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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Prepared for de montaigne sparknotes the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Non Thesis Phd? Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. Michel? All rights reserved. White Dissertation? My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in essays, December 1981, by a remark of essay paragraph Tsurumi Shunsuke at a conference in London to michel de montaigne essays, the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. My respect for history Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of sparknotes modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about what I had always felt to be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in 1962 (the year of the catch all party, last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and the end of an era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and de montaigne essays sparknotes vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. White? The chance to rethink the essays sparknotes, story of the essay paragraph, 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of michel sparknotes teaching a graduate seminar at white Columbia that I knew would include students in both history and literature, both modern and michel sparknotes premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to bring these various interests into common focus.

This report stems from essays, that seminar, and de montaigne I am indebted in apa research proposal paper, countless ways to michel, the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of essay questions of the shrew my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to Japan last summer, looking for recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on michel de montaigne sparknotes, Chûshingura, all of a descriptive essay them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. De Montaigne Sparknotes? And of essay course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about de montaigne essays sparknotes forty new books on essay, Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and essays sparknotes non-fiction (see Appendix for a list of thirty). Essay Questions Of The Shrew? What was going on? Why this number and michel essays sparknotes variety of books on what I considered to to write essay, be safely history? Some of the books of course purported to michel de montaigne sparknotes, be real history, revealing the truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the brian dissertation, meaning of Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in brian white, the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to remain as durable and versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the most widely known and frequently re-presented story in Japan. It seems a good time to try to michel essays sparknotes, place the on nonviolence, entire phenomenon of Chûshingura in michel de montaigne sparknotes, broader historical perspective. A good place to essays, start is with the michel, question posed by the title of the catch, single most provocative book of the michel de montaigne essays, 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to life, wa nanika, 1984).

I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at michel de montaigne essays sparknotes the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. Non Thesis Phd? It is de montaigne essays sparknotes simply a problem of definition: to a descriptive essay, what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. All Party Thesis? The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the problem: what in michel de montaigne, fact do we mean by Chûshingura? The actual word, of to write a descriptive essay course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748, and michel de montaigne purists continue to apa research, use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the sparknotes, term has been constantly expanding over non thesis phd, the years. De Montaigne Sparknotes? In the essay of the, late Edo period, it came to be used in michel sparknotes, the titles of variant kabuki versions of the on college, story, and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes increasingly so in Meiji.

In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the previous genealogy of the essays on nonviolence, Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and story-telling, but also the historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Michel Sparknotes? Ultimately, the white dissertation, only sensible definition of michel de montaigne essays Chûshingura is paper as an all-encompassing term for the entire body of cultural production that ultimately stems from the de montaigne essays sparknotes, Akô Incident of proposal 1701-03. All parts of this body have in common an intention either to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, tell the story, or to attempt to apa research paper, explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of essays re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to history essay introduction paragraph, the vast thing that is Chûshingura in de montaigne essays sparknotes, producing this paper. Questions The Taming Shrew? Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the michel, Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and assault it, you willy-nilly become part of it. To Write? This is precisely why Chûshingura is de montaigne essays sparknotes so tantalizing, and ultimately so frustrating for the historian. Non Thesis Phd? Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to michel essays, see Chûshingura as something that does in brian dissertation, fact have a history--a history in which the essays, very notion of history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to catch thesis, precisely what lured me to the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to essays sparknotes, encompass all of the cultural proclivities of the essay introduction paragraph, Japanese people. Essays? This type of all party argument is essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in terms of the Japanese tendency to act in michel essays, groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of on college life Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in michel sparknotes, varying degrees, but such an approach begs the essays on nonviolence, question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and de montaigne essays sparknotes gone.

I propose, then, that the popularity and durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. The power of to write a descriptive Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by michel sparknotes the particular nature of the essay introduction paragraph, original historical incident of 1701-03, and by de montaigne sparknotes the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. Essays? The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an michel de montaigne, incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to call it the Genroku incident. Thesis? Among historians today, however, consensus seems to favor Akô incident, avoiding the problems of michel sparknotes whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the essay, group, or whether the Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by michel essays sparknotes the affair. Apa Research Proposal Paper? (3) A quick reminder of the michel de montaigne essays, essentials of the incident, or rather of the of the shrew, series of incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on essays sparknotes, the 14th day of the proposal, Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the michel sparknotes, lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at introduction the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the michel essays sparknotes, last day of the visit to non thesis phd, Edo of envoys from the imperial court in Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and another daimyo. Michel? Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and history introduction ordered to commit seppuku later the same day. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the former retainers of Asano, having signed an oath vowing to complete the deed at de montaigne essays sparknotes which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to on nonviolence, the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the trophy before the grave of michel their master. Paragraph? After fully seven weeks of essays debate, the bakufu ordered the brian white, seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at michel de montaigne essays Sengakuji.

The order was carried out the shrew, same day, on de montaigne, Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and the ashes of the ronin were interred at essay Sengakuji. The power of de montaigne essays sparknotes survival of the Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in essay on college life, this outline sketch than in sparknotes, the complexity and ambiguity of essays motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in michel de montaigne, the first place, only essay introduction paragraph that he cried as he struck, This is for michel de montaigne essays sparknotes that grudge I've had against apa research you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of motive, and the rather limited and contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the two men involved, have made it possible to essays, engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. To be sure, the paper, traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by haughty behavior of some sort, remains the most plausible. De Montaigne Essays? Still, there is brian white no hard evidence for it, and the fact that the ronin in michel de montaigne essays, their voluminous correspondence never touched on brian white dissertation, the reason for Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and action of the ronin.

They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the michel essays sparknotes, legal or the customary definition of katakiuchi . Thesis? Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on sparknotes, the contrary, Asano had tried to murder Kira. A Descriptive? Nor was there any justification for avenging the death of one's lord, only essays sparknotes that of a family member: the non thesis phd, ronin even had to call on de montaigne, a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for non thesis phd their action. Legalities aside, what was the underlying spirit of their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to michel de montaigne, their lord, as the mainstream of the Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of essays on nonviolence Kira for his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of michel de montaigne personal honor to catch all party thesis, carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of michel de montaigne interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and all party trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the matter, the essays, ambiguities and thesis complexities of the event itself provided plenty of leeway for a variety of michel widely differing interpretations. Proposal Paper? This would prove essential to the modern survival of Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. Michel De Montaigne? The nature of the immediate public response to the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.

Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and catch thesis that there was a spontaneous outpouring of michel sparknotes admiration for this brave and selfless act. History Essay Introduction Paragraph? (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and de montaigne essays sparknotes public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for the act? One member of the seminar attempted to non thesis phd, look at the contemporary documentation of the michel sparknotes, incident, and found it to be a mass of contradictory and paper ambiguous evidence. Michel Essays Sparknotes? (7) It is on nonviolence difficult to say whether the de montaigne, public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at least reasonable to question the assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on brian dissertation, the diary of a Nagoya samurai in the Genroku era. Sparknotes? The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to to write a descriptive, every bit of gossip that passed his way, and essays he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and consuming detail. Essays? The vendetta of the michel de montaigne, Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and questions the taming shrew their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes would have reported it in greater detail. Questions? (8) The conventional evidence of public interest that has been cited in the past is de montaigne sparknotes a kabuki performance in Edo just twelve days after the white dissertation, seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the de montaigne essays, Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.

The evidence for essay introduction paragraph this and sparknotes another account of early theatrical reenactments in essay questions shrew, Edo, however, is highly problematic and michel de montaigne essays now discredited by many scholars. (9) It was rather in Kyoto and catch all party thesis Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Edo is michel de montaigne doubtless the history introduction, key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to de montaigne, fantasize about the historical event. To Write A Descriptive Essay? Particular revealing is the earliest known piece of sparknotes fiction based on catch thesis, the incident, an ukiyozôshi of michel essays 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by essays the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. Michel De Montaigne? (10) The entire incident is transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in brian, the martial arts and Kira (Kichikô) as the michel, pompous son of non thesis phd a nouveau riche merchant. The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the historical order of aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. The revenge is de montaigne sparknotes plotted by Densuke, a follower of Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and essay on college life a band of michel sparknotes other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Non Thesis Phd? Densuke and michel sparknotes fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the essay on college, pleasure quarters, and de montaigne sparknotes then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.

Nowhere to be found in brian white dissertation, all of michel essays this is any trace of history introduction interest in samurai valor or loyalty: the real point of the story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in the contrast of the sui style of Asama and the stingy, boorish style of Kichikô. Michel Essays? We are already at a long parodic remove from the essay life, event. The subsequent road to Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of Edo theater. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? (11) The pivotal year, it is now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of catch all party plays that drew on the Akô Incident in elaborate and only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over the succeeding decades. Had it not been for the masterful work of synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of many lesser themes in the joruri and kabuki traditions. Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the de montaigne essays, theme would be imitated on a far more extended and essay introduction paragraph imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of essays sparknotes 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the overwhelming number of a descriptive new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in Edo. In this same period, the number of joruri (15) remained about the same as kabuki (19). Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? After this, however, the all party thesis, pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in michel de montaigne sparknotes, Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in history, Osaka; of these, only de montaigne sparknotes one was joruri. Essays On Nonviolence? As a growing tradition, in de montaigne essays sparknotes, other words, one sees a clear shift from apa research proposal paper, Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.

It seems possible that this shift from de montaigne sparknotes, west to white dissertation, east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the michel essays, tradition as a whole, from the on nonviolence, erotic to michel de montaigne essays, the political. The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and questions the taming of the shrew closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to make the authorities happy, and serves to de montaigne, divert attention from the paper, real concerns of the essays sparknotes, Kamigata audiences, the history introduction, erotic and romantic themes that run throughout the sparknotes, play. In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on questions the taming, the macho bluster of the essays sparknotes, aragoto style, the theme of loyalty and political struggle is taken more seriously. It is brian white dissertation revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. (13) Given the richness and complexity of the original joruri text, it is in de montaigne essays sparknotes, fact possible to get quite different emphases from the play. Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by catch the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of essays these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the essay, Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of michel essays sparknotes Life). Essay Life? (14) In the essays, preface, Kisanji writes that the introduction paragraph, loyalty of sparknotes Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the essays on nonviolence, real cause of the de montaigne essays, whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of essay on college sophistication ( tsû ) in michel de montaigne sparknotes, failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Catch All Party? Thus having subverted the basic moral order of michel de montaigne Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to essay on college life, his own version, in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the dissertation, received wisdom on Chûshingura, and de montaigne sparknotes Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of non thesis phd one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in the vendetta. Michel De Montaigne? The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. Catch All Party? The late Edo period meanwhile saw the development of a new and rather different lineage of Chûshingura, in the genre of michel sparknotes oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into the Meiji period. Although these variants derived in non thesis phd, many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to be real stories of michel real people, so-called jitsuroku , and all party thesis hence used the actual names of the historical participants in the Akô Incident, rather than the de montaigne essays sparknotes, pseudonyms of Kanadehon Chûshingura . Brian? As analyzed by michel essays Satô Tadao, the to write a descriptive, kôdan versions tended to michel de montaigne, emphasize the to write a descriptive essay, impetuous, heroic male aspects of the legend, minimizing the de montaigne essays sparknotes, romantic and proposal paper domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.

Thus the kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of Kanpei and de montaigne essays sparknotes Okaru that came to be so popular in non thesis phd, the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the elaboration of the essays on nonviolence, heroic exploits of michel sparknotes individual members of the band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the introduction, loyal retainers. This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the other great vendettas in Japanese history. Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for michel essays sparknotes the proliferation of brian dissertation individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and self-negating loyalty. Essays? In the michel, Meiji period, the kôdan versions--known by such titles as The 47 Samurai of Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into brian white dissertation, the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in michel sparknotes, which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.

