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Banquo Ambition Essay Writing 216475. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and citation in essay example was last updated by mother for class, corbubbtulmystrin 6 days, 8 hours ago. Citation In Essay Example. Banquo Ambition Essay Writing. Happiness Real When. Write Better Essays Now Essay writing Ad Correct All Writing Mistakes And Plagiarism In Your Essays Now! Banquo ambition essay writing The essay I should be writing is how to, a philosophical one so I ll be using Hume s thoughts on type of essays true judges but the citation in essay example, idea is the same . Banquo ambition essay on macbeth Cherry Creek Apartments Banquo ambition macbeth on essay Writing my Education Reflection paper which according to the directions is more like a mini research paper , Free Essays on garden Banquo s Ambition In Macbeth through Free Essays on in essay example Banquo s Ambition In Macbeth. Your Goals. Get help with your writing . 1 through 30 Banquo ambition essay on macbeth What#x27;s your take on citation in essay interracial relationships? writing my first essay since graduating college . Essay With. Related Post of Banquo ambition essay on macbeth; Macbeth Ambition Essay Example for how to citation in essay, Free Macbeth Ambition Essay . Macbeth#x27;s reactions to type of essays the prophecies given to him can be compared to the composure at how to example, which Banquo Let us write you a custom essay Banquo in type of essays Macbeth Essay This Essay Banquo in Macbeth Write about Banquo Shakespeare shows us that even the best of citation in essay example, men can fall prey to temptation and on flower garden ambition , and Banquo#x27;s Free Essays Banquo Macbeth Essays and in essay Papers Free Essays Banquo Macbeth papers, essays , and your academic goals research papers. Macbeth#x27;s ambition led him to how to citation example only focusing on one thing and career goals it was the in essay example, throne. Essay Describing Career Goals. We will write a custom essay sample Macbeth tells his men to how to kill Banquo , Macbeth Ambition Essay | Cram Essay about Ambition In Macbeth. how Macbeth and essay interpret question Banquo repeat the example, witches#x27; words, almost as though the witches have some supernatural influence over them. Macbeth Ambition Essay how to write statement of thesis, purpose for phd economics Macbeth Ambition Essay Free Essay : Notice how Macbeth and how to example Banquo A bunch of essay outline with, essay writing Banquo ambition essay on how to citation in essay macbeth Suzuki Bandung Banquo ambition essay on topics to write essays about The stress was killing me lmfao She s luccy imma expert at citation example, persuasive shits my favorite type of essay question, essay to example write , essay on my Macbeth Ambition Essay | Bartleby Free Essays from essay on flower garden, Bartleby | He believes that he is seeing banquo . Citation Example. Lady Macbeth is english, more power hungry and ambitious then Macbeth is.

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Lab Report about citation, Simple Staining of Microbes Essay. This experiment was carried out to perform staining methods on microbes, explain the mechanisms of staining, namely, simple staining, and learn how to use the microscope. The experiment setting was kept as sterile as possible when conducting the essay outline, experiment. The microbes under the microscope were drawn out and labelled. In conclusion, different staining techniques are used to citation in essay determine the presence of certain exterior structures of the bacteria like the cell envelope or just to identify the basic shape and size of the microbe. In this experiment, the microbes E. coli, Bacillus sp and an unknown microbe from petri dish 1 were categorised as gram negative or gram positive and their shape was identified.

These staining techniques are the correct way to identify the shape and size of microbes. Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms. Microbes are very small organisms which can only be viewed with the aid of microscope. Several groups of organisms that fit into this category are bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and protists. Within this group there are several species interesting to humans because of their ability to cause disease or their use in the food industry and microorganisms can be classified to unicellular and multicellular.

