering and advanced countries. But is outlines papers it acceptable to the poor of victory essay, Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the papers on teenage pregnancy blacks in 500 words essay pages, urban ghettos, or the Indians on papers on teenage pregnancy, reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to on pleasures of school the miners and railroaders of America, the factory hands, the men and women who died by for research papers on teenage pregnancy the hundreds of thousands from on writing research paper, accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by for research pregnancy law and the state?

If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to hold to the principle that those to essay of school life be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? We can all decide to give up something of ours, but do we have the right to throw into the pyre the children of others, or even our own children, for outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in how many, Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in for research papers on teenage pregnancy, history, there was the glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. As Hans Koning sums it up in research paper, his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and silver stolen and shipped to Spain did not make the Spanish people richer. It gave their kings an edge in the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for their wars. Papers Pregnancy! They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the on writing research rich richer, the poor poorer, and a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?

Who were these people who came out on on teenage, the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and rights essay, Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is on the education some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Asia, across the land bridge of the Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting thousands of years that took them into North America, then Central and South America.

In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back. Widely dispersed over the great land mass of the outlines on teenage Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in steps on writing paper, North America. Responding to the different environments of soil and for research papers on teenage pregnancy, climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and rubber. On their own, the Indians were engaged in the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the same time. While many of the tribes remained nomadic hunters and victory essay, food gatherers in outlines for research papers on teenage, wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to research paper live in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to for research on teenage feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and social work, for building houses.

About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in among cliffs and mountains for victory essay, protection from enemies, with hundreds of rooms in each village. For Research! Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and essay on the importance college, weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and outlines on teenage, the Gulf of Mexico.

About A.D. 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the Ohio Valley was beginning to decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the Mississippi, centered on of human rights in india essay, what is now St. For Research Papers On Teenage! Louis. It had an do a comparative research paper advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of pregnancy, Egypt. In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads.

From the Adirondacks to the Great Lakes, in what is violation of human rights in india now Pennsylvania and upper New York, lived the most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the Iroquois, which included the outlines for research papers Mohawks (People of the Flint), Oneidas (People of the Stone), Onondagas (People of the Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of people bound together by essay on the importance of a college a common Iroquois language. In the vision of the outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of violation of human rights essay, each other's hands so firmly and outlines for research papers on teenage, forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in how to comparative paper, security, peace and on teenage, happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the village. Research! Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families.

The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. Outlines Papers Pregnancy! A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. . Victory Essay! . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to outlines for research papers on teenage possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.

Families were grouped in clans, and a dozen or more clans might make up a village. The senior women in the village named the men who represented the clans at village and tribal councils. Of Human Rights In India! They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for for research on teenage pregnancy, the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the circle of victory essay, men who spoke and voted, and removed the men from office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters. As Gary B. Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and Black: Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of outlines, male dominancy and steps on writing research, female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society. Children in papers on teenage pregnancy, Iroquois society, while taught the cultural heritage of steps research paper, their people and solidarity with the tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in outlines for research pregnancy, status and the sharing of possessions.

The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of essay how many pages, this was in sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of papers pregnancy, rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. Of Human In India! For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to for research pregnancy deal with their children: And surely there is in all children . a stubbornness, and stoutness of mind arising from how many, natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and outlines papers on teenage, beaten down; that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in European societies-were to be found in the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Yet boundaries of acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. Essay On Pleasures Of School Life! He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in war was shamed by papers pregnancy his people and ostracized from violation of human rights, their company until he had atoned for his actions and demonstrated to their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.

Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. Papers! The Indians said: It is the steps on writing paper manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of a man that is outlines for research papers pregnancy so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and do a research, since that you are heere strangers, and come into our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to the Customes of our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in papers on teenage pregnancy, Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out paper, than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in papers on teenage, an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by 500 words essay pages song, dance, and outlines, ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of 500 words essay pages, personality, intensity of will, independence and outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy, flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in research paper, the American Southwest, said of their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an outlines pregnancy eternally inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that myth. Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is essay on pleasures life enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the excuse of progress in outlines on teenage, the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the conquerors and leaders of Western civilization.