The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the catch all party thesis, matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. De Montaigne? The Revival of essay paragraph History and the Meiji Synthesis. De Montaigne? For the essay questions the taming of the, first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in michel essays sparknotes, the two great Edo-period lineages of life kabuki stage productions and kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the michel essays sparknotes, new regime seems to have appreciated the political uses of the proposal, 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the de montaigne essays sparknotes, Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an emissary to Sengakuji to place offerings before the graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for upholding the principle of the brian white dissertation, master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to any particular official manipulation of the legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the sparknotes, people. The modern transformation of catch Chûshingura into what amounted to de montaigne sparknotes, a piece of propaganda on behalf of martial values and selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only after the introduction, way had been paved by the first modern historical studies of the essays, Akô incident. To Write? (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an account by de montaigne essays Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the modern critical method in history.

Shigeno insisted on the need to brian white dissertation, separate out the michel de montaigne sparknotes, many counterfeits among the surviving documents of the all party, incident, in michel sparknotes, an effort to tell the true story. The form of the book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an act-by-act analysis of on college life Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and sparknotes what not. Essay Life? This marks the beginning of a new element in michel essays, the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and life methods. Sparknotes? The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in the use of the historical names of the to write essay, participants--but the line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the Valiant Vendetta of michel essays Genroku), published in catch thesis, late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the spirit established by Shigeno of michel essays sparknotes trying to thesis, recover the michel, original story. Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and essay the taming of the still retained many elements of michel sparknotes traditional kôdan-style embellishment.

Less than a year after the publication of questions the taming Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the michel, historiography of the white dissertation, Akô Incident entered a new era with the michel, publication of the documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from essay introduction, Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by de montaigne the need to essay introduction paragraph, establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and published it in 1914 as Record of the Truth of the de montaigne sparknotes, Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Although a less readable work, the effort to essay, reach the truth of the event marks an michel sparknotes, entirely new attitude towards the history essay introduction, Chûshingura legacy. Michel Essays Sparknotes? Nichinan's two works, especially the on nonviolence, first, were wildly popular in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, the patriotic climate of essay Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of de montaigne essays sparknotes martial valor and essay questions the taming of the shrew devotion to superiors. Although more conscious of the truth of the historical incident, Nichinan in michel de montaigne, no way compromised the a descriptive essay, essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the michel, history of the Akô Incident was fused with the latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to the times. On College Life? The importance of historicity is michel revealed in comparing the fate of essay on college life Chûshingura with that of the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in to write essay, popular culture after the end of Meiji. The great liability of the de montaigne essays sparknotes, Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to apa research proposal paper, recover for essays sparknotes history, dating from a much earlier period and essay introduction paragraph with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the michel de montaigne, beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the history essay, 47 Ronin to michel, far more Japanese than ever in the past, and with a new level of power and thesis immediacy.

The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of michel de montaigne sparknotes sixty Chûshingura films in on college life, late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of three per year. Michel Essays? (18) . Dissertation? The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. In general, the de montaigne sparknotes, film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the brian, Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the sparknotes, 1930s tended to essay introduction paragraph, leave the mainstream of de montaigne sparknotes Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of history that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of michel sparknotes intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in apa research paper, a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in michel de montaigne, 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.

Yet his work is history essay introduction paragraph every bit as much a product of the de montaigne, ideology of its own time, notably in proposal paper, his depiction of the de montaigne, anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the essays on nonviolence, modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and michel de montaigne essays film versions of the story were prohibited under the early years of the Occupation for apa research paper intimate associations with feudal values and wartime patriotism. Michel Essays? From 1949, however, the to write essay, ban on Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of michel de montaigne essays both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Non Thesis Phd? Gregory Barrett has suggested that the de montaigne essays sparknotes, major shift was to play down the to write a descriptive, emphasis on michel, abject loyalty to essay questions the taming, one's superior, and sparknotes rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to history paragraph, emperor now reverted to a more direct and de montaigne essays personal sort of loyalty. But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of apa research Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of sparknotes re-direction. As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the on nonviolence, only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the Edo period that did in fact survive the war: nothing more was to be seen of the Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of michel sparknotes Japanese. Essays On Nonviolence? (21) The advantage of Chûshingura lay once again in sparknotes, the ambiguities and complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.

The Democratization of to write essay Chûshingura. De Montaigne? In its very essence, the Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in the name of loyalty to their feudal lord, the vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Essays On Nonviolence? Given the sparknotes, essentially contradictory demands of catch all party thesis loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in essays, two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to the shogunate. Where the essays on nonviolence, notion of michel public hung in the balance between bakufu and proposal han, things could go either way. And so in the twentieth century, when public was again defined in de montaigne essays sparknotes, ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the proposal, democratizing reforms of the de montaigne sparknotes, Occupation period, the Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to new times, by conceiving of the essay questions of the, actions of the ronin as directed against michel de montaigne sparknotes the autocratic actions of the apa research proposal, bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of michel essays sparknotes Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the liberal and catch all party modernist intellectuals of the Taisho and early Showa era. The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in michel sparknotes, the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. Essay On College Life? 1917), a sketch of the michel, leader of the proposal, 47 Ronin as he awaited the michel de montaigne, judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. Questions Shrew? (22) It was modern in de montaigne essays sparknotes, two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the apa research, account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of michel essays sparknotes guarding the group at to write a descriptive the Hosokawa mansion in sparknotes, which Ôishi had been placed.

Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in on nonviolence, the human psychology of Ôishi as an de montaigne, individual with both strengths and on nonviolence weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in michel, all earlier renditions. This interest in probing the more complex and history essay introduction human side of the participants in the Akô affair set into michel essays sparknotes, motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the first appearance of interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the the taming of the shrew, older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to de montaigne essays, have been a March 1928 essay by proposal Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. De Montaigne Sparknotes? (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in on college, May 1931, in a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in essays, Light of Historical Materialism, in which the the taming, motives of the ronin in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, seeking revenge were attributed not to proposal paper, their loyalty but to michel de montaigne sparknotes, their poverty and brian need for michel sparknotes a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by all party thesis the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in a series of books and articles on the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in 1934 on to Akô rôshi in 1964.

Doggedly pressing his argument that the ronin were simply in search of michel sparknotes a new master and brian dissertation never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of de montaigne revisionist thinking in the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the catch all party, ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the event and de montaigne Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Tamura was the first to impute economic motives. Proposal Paper? The most important work for the postwar revival of Chûshingura, however, was the first long modern historical novel on the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of de montaigne 1928 (serialized the previous year in to write, the Mainichi newspapers). The use of rôshi rather than gishi hints at the diversion of emphasis away from the theme of loyalty, and in michel de montaigne, the direction of a conception of the attack on non thesis phd, Kira as a protest against the corrupt and venal government of the michel essays sparknotes, bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of life prewar orthodoxy. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in essays, the old elementary school textbooks, for example, opened on precisely this theme, stressing the non thesis phd, looseness of Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of loyalty, but of justice and de montaigne essays sparknotes honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in to write, the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for de montaigne the mass propagation of Chûshingura.

The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in of the shrew, 1964, when NHK chose the michel essays sparknotes, Chûshingura theme for essay on college life the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Essays? Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of television, authorized by essay the government network, brought the images of the michel de montaigne, 47 Ronin directly into the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of apa research proposal paper books about the Akô Incident. It is surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by a revival of the de montaigne, nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. Essay? In the years following, NHK has continued to play the central role in the survival of michel essays Chûshingura in essay introduction paragraph, mass culture by selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in 1975 and michel 1982. Essay? In both cases, it was occasion for the publication of michel de montaigne sparknotes new books about Chûshingura, the brian white, reissue of old ones, and renewed speculation by intellectuals about the perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.

That things were changing, however, was revealed in de montaigne, the approaches of the thesis, two series, neither of which approached the Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the essays sparknotes, world of the Taiheiki as a setting. To Write A Descriptive? The series offered a panorama of michel Genroku society and catch politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of shogunal succession. Michel Sparknotes? The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at catch thesis the divide, implying that the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the paper, main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of a group of ordinary citizens of Edo. According to the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to de montaigne, fashion a contemporary message of patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of all party thesis Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and de montaigne essays even of the notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to paragraph, the Japanese family drama in which no one is to blame for arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in de montaigne sparknotes, the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of essay the taming of the watering down and deflection of emphasis away from the theme of either loyalty or protest, the michel essays, Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.

Rather it emerges from an on college, on-going process of critically reexamining the legend and challenging some of its central verities by turning back to de montaigne essays, the historical event. In a sense, this is in the spirit of discovering the real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in the century by a descriptive essay Fukumoto Nichinan, and de montaigne essays carried forth in a more explicit mode of catch all party debunking by Tamura Eitarô in his argument of the michel essays sparknotes, 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to white, win new employment. Michel De Montaigne? What has changed since the war is brian white a widening of the field of essays debunking activity, and essays the emergence of a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the michel essays, truth of the non thesis phd, Akô Incident in ways that often amount to the most fantastic speculation. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? The best example, perhaps, is the on college life, problem of the cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by to write a descriptive the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in michel de montaigne, his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against history paragraph Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.

Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to debate a particular issue. De Montaigne Sparknotes? One major topic of discussion in this particular program was the thesis, so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and sparknotes Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to the taming of the, be producers of salt. It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of michel essays sparknotes superior quality, and on nonviolence Kira, who had easier access to de montaigne essays sparknotes, the Edo market. Of the essay, several versions of the salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to Akô to michel de montaigne sparknotes, steal the secrets of catch all party thesis superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and eventually the Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is not a shred of evidence for the theory: the NHK show made a virtue of this by featuring a lengthy discussion by a leading expert of Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the industrial spy theory was in fact implausible, since the geological and labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.

Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on the abnormal psychology of Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from michel essays, Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and the author of introduction paragraph such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of Kyoto and The Psychology of the Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by essays sparknotes exaggerated attachment to form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and essay of the shrew a revulsion against de montaigne essays money--naturally extending to the offering of bribes. Non Thesis Phd? What actually happened in de montaigne, the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to which this type of personality is dissertation susceptible and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes which allegedly ran in the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the history introduction paragraph, attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Michel Sparknotes? Anzai admits that the sun was high and all party the sky cloudy at the time of the attack, but proposes that the contrasting pattern of michel de montaigne essays light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Non Thesis Phd? Without going into the five other theories discussed on the NHK show, this should be enough to de montaigne, suggest the amount of ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the twists and turns of the essays on nonviolence, Akô Incident. Michel De Montaigne? These have been put forth in on college, a steady outpouring of de montaigne essays sparknotes books claiming to to write a descriptive, tell, once again, the truth of the Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to be figured out by clever detectives; any concern with the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, deeper moral and political implications of the apa research, event recedes into michel sparknotes, the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of non thesis phd this trend is michel Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to non thesis phd, write a play about essays sparknotes Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the all party, historical event itself. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to michel de montaigne sparknotes, a new generation.

In the entire body of debunking and apa research revisionism about the Akô Incident, the michel essays sparknotes, two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and of the disloyal retainers who failed to on nonviolence, participate in michel de montaigne essays, the attack. Each of these themes has a considerable history. In particular, the rescue of Kira from thesis, his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and sparknotes has become especially active in the postwar period. Apa Research Proposal Paper? The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of this theme, and the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to de montaigne essays sparknotes, telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in thesis, 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of michel what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to on nonviolence, Edo gesaku for de montaigne sparknotes inspiration.

This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in Subaru from May 1980 to on nonviolence, December 1984, and published as a single volume in michel de montaigne sparknotes, 1985. It is, the apa research proposal paper, title tells us, a Treasury of Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of de montaigne Asano who did not participate in the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of all party thesis departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of Asano, and that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to de montaigne, the disloyal retainers. Essay Introduction Paragraph? His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and giving an effective sense of life in Genroku Edo. Michel Essays Sparknotes? Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of Kira in of the, the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at the Komatsuza in de montaigne essays, Tokyo in September 1988. Essay? (28) The play recreates the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, final two hours of Kira's life in real time, from the non thesis phd, point at which he goes to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, hide in a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in brian white, the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from michel essays, Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to essays, have snuck into the mansion on the night of the attack. In the essays sparknotes, final scene, Kira wakes up to the fact that he has been little more than a victim of thesis Tsunayoshi's regime, and grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of time, he will play a key role in the survival of the valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Michel Essays? Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the charcoal shed to the taming, meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to michel de montaigne sparknotes, live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the writer who has done most to essay, revive Chûshingura in michel de montaigne sparknotes, the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in a descriptive essay, 1984 and has continued to inspire new writings in michel de montaigne essays, and about the legend.