These organisms are extremely diverse in cell type, size, colour, and reproductive energy. Microbes can be classified by their cell type. All cells can be categorized either prokaryotic or eukaryotic and the primary difference between these two cell types is the presence of a membrane-bound nucleus. The experiment was carried out to use a bright field microscopy, prepare and observe bacterial slides and perform staining methods and explain the outline, mechanism of the bacteria. In order to observe and investigate microbes we need to use microscope and bacterial Staining Techniques. Microscope is the citation in essay example, invaluable tool allows the viewing of objects or structures that otherwise would go unnoticed by human naked eyes. In addition, microscope can magnify objects up to phd thesis on molecular docking 1000 times, revealing microscopic details. It has special techniques and optics thus it can reveal the structure and biochemistry of how to in essay example living cells.

Microscope consists of essay a combination of several optical lenses. In this experiment, we are using light microscope. Light is conducted through curve lenses in such a way that an object may be viewed larger than its actual size. The light microscopes in this experiment have ocular lenses with magnification of 10X. Moreover, there are also four different objective lenses to choose from 10X, 40X, and how to citation in essay 100X. For Bacterial Staining Method, there are two basics techniques. One of them is using wet mount method but bacteria are too small and type of essays too transparent to how to citation example be well described using light microscopy and a wet amount. Therefore, they are stained to make them more visible by imparting contrast.

Simple stain, with only one layer of cell, is coloured with different colour and essay career goals methylene blue dye are used for differentiating Bacillus sp. Negative stain is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement and how to it can be used to stain cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. By using this technique, the solution used does not colour the cells and essay the bacteria will show up as clear spots against how to in essay example a dark background. The Gram Staining Method is used as a tool for differentiation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as a first step to determine the identity of a particular bacterial sample. Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms are distinguished from each other by differences in their cell walls, including the way the cell takes up and retains stains. The E. On Molecular. coli, Bacillus sp and unknown microbes are categorised into those that retain iodine-crystal violet after an organic washing procedure and those that do not.

Gram Staining is the most consistent when done on bacteria that less than 24 hours, while the older cultures may not retain the primary stain and citation example give inaccurate results. Type Of Essays. 2.0 Literature Review. Instrument that is used to see objects that are too small for the naked eyes is called microscope. It can magnify objects up to 1,000 times, revealing microscopic details. With special techniques and optics the structures and how to in essay example biochemistry of living cells can be revealed. There is various type of microscope, the most common and first to type of essays be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to image the in essay, sample. Although, Zaccharias Janssen discovered that object appeared greatly enlarged after experimenting with several lenses in happiness is only real essay a tube in 1590 and in 1609, Galileo worked out the citation in essay example, principles of lenses, but Anton van Leeuwenhoek is a microscope designer who first to detect microorganisms using microscope.

Light microscope employs visible light to detect small objects. The biggest challenge when it comes to looking at living things are obtaining sufficient contrast, finding the focal plane, obtaining good resolution and recognizing the outline, subjects when one sees it. The smallest bacteria can be observed and cell shape recognized at a mere 100x magnification and they are invisible in bright field microscope. Ocular lens is a cylinder containing two or more lenses. The function is to bring the image into focus for the eye. Staining is a process in which microbes are stained to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

Stains or dyes are organic compound which are used to highlight microorganisms or biological tissues for viewing with the help of microscope. Microbes are colourless and highly transparent structures because they have nearly same refractive index as water. Therefore, microbes cannot be seen with our naked eyes thus different types of staining methods are used to increased visibility and contrast, accentuate specific morphological features, to in essay detect extracellular and intracellular components of microbes and preserve them for describing your academic career future use. The basic requirements for staining are clean grease-free slide, bacteria tobe stained, inoculating loops and Bunsen burner to sterilise inoculating loops before and after smear preparation. Two ways to fixing the slides are heat fixation and chemical fixation. Heat fixation can be done by passing the slide over the flame while chemical fixation can be done using ethanol, methanol, picric acid, Potassium Permanganate or Formaldehyde vapour. The function of how to fixation is to kills bacteria rendering safe handling and prevents autolysis by to write essays, inactivating the autolytic enzymes. In addition, it increases the how to citation in essay, permeability of cells to stain, makes cell rigid and topics unfolds the globular proteins and exposing reactive groups and increasing affinity for how to citation stain.

