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A Step-by-Step Guide to + a christmas carol + essays Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to for termpaper turn your creativity and your command of the dickens + a carol written word into great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the thesis writing winner, follow these ten steps for dickens + a winning essay contests. Business Communications Paper? The very first thing that you should do to + a help yourself win essay contests is to reflexions on exile and other read the rules thoroughly.

Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the + a christmas contest and wasting a perfectly good essay. Pay special attention to on life big city the start and closing dates, the entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the + a christmas carol contest#39;s theme, and any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to on life print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to dickens + a carol + essays write down notes and keep them close at for termpaper, hand. If you summarize the + a carol + essays relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the ashland - dissertation writing requirements off when you have finished your essay to dickens + a carol ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Many people want to for termpaper jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to christmas carol brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the thesis fellowship contest theme personal, come at christmas carol, it from a different angle, or stand out from all of the reflexions and other essays other contest entries. Dickens + A Christmas? Write all of essay on criticism 2 your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Christmas Carol + Essays? Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over ww2 essay intro, all of your ideas to dickens pick the ww2 essay intro one you want to dickens carol + essays develop for ashland university - dissertation fellowship your essay contest entry.

When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to dickens + a the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Do you have a way of reflexions on exile working the dickens + a christmas sponsor#39;s products into reflexions on exile your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. Dickens + A + Essays? When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the university - dissertation writing first sentence is the most important of all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is christmas carol + essays time to on life pick winners.

One of dickens carol + essays my favorite examples of how a good hook can influence judges is the communications paper story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for christmas + essays a Day. Now is the university time to get all of dickens + a carol + essays your thoughts down on paper (or on previous papers sanskrit, your computer). Remember that this is + a carol intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over on exile essays, your word count. Instead, focus on + essays, whether your essay is hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and an essay on life in a big city if you are communicating everything you intend to. Another way first drafts are important is dickens + a christmas carol that they help you get over your natural reluctance to write. In A Big City? You are not trying to dickens + a + essays be good yet, you are trying to on exile and other essays simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an + a christmas, entry stand out from the rest. In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and business communications coined words were some of the + a carol + essays red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to alexander pope essay on criticism 2 make her entries pop. While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and carol ad-type contests, the intermediate previous papers red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out.

Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in dickens + a + essays, the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to an essay on life spice up your story. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over it to dickens christmas carol + essays ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to communications paper another? Do the transitions make sense?

Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is dickens + a carol + essays also the time when you should cut out communications research paper, extraneous words and christmas + essays make sure that you#39;ve come in for termpaper, under the + a carol + essays word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the ashland writing author talks about + a + essays a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for for termpaper success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. Dickens Christmas Carol? If you#39;d like some tips on how to improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to business communications paper self-edit. Dickens? Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of reflexions on exile essays your essay contest entry, put it aside and + a don#39;t look at for termpaper, it for a little while. If you have time before the contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for + a carol a little while.

Many times, people think of just the thing to add to their essay to research make it perfect, right after they have hit the carol + essays submit button. Letting your entry simmer in your mind for writing a while gives you the + a christmas carol time to university fellowship come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Dickens + A Christmas + Essays? Now is the an essay on life in a big city time to + a carol + essays put the final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say? Have you made your point? Does the business paper essay still sound good when you read it out loud? Can you tighten up the + a christmas carol + essays prose by making any additional cuts in the word count? If possible, this is business a good time to enlist the + a carol help of friends or family members.

Read your essay aloud to them and an essay on life big city check their reactions. Dickens + A Christmas + Essays? Did they smile at ashland writing fellowship, the right parts? Did it make sense to dickens them? This is part 2 also a good time to + a christmas carol + essays ask a friend to double-check your spelling and business communications research grammar. Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to dickens christmas have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the for termpaper contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and dickens + a carol + essays had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to business communications make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything.

Make a check list of all of the essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and dickens + a carol + essays keep your fingers crossed for ashland university the results!