It is difficult in apa research proposal, brief compass to do justice to the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of fascinating and michel essays arcane detail about the Akô Incident and essay on college life Edo culture in michel essays, general. Some of on nonviolence his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to michel sparknotes, fashion his conception of non thesis phd Chûshingura. His basic approach is essays seen most clearly in to write a descriptive essay, his explicit use of Chûshingura to michel essays sparknotes, refer to both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and apa research proposal paper shibai to shite no Chûshingura. Michel Essays Sparknotes? This in non thesis phd, turn reflects his central theme, that the de montaigne sparknotes, historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in essay on college, the sense that the essays sparknotes, 47 Ronin were reenacting the brian white, vendetta of the Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. De Montaigne Essays? In short, Maruya proposes, the historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and daring conflation of the white dissertation, role of sparknotes history and literature in life, the Chûshingura legend as a whole.

The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to michel, be drawn from folklore and all party thesis anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in Japan of the 1980s. Essays? He argues that the vendettas of the Soga Brothers and brian white the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of essays sparknotes their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Apa Research? Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to the those of Umehara Takeshi in Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in sparknotes, which it is argued that the rebuilding of Hôryûji after the white dissertation, fire of 672 was intended in michel essays, many complicated ways as an effort to ward off the avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of established academic theories, both drawn to non thesis phd, riddles and mysteries, both prone to seek explanations in hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? Not content with seeing the non thesis phd, force of michel essays onryô in essay life, the vendetta of the Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes hostility to the bakufu in the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an older tradition of history essay introduction paragraph seeing the Akô vendetta as essentially directed against de montaigne sparknotes the bakufu, but he now gives it an brian dissertation, even more sinister and seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of a disguised rebellion over to michel, Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of essay questions the taming carnival in the European manner, a springtime festival involving the michel essays, ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by essay implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of michel Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of Edo theater, appeared in the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of essay the taming Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and michel sparknotes its impact on apa research, the Akô affair.

Maruya answered Suwa in de montaigne, a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in to write a descriptive essay, May 1985, leading to michel essays, a counter-reply by on college Suwa and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. On Nonviolence? Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of michel essays both misunderstanding and apa research misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into the many complexities of michel sparknotes all the history introduction paragraph, arguments involved, let me simply say that on michel de montaigne, strictly historical grounds, I tend to non thesis phd, side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Michel De Montaigne? Maruya himself recognized this in white dissertation, one of his responses to michel sparknotes, Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and again, Maruya claims to have a special sense of the superstitious and thesis magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of Edo, enabling him to see through to the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. De Montaigne Essays? Here, as in his reliance on to write a descriptive, the findings of folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to further the michel sparknotes, cause of life Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at the end of his hostile review of Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the de montaigne essays sparknotes, remark of of the a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. And in michel de montaigne sparknotes, the end, that is essays on nonviolence probably the essays, best way to read Chûshingura to wa nanika --as a novel. To Write Essay? Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to separate history from fiction is doomed to frustration. What the sparknotes, Hell is Chûshingura?

Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of almost two centuries, and seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an audience share of 17 per on college, cent when competing against michel sparknotes NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. It was followed by a February performance at the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. To Write? In the same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is it possible that we are reaching the end of essay Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is de montaigne essays raised by a consideration of the essay life, age of the authors responsible for michel sparknotes the recent spate of books listed in the Appendix below.

Out of fourteen for catch all party whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and de montaigne one (Izawa Motohiko, the to write a descriptive essay, author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in 1954. The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is striking. In other words, Chûshingura is michel essays being kept alive by essays on nonviolence a generation that could still read the account of Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from de montaigne, 1949 to essay on college life, 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in fact begin to disappear as this older generation and its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to the contrary is one of the most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is so expressive and difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the de montaigne essays, cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of dissertation Chûshingura. Michel De Montaigne? The title is non thesis phd similarly difficult to translate in de montaigne, a way that captures the sense of brian white contemporary Tokyo slang, but the authors themselves provide a good stab at it in an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes contemporary youth culture): What the catch thesis, hell is Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the book is clearly intended for michel essays a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for catch thesis knowing about it.

The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and de montaigne sparknotes responsible account of all the non thesis phd, details of the michel, historical Akô Incident. Introduction Paragraph? In a mark of contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and michel de montaigne essays Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to as Kira no jisama. It is hard to know exactly what to make of a book like this, but at white dissertation the very least it proves that there is clearly an audience for Chûshingura in the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at michel essays not really knowing anything about essay on college it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over michel de montaigne, the younger generation in Japan, however, history lies in on nonviolence, wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on life. I refer to the tricentennial of the michel de montaigne essays, Akô Incident, which will begin in just eleven years and (thanks again to the particular nature of the event) will last for almost two years.

It is on nonviolence hard to michel essays sparknotes, believe that there are not publishers, producers, and politicians in Japan who are already beginning to plan for to write the event: if Chûshingura is lively in the 1980s, it boggles the mind to think what it might be in de montaigne essays sparknotes, 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Essay Introduction Paragraph? Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. A Descriptive Essay? 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Essays? Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.

Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. Essay Of The Shrew? 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. De Montaigne Essays? Chûshingura igaishi . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Sequel to 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.

Akô rôshi shidan . Shiode shuppan. 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Introduction Paragraph? Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to michel sparknotes, ningenzô . 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. On College Life? Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Igaishi Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. Michel De Montaigne? 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.

Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and on college Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to de montaigne essays sparknotes, Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Chûshingura to wa nanika . Apa Research Proposal? Kôdansha. Essays? 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . Tokyo shoseki. White Dissertation? 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to essays sparknotes, December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. All Party? I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.

Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Michel Essays? Longsellers. 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. On Nonviolence? Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to imajineeshon . De Montaigne Essays? Heibonsha. Paper? 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? Chûshingura no shinsô . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Catch All Party? Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Essays? Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan. 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to essay introduction, iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. De Montaigne Sparknotes? 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. Apa Research Proposal? 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.

Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Michel Sparknotes? Shinchôsha. 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of essay questions shrew Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the michel de montaigne, Akô Incident in on college, Edo), and Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).

2. Michel De Montaigne Essays? In actual fact, the essay, term Chûshingura seems to michel essays, have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of paper 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. 3. Michel Sparknotes? The regular use of on college Akô jiken seems to date from the 1960s. The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of Kyoto University, describes the michel sparknotes, incident under Akô gishi, while the first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. Catch? 4. Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig, East Asia: Tradition and michel essays Transformation , p. 411.

6. Proposal? Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. 184. De Montaigne Essays? 7. History Essay Introduction? Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? 8. To Write Essay? Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. 180-183. Essays? 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on apa research paper, Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, Kabuki and the Puppet Theater (Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. History Essay Introduction Paragraph? In Japanese, the michel sparknotes, most recent discussion of the essay on college, problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. 34-39.

10. I rely here on the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Shively, op.cit. De Montaigne Essays? , gives a detailed summary in non thesis phd, English. The seminal work in michel essays sparknotes, this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.

359-370. 12. Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Essays? Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. 17. 14. This and three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.

Anatehon Chûshingura appears in essays sparknotes, an annotated edition in apa research paper, Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. 88. 16. It might be argued that the two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the michel essays sparknotes, former emphasizing the individuality and sense of honor of essay the taming each the michel sparknotes, 47 separate retainers, and on college life the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. In the michel essays, variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by apa research paper Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to the kana number (particularly iroha and michel de montaigne essays shijûshichi ) are just about proposal twice as common in the kabuki tradition as words relating to essays sparknotes, loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of loyalty become dominant.

17. I am indebted in the following account to Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to non thesis phd, tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. Michel Sparknotes? As cited by Satô Tadao, op.cit. A Descriptive Essay? , p. 96, from a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. De Montaigne Sparknotes? 19. Mayama's work is discussed in detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. Apa Research Proposal? , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. Michel? , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to non thesis phd, depict the Akô ronin as opponents of de montaigne essays tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by the militarism of the the taming of the shrew, times.

Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the michel, basis for Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the apa research paper, same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. 30. 22. De Montaigne? Akutagawa's story was translated and analyzed in all party thesis, the seminar paper by michel de montaigne Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and non thesis phd Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. Essays Sparknotes? 23. The work is mentioned in Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in catch all party thesis, Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. 24.

Quoted in michel sparknotes, Satô Tadao, op.cit. History Introduction Paragraph? , pp. 102-3. De Montaigne Sparknotes? 26. On College Life? Kira was studied in a seminar paper by michel Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in catch all party, a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on michel de montaigne, the description of the apa research proposal paper, play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. 87 (January 1989), pp.

8-9. De Montaigne Sparknotes? 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to catch all party thesis, kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. 30. De Montaigne? These details come from essay paragraph, Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. De Montaigne Essays? 28.

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Marketing Where Technology Intersects Life. Whether you’re in a commercial, as my grandson Kameron Badgers is in this set photo, a feature film, or a television series, how you list your credits matters to casting directors. Several years ago, a director spotted my grandson juggling at a local festival, and asked him to come in for essays sparknotes a part in a national commercial. Essay Introduction! The casting director sent an email: “Arrive at 10 a.m., and bring a headshot and resume.” I had NO idea what an actor’s resume should look like, and the tips I found online weren’t very helpful since they focused on michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, people who actually had credits.

My 8-year-old did not. Since then, he’s amassed quite a nice resume for a 13-year-old junior high school kid. But it wasn’t until recently that his (amazing) agent shared the rules for creating a professional actor’s resume. I’m sharing them here, because I think a lot of other parents and essays, beginning actors are as clueless as I was about them. Acting Resume Rule # 1: Divide your credits by type. List feature films, short films, industrials, television, theater, and commercials in separate categories. Most actors have a commercial resume and a theatrical resume. Essays Sparknotes! Most film and television actors do not list modelling, theater or commercial credits on their resume. You should talk to your agent about what to include on your resume – and what to leave off. Awhile back, I was waiting outside an acting class listening to one mother bemoaning the paper fact that her son was only michel de montaigne essays cast as a bully or a gang member. She showed a copy of his resume to essay on college the parents in essays the room, and it was obvious why casting people thought of non thesis phd, him for those roles first: half of the de montaigne essays one-page resume consisted of the karate, mixed martial arts, and boxing titles he’d won.

Another parent suggested eliminating most of that and simply listing karate, mixed martial arts, and boxing among her child’s other skills on the resume. Among the other things that your agent might (or might not) want you to omit from your child’s resume are academic achievements, child beauty pageant titles, and catalog or print modeling jobs. The key here is to all party ask your agent – and if you don’t have an agent, ask an michel experienced professional acting coach. Acting Resume Rule #2: Use the right terminology. Television, film, and essay on college, commercials use different terms, and none of de montaigne essays, them use the same terms as theater. Catch All Party Thesis! There are no Principals in film, and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, no Leads in non thesis phd a commercial. (Note that the word is principal , not principle . Spelling counts.) The following terms are generally accepted. FILM: Lead (or Starring ), Supporting Lead , Supporting Featured, Supporting, Extra. TV: Series Regular , Guest Star , Co-Star , Featured, Supporting Note: Co-star and Guest Star roles can also recur, just add it (i.e. Recurring Guest Star, 6 episodes, Season 2 ).

Acting Resume Rule #3: No one knows your character’s name. Most of the michel casting directors who see your resume will have no clue about your character’s name — and even fewer will care. All they care about is non thesis phd, whether you were the lead, a supporting actor, or an extra. If you want the name of your character in michel de montaigne essays your credits, list it as Lead/Mary or Supporting (Mary) . Be consistent in your formatting. If you list one role as Lead/Mary , don’t list the next one as Supporting (Hannah). If you work as an extra, your character probably won’t have a name anyway. If you are a beginning actor or you are preparing a resume for a child actor who works as a background performer or extra, it’s ok to provide a description instead of history essay introduction paragraph, a name, but don’t attempt to michel de montaigne mislead about the size of the role by proposal naming a character if you are an “unrecognizable talent”. My teen actor, for example, was very visible in the trailer and a couple of scenes in a TV show — or at de montaigne sparknotes, least his back, profile, and body (minus his head) were. Catch! He got an IMDB credit for the role, but it isn’t on his resume for the simple reason that no one could tell it was him. The kid standing next to him, who was equally unrecognizable, lists the role on michel essays sparknotes, his resume and to write essay, named his character.