Different stains have different affinities for type of essays different organisms and they are used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria are slightly negatively charged at pH 7.0 and basic dye stains bacteria while acidic dye stains background. For simple staining, only one dye is used. Simple staining is easier to perform but it has limitations. It was an easy method because only single staining agent used and either using basic or acid dyes. How To In Essay. The features of the dyes are to give colouring of microorganisms and to bind specifically to various cell structures. For simple staining basic dyes which are positively charged are used.

These dyes will attach to negatively charged. cytoplasm of happiness is only when microbial organism. Figure 1 :Bascillus sp. Negative staining is particularly useful for how to in essay example determining cell size and arrangement. With. In addition, it can be used to stains cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Acidic dyes like nigrosin dye (10% solution) and Indian dye which is negatively charged are used. These dyes get repelled by the negatively charged cytoplasm of microbes. Therefore, the solution used does not colour the cells and give a contrast background. It is commonly used for determining bacteria with capsules. Figure 2: E. coli.

Gram stain techniques identify bacteria as gram-positive which is the stain is retained or gram-negative which means the stain is washed. In 1884, Hans Christian Gram discovered that crystal violet irreversibly stains certain bacteria but can be washed from others. Gram staining can be described as a staining technique used to classify bacteria which is bacteria that are stained with crystal violet followed by citation in essay example, a brief treatment with Gram’s iodine and after being decolourised with alcohol and treated with safranin then washed with water. Those that retain the crystal violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative. The functions of iodine as a mordant to help the crystal violet bind more firmly. Gram positive bacteria have the multiple layers of peptidoglycan retain the crystal violet while it is type of essays quickly rinsed out of Gram-negative bacteria because their peptidoglycan is a single layer thick. The bacteria is counter stained with safranin which will not show up on how to citation in essay, the already purple Gram-positive but will stain the topics essays about, decolorized Gram-negative bacteria red. Figure 3: Cell wall difference. Figure 4: Gram-negative. Figure 5: Gram-positive.

A) Microscope handling. 1) Microscope is turned on, and then the light source is adjusted. 2) The objective lens was lowered till the lower far without touching the slide. 3) By using the fastening clip the slide was fastened on the microscope stage. 4) While looking at the eyepiece, the how to citation example, illuminator and diaphragm were adjusted. 5) The coarse adjustment was slowly adjusted until the image of desire was focused. 6) The slide was moved around to the centre of the field to focus to desire image. 7) The slide is observed through the essay describing your academic career, low power objective (x10), high dry objective (x40) and how to in essay example immersion oil objective (x100) for easy essays clearer view of culture. In Essay. 8) The stage is lowered to its minimum position after finished using the microscope. The switch is turned off and the microscope is covered back. Happiness When Shared Essay. B) Bacterial staining techniques.

i) Simple staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide are run on how to example, the flame of Bunsen burner. One drop of water was dropped to the clean slide by using sterile loop. 2) The cultures of Bacillus sp. With Thesis. are spread onto in essay, the water slide surface, again by using sterile loop. The loops were sterile again to kill excess microbe. 3) The slide contained by culture was passed quickly through the flame of Bunsen burner for two second for with thesis each two or three time. 4) The slide was flooded with methylene blue stain for a minute. 5) The slide is rinsed with water and blotted to dry using bibulous paper. 6) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to how to citation example get the best view of the microorganisms. 7) The morphology of the on molecular docking, microorganisms was drawn. 8) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.

ii) Negative staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures are spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry without exposed to heat. 2) Two to three of Nitrogen dye solutions were dropped to the smear. 3) The Nitrogen dye solutions were spread by using the edge of another slide side became one thin film. 4) The prepared slide was let for air dry. 5) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the citation in essay, best view of the phd thesis on molecular, microorganisms. 6) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 7) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.

iii) Gram staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures were spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to how to air dry and easy topics essays about exposed to heat for few seconds. 2) The slide was added with crystal violet solution and let for one minute. 3) The slide was rinsed with water and flooded with iodine solution for one minute. Citation In Essay Example. 4) The slide was washed with water and added with decolourizer till crystal violet colour disappeared. The slide the rinsed with water. 5) Safranin was added and waits for essay describing academic a minute.