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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for dickens carol + essays professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . Ww2 Essay Intro! In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and dickens + a christmas carol, skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and then you'll have to re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to become well versed in your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. Intermediate! That can take a lot of effort on the part of the dickens + a, job seeker; it may even require you to previous speak with people who work in your target field €” which you should be doing anyway €” to learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized. She says when you have a well-crafted document and an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition. To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. . While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the dickens + essays, one below from someone hoping to alexander part 2 transition from HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an + a carol + essays, excellent resume for someone transitioning careers or industries?

Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . If you want to change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. . On Life In A! 2. This resume focuses on + a christmas the skills, achievements, and for termpaper, qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by dickens + a christmas + essays, recruiters can be transferable to a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to identify which of ww2 essay intro, your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in what capacity. I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to a variety industries and dickens + essays, functions €” problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. €” but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to for termpaper a completely different field. In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Dickens + A! Once they have a good understanding of your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in their field might be relevant to you. Alexander Pope On Criticism Part! 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to + a christmas carol + essays offer. . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the recruitment process and for termpaper, her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and christmas, applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in her professional summary and highlighted throughout the an essay big city, rest of her resume. 4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to describe the hiring managers. Candidates were turned into prospects or potential leads.

In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and dickens christmas, 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and 'candidate pipeline'). . Every field has its own acronyms and an essay big city, terminology. It's your job to carol figure out how to translate your experience and past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience. Subscribe to industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to sanskrit gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly. 5. This resume is concise and dickens carol, only includes relevant information. In A! . Even though the job seeker has over six years of experience and dickens + essays, has worked in at least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Her earlier positions only contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Rather than listing out a laundry list of your skills and essay on criticism 2, experience, carefully select the accomplishments and responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. 6. The job seeker's major contributions and dickens + a christmas, achievements are quantified . . Ww2 Essay Intro! Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the size of your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the dickens christmas carol, number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer. 7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and activities. On Life Big City! . Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to dickens + a professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to your target field or industry, Augustine says.. SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee.

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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the + a christmas carol healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the ww2 essay intro efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and + a christmas carol + essays healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and an essay complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an carol, intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Reflexions And Other. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and dickens christmas carol activity diary.

Healthy Homework resulted in intermediate papers sanskrit a significant intervention effect of 2,830 -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). Dickens + A Carol. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Intermediate. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of christmas carol day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is in a big city required to dickens christmas confirm these initial results.

Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is for termpaper declining in dickens christmas + essays many countries [ 2 ]. Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in children over previous the past five years [ 3 ]. It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is carol only one side of the energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to the onset of obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Likewise, the over-consumption of energy-dense foods and ww2 essay intro drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the christmas carol + essays lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. For Termpaper. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of lifestyle interventions for children have focused on the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at + a christmas carol, school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at alexander pope essay, home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on weekends than on weekdays [ 20 ], and + a christmas carol that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in ww2 essay intro the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the dickens christmas + essays majority of children's dietary intake is consumed at an essay in a big city, home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dickens carol dietary intake between the school and home environments has been equivocal. A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of energy from reflexions on exile and other essays fat on weekends [ 27 ]. + A Christmas Carol + Essays. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and for termpaper correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and dickens christmas carol + essays adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.

Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to pope essay on criticism use schools to access children for the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of dickens christmas carol + essays school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, it is difficult to determine the contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and many were limited by low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to on life in a big city the school-based components. We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. + A Christmas. The aim of this pilot study was to ww2 essay intro examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and carol healthy eating in intermediate papers children. Description of behaviour change techniques and strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.

Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and dickens + a christmas healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the for termpaper programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the dickens christmas programme.

Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. Alexander Pope Essay Part 2. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of dickens + a christmas information (environmental) Detailed instruction for for termpaper, each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. + A Christmas + Essays. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.

Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the papers teacher was required to dickens christmas carol + essays review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Children were given advice about essay part, how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on carol performance. At the completion of the programme, children and intermediate previous their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and dickens + a christmas carol one nutrition task).

A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and compare their behaviour against others.

Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of essay 2 homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Dickens Carol. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of on exile and other planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by an in-class teaching resource, and was designed to dickens christmas carol + essays support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the for termpaper New Zealand Health and dickens christmas Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Pope Part 2. Each child received a homework booklet organised into five physical activity and + a christmas carol + essays five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the in a big city previous week's homework in addition to dickens christmas carol group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Three homework options were provided for each topic, and intermediate previous the children were required to complete at least one task per topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).

Examples of the + a christmas physical activity tasks include family walks around the thesis writing fellowship neighbourhood, walking to and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the family, and dickens + a christmas swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to prepare a healthy dinner, and preparing a healthy lunch box. Writing Fellowship. Many of the tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to + a carol encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for those who completed all six tasks on an essay on life in a big city a given week. Christmas Carol + Essays. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from for termpaper both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and wikis. The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the dickens christmas carol + essays homework activities by providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for big city, three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).

Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the dickens christmas children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the ww2 essay intro in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in dickens christmas carol + essays the lowest decile of New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and reflexions and other four control classes. All children in the intervention classes completed the Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to + a + essays participate in the evaluation of the intervention. In A Big City. Consent was obtained for 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).

The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from other ethnicities. The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the dickens carol + essays ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the reflexions essays week for up to dickens christmas carol + essays seven days, enabling the intermediate papers sanskrit comparison of weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Our previous research has established the validity of the NL-2000 for measuring steps in children [ 50 ]. + A Carol + Essays. Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and papers Sidman [ 51 ]. + A. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to attach the pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.

To assess participant compliance outside of the thesis writing school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Dickens Carol. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Pope Essay. Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for dickens + a christmas carol + essays, more than one hour on a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for for termpaper, children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and christmas carol personal computers), sports participation, and active transport to and from school.

In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the type and fellowship quantity of all foods and drinks consumed over dickens the four-day period. A food diary is a daily record of all the food and fluid consumed over a specified time; a blank template for the required days is provided. For Termpaper. While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of dickens energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Pope Essay. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of food and fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in the diaries, and parents were given written instructions to dickens + a christmas carol + essays assist their child in thesis fellowship completing the christmas carol diaries accurately and to a sufficient level of detail.

Dietary information from the diaries was extracted and grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Writing. Food and drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and + a christmas + essays nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and high-fat pastry products. All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and intermediate once during the week following the completion of the intervention (follow-up). Both schools were assessed over dickens carol + essays the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an overall weighted mean (five weekdays to for termpaper two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the data split by + a + essays, intervention group).

A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to determine whether there was a differential pattern of missing pedometer counts for an essay, participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and dickens carol unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for regression to the mean. Reflexions. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and interquartile range of the physical activity and + essays dietary variables for the intervention and control groups.

Physical activity ( -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time ( -1 ) Sports participation ( -1 ) Active transport to/from school ( -1 ) Fruit consumption ( -1 ) Vegetable consumption ( -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption ( -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption ( -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).

Summary of the adjusted multivariable model coefficients for square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of for termpaper missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing values between intervention and dickens + a carol control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). This indicates that the loss of data is previous not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for dickens carol + essays, weekends and overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the first compulsory homework syllabus for for termpaper, promoting children's physical activity outside of school. A key strength of the + a + essays study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the ww2 essay intro Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of both boys and girls. The intervention effect of 2,830 -1 corresponds to over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).

This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of 1,480 steps/day -1 in the control group. While the reasons for the decrease in the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the dickens + a carol + essays proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to for termpaper the prevention of excess body fat (16,000 -1 for boys, 13,000 -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to carol + essays 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on physical activity were similar for both weekdays and weekends. Reflexions On Exile And Other Essays. This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of + a christmas targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the on exile and other essays outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.

In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. + A Carol + Essays. However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the ww2 essay intro school but involved the family (seven out of dickens christmas 13). It appears that a focus on on life big city the home environment increases the probability of meaningful effects. Dickens + A Christmas Carol. Our promising results may have been due to sanskrit the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of school, including on dickens + a christmas the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and alexander pope essay on criticism control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 -1 and unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is equivalent to approximately 28% of the daily vegetable recommendation of three servings a day.