That’s his family’s choice, but I don’t recommend it. Acting Resume Rule #4: Don’t guess — don’t lie. If you aren’t sure what kind of role you booked, ask your agent. No agent? Check IMDB or Google. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes! You can bet the apa research proposal casting director will! I once overheard a casting director chewing a parent out. It seems the mom had listed her child as Lead Series Regular on a well-known TV series when the kid was actually a Recurring Guest Star who appeared in a multi-episode story arc. The mom was in tears when she came out.

She hadn’t meant to lie — she just didn’t know there were specific words she should have used. If you don’t have any credits to put on sparknotes, your resume, list your training and amateur experience (by amateur, I mean things like school or college plays, community theater, and student films), and get some experience as quickly as you can. Unpaid roles, student films, work as an extra, and other “blink and you miss him” parts won’t stay on your resume long — just enough to let the casting director know that you’re fresh talent looking for that all-important break. Apa Research! Replace them when you have more impressive credits to list. Acting Resume Rule # 5: Always include the director’s name. When you list your film and TV credits, the key information is the name of the film or television show, your role (lead, supporting, etc.), and michel de montaigne essays, the director’s name. Other information, such as a particular TV show season or episode name, and the name of the proposal paper production company, is optional.

Here are some correctly formatted examples. Salem — Series Regular (Season 3) — Directors, David Von Ancken, Alex Zakrewski. Other information, such as the season and episode name or number, is optional. For instance, you might list a credit like this to make it easier for michel de montaigne essays someone to apa research reference a specific role: X-Men: The Gifted — Guest Star (Pilot, High School Student) — Director, Bryan Singer. The production company or network is optional. If you use it, this is how it’s formatted.

X-Men: The Gifted — Guest Star (Pilot, High School Student) — 20th Century Fox Television, Director, Bryan Singer. Murder Made Me Famous — Supporting (Season 2, Episode 3, Jean Harris, High School Student) — REELZ Channel/AMS Pictures, Director, Brad Osborne. Daylight’s End – Supporting – Director, William Kaufman. Bonnie and Clyde: Dead and Alive – Supporting – Director, Bruce Beresford. Bernie — Supporting, Carthage Texas Police Officer — Castlerock Entertainment, Mandalay Pictures, Director, Richard Linklater. The Hobbit — Stunt Coordinator, An Unexpected Journey — New Line Cinema, Directors, Peter Jackson, Andy Serkis. Note that, just as in essays a television series, adding the name of the apa research studio or production company is optional. De Montaigne! Also note that if you work as a part of the crew (as in essays the stunt coordinator example above), the format is the same as it is for michel de montaigne essays sparknotes an actor. JP Morgan/Chase — Supporting, College Savings Campaign 2017.

Las Vegas Convention Visitor’s Bureau — Supporting, What Happens in Las Vegas ( Spanish Visitor Campaign), 2016. Note that the essays director is not listed on commercial credits, although if you know the director’s name, or it is an de montaigne award-winning campaign, it is perfectly acceptable to list the ad agency and/or the director. If the essay life commercial is part of michel sparknotes, a long-running campaign, be sure to on college life specify what ad you are in unless you are the principal in the series. What Goes on a Resume (Besides Credits) Besides your credits, here are the things that should be on sparknotes, an ADULT actor’s resume: Name, email, phone number, agent’s name contact information, union status (SAG, SAG-eligible, non-union, etc.), height, weight, eye and hair color, and other “vital statistics”. Note that age is non thesis phd, not on this list for michel de montaigne essays sparknotes adult actors. A CHILD or TEEN actor’s resume has the non thesis phd same requirements as an adult’s resume, but must also include the child’s age, a parent or agent’s email and phone number instead of the child’s direct contact details, work permit status (state, expiration date if your state requires an michel sparknotes annual permit), and Coogan Trust status (some states like California and all party thesis, New York require that a portion of a child or teen actor’s earnings go into a special trust fund that neither the child nor his/her parents can touch until the child is an adult, and you must have one set up in michel de montaigne order to work in essay life those states).

Note that age is REQUIRED for anyone under the age of 18. If you are represented by essays sparknotes an agency, make sure you follow the directions your agent provides for your resume. Some, for paper example, want only de montaigne essays their contact information on a resume while others allow non-union actors to submit themselves for projects that aren’t being cast through the agency, such as student films, roles as an extra, and other unpaid or low-paid projects. Here are things that should never be on anyone’s resume: home address, social security number, date of birth, or mother’s name. Why? Because they could be the keys to identity theft and other dangerous practices.

Last, but not least, your acting resume should have sections for Special Skills Talents (this is where you list things like military training, and the sports performing skills that might make you sought-after for on nonviolence a role — anything from horseback riding to surfing, archery to juggling can be listed here), Training (acting-related education classes/workshops go here if they are significant), and links to your online demo reel and any important sites like IMDB where a casting director could learn more about you. If you have any of the following skills or real-life experience, they should always be on an adult actor’s resume: law enforcement or military experience, medical or first-responder experience, sports skills or experience beyond the high school level, musical talent of any kind. Think about how many TV shows and sparknotes, movies need prison guards, police officers, crime scene technicians, doctors, nurses, firemen, or coaches, athletes, referees or officials. There are almost always parts for extras or actors who can play these parts — and to write a descriptive, who better to de montaigne essays play a cop or security guard than someone with real-world experience? Who better to handle a prop weapon than someone who knows how to apa research proposal paper handle the real thing thanks to michel essays sparknotes military service? How to Deliver an Actor’s Resume to Casting. When asked to essay on college bring a resume and headshot to a face-to-face audition, most actors use 8X10? headshots (more of essays, head-and-shoulder shots, as casting wants to see more than your face so they can get an idea of your body type), with their resume printed out and affixed to the back. Many of the a descriptive essay companies that print headshots will print your resume on the back of your photo if you are willing to pay the price. Michel! That works for established actors/actresses who have major credits that won’t change quickly, but it doesn’t usually work for child actors or those who are trying to quickly upgrade and update their resume to on college life improve the quality of their credits.

So type your resume on plain white paper. Use a sans serif font, and 11 or 12 point type. Keep the resume to michel less than one page. Catch All Party Thesis! Once you’ve printed it out, neatly trim off the margins neatly. (I use an exacto knife, a metal ruler as a straight edge, and a cutting board, but if you have a paper cutter, that will do, too.) Then use a glue stick to attach it to the back of the photo. Don’t overdo the glue — you don’t want it wrinkled. If you have one, use a rolling pin or “brayer” (a tool designed specifically to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes keep paper flat as it’s glued down) to make the edges smooth.

If you don’t have glue, you can use clear tape — but be aware that tape yellows, and will sometimes pick up odd bits of dust or fluff that show up as the history essay tape ages. Don’t use staples. Michel Sparknotes! You don’t want YOUR resume to be the apa research one that causes a casting director to bleed when a staple punctures a finger rifling through a stack of paper. Don’t prepare a lot of extra resumes unless you have a lot of michel essays sparknotes, scheduled auditions/meetings with agents of to write, managers. If you are submitting yourself through one of the online casting sites, the resume they see will be the one formatted by their site, and your headshot will be submitted in the size and de montaigne sparknotes, format it is essay, hosted on that site.

If you are submitting a headshot and resume via email, make sure that (a) your resume is formatted as an de montaigne essays sparknotes Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft Word file, and that if you are submitting a Word file all of the changes/corrections you’ve made have been “accepted” so that the recipient can’t view earlier versions of the resume. Don’t assume that the recipient can view a Google “doc” file or any other format; (b) that your headshot is a reasonable file size. Don’t try to send a 4 or 5 gigabyte file, as many email systems can’t handle them and casting directors don’t want to thesis fill their hard drives up with huge photo files. It shouldn’t have to be said, but have someone else proofread the resume CAREFULLY, double checking phone numbers, hyperlinks (if used) and email addresses to michel essays make sure they work. Update Casting Sites When You Update Your Resume. Keeping casting sites updated has to apa research be the bane of most actor’s existence. It’s not that hard to update your resume when you sign a new contract — and yes, resumes should be updated when you are officially cast, not after you’ve filmed your role. Michel De Montaigne Essays! But if you have profiles on catch all party, four or five sites, each with their own unique content management system and format, it’s a pain to essays update all of them. Do it anyway, and do it when you sign a contract. Why?

Because a signed contract could preclude you from consideration for another role, and non thesis phd, you don’t want to waste your time or the de montaigne essays casting director’s time. For example, a friend of my grandson’s signed to thesis film a very well paid commercial for a video game. In the essays sparknotes two months after he signed the contract, but before he filmed the commercial, he was cast in and filmed an industrial for a descriptive a computer company. The week before he was to film the commercial, casting notified him that he’d been replaced because the de montaigne sparknotes industrial he filmed for the computer company was considered a conflict. So he lost a job that would have paid well over $15K for one that paid less than $800. Non Thesis Phd! Had he updated his resume on all the casting sites as well as on michel essays sparknotes, paper, the to write a descriptive essay computer company wouldn’t have hired him — they’d have seen the potential conflict, too. The most important online casting site is de montaigne essays, IMDB — the proposal paper Internet Movie Database.

You’ll be listed there when a production company that hires you lists your credit. Once that happens, you can sign up for de montaigne essays an IMDB Pro account and begin keeping photos and credits online, even when the producer doesn’t list your credit with IMDB. I’ve never known anyone to non thesis phd actually be cast because they were on de montaigne, IMDB. So why is catch all party, it the michel de montaigne sparknotes most important? Because it ranks first in Google searches, and having a profile there marks you as a “professional” actor in the minds of proposal, many — including the Internal Revenue Service. Michel! (You can only essay deduct certain expenses on your taxes if the IRS decides you’re a “professional” actor.)

The other casting sites you should be registered with, and de montaigne essays sparknotes, keep updated are: If you are registered with MyCastingFile.com, Central Casting, or any of the other databases for non thesis phd movie extras, make sure you keep those resume sites updated as well. Note that the casting sites listed here are all free. Michel! Don’t waste your time or money on high-cost sites that charge a monthly listing fee to “help you get noticed”. It’s particularly important to non thesis phd keep your agent up to date on any jobs you accept as an michel de montaigne extra, because working as an essays on nonviolence extra on a television series or film franchise (a multi-part film, like Star Wars) can block you from de montaigne essays sparknotes later being cast in a bigger part. Agents don’t want to look bad by non thesis phd submitting someone who’s already worked on a project — and you don’t want to waste the time and effort auditioning only to be told you can’t be cast. As always, make sure you follow your agent’s instructions on how and where to list your credits online, and michel essays sparknotes, make sure that you are listed correctly in history essay introduction paragraph the databases with your representation clearly stated — especially if you have multiple agents for multiple regions, or different agents for commercials, film, modeling, etc. What would you list as a featured extra role? If you were a couple? If your character doesn’t have lines, and isn’t assigned a name, use a description of the michel essays sparknotes character. “Art Show Patron”, “wedding guest”, “kissing couple”.

If your character has lines but isn’t assigned a name, describe your line “woman who asks if Verizon got a trophy”, “man who argues with police officer.” If your background character has neither lines nor a name, and is part of a crowd scene, simply list “background extra, episode name/number” for a TV series, or “refugee woman, battle scene” in a movie. Peter Jackson’s daughter Katie once listed her role in essay Fellowship of the Ring As, “big eyed child”. An actor I know listed his role as a zombie in a well-known show as, “blood-covered zombie chasing (famous actor)”. Assigning your uncredited character a name is de montaigne sparknotes, another option some people use. Apa Research Paper! “Greaser teen”, “punk princess” or “Bobby the nerdy kid” are examples AI have seen.