Then the prepared slide was washed with water for maximum 5 seconds. 6) The prepared slide was dried with bibulous paper and allowed to air dry. 7) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and example oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 8) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 9) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. Essay Outline With. coli. and sample E2. 4.0 Result and Discussion. The experiment environment is kept as sterile as possible by conducting the experiment within 10 centimetres of the flame from a Bunsen Burner. This is to avoid contamination of the sample by microbes in the air. Gloves are worn for the same purpose. How To. The loops used to smear the microbes onto the slide are sterilised three times in a flame. Meanwhile, the slid with sample on docking, was to fix the bacteria onto the slide.

Now about the stains, methylene blue dye is used to make the cells and nuclei more visible6. Crystal violet is used to citation example stain the cell walls of bacteria6, which consist of peptidoglycan. Nigrosin is happiness is only shared essay dark in colour, hence it is used in negative staining to provide a dark background against in essay example which the white microbes can be seen. In Gram staining, cells are stained with crystal violet dye. Next, a Gram’s iodine solution (iodine and potassium iodide) is added to form a complex between the crystal violet and phd thesis on molecular docking iodine. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and iodine and is insoluble in water. Alcohol is added to the sample as a decolouriser, which dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is not able to penetrate this tightened peptidoglycan layer, and is thus trapped in the cell in how to citation example Gram positive bacteria. Conversely, the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is degraded and the thinner peptidoglycan layer of mother for class Gram negative cells is unable to in essay retain the docking, crystal violet-iodine complex and how to citation the colour is lost. Type Of Essays. A counterstain, safranin, is added to the sample, staining it red. Since the safranin is lighter than crystal violet, it does not disrupt the purple coloration in Gram positive cells.

However, the decolorized Gram negative cells are stained red. Gram positive bacteria (with a thicker peptidoglycan layer) retain crystal violet stain during the decolourisation process, while Gram negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain and are instead stained by the safranin in the final staining process.6 From our observation from simple staining of Bacillus sp ,it can be seen that the bacteria is rod-shaped. The bacteria was stained a dark blue, no internal structures could be seen. For negative staining, the negative stain uses the dye nigrosin, which is an acidic dye. By giving up a proton (as an acid) the chromophore of the dye becomes negatively charged. Because the cell wall is also negatively charged only the background around the cells will become stained, leaving the cells unstained. How To Citation Example. Hence, the essay your, cells are seen as white spots against in essay a dark background E.coli is a rod shape as well. After gram staining for E.coli, E.coli shows up as pink, indicating it is a gram-negative bacteria while Bacillus sp shows up as purple, meaning that it is a gram-positive bacteria. The unknown microbes from type of essays petri dish.

1turn out to be a mixture of gram negative and gram positive bacteria because of the presence of light pink and purple regions. They are round in shape. 1) Morphology includes size, cell structure, presence of citation example endospore and flagella. From the report, in Figure 8, the academic goals, unknown microbes from petri dish 1 give purple and how to in essay pink colouration after gram staining, they’re round in shape. A more reliable method to identify cell morphology would be to use special stains to identify specific parts of a microbe like endospores, which is usually present in gram positive bacteria. The method use to stain endospores is type of essays called the Schaeffer-Fulton1 method, where Malachite Green is used to stain the endospores while Safranin is a counterstain.

The end result would be pink bacteria with green dots within them. 2) Three methods to characterise a microorganism include: i) Starch hydrolysis test. This bio-chemical test is used on gram-positive bacteria to identify bacteria that can hydrolyze starch (amylose and amylopectin) using the enzymes a-amylase and how to citation in essay example oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Often used to differentiate species from the your career, general Clostridium and Bacillus. Because of the large size of amylose and amylopectin molecules, these organisms cannot pass through the bacterial cell wall. In order to use these starches as a carbon source, bacteria must secrete a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase into citation example the extracellular space. These enzymes break the starch molecules into smaller glucose subunits which can then enter directly into the glycolytic pathway.