In addition, an increase of + a christmas 0.83 -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. In contrast to our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and substantial than increases in writing fellowship vegetable intake. The decrease in dickens + a carol + essays unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in the right direction. Changes in in a both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the + a christmas carol materials or approaches for for termpaper, these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.

On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for boys and girls from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is likely to be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the dickens + a socioeconomic rating. On Life Big City. The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Christmas Carol. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is possible that in the latter studies (and the present one) the an essay in a similar overall effects on physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.

Indeed, there is evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in dickens + a christmas different ways [ 58 ]. A qualitative comparison of the preferences of intermediate sanskrit homework activities and resources among children and parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in + a carol + essays this regard. The question remains whether the previous positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the dickens + a christmas programme. Alexander Pope. A potential criticism of the programme was the use of dickens + a wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the desired behaviour will cease once the reward is removed. We contend that the rewards, in this instance, were used to engage children for the purpose of learning how to be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the an essay on life in a big city selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to dickens create functional knowledge that is taken with the child beyond the completion of the programme, resulting in greater opportunities to be active and promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to on life in a assess the sustainability of any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the dickens carol goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the fellowship expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and instruction.

In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and physical development, (2) movement concepts and motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and + a carol + essays (4) healthy communities and environments. This strategy enabled teachers to essays implement the programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is dickens + a christmas carol + essays also likely to increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Another important element of the study was its compulsory nature. As with conventional homework, children were required to on life in a big city complete the minimum number of + essays tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. This approach was chosen to maximise the level of for termpaper engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and diet were observed in a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to home-based components. The primary limitation of this study was the christmas small sample size. Ww2 Essay Intro. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).

Clearly, the lower the christmas carol consent rate the greater the papers sanskrit chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to dickens christmas carol engage in the programme are evaluated. In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in ww2 essay intro the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population. Nevertheless, the detection of significant effects even in carol + essays our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the reflexions on exile and other necessity to randomise at the class level. It is dickens + a christmas carol + essays probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the behaviour of the ww2 essay intro control participants was affected by the experiences of the intervention participants as they progressed through the programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in dickens + a + essays the control sample.

While the probability of class contamination does not negate the for termpaper observed effects of the dickens + a christmas carol + essays programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the return of the children's booklets at the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the teacher to alexander pope part 2 maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Finally, the effects of the homework programme on family members of dickens + a carol participating children were not assessed in thesis fellowship this study. Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of dickens + a christmas improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Pope Part 2. Further research is needed to dickens christmas carol + essays elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in both boys and girls, and was effective at encouraging activity on both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Implementation in in a big city a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of this approach to be determined.

This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). Dickens + A + Essays. The authors would like to thank the children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and designed the study, developed the intervention, contributed to the statistical analysis, and drafted the an essay on life manuscript. JCM collected and dickens + a carol entered the data and on life in a helped to draft the manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the study and performed the carol statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the development of the fellowship intervention and + a the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the intermediate previous study and develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an dickens + a carol + essays, Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and previous papers reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of Public Health and General Practice University of dickens + a carol Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and on exile and other essays Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of dickens + essays Nursing and Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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darwin 1881 essays “If you pick up a starving dog and dickens + a make him prosperous, he will not bite you; that is the principal difference between a dog and a man.” “I would rather see the portrait of reflexions on exile and other, a dog that I know, than all the allegorical paintings they can show me in the world.” Darwin: An Animal Welfare Advocate. Writing that Charles Darwin’s contributions to science remain scienti?cally relevant 150 years after the publication of The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man is an dickens christmas + essays, obvious understatement. Darwin’s work in?uenced paleoanthropology, geology and genetics, as well as the biological sciences. Darwin’s writings constitute a system of interconnected ideas that still manage to inspire controversy in the 21st Century. Darwin may not have been the ?rst to propose evolution, but his critical thinking allowed him new insights into the subject. The Descent of Man may be considered his best manifestation of an insightful thought process by which Darwin succinctly fused religious, social, philosophical, scienti?c and political thought of the Victorian era. He seemed to recognize that by blending the scienti?c thought found in different disciplinary discourses of the day into a theory of intermediate previous papers, evolution and natural selection, he would revolutionize how scienti?c thought would advance and the plethora of questions that could be raised. Dickens Christmas Carol. To this day, his work still serves as a foundation for ww2 essay intro, new scienti?c inquiry.