Ask your agent how to handle extra roles on your resume, and if you don’t have an michel essays sparknotes agent, ask your acting coach. Different parts of the country seem to handle it in different ways. Non Thesis Phd! The goal, of course is to get to a point where you don’t need to list extra roles. Be sure you get the name of the essays sparknotes production company, the casting company, the history project, and essays, the AD or Director for your scenes — you’ll need them for history essay paragraph some of the online casting sites and to get an uncredited listing onto IMDB. On my acting resume, I mostly have work as an extra, but I use the word “background” in place of the essays word “extra”, is this acceptable on an acting resume? In general, if you are seeking work as an essay paragraph extra or background player, list those credits on your resume. But if you are putting together a general resume for a featured or lead role, many experts say not to de montaigne essays list them.

Back when there was a Screen Extras Guild, most people had two resumes — one for extra roles, one for essays other roles – just the way people have commercial resumes and michel de montaigne essays, film/TV resumes today. The common belief is non thesis phd, that if you show up with a resume filled with roles as an michel essays extra, that’s all you’ll be considered for. So most experts say, “Take the paycheck, don’t list the proposal paper credit.” I live in a smaller market (Dallas, TX), and michel sparknotes, the actor in my household is only in the 8th grade. All Party Thesis! He doesn’t list his extra credits on essays sparknotes, his main resume, and has separate credit lists for different kinds of essays, roles. This week, for de montaigne essays example, he is filming a recurring role in a TV series, and non thesis phd, the resume that he gave to the casting director had no roles as an extra listed — but this weekend, he’s working as a “featured background player” (an extra guaranteed screen time) on a film, and the resume he used to get that gig did list a number of roles as an michel de montaigne sparknotes extra.

That’s the essay introduction paragraph way his agency suggested we do it. I have an adult son who has worked as a stunt performer for many y ears, and he does not list all of his credits on his resume, either — just the ones he thinks are relevant for a particular casting director or role. He does not list “day player” or extra gigs, although I know he has taken them from sparknotes time to time when things were slower than he liked. Ask your agent about all party this, and if you don’t have an agent, talk to your acting coach. Michel Sparknotes! They’ll know what casting directors in to write essay your area want.

I do know that it’s different in smaller markets than in LA or New York, largely because in smaller markets casting directors know that actors have fewer opportunities to work at their craft. If you are listing your work as an extra, I don’t think it matters whether you call it being an extra or being a background player. I’ve seen it done both ways. It does seem to matter whether you are in a scene with one of the principals, and were guaranteed screen time, or whether you are simply part of a crowd. Sorry I don’t have a definitive answer for you! Thanks this was very helpful. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes! My daughter virtually no experience.

She was an extra in non thesis phd 2 movies coming out within the essays sparknotes next 2 years. She was in multiple scenes, but as an extra. I read somewhere not to on college put in essays extra work so I was unsure. Also the Center where she studies dance has put on a few productions that she has been in. Would I include them or just leave them blank. I don’t want to non thesis phd pad her resume or anything, but I would like to show she can dance and has been in front of de montaigne sparknotes, a large audience in on college a theater production, and has been on a set before. Essays! OR should I just leave it blank or put No Experience. Apa Research! And just put training and add Extra work and de montaigne essays sparknotes, Dance productions to Special Skills?Thank you in Advance for your reply. I think most people include extra work on their resumes in the beginning. If your daughter worked as an extra in history essay paragraph a TV series, here are a couple of de montaigne sparknotes, ways to list it on her resume: Dallas , Season 9, Episode 2, Extra, Director, John Smith.

Salem , Season 1, 6 episodes, Servant Girl (Recurring Background), Directors, Susan Jones, James Washington. In a film, you’d like the on nonviolence extra credit the same way as a regular role, just identify it as being an extra. If you have an agent, your agent will instruct you how to handle theater or dance performances. If you don’t, it seems to be a matter of michel essays, personal preference. If your daughter performs with a well-known dance company, or is cast in a theatrical production as a dancer, then it should be listed in a category like “Theater/Live Performances” –this is also where you’d put things like performing at a descriptive essay, a theme park, or any other live show. If it’s just a dance-school recital, then it probably shouldn’t be listed unless that is (literally) all you have to start with. As your daughter’s resume grows, you’ll constantly be editing it and taking off “lesser” credits. De Montaigne! It’s important to keep the resume to one page, including contact information, so it won’t be long before you’remmaking choices about what to put on, and what to leave off.

One thing I’ve seen often on acting resumes is a summary of someone’s experience at the top, right underneath the person’s name “vital statistics”. Apa Research Proposal! Something like, “Experienced musical theater performer with extensive live performance credits.” This is followed by the standard film/TV resume. I’ve also seen kid’s resumes with a summary that say things like, “Misty began performing with the michel de montaigne Dallas Ballet Theater at age 4, and earned rave reviews for introduction paragraph her performance as Clara in the Fort Worth Ballet’s Nutcracker.” Or “In addition to the film and TV credits listed here, Darla has a range of theater, dance, and gymnastics credits available on request.” Best of sparknotes, luck to proposal you and your talented daughter! Regards, Deb. How do you distinguish supporting lead from michel essays supporting featured?

Number of lines? Scenes? The casting director or director determines which parts are ‘featured’, ‘supporting’, ‘extra’, or lead roles. History Essay! It isn’t the number of lines — Jane Wyman won a Best Actress Oscar for “Johnnie Belinda” without uttering a single line. (She played a deaf mute.) Kameron’s agent always tells us what his role is, and since that deterines his salary as well, it’s something agents always pay attention to. Michel De Montaigne Essays! One thing that surprised me is that the listings on IMDB aren’t done according to how important the role is — actors are listed by on nonviolence popularity (that is how many searches on IMDB have been done for their nae).

So it’s possible for a lead actor to be listed on the online database much lower than a supporting actor who is more famous. When in essays sparknotes doubt, ask your agent. If you don’t have an agent, ask the director. Just say, “I want to put this on my resume. How should I list the part?” Most people are more than willing to to write a descriptive help new actors by sharing information and help! This is a perfectly written article, very informative and helpful, thanks for sharing these acting resume writing tips.

I have also read this Guide on Making a Professional Resume for additional information.

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Amusing Story About Absent Minded Person Essays and Research Papers. The story is about a xenolinguist who is constantly opposed by a martial artist. It takes place in a warscarred kingdom on a . world of magic. The critical element of the story is a compromise. The story is about a wily linguist, a scatterbrained midwife, and a gladiator who is best friends with a naive bard.

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Bench , Edward Albee , Literary criticism 995 Words | 3 Pages. This story begins in the year 2125, in a city called Rubee. Rubee was just like every other city around the non thesis phd world. It had its smoke covered . factories, huge skyscrapers, holographic computers and roadable aircrafts. In this city there lived a boy named Charlie. Charlie was just like every other kid. Michel? He went to school, he played lots of essay on college life, sport and michel de montaigne sparknotes, he spent time with friends. But the one thing Charlie had that no other kid he knew had, was a very old grandad that told the most amazing stories ever.

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He enjoyed writing about ghosts and horror, and produced two novels and catch, many short stories in this genre. Michel De Montaigne? ''Smee'' comes from history paragraph his collection entitled ''Someone in the Room''. BRAM STOKER Stoker (1847-1912) has been called ''one of the least-known authors of the one of the best-known books''. As a child, he enjoyed listening to. Bram Stoker , Charles Dickens , Ghost 1604 Words | 6 Pages. Authors use certain characters to attract and persuade certain audiences. The two short stories , The Prospector’s Trail by Cathy Jewison and . Bluffing by Gail Helgason are easily comparable by the use of characterization.

Both stories consist of two main characters, as couples, as it is affected by another individual. Also, throughout the stories , both couples face challenges in de montaigne essays, which reveal their true selves. Lastly, the history essay introduction paragraph author used one dynamic character while the other remained a static character. Carding , Character , English-language films 900 Words | 3 Pages. college; jeans can be worn as many times as days in michel de montaigne sparknotes, the week.brbrHigh school starts and ends at a set time. Classes in essay on college life, college . the later the better. Michel Sparknotes? . Essay Life? Fire alarms are cool in sparknotes, high school; everyone loves to get out of class.

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The media was talking about michel sparknotes new shelters available in space, it was taken as a fabrication at first, but formerly rich prosperous families really migrated to settle in a descriptive, their new homes, on new lands, on a new PLANET. Unfortunate people like me kept decamping to save their lives. Albert Einstein , Boy , Human rights 983 Words | 3 Pages. to the rigmarole of michel de montaigne essays, being the new kid. Just as Pablo started etching the folds in on college, the girl’s backpack, the large boy at her table yelled at someone across . the room. “Did you just say my name?” The boy got to essays sparknotes, his feet. “You better not be talking about history introduction paragraph me you little freak.” Pablo saw a small head at the front of the class shake back and forth, accompanied by a frightened squawk. The twitchy kid beside the bully chortled encouragement.

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The business man mentioned that they have two locations. . California and Japan. Porter took his card and said i'll think about to write a descriptive essay it. Day 5. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? Porter went to the hospital and told his mother about the business man,but lisa is still against him leaving. She begged him to stay, but he refused to stay and just watch his mother die. Day 6. Porter called the non thesis phd shady business man and said Ill do it, but i want to.

2008 singles , Automobile , Make You Feel My Love 888 Words | 3 Pages. both Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman and michel essays, You Just Don’t Understand, by Deborah Tannen, I have come to conclude that I prefer . Tannen’s book over Postman’s. There are a variety of reasons for catch thesis this particular choice. For one, Tannen’s novel offered a very relatable topic that applies to my everyday life. On the other hand, Postman’s argument was a bit too radical for my taste. Also, Tannen’s novel was very focused and clear. On the contrary, Postman had a tendency to michel sparknotes, ramble on about irrelevant. Argument , Conversation , Deborah Tannen 1673 Words | 5 Pages. DIFFERENT IDEAS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK AND IDENTITY PRESENTED IN STORY METAMORPHOSIS. DIFFERENT IDEAS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK AND IDENTITY PRESENTED IN STORY METAMORPHOSIS Work is an important theme in non thesis phd, . ‘Metamorphosis’ where the identity of almost every character (except, maybe, the lodgers) being defined significantly by de montaigne essays sparknotes, what they do.

What are the different ideas about the non thesis phd relationship between work and identity presented in this story ? Does the story finally appear to have one coherent ideology of the de montaigne essays workidentity relationship, or is it explored as an open-ended theme. Family , Identity , Mother 787 Words | 3 Pages. What Stories Can Teach Us About Life. Paper? What Stories Can Teach Us About Life In comparing August Wilson's play Fences and James Thurber's short story . The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, it can be seen that the main characters in each of these stories face a similar universal human conflict. Both Troy, of Fences, and Walter Mitty live lives in which they, like most everyone, are limited to michel de montaigne essays, some extent by forces beyond their control as to how they live their life. These limitations, unfortunately, cannot be avoided throughout life. Essay? James Thurber , Secret Life , The New Yorker 1308 Words | 4 Pages. The Person Who Changes My Perception About Writing.

Alvinston anak Henry Stephen Ms Bobbi Olsen ENGL 150-Writing: Rhetoric The Person who Changes My Perception about Writing . Writing is one of the medium that people use to communicate and express their ideas to michel essays sparknotes, other people. It has already been used since prehistoric time even though it is just through drawing but it has helped human to understand what has happened during that time and slowly after billions of years we have advanced to this globalized world that enable us to write in many different. Creative writing , Essay , Linguistics 1804 Words | 4 Pages. Jon Borges Eng. 100 March 17, 2006 A P: A Story About Growing Up Written in 1956 by subject narration author, John . Updike, AP, presents the story of a nineteen-year-old boy, Sammy, who over time comes to realize the painful reality of life. Sammy, who despises his insipid job as a checkout boy, works at the local AP mini-mart. Undoubtedly, having worked there for much to long, Sammy, finally says enough is enough, and quits his job.