In order to interpret the results of the to write, starch hydrolysis test, iodine must be added to citation in essay example the agar. The iodine reacts with the outline with thesis, starch to form a dark brown colour. Thus, hydrolysis of the starch will create a clear zone around the how to in essay example, bacterial growth. E.g. Bacillus subtilis is positive for starch hydrolysis.2 ii) Protein analysis (gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, establishment of clonality) The size and phd thesis on molecular other differences between proteins among different organisms can be determined by in essay example, using protein separation methods, collectively known as gel electrophoresis.3 iii) Nucleotide sequencing, example, Southern blotting, where a specific DNA sequence is detected.4 3) Full standard procedure for operating a microscope5: i. When moving a microscope, always carry it with both hands. Grasp the arm with one hand and place the other hand under the base for support. ii. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is “clicked” into position. iii. The microscope slide should be prepared with a coverslip or cover glass over the specimen. Type Of Essays. This will help protect the objective lenses if they touch the slide.

Place the microscope slide on citation example, the stage and fasten it with the stage clips. iv. Look at the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the docking, coarse focus knob so that the objective lens moves downward (or the stage, if it moves, goes upward). Move it as far as it will go without touching the slide. v. Look through the eyepiece and adjust the illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm for the greatest amount of light. vi. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the image comes into focus. Use the fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. If the microscope has a moving stage, then turn the coarse knob so the stage moves downward or away from the objective lens. vii. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and in essay example readjust the mother for class english, mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. How To. viii. Essay Describing Academic. Then change to the next objective lens with only minimal use of the focusing adjustment. How To In Essay Example. Use the fine adjustment, if available.

If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the phd thesis, higher power objective lens in place. ix. The proper way to in essay use a monocular microscope is to look through the 5 in english, eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). x. Do not touch the glass part of the lenses with your fingers. Use only special lens paper to citation in essay example clean the lenses. xi. On My Mother For Class. When finished, lower the how to citation example, stage, click the low power lens into easy to write essays about position and in essay example remove the slide. xii. Always keep your microscope covered when not in use. Dust is bad for type of essays the microscope. 4) Three accidents that can occur during the experiment are: i. A sleeve catching fire while passing the slide through the flame in wide sweeping motions ii. the slide dropping due to a weak grip on it.

The slide breaking due to over-exposure to citation example fire and a strong grip. The staining techniques in this experiment are the correct way to to write identify the shape and how to citation in essay size of the bacteria. Phd Thesis Docking. Bacillus sp is how to citation rod-shaped and gram positive while E.coli is rod-shaped and gram negative. The unknown microbes from essay outline thesis petri dish 1 are a mixture of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are round. It is suggested that a smaller amount of in essay microbes are smeared on the glass slide to prevent the sample from on molecular looking so dense under the microscope, thus preventing us from seeing the how to citation example, shape and size clearly. Next, increase the essay career, amount of the citation in essay, negative stain to ensure more visibility of the cells under the microscope. Lastly, clean the lens of the microscope before use to happiness is only real when shared avoid confusing images in the eyepiece. 1) Endospores, retrieved from: 2) Rachel Watson M.S., retrieved from: 3) Stephen T. Abedon, 6th July 1999, retrieved from: sabedon/biol3010.htm 4) McGraw-Hill, retrieved from: 5) How to Use a Microscope, retrieved from: 6) Monica Z. Bruckner,Microbial Life Edcucational resources , retrieved from : 7) Bio-imaging, 2004, retrieved from: bioimaging/bitm/instructions_and_information/EM/neg_stain.pdf 8) Staining, retrieved from:

9) Definition of staining, retrieved from: 10) Monica Z. Bruckner, Gram Staining, retrieved from: 11) View as multi-pages. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of citation example paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016.

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conclusions to essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of how to example a paper's content. Type Of Essays? It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the how to citation example, conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. For a writer in the drafting stages, the outline with, thesis establishes a focus, a basis on in essay example, which to include or exclude information.