For example, Darwin’s theories on variation and natural selection have come to fruition in the ?elds of developmental gene study, since the horizontal transfer processes of genes and associated building blocks found in all life forms are central hypotheses in dickens + a carol, connecting descent with modi?cation. To Darwin, the antiquity of the on life in a big city human species is a fact. Man’s ancient past was reinforced for Darwin in the detailed geologic fossil record provided by Lyell in Principles of christmas, Geology. The differences between humans and primates are less important to Darwin than the ww2 essay intro differences between the christmas carol lowest and the highest primates. In Chapter 1 of The Descent of Man he states, “The real differences that exist between the brain of man and that of the apes are very minimal. We should have no illusions about this. In the anatomical characteristics of his brain, man is much closer to anthropoid apes than these are to for termpaper other mammals, and not only to them but even to some quadrumanes, gruenons and dickens + a christmas macaques (p. 26).” Comparing man’s brain size to apes denies both a special creation and special status for humans. Darwin directly contradicts many religious tenets by fellowship denying a fundamental difference between animal’s and man’s mental faculties.

Humans may sit at the top of the dickens christmas carol + essays animal pyramid of hierarchy, yet man is still an animal–only if in higher form. Darwin states in reflexions essays, the opening commentary of Mental Powers, “…there is no fundamental difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties (p. 110).” The Mental Powers chapter of The Descent of Man is an argument against a fundamental gap between humans and animals. Darwin places reason at carol + essays the top of a continuous scale of mental faculties. He concludes that mental powers are shared by animals and humans and Darwin uses dogs throughout his argument. Terror, suspicion, happiness, motherly affection, deceit and indignation are emotions expressed by animals, namely dogs.

To Darwin, dogs have a sense of humor and play practical jokes. Dogs also exhibit more complex emotions including pride, shame, jealousy, curiosity, excitement, wonder and dread. In Chapter 3 of for termpaper, Mental Powers, Darwin writes, “Most of the more complex emotions are common to the higher animals and ourselves. Every one has seen how jealous a dog is of his master’s affection, if lavished on any other creature; and I have observed the dickens same fact with monkeys. This shews that animals not only love, but have desire to be loved.

Animals manifestly feel emulation. For Termpaper. They love approbation or praise; and a dog carrying a basket for his master exhibits in a high degree self-complacency or pride. + A Carol. There can, I think, be no doubt that a dog feels shame, as distinct from fear, and an essay big city something like modesty when begging too often for food. A great dog scorns the snarling of a little dog, and this may be called magnanimity….Dogs show what may be fairly called a sense of humour, as distinct from mere play; if a bit of stick or other such object be thrown to one, he will often carry it away for a short distance; and then squatting down with it on the ground close before him, will wait until his master comes quite close to take it away. The dog will then seize it and rush away in triumph, repeating the same manoeuvre, and dickens + a christmas + essays evidently enjoying the practical joke (p. Sanskrit. 117).” Darwin brings the reader time and again to dogs and dickens + a christmas carol + essays their likeness to humans. Intermediate Previous Papers Sanskrit. He even goes a few steps further to present the christmas reader with his observation of a dog’s mental acumen, with his comment about intermediate papers, ‘dogs barking at the moon,’ imitation, attention, memory and + a imagination (p. 122).

Darwin argues that such instincts are inherited habits and are an association of reflexions and other, ideas; a process close to dickens christmas + essays reason. He makes clear that the “difference is in degree, not in the nature between animals’ and humans’ ways of reasoning (p. 193).” Darwin speaks of animal reasoning by giving reference to a dog and a savage looking for water. According to Darwin, they are both acting according to a “rude process of reasoning (p. 125),” which is coming from the reflexions on exile and other observation of a regular coincidence of two phenomena “associated in their mind (p.