This story's theme revolves around a teenage boy's. 946 Words | 3 Pages. Stephens 1/16/14 Period 6- English IV Honors Dr.Freeman The story of an hour by Kate Chopin is about how a woman feels . about her husband's death. The death of her husband makes her happy because marriage confined her and she wasn't able to be free. In this short story , the main character Mrs.Mallard shows emotions and support about life what has just happened in her life. When she finds out in the beginning about her husband's death It's natural for essays sparknotes her to be upset with the. Family , Gender , Husband 579 Words | 4 Pages.

All About Nothing: the Story of My Life. All About Nothing: The Story of My Life Perhaps the most important thing that has happened in my life is the essay life fact that nothing . really big or important has ever happened in my life. For example, my parents are still happily married, and nobody really close to me has evr died. All of this is very unfortunate, I am sure, because if one of these things had happened I would have been able to michel essays, find a topic for all party thesis this very essay which I am writing very easily, and would not have had such a hard time. Automobile , Buffalo Bills , Life 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Fictional Techniques on michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, The Child’s Story by essay, Charles Dickens, The Gift of the Magi, by O. Michel De Montaigne? Henry, and The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar . Allan Poe. The team focused the following three techniques: 1) Nature of non thesis phd, Narration; 2) Nature and level of description included in the story ; and 3) Use of Setting. Several questions have been answered concerning the different effects produced by each of the authors’ use of these techniques. Essays? Content of the history introduction Story and How it is michel essays Written and catch all party thesis, Told The Gift of the.

Edgar Allan Poe , First-person narrative , Gothic fiction 2224 Words | 6 Pages. Essays? “Globalization: the Super-Story”: a Story for catch all party thesis Everyone. “Globalization: The Super- Story ”: A Story for Everyone In Thomas L. Friedman’s “Globalization: The Super- Story ”, . he examines the features of globalization from various aspects and how it helps people better understand 9/11 events. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? He claims that globalization is the new improved system formed in catch all party thesis, place of the old “cold war system”(102), and through the patterns of which, people observe today’s world in essays sparknotes, an integrated way. Simple short phrases, organized structure, colloquial language, and punctuation. Cold War , Essay , Milton Friedman 1267 Words | 4 Pages. ?Michael R. Gibson Professor Michael Duncan ENGL 1302 A Story About Finding One-Self: Existentialism in A Clean, Well-Lighted . Place “Man is nothing else but that which he makes of himself.” - Jean-Paul Sartre A Clean, Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway is a story about men in the philosophy of existentialism. Existentialism is a philosophy that is centered upon the human existence, it focuses on individuals finding a reason for living within themselves (Oxford Dictionary). Thesis? Throughout life, humans.

Ernest Hemingway , Existence , Existentialism 1130 Words | 4 Pages. Three Stories About Steve Jobs’ Life Philosophy. Three Stories about Steve Jobs’ Life Philosophy Ven. Khai Thien Translated by Phap Than-Dharmakaya The author has no . relations to Steve Jobs in essays sparknotes, any way. Apa Research Paper? The only connection that the author has with Steve Jobs is simply a Macbook Air computer that was purchased a few months ago . Essays? . . The joys with the MacBook were quickly transformed into a feeling of sadness when the essay on college author learned that the creator of this device has departed from this world permanently. This sense of sadness is deepen when he. Apple Inc. , Connect the dots , Life 2218 Words | 7 Pages.

Effects of Thirdperson and First Person. Effects of Third Person and essays sparknotes, First Person Can the catch thesis point of view in which a story is told really change its plot? . When reading a story in the first person compared to the third person , one will have two different outlooks on the story . A story being told in the first person can be unreliable at points. It allows you to michel de montaigne essays, get inside the protagonists head and know what they are thinking, but you are only limited to their thoughts. While a story told in the third person gives you a little more freedom. History Essay Introduction? Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Grammatical person , Heart disease 1197 Words | 3 Pages. Sparknotes? ?Short Stories : Characteristics •Short - Can usually be read in one sitting. Non Thesis Phd? •Concise: Information offered in the story is . relevant to the tale being told. This is unlike a novel, where the de montaigne essays sparknotes story can diverge from the main plot •Usually tries to leave behind a single impression or effect. Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. •Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing personal experiences and prior knowledge to the story . Four Major. Character , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 1006 Words | 3 Pages. world influences – and some would say, defines – who we think we are. Each of us is to write essay influenced by how others treat us and michel essays sparknotes, how they respond to our actions. . Their behavior causes us to adjust our social role, and, in many cases, to reshape how we think about essays on nonviolence ourselves.

Indeed, some authors cast this more strongly, suggesting that what each of us considers to be “me” is in large part derived from what others have taught us and how they have reacted to us. The self that each of us knows, in other words. Adolescence , Behavior , Friendship 2189 Words | 7 Pages. ? hi this is a page to michel, let me connect to non thesis phd, a story that i want to read I dont have an essay to de montaigne sparknotes, post and it says my essay is too short so . im writing this so that i can just post something and get this step over with sorry if you wasted time reading this. On Nonviolence? thanks anyways! Oh, its still too short. looks like i still have to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, keep talking about nothing Great. I have ran out of ideas. Oh, and what do you know? The 'essay' is still too short. Who ever put a limit on essays? Can't.

2007 singles , Essay , Essays 374 Words | 3 Pages. Non Thesis Phd? Dance Submitted By: Alyssa Pelayo Submitted To: Ms. Rubie Lyn Palma Date of de montaigne, Submission: February 15, 2013 How my Brother Leon brought Home a Wife . By Manuel E. Arguilla I- Setting * Time: It happened in daytime. * Place: The story took place in the field and Leon’s house. Proposal Paper? II – Characters * Protagonist: Leon, Noel and Maria * Antagonist: Baldo III – Plot * Beginning: She stepped down from the carretela of Ca Celin with a quick, delicate grace. Climax , Fiction , Grammatical person 769 Words | 5 Pages. In this very short story , Alice Walker tells of a young, African American girl who, while gathering flowers, stumbles quite literally upon the . body of a dead man. The atmosphere, language and michel, subject matter of the story suggest the southern United States as a setting-sometime in the mid- to late-20th century seems an appropriate time period, though this is far less clear. The contrast between the essays on nonviolence story's beginning and end is striking.

We begin with a light-hearted description of the life of Myop. Michel Essays Sparknotes? African American , Ernest Hemingway , F. Scott Fitzgerald 907 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Short Story Essay Early 20th Century authors often wrote about the non thesis phd strange things and discrepancies found in society and . used irony to de montaigne essays, criticize them. Katherine Mansfield’s “A Cup of Tea” and Virginia Woolf’s “The Duchess and the Jeweller” both use irony to condemn and on nonviolence, show inconsistencies in social classes. The short stories demonstrated how being upper class or rich doesn’t necessarily mean you are secure, generous or a good person . A main topic found in the two stories is that money.

Anton Chekhov , Girl , Selfishness 967 Words | 3 Pages. A Lesson About Family: Alice Walker's Everyday Use A Lesson About Family Many sociologists define the term values as cultural types of standards by which people measure goodness and beauty. . These values also serve as broad guidelines for social living and human interaction. For the most part, values are different for different cultures. However, there are many universal traits that cultures share. For example, most world cultures have some form of music. They have services for marriage and services for death. De Montaigne Essays? These examples mainly help to define. A Story , Culture , Education 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Story About Me Learning Hungarian.

Whenever I went to her she was the essays on nonviolence happiest. She was waiting for us with warm homemade food, and always my favorite traditional stuffed cabbage. Essays Sparknotes? She makes . them the best, with tomato sauce and sour cream. My mouth is watering even when I’m thinking about essay them. Usually I was staying around 3 months at my grandma, and de montaigne sparknotes, I was sleeping in the same room with her. Non Thesis Phd? In the other room she had a very old sewing machine that she was taking a lot of care of. I wanted to play with it, but she never allowed me. She.

Family , Hungarian language , Hungary 1530 Words | 4 Pages. The Truth About the Betsy Ross Story ? As I start to michel essays sparknotes, read The Truth About The Betsy Ross Story we look at the American flag. Do you see what Robert Morris saw? . Stitch by stitch the on nonviolence history of the making of the flag and the lady behind the stitching. We don't look at de montaigne essays, the flag seeing Betsy Ross’s name on our heart. Non Thesis Phd? Nor do we see that she is a fourth generation Quaker. Growing up in the Griscom household with 17 siblings, she was well educated and took to essays, sewing. Robert Morris traced Betsy’s history back to on nonviolence, being one of the first.

Betsy Ross , Betsy Ross flag , Christ Church, Philadelphia 1080 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Story About Returning to School. Personal Story about michel sparknotes returning to school Milton Morales ENG 121 Katherine Ness Jan. A Descriptive? 27, 2011 Going back to de montaigne, . school can be a tough decision, but being positive and having confidence can lead you to success. Proposal Paper? As I grew older, I needed to essays sparknotes, decide what I was going to essay, do with my life. As I got closer to graduating from high school, I was very much against the idea of college. While growing up in a not so wealthy family, going to college wasn’t really a priority for me;. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? College , Diploma , Education 815 Words | 5 Pages. The Osage Orange Tree - By, William Stafford - An Book Report essay about the story.

Essay: The Osage Orange Tree The Osage Orange Tree by William Stafford is about the relationship between a boy and a girl named Evangeline. . In this story , the two main elements such as plot and theme dominate this story . This story had an interesting plot and history paragraph, ended in an unexpected but fascinating way. William Stafford described the scenery in such a way that we felt like we are in the story . The two met during the boy's paper route and michel de montaigne essays, had a conversation. The boy was in need of another customer. Graduation , High school , Janitor 937 Words | 3 Pages. To Write Essay? The Short Stories of Mark Twain Mark Twain has composed a myriad of essays, short stories over essays on nonviolence a long period of time. Twain writes . with the passion to charm and amuse the reader. Michel De Montaigne? Every single sentence he writes makes one want to keep reading on non thesis phd, to see what happens next.

His stories also offer a comment on human nature and michel de montaigne, Twain often questions conventional wisdom. Just because someone’s life did not attach to with what many people see normal, Twain seems to be asking if that makes them lucky when they. Conservatism , English-language films , Game 927 Words | 3 Pages. Clothes Can Tell a Lot About a Person. three different religions. My man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal. All Party Thesis? And the Spaniard was a papist.

However, I allowed liberty . of conscience throughout my dominions. But this is by essays sparknotes, the way. -Robinson here start to on nonviolence, talk about sparknotes how he's very comfortable and happy of his island and his people that they allowed their lives to on college life, him, and essays, mention that he allowed liberty of conscience throughout his dominions. To Write? religious freedom Chapter: 27 Page: 220-221 He told me they were. Robinson Crusoe , Saw 1814 Words | 5 Pages. Why is the grass in the other field better? persisted Cyril. The frown on the bachelor's face was deepening to michel essays sparknotes, a scowl. He was a hard, unsympathetic man, . the aunt decided in her mind. She was utterly unable to come to on college life, any satisfactory decision about the grass in essays sparknotes, the other field. The smaller girl created a diversion by beginning to recite On the Road to Mandalay. She only apa research proposal, knew the de montaigne essays first line, but she put her limited knowledge to the fullest possible use.

She repeated the line over and over again. A Story , Bachelor's degree , Exonumia 1980 Words | 7 Pages. Non Thesis Phd? Analyzing a short story The basic components of a short story 1. Plot (introduction, conflict, climax, . resolution ) The sequence of events or incidents of which the story is composed. In the plot there may be diffferent kinds of conflicts ( person agains person – person agains environment – person against him/herself). Artistic unity is essential to a good plot ; nothing irrelevant should be there that does not contribute to the total meaning. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? . Antagonist , Character , Fiction 954 Words | 5 Pages. Write About Some of the to write essay Ways Fitzgerald Tells the Story in michel essays, Chapter 1. Write about some of the ways Fitzgerald tells the story in Chapter 1 In the first chapter of The Great Gatsby, the proposal reader is . introduced to essays sparknotes, the main characters in the novel, including the narrator Nick. It also outlines Nick’s background, including his upbringing and new life in New York’s prestigious West Egg. It is within this chapter that the reader is first introduced to the fundamental themes of the novel - money and ideas of social class - and this sets the tone for the rest of the book. The. F. All Party? Scott Fitzgerald , The Great Gatsby 1302 Words | 3 Pages.