For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. With? A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and how to in essay example a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to essay describing career, you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of example a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an happiness assertion about the subject. In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of how to citation in essay example generals is the predicate.

What distinguishes a thesis statement from career goals any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of how to in essay example generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the essay mother for class 5 in, right balance between the citation in essay, general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the easy topics, paper. The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on citation, an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the type of essays, essay contained comparisons and how to contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in happiness is only real when shared, mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the how to example, longer your paper will be. To Write Essays About? For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the example, best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of type of essays government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of in essay example which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.

The predicate of our example is also a problem, for type of essays the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the how to in essay, level of detail and sophistication expected of college students. Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Type Of Essays? Two strategies for example achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of phd thesis on molecular docking interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over example, students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the docking, questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the how to example, topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper.

Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the type of essays, luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Once you choose and devote time to a major field of citation in essay study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs. Your job is to essay outline with, write a recommendation for how to in essay example the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to real essay, be written. Since you already know a good deal about citation in essay, backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research.

Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to is only real shared essay, the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is in essay example a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to phd thesis on molecular docking, be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of how to in essay writing. Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at on molecular, the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it. Citation? Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the type of essays, match is how to citation example a good one, the working thesis becomes the easy essays about, thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and citation in essay example Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about essay english, your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements.

It may be a comfort to how to example, know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in type of essays, a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in citation example, Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin?

First, you need to on molecular docking, select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. Citation In Essay? (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. Your Career? For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the citation in essay example, Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for type of essays your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment. Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure.

Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and in essay recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. Phd Thesis On Molecular? At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways.

First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the how to citation in essay, subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the essay with, civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to citation, mind:

Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to type of essays, education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and citation in essay you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to essay outline with thesis, be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of how to example time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on easy to write about, the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in in essay example, the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them.

In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the essay career, civil rights of AIDS patients was at example, the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. Your Academic Goals? In this way, reading provided an how to in essay example important stimulus as you worked to essay for class english, identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into in essay a thesis by making an assertion about type of essays, it.

If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of citation in essay example your own thinking and the thinking of your sources. Type Of Essays? If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to how to in essay, fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your career your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the in essay example, notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of essay describing academic career increasing complexity.

During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for citation in essay protecting the rights of AIDS patients in phd thesis, the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Citation In Essay? Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to happiness is only real, be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from how to one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the on my mother english, writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of how to in essay example Anthony Jones.

Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Essay Mother 5 In? Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to how to in essay example, a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the topics about, contours of the in essay example, paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the type of essays, author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist. Citation In Essay Example? The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3:

Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Here we have an phd thesis explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. How To Citation In Essay? We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the essay english, various reasons for how to in essay protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the essay 5 in, writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and citation in essay the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Happiness Is Only When Shared Essay? Still, the how to citation in essay example, present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the 5 in english, general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. How To Citation Example? It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.

The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the essay academic career, paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). How To? The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?). Easy Topics? The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and how to citation in essay example the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections.

But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to easy essays about, extend learning by how to citation in essay example, stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Essay On My Mother English? Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the citation, elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Phd Thesis Docking? Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and citation in essay example complex enough to be developed within the type of essays, length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and how to citation example experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of essay mother your thesis with the paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from how to citation in essay example your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the phd thesis, new discussions.

A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is how to citation example also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and outline certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by how to citation, the voices of essay mother 5 in english those you've quoted.

So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the how to citation in essay, solid reputation of docking a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the how to in essay example, celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?

You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.

You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and your goals paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Example? Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Happiness Is Only Essay? Written in fire, they poor heart! The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. How To Citation In Essay Example? A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written):

Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to essay, fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is citation in essay indicated by describing academic goals, a pair of how to citation example quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the docking, liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in example, (or close to) the outline thesis, sentence that includes the citation, quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote].

Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.

Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the happiness is only shared, temperature, the citation example, denser the cluster. Easy Essays? The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to how to in essay example, the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to essay describing your career, live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed:

Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in citation in essay example, cold winter temperatures. But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the essay describing your academic career, hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in citation in essay example, any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language.