125)”: the presence of water and the need. Both the savage and the dog are contrasted with the civilized, cultivated man, who looks for a law or explanation behind the dickens + essays regularity. Darwin implies that the difference between the savage and the dog is writing, a difference in the speed of the associative process. He even speaks to the moral qualities of animals. Darwin states that moral qualities are based on a foundation of social instincts. He regards the evolution of moral qualities as a more interesting problem than the evolution of intellectual qualities. Darwin backs up his viewpoint nicely by arguing that animals have the same social instincts as humans. Darwin points out that animals ?nd pleasure in the company of dickens + a christmas, others.

He provides examples of how animals warn others of danger and how they defend and help each other. Darwin proves that these social instincts do not extend to the entire animal species, but only to thesis writing fellowship a species-speci?c community of animals. Animal social instincts bene?ted the animal community and were thus acquired through natural selection. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) was in its infancy stage during the time of Darwin’s writing. + A Christmas Carol + Essays. The founders of the SPCA were especially concerned with unnecessary cruelty to animals under the vivisectionists’ surgical knife.

Vivisectionists performed surgery and live necropsies without anaesthesia or morphine. For Termpaper. The SPCA was founded on dickens christmas Christian principles of and other, philosophy. The early members were worried about the demoralization of society brought about by cruelty to animals. The Victorian era was abuzz with scienti?c discovery and inquiry, especially in the ?eld of physiology. Vivisection was largely practiced. The anti-vivisection movement of the 1870s and 1880s was organized along the lines of an anthropocentric view of society and animals’ place within it. The SPCA and the anti-vivisectionists were more concerned with the view of humans abusing animals than actual concerns for the animals themselves. Leading the anti-vivisectionist movement in 1881 was the + a christmas carol + essays Victoria Street Society founded by Frances Power Cobbe. Their journal, The Zoophilist (Kean, 1995), aimed at rescuing mankind from scienti?c in?uence and the merciless treatment of animals under vivisection. From the an essay rhetorical tone of Zoophilist journal and the initial efforts of the SPCA, it appears that their movement was really about saving human civilization and carol + essays not much to do with saving animals.

Keeping in alexander essay on criticism, line with a Christian sense of morality the anti-vivisectionists saw the welfare of + a christmas + essays, animals as man’s burden. To say that such a perspective was counter-intuitive for the anti-vivisectionists to not have the welfare of animals chie?y in mind is an understatement. Darwin saw the incongruity in previous papers, the animal rights movement and dickens christmas carol continued to bring to fellowship the forefront the suffering of + a christmas carol + essays, animals, especially the dog, in The Descent of Man. Darwin believed that animals were better at expressing emotions than human adults. He states: “man himself cannot express love and humility by big city external signs, so plainly as does a dog, when with drooping ears, hanging lips, ?exuous tail, and wagging tail, he meets his beloved master (p. 149).” Based on the numerous times he alludes to + a christmas + essays dogs in The Descent of Man, I can only assume, Darwin loved dogs.

In The Descent of Man, in the chapter Mental Powers, Darwin tells of a touching story about alexander essay on criticism part, a dog on a vivisectionist’s operating table. He writes, “In the agony of death a dog has been known to caress his master, and every one has heard of the dog suffering under vivisection, who licked the hand of the operator; this man, unless the operation was fully justi?ed by an increase of dickens christmas carol + essays, our knowledge, or unless he had a heart of stone, must have felt some remorse to and other essays the last hour of his life (p. 115).” An argument can be made that Darwin’s published comment sparked controversy in the physiology community because on April 18, 1881, Darwin penned a letter to Professor Holmgren of Upsala, Sweden in carol + essays, what appears to be a rebuttal to a previous letter that appeared in the London Times regarding vivisection. Darwin writes, “I have all my life been a strong advocate for humanity to animals, and have done what I could in my writings to enforce this duty….From all that I have heard, however, I fear that in some parts of Europe little regard is paid to the suffering of animals (London Times, April 18, 1881, Mr Darwin on Vivisection).” Darwin argues elsewhere that the highest feelings known in big city, man can also be found in lower animals. He even touches on the spiritual origins in savages by comparing them to a dog’s loyal and worshipping behavior towards its human master. Darwin was completely focused on measured expression. He is silent, however, regarding emotional nature and its relation to human character. For Darwin, dogs have powers of dickens carol, association and affection. Dogs not only feel pleasure and pain but they have a memory and they experience happiness. Not only do dogs experience the supernatural by howling at the moon, but they are also religious in a way, substituting their master for God.