NAS Sheet for “The Metamorphosis” Part 1 Writer: Kafka Title: The Metamorphosis Plot: At the beginning of the story , the michel de montaigne essays main character . Gregor Samsa, wakes up to discover he has become a giant bug. Paper? He struggles to michel essays sparknotes, get out of bed, so he is unable to get ready for work. This makes him feel terrified that he may lose his job, and worst of all, disappoint his family.The plot if very straightforward, however much of the plot is spent describing how much effort it takes for the main character to. Antagonist , Character , Franz Kafka 1781 Words | 3 Pages. The Most Inspiring Person in My Life. 21 (Law on Obligations and Contracts) SUBMITTED BY: SANGALANG, ELAINE M. BSBM 202 – C SUBMITTED TO: MS. ELIZABETH A. RODRIGUEZ MARCH . 2014 MOST INSPIRING PERSON Photo taken at SM City – Rosario March 06, 2014, 7:46 PM PERSONAL BACKGROUND My most inspiring person is my adviser for two consecutive years, Ms. Juvie Joy Abad y Buhain, 32 years old, born on June 29, 1982 from Tanza, Cavite. She is essay introduction paragraph currently one of the instructors at Cavite State University.

Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Cavite 653 Words | 4 Pages. Michel Essays Sparknotes? ? The knocking… Horror Story One day, a massacre occurred at 6 Lauren St. The massacre happened in a house located in proposal paper, East Texas, a . place that is known for it’s low popularity, and michel essays, it’s unnatural episodes. Rumours were spread all over non thesis phd the entire city, one telling that children was brutally murdered, and another telling that they got tortured but no suspects were chosen, neither found. De Montaigne? The day started. Tommy was at essay, school waiting for the lesson to be over. He didn’t make any homework for. 2000 albums , Character , Father 1101 Words | 3 Pages.

Amusing Ourselves to Death Chapter Summaries/Analysis. ? Amusing Ourselves To Death Chapter 1: In Chapter 1 of the michel de montaigne sparknotes novel, Amusing Ourselves to non thesis phd, Death, by Neil Postman, the concept . De Montaigne Essays? of the “media metaphor” is introduced. Postman presents the thesis idea that every civilization's “conversation” is hindered by the jaundice of the media it utilizes. He uses the term “conversation” in reference to the exchange of information and the ways in which it is exchanged. The forms of conversation affect what is convenient to express, therefore, what's conveniently expressed. Bankruptcy in the United States , Entertainment , Political philosophy 2111 Words | 6 Pages.

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essays of michel de montaigne, love I was as a gem concealed; Me my burning ray revealed. Every promise of the soul has innumerable fulfilments; each of its joys ripens into a new want. Nature, uncontainable, flowing, forelooking, in all party the first sentiment of kindness anticipates already a benevolence which shall lose all particular regards in its general light. The introduction to this felicity is in a private and tender relation of one to one, which is the enchantment of human life; which, like a certain divine rage and enthusiasm, seizes on michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, man at one period, and works a revolution in his mind and body; unites him to his race, pledges him to the domestic and civic relations, carries him with new sympathy into nature, enhances the power of the senses, opens the imagination, adds to his character heroic and sacred attributes, establishes marriage, and on nonviolence gives permanence to human society.

The natural association of the sentiment of love with the de montaigne essays, heyday of the non thesis phd, blood seems to require, that in order to portray it in vivid tints, which every youth and maid should confess to be true to their throbbing experience, one must not be too old. The delicious fancies of youth reject the least savour of a mature philosophy, as chilling with age and pedantry their purple bloom. And, therefore, I know I incur the imputation of unnecessary hardness and stoicism from those who compose the Court and Parliament of Love. De Montaigne Sparknotes? But from catch thesis, these formidable censors I shall appeal to my seniors. Michel? For it is to be considered that this passion of which we speak, though it begin with the young, yet forsakes not the old, or rather suffers no one who is truly its servant to grow old, but makes the aged participators of it, not less than the tender maiden, though in essays a different and nobler sort. For it is a fire that, kindling its first embers in the narrow nook of a private bosom, caught from a wandering spark out of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, another private heart, glows and enlarges until it warms and beams upon multitudes of men and to write a descriptive women, upon the universal heart of all, and so lights up the whole world and all nature with its generous flames. It matters not, therefore, whether we attempt to describe the passion at twenty, at thirty, or at eighty years. He who paints it at the first period will lose some of its later, he who paints it at the last, some of de montaigne essays, its earlier traits.

Only it is to be hoped that, by patience and the Muses' aid, we may attain to non thesis phd that inward view of the law, which shall describe a truth ever young and beautiful, so central that it shall commend itself to the eye, at whatever angle beholden. And the first condition is, that we must leave a too close and lingering adherence to facts, and essays study the sentiment as it appeared in hope and not in history. For each man sees his own life defaced and disfigured, as the life of man is not, to his imagination. Each man sees over his own experience a certain stain of error, whilst that of other men looks fair and ideal. Let any man go back to those delicious relations which make the beauty of his life, which have given him sincerest instruction and nourishment, he will shrink and moan. Alas! I know not why, but infinite compunctions embitter in essay on college mature life the remembrances of budding joy, and cover every beloved name. Every thing is michel essays, beautiful seen from the point of the intellect, or as truth. But all is history essay, sour, if seen as experience. Details are melancholy; the plan is de montaigne essays, seemly and noble.

In the actual world--the painful kingdom of time and place--dwell care, and canker, and fear. With thought, with the ideal, is immortal hilarity, the rose of joy. Round it all the Muses sing. But grief cleaves to names, and persons, and the partial interests of to-day and yesterday. The strong bent of nature is seen in the proportion which this topic of personal relations usurps in the conversation of society. What do we wish to know of a descriptive essay, any worthy person so much, as how he has sped in the history of this sentiment? What books in the circulating libraries circulate? How we glow over these novels of passion, when the de montaigne sparknotes, story is to write, told with any spark of truth and nature! And what fastens attention, in the intercourse of life, like any passage betraying affection between two parties? Perhaps we never saw them before, and never shall meet them again. But we see them exchange a glance, or betray a deep emotion, and we are no longer strangers.

We understand them, and take the warmest interest in the development of the romance. Michel Sparknotes? All mankind love a lover. The earliest demonstrations of thesis, complacency and kindness are nature's most winning pictures. Michel De Montaigne Essays? It is the dawn of civility and grace in the coarse and rustic. The rude village boy teases the girls about the school-house door;--but to-day he comes running into the entry, and meets one fair child disposing her satchel; he holds her books to all party thesis help her, and instantly it seems to him as if she removed herself from michel de montaigne sparknotes, him infinitely, and was a sacred precinct. Proposal Paper? Among the throng of girls he runs rudely enough, but one alone distances him; and these two little neighbours, that were so close just now, have learned to respect each other's personality. Or who can avert his eyes from the sparknotes, engaging, half-artful, half-artless ways of school-girls who go into the country shops to buy a skein of essay, silk or a sheet of paper, and michel talk half an hour about nothing with the broad-faced, good-natured shop-boy.

In the essay, village they are on michel sparknotes, a perfect equality, which love delights in, and without any coquetry the happy, affectionate nature of woman flows out in this pretty gossip. To Write A Descriptive Essay? The girls may have little beauty, yet plainly do they establish between them and the good boy the most agreeable, confiding relations, what with their fun and their earnest, about Edgar, and essays sparknotes Jonas, and Almira, and who was invited to the party, and essay introduction who danced at the dancing-school, and when the singing-school would begin, and other nothings concerning which the de montaigne sparknotes, parties cooed. By and by that boy wants a wife, and very truly and heartily will he know where to find a sincere and sweet mate, without any risk such as Milton deplores as incident to all party scholars and great men. I have been told, that in some public discourses of mine my reverence for the intellect has made me unjustly cold to michel de montaigne the personal relations. But now I almost shrink at the remembrance of such disparaging words. For persons are love's world, and the coldest philosopher cannot recount the debt of the young soul wandering here in nature to the power of love, without being tempted to unsay, as treasonable to nature, aught derogatory to the social instincts. For, though the celestial rapture falling out of heaven seizes only upon apa research paper those of tender age, and although a beauty overpowering all analysis or comparison, and putting us quite beside ourselves, we can seldom see after thirty years, yet the remembrance of these visions outlasts all other remembrances, and is a wreath of flowers on the oldest brows. But here is a strange fact; it may seem to many men, in revising their experience, that they have no fairer page in their life's book than the delicious memory of some passages wherein affection contrived to give a witchcraft surpassing the de montaigne, deep attraction of its own truth to history essay paragraph a parcel of de montaigne essays sparknotes, accidental and trivial circumstances. In looking backward, they may find that several things which were not the charm have more reality to this groping memory than the charm itself which embalmed them.

But be our experience in particulars what it may, no man ever forgot the visitations of that power to his heart and brain, which created all things new; which was the dawn in him of music, poetry, and art; which made the face of nature radiant with purple light, the morning and the night varied enchantments; when a single tone of one voice could make the heart bound, and the most trivial circumstance associated with one form is put in the amber of to write essay, memory; when he became all eye when one was present, and all memory when one was gone; when the youth becomes a watcher of windows, and studious of a glove, a veil, a ribbon, or the michel essays sparknotes, wheels of a carriage; when no place is too solitary, and none too silent, for him who has richer company and sweeter conversation in proposal his new thoughts, than any old friends, though best and purest, can give him; for the figures, the motions, the words of the de montaigne essays, beloved object are not like other images written in history water, but, as Plutarch said, enamelled in fire, and make the study of midnight. Essays Sparknotes? Thou art not gone being gone, where'er thou art, Thou leav'st in him thy watchful eyes, in him thy loving heart. [John Donne] In the noon and the afternoon of life we still throb at the recollection of days when happiness was not happy enough, but must be drugged with the relish of pain and fear; for on college life he touched the secret of the matter, who said of love,-- All other pleasures are not worth its pains; and when the day was not long enough, but the night, too, must be consumed in sparknotes keen recollections; when the catch all party, head boiled all night on the pillow with the generous deed it resolved on; when the moonlight was a pleasing fever, and the stars were letters, and the flowers ciphers, and the air was coined into song; when all business seemed an impertinence, and all the essays, men and women running to and fro in paragraph the streets, mere pictures. The passion rebuilds the world for the youth. It makes all things alive and significant. Nature grows conscious. Every bird on the boughs of the tree sings now to his heart and soul. The notes are almost articulate. The clouds have faces as he looks on them. The trees of the de montaigne essays sparknotes, forest, the waving grass, and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent; and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite.

Yet nature soothes and sympathizes. In the green solitude he finds a dearer home than with men. Fountain-heads and pathless groves, Places which pale passion loves, Moonlight walks, when all the fowls. Are safely housed, save bats and owls, A midnight bell, a passing groan,--

These are the sounds we feed upon. [Fletcher] Behold there in the wood the fine madman! He is proposal, a palace of sweet sounds and sights; he dilates; he is essays, twice a man; he walks with arms akimbo; he soliloquizes; he accosts the grass and the trees; he feels the blood of the violet, the clover, and the lily in proposal paper his veins; and he talks with the brook that wets his foot. The heats that have opened his perceptions of michel essays sparknotes, natural beauty have made him love music and verse. It is a fact often observed, that men have written good verses under the catch, inspiration of passion, who cannot write well under any other circumstances. The like force has the passion over all his nature. It expands the michel de montaigne essays, sentiment; it makes the clown gentle, and gives the coward heart. Into the most pitiful and abject it will infuse a heart and non thesis phd courage to defy the world, so only it have the countenance of the beloved object. In giving him to another, it still more gives him to michel de montaigne essays himself.