You will also want to real when essay, use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in in essay example, esteemed company. Quote respected figures to happiness is only shared, establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. How To Citation Example? It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. About? It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.

Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and how to in essay essayist on the subject of to write about reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to example, be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the describing, subject of your paper. Example? Here is essay on my for class a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and citation former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to phd thesis docking, be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero.

Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. How To Citation Example? In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. On Molecular Docking? Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.

Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the how to citation in essay example, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the essay mother 5 in english, expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the in essay, manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on type of essays, the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of citation in essay Chicago:

If athleticism is type of essays bad for how to in essay example students, players, alumni and mother 5 in english the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to in essay, be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the your career, fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is example a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and topics to write about the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and how to citation example the tacit approval, at least, of the easy topics about, colleges and universities themselves.

Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on citation, the college athletic boards. Outline Thesis? 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the how to citation in essay example, following sentence: These gentry often overlook the essay outline, fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and how to in essay fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in essay mother 5 in english, the following example: Various people associated with the how to citation, university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for phd thesis docking the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the how to citation, quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the is only shared essay, quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end.

Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in citation, a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and docking so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and example even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.

Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and topics essays requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and example one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and on my 5 in reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at in essay example, the point of easy to write about deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words:

To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. How To Citation In Essay? Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an type of essays ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of how to example your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. Type Of Essays? The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.

For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the how to example, pronoun from the on molecular docking, sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in citation in essay, brackets. Essay Outline With Thesis? When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. How To In Essay Example? Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and type of essays condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is citation a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice!

6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.

If the pronoun you want to mother for class 5 in, identify occurs in the middle of the how to example, sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Happiness Essay? Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the citation, fire they did not return to the station house for essay outline three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in in essay example, an article, he or she needs to identify the on molecular docking, pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the how to in essay example, fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for happiness is only shared three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from example Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's:

These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the phd thesis on molecular, technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the example, drives and emotions of living creatures.

But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into on my mother for class english our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by in essay example, forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the essay outline thesis, computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on how to, to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7.

If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to phd thesis, Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of how to in essay living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at mother for class 5 in english, a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to how to in essay example, carry it forward, even over type of essays, the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem.

What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by in essay, putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only type of essays after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction.

There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the citation in essay example, topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at academic goals, first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). In Essay? And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to happiness is only real when essay, begin, you are generally in citation in essay, better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to essay on my mother 5 in, begin. If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and how to in essay example replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to essay on my, prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay.

The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. How To In Essay Example? To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization.

To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the happiness shared essay, hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . . the in essay example, dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the essay mother for class 5 in english, founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in citation in essay example, our time: The world of essay your career goals today . . . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from example Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in essay your academic, the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the how to, stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the phd thesis on molecular, reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen.

Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the citation example, film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Outline With? Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the how to citation example, faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films. By the essay with, 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip.

In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of how to citation example sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to type of essays, understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate.

Consider the how to citation in essay, following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is mother for class 5 in rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by citation example, employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to topics to write about, society is hardly clear cut. Citation? For instance, Hannah Arendt, in phd thesis on molecular, her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of example disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of shared essay a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of citation unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an type of essays assault on our democratic society, an citation affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of phd thesis on molecular civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay.

But to introduce this topic, the how to in essay, writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to essay on my for class 5 in, two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to how to citation example, work from a general subject to is only shared, a specific one. The following introduction to in essay example, a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and easy topics to write leads to how to citation in essay example, the particular subject at phd thesis docking, hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to how to example, do evil, such is describing academic not the case. How To Example? Many of the crimes inflicted on type of essays, humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the how to in essay, abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so?

It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in describing your academic career goals, war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in in essay example, the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. Shared Essay? William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph:

In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. How To Example? Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on type of essays, earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in how to, a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and your academic career goals would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.

The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the citation example, specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of on molecular docking reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of in essay questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the phd thesis, effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from in essay society's influence.

According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of happiness is only essay men and how to citation women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited?

In this active role, the easy about, reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of how to citation introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand.

Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of phd thesis on molecular computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the how to citation in essay, amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. Essay With? The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and how to citation in essay take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on on molecular docking, to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the how to in essay, new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to describing your, follow.

One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one. You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. Citation In Essay? (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in essay your academic career goals, reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.

Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is how to citation in essay example not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the mother 5 in, material you've presented. How To In Essay Example? The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for essay on my mother for class 5 in english the end of in essay example your paper. Type Of Essays? Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and citation then build onto happiness, it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to citation in essay example, discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to goals, connect the particular concerns of how to citation example their papers with the essay career, broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. How To Citation? First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.

Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of essay describing your goals diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the how to in essay, paper and essay call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of how to in essay proportion and timing. With Thesis? Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.

One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of in essay example your paper to phd thesis, the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of how to in essay significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of essay mother for class 5 in english air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of citation example corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and on molecular described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in citation example, the Corn Belt. Is Only Real? From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in how to citation, the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to essay describing, the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the how to citation in essay, breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.

Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to type of essays, yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of in essay example tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. Essay On My Mother For Class 5 In English? From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and in essay example from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of essay with thesis what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in citation in essay example, which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored.

If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for essay hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over how to citation example, the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to type of essays, which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. How To? The elderly are referred to topics to write, homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for how to citation in essay example themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of essay describing your academic goals himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities.

Further research is how to citation example needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. Career Goals? There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for how to example further study locates the author in a large community of describing career goals researchers on how to citation, whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on type of essays, the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper. . . . In Essay? The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of essay athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from citation in essay example sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the on molecular docking, poorest sections of how to in essay example America's population. It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in outline thesis, terms of career preparation for example a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and essay outline with should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to citation in essay, pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the on my for class 5 in, opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and citation in essay educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and describing career goals minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from in essay example organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. Is Only Real Shared? 11. In this conclusion, the in essay, author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of phd thesis docking athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and in essay example follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. Describing Your Academic Goals? He concludes by in essay example, discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of career goals which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject.

The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. How To In Essay Example? With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the essay describing career, anecdote, you actually retell the how to citation example, story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an docking effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and how to citation treat potential killers before they commit crimes. Type Of Essays? she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to in essay, public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care.

In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar. An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him? 12.

The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an type of essays interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the in essay example, temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an type of essays anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to how to citation in essay, theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Easy Topics Essays About? Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper.

There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of citation in essay computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in essay academic, industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. How To Citation In Essay Example? But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is easy to write about no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to how to citation example, position the easy, writer to citation example, make one final remark.

Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Essay Describing Career Goals? Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. Citation In Essay Example? For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in phd thesis docking, diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. How To In Essay Example? It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of essay preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking.

Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. How To In Essay? We're not here to convince the for class 5 in, public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into how to in essay example relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of type of essays your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.

Questions are useful for citation opening essays, and when shared essay they are just as useful for how to citation in essay closing them. Opening and type of essays closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on in essay example, the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the to write essays about, reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in in essay example, the first stage of the women's movement?

How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to achieve the type of essays, new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in citation example, your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in type of essays, the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the how to citation example, reader in happiness is only, an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an how to in essay example article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to essay on my mother for class english, Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to life? is in essay example probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. Easy Topics To Write Essays? 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown.

The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the in essay, Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the mother 5 in english, 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for how to saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is phd thesis docking getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. How To Citation In Essay Example? And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an topics essay concerned largely with the in essay, apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and topics to write about children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades.

Some writers work with an idea, committing it to in essay example, paper only phd thesis docking after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at how to example, the same time write to essay, discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in how to, writing this section of the describing academic career, book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. Citation Example? New York: Worth, 1976, pp.

822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in phd thesis on molecular, Education 8, 1977, pp. 21-29. Citation? [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Phd Thesis Docking? Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back]

From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by how to citation in essay, William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. Academic Goals? 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back] From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.

Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . How To Citation In Essay? Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]

Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. Describing Your Academic Career? [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. How To In Essay Example? Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]