The following passage is from the Mental Powers chapter in The Descent of Man. Alexander Pope Part 2. “The feelings of religious devotion is a highly complex one, consisting of love, complete submission to an exalted and + a mysterious superior, a strong sense of independence, fear, reverence, gratitude, hope for the future, and perhaps other elements….Nevertheless, we see some distant approach to ww2 essay intro his state of mind in the deep love a dog for his master, associated with complete submission, some fear, and perhaps other feelings. Professor Braubach goes so far as to maintain that a dog looks on his master as on a god (p.149).” Dogs have a moral sensibility manifest in their knowledge of right and wrong and their assistance to the pack. Continuing in Mental Powers he states, “Our domestic dogs are descended from wolves and jackals, and though they may not have gained in cunning, and may have lost in wariness and suspicion, yet they have progressed in certain moral qualities, such as affection, trustworthiness, temper, and probably in general intelligence (p.129).” Darwin even believed that dogs are altruistic. In the chapter entitled, Morality (The Descent of Man), he remarks, “It must be called sympathy that leads a courageous dog to ?y at any one who strikes his master, as he certainly will (p.163 ).” In the Mental Powers chapter, he meekly admits that dogs may lack self-consciousness, but, then, Darwin asks, “how can we feel sure that an + essays, old dog with an for termpaper, excellent memory and some power of imagination, as shown by dickens + essays his dreams, never re?ects on his past pleasures or pains in the chase (p. 133)?” Darwin was a man of pope essay on criticism part 2, science, and he understood the bene?ts that mankind gained through animal experimentation. He saw that the vivisectionist in conjunction with the physiologist made strides in medical advancements that bene?ted humanity. Darwin did, in fact, see that limited animal experimentation was necessary for christmas, furthering human medical advancements. Thesis Writing Fellowship. He did, however, believe in the humane treatment of dickens christmas carol, animals. Since Darwin spent so much time writing about the ww2 essay intro shared traits of animals and argued for christmas carol, limiting and regulating vivisectionist exploration, the evidence that Darwin was an early animal rights activist seems compelling.

In closing, I leave the intermediate papers sanskrit reader with a quote by Dr. + Essays. Lauder Lindsay, referenced by Darwin in essay, the Mental Powers chapter of The Descent of Man, “ A dog is the only thing on this earth that luvs you more than he luvs himself (p. 115).” All page numbers cited are from Charles Darwin’s The Descent of dickens carol + essays, Man, The Concise Edition, Plume, Published by Penguin Group, USA, 2007 (unless otherwise noted). Kean, Hilda, “The Smooth, Cool Men of thesis writing, Science” : The Feminist and Socialist Response to Vivisection. History Workshop Journal, 40 (1995): p. 17. London Times, April 18, 1881, Mr. Darwin On Vivisection. bio: I’m a Philadelphia transplant living on dickens + a + essays the coast of Lamoine, Maine.

Prior to moving to on life Maine I lived on the southwest coast of christmas + essays, Florida. I am an avid dog lover and animal rights supporter and advocate. Although more comfortable with poetry and plays because of the crutch of dialogue, I also enjoy crafting essays. In A. Since 1986 I have worked in the environmental and health safety profession to pay the bills. I see a connection between the industrial scale animal slaughter and concentrated feeding operations to environmental degradation, with particular regards to stormwater and dickens carol + essays our fresh water bodies including streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. Growing up poor in Philadelphia I would pester my mom to alexander pope 2 take me to Edgar Allen Poe’s house in Philadelphia because it was free. Carol + Essays. I also liked the dark that surrounded Poe’s writing.

I still like and write about the ww2 essay intro dark.