He is a new man, with new perceptions, new and keener purposes, and a religious solemnity of character and aims. He does not longer appertain to his family and society; _he_ is somewhat; he is a person; he is a soul. And here let us examine a little nearer the nature of that influence which is thus potent over the human youth. Beauty, whose revelation to proposal paper man we now celebrate, welcome as the sun wherever it pleases to shine, which pleases everybody with it and with themselves, seems sufficient to itself. The lover cannot paint his maiden to his fancy poor and solitary. Like a tree in flower, so much soft, budding, informing love-liness is michel de montaigne essays, society for essay itself, and she teaches his eye why Beauty was pictured with Loves and Graces attending her steps. Her existence makes the world rich. Though she extrudes all other persons from his attention as cheap and unworthy, she indemnifies him by carrying out de montaigne sparknotes, her own being into somewhat impersonal, large, mundane, so that the maiden stands to him for a representative of all select things and virtues. For that reason, the lover never sees personal resemblances in paper his mistress to her kindred or to others. His friends find in her a likeness to her mother, or her sisters, or to persons not of her blood.

The lover sees no resemblance except to summer evenings and diamond mornings, to rainbows and the song of birds. The ancients called beauty the michel de montaigne, flowering of virtue. Who can analyze the nameless charm which glances from one and another face and form? We are touched with emotions of tenderness and complacency, but we cannot find whereat this dainty emotion, this wandering gleam, points. It is destroyed for the imagination by essay, any attempt to refer it to organization. Nor does it point to any relations of friendship or love known and described in society, but, as it seems to me, to a quite other and unattainable sphere, to relations of transcendent delicacy and sweetness, to what roses and violets hint and fore-show. We cannot approach beauty. Its nature is de montaigne, like opaline doves'-neck lustres, hovering and evanescent. Herein it resembles the history essay, most excellent things, which all have this rainbow character, defying all attempts at appropriation and use. What else did Jean Paul Richter signify, when he said to music, Away! away! thou speakest to me of things which in michel de montaigne all my endless life I have not found, and shall not find.

The same fluency may be observed in every work of the plastic arts. The statue is then beautiful when it begins to be incomprehensible, when it is passing out of criticism, and can no longer be defined by compass and measuring-wand, but demands an thesis, active imagination to go with it, and to say what it is in the act of doing. The god or hero of the sculptor is always represented in a transition from michel essays, that which is representable to the senses, to that which is not. Then first it ceases to be a stone. The same remark holds of painting. And of poetry, the essays, success is not attained when it lulls and satisfies, but when it astonishes and fires us with new endeavours after the unattainable. Concerning it, Landor inquires whether it is de montaigne essays, not to be referred to some purer state of sensation and existence. In like manner, personal beauty is then first charming and itself, when it dissatisfies us with any end; when it becomes a story without an history paragraph, end; when it suggests gleams and visions, and not earthly satisfactions; when it makes the beholder feel his unworthiness; when he cannot feel his right to it, though he were Caesar; he cannot feel more right to michel de montaigne sparknotes it than to the firmament and the splendors of a sunset. Hence arose the saying, If I love you, what is that to you? We say so, because we feel that what we love is on college life, not in your will, but above it. De Montaigne Sparknotes? It is not you, but your radiance.

It is that which you know not in yourself, and can never know. This agrees well with that high philosophy of Beauty which the ancient writers delighted in; for they said that the soul of man, embodied here on earth, went roaming up and down in quest of that other world of its own, out of which it came into this, but was soon stupefied by life, the light of the natural sun, and unable to see any other objects than those of this world, which are but shadows of real things. Therefore, the essays sparknotes, Deity sends the essays, glory of youth before the soul, that it may avail itself of michel essays, beautiful bodies as aids to its recollection of the celestial good and fair; and the man beholding such a person in the female sex runs to catch her, and finds the highest joy in contemplating the form, movement, and intelligence of michel de montaigne, this person, because it suggests to him the presence of that which indeed is within the beauty, and the cause of the beauty. If, however, from too much conversing with material objects, the soul was gross, and misplaced its satisfaction in the body, it reaped nothing but sorrow; body being unable to fulfil the promise which beauty holds out; but if, accepting the hint of these visions and suggestions which beauty makes to his mind, the soul passes through the body, and falls to admire strokes of character, and the lovers contemplate one another in their discourses and their actions, then they pass to on nonviolence the true palace of beauty, more and more inflame their love of it, and by this love extinguishing the base affection, as the sun puts out the michel de montaigne essays, fire by non thesis phd, shining on the hearth, they become pure and hallowed. Essays Sparknotes? By conversation with that which is in itself excellent, magnanimous, lowly, and just, the lover comes to a warmer love of these nobilities, and a quicker apprehension of them.

Then he passes from loving them in one to loving them in all, and to write a descriptive essay so is the one beautiful soul only the door through which he enters to the society of all true and pure souls. In the particular society of his mate, he attains a clearer sight of any spot, any taint, which her beauty has contracted from this world, and is able to point it out, and this with mutual joy that they are now able, without offence, to michel indicate blemishes and hindrances in each other, and give to a descriptive essay each all help and comfort in curing the same. And, beholding in many souls the traits of the divine beauty, and separating in each soul that which is divine from the taint which it has contracted in the world, the lover ascends to the highest beauty, to the love and knowledge of the Divinity, by steps on this ladder of created souls. Somewhat like this have the essays, truly wise told us of love in all ages. The doctrine is not old, nor is it new.

If Plato, Plutarch, and Apuleius taught it, so have Petrarch, Angelo, and Milton. It awaits a truer unfolding in opposition and rebuke to that subterranean prudence which presides at marriages with words that take hold of the upper world, whilst one eye is prowling in the cellar, so that its gravest discourse has a savor of hams and powdering-tubs. Worst, when this sensualism intrudes into the education of young women, and withers the essays on nonviolence, hope and affection of de montaigne essays sparknotes, human nature, by teaching that marriage signifies nothing but a housewife's thrift, and that woman's life has no other aim. But this dream of love, though beautiful, is proposal paper, only one scene in our play. In the procession of the soul from within outward, it enlarges its circles ever, like the pebble thrown into the pond, or the light proceeding from an orb. The rays of the michel essays sparknotes, soul alight first on things nearest, on every utensil and toy, on nurses and domestics, on essays, the house, and yard, and passengers, on the circle of household acquaintance, on politics, and geography, and history. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? But things are ever grouping themselves according to higher or more interior laws. Neighbourhood, size, numbers, habits, persons, lose by degrees their power over us.

Cause and effect, real affinities, the longing for harmony between the soul and the circumstance, the on nonviolence, progressive, idealizing instinct, predominate later, and the step backward from the higher to the lower relations is impossible. Thus even love, which is the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, deification of persons, must become more impersonal every day. Of this at first it gives no hint. Little think the essay, youth and maiden who are glancing at each other across crowded rooms, with eyes so full of mutual intelligence, of the precious fruit long hereafter to proceed from this new, quite external stimulus. The work of vegetation begins first in the irritability of the bark and leaf-buds. From exchanging glances, they advance to de montaigne acts of courtesy, of gallantry, then to proposal paper fiery passion, to de montaigne plighting troth, and marriage. Passion beholds its object as a perfect unit.

The soul is wholly embodied, and the body is essay, wholly ensouled. Her pure and eloquent blood. Spoke in her cheeks, and so distinctly wrought, That one might almost say her body thought. [John Donne] Romeo, if dead, should be cut up into little stars to make the heavens fine. Life, with this pair, has no other aim, asks no more, than Juliet,--than Romeo. Night, day, studies, talents, kingdoms, religion, are all contained in this form full of soul, in this soul which is all form. The lovers delight in endearments, in avowals of de montaigne, love, in comparisons of their regards.

When alone, they solace themselves with the remembered image of the other. Does that other see the on nonviolence, same star, the same melting cloud, read the same book, feel the same emotion, that now delight me? They try and weigh their affection, and, adding up costly advantages, friends, opportunities, properties, exult in discovering that willingly, joyfully, they would give all as a ransom for the beautiful, the beloved head, not one hair of michel sparknotes, which shall be harmed. But the lot of humanity is on these children. Danger, sorrow, and pain arrive to them, as to all. Love prays. It makes covenants with Eternal Power in behalf of this dear mate. The union which is thus effected, and which adds a new value to every atom in nature, for it transmutes every thread throughout the history essay, whole web of relation into a golden ray, and bathes the soul in a new and sweeter element, is michel de montaigne essays, yet a temporary state.

Not always can flowers, pearls, poetry, protestations, nor even home in another heart, content the awful soul that dwells in clay. It arouses itself at last from these endearments, as toys, and puts on the harness, and aspires to vast and universal aims. Non Thesis Phd? The soul which is in the soul of each, craving a perfect beatitude, detects incongruities, defects, and disproportion in the behaviour of the michel de montaigne sparknotes, other. Hence arise surprise, expostulation, and pain. Yet that which drew them to each other was signs of loveliness, signs of virtue; and these virtues are there, however eclipsed. They appear and reappear, and continue to attract; but the regard changes, quits the sign, and essays attaches to the substance. This repairs the michel essays, wounded affection. Meantime, as life wears on, it proves a game of permutation and combination of catch, all possible positions of the parties, to michel essays sparknotes employ all the resources of essay on college, each, and acquaint each with the strength and weakness of the other. For it is the sparknotes, nature and end of history introduction paragraph, this relation, that they should represent the michel essays, human race to each other. All that is in the world, which is or ought to be known, is cunningly wrought into the texture of man, of woman. The person love does to catch all party us fit,

Like manna, has the taste of all in it. [Abraham Cowley] The world rolls; the circumstances vary every hour. The angels that inhabit this temple of the michel essays sparknotes, body appear at the windows, and the gnomes and paper vices also. By all the virtues they are united. Essays Sparknotes? If there be virtue, all the vices are known as such; they confess and on nonviolence flee. Their once flaming regard is de montaigne, sobered by time in either breast, and, losing in violence what it gains in extent, it becomes a thorough good understanding. They resign each other, without complaint, to the good offices which man and woman are severally appointed to discharge in time, and exchange the passion which once could not lose sight of its object, for a cheerful, disengaged furtherance, whether present or absent, of each other's designs. Essay Life? At last they discover that all which at first drew them together,? those once sacred features, that magical play of charms,--was deciduous, had a prospective end, like the scaffolding by which the house was built; and the purification of the intellect and de montaigne the heart, from catch, year to year, is the real marriage, foreseen and prepared from the first, and de montaigne wholly above their consciousness. Looking at these aims with which two persons, a man and a woman, so variously and correlatively gifted, are shut up in one house to spend in non thesis phd the nuptial society forty or fifty years, I do not wonder at michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, the emphasis with which the heart prophesies this crisis from early infancy, at the profuse beauty with which the instincts deck the nuptial bower, and nature, and intellect, and art emulate each other in the gifts and the melody they bring to the epithalamium.

Thus are we put in training for history paragraph a love which knows not sex, nor person, nor partiality, but which seeks virtue and michel de montaigne essays sparknotes wisdom everywhere, to the end of increasing virtue and wisdom. We are by nature observers, and history introduction paragraph thereby learners. That is our permanent state. But we are often made to feel that our affections are but tents of a night. Though slowly and with pain, the objects of the affections change, as the objects of thought do. There are moments when the affections rule and absorb the man, and make his happiness dependent on a person or persons. But in health the sparknotes, mind is presently seen again,--its overarching vault, bright with galaxies of immutable lights, and the warm loves and fears that swept over us as clouds, must lose their finite character and non thesis phd blend with God, to attain their own perfection. But we need not fear that we can lose any thing by the progress of the soul. The soul may be trusted to the end.

That which is so beautiful and attractive as these relations must be succeeded and supplanted only by what is more beautiful, and so on for ever.