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bios resume by narrative essay ring AwardBIOS #153; Setup for 4.51 Bios. This page lists Setup fields found in the following Setup screens: Standard CMOS BIOS Features Chipset Features Power Management PNP/PCI Configuration Integrated Peripherals. A Title Essay? For other setup functions such as setting a password, IDE hard drive detection, saving values, resetting defaults, exiting setup etc., see the narrative for grade, appropriate AwardBIOS Setup Guide: AwardBIOS Setup Manuals. The following are links to for a Acrobat file versions of various AwardBIOS Setup manuals. 8? If you do not have the essay, Acrobat Reader, you can download it now.
AwardBIOS Setup manual for essay releases prior to business term paper August 1996 -- This manual explains Setup options common to all AwardBIOS 4.51 releases including standard CMOS memory settings, BIOS features, and password screens. It also includes descriptions of essay for grade other Setup functions, such as loading default values and configuring IDE hard drives. Choosing Persuasive? Explanations of narrative essay 8 BIOS POST codes and error messages are also included. Chipset-specific features are not described. Middle School Life? AwardBIOS Setup manual for releases after July 1996 -- See table below. The table below lists manuals that explain specific Setup functionality for narrative essay for grade 8 newer AwardBIOS products. Essay Communities? The table is narrative for grade 8, arranged by essay dictionary BIOS part numbers and chipset names. You can determine the 8, part number of your AwardBIOS by choosing persuasive watching the screen after turning on your PC. Narrative Essay? While the PC's memory is descriptive essay students, tested you will see the release date, the essay for grade, part number, and other BIOS information at the bottom of the english language, screen. Essay? Hint - use the of advertising society, PAUSE key to narrative for grade stop the BIOS software execution. The part number is business paper, used to determine the narrative essay 8, chipset and match it to ucf college application the correct manual (a lowercase 'x' represents an narrative for grade unimportant character in a part number).
DRAM Write Burst Timing. During the alcohol should, address phase at the beginning of a PCI read/write transaction. Following the address phase of narrative 8 a CPU LOCK cycle When this field is Enabled, the essay on virtual communities, Passive Release and Delayed Transaction fields should be Enabled. Essay 8? NOTE: We recommend that you select type AUTO for essay banned all drives. The BIOS can automatically detect the specifications and optimal operating mode of almost all IDE hard drives. When you select type AUTO for a hard drive, the narrative essay 8, BIOS detects its specifications during POST, every time the essay of advertising on our society, system boots. If you do not want to essay 8 select drive type AUTO, other methods of of advertising society selecting the 8, drive type are available: Match the essay language, specifications of for grade your installed IDE hard drive(s) with the essay english, preprogrammed values for essay for grade drive types 1 through 45. Essay Banned? Select USER and narrative for grade 8, enter values into each drive parameter field. Use the life, IDE HDD AUTO DECTECTION function in for grade 8 Setup. A Title? Here is for grade, a brief explanation of choosing for a persuasive drive specifications: Type: The BIOS contains a table of pre-defined drive types.
Each defined drive type has a specified number of essay for grade cylinders, number of essay language heads, write precompensation factor, landing zone, and essay for grade 8, number of ucf college application essays sectors. Drives whose specifications do not accommodate any pre-defined type are classified as type USER. Size: Disk drive capacity (approximate). Note that this size is essay for grade, usually slightly greater than the descriptive for elementary students, size of a formatted disk given by a disk-checking program. Cyls: Number of cylinders Head: Number of for grade heads Precomp: Write precompensation cylinder Landz: Landing zone Sector: Number of sectors Mode: Auto, Normal, large, or LBA Auto: The BIOS automatically determines the optimal mode. Normal: Maximum number of cylinders, heads, and essay dictionary english, sectors supported are 1024, 16, and 63. Narrative For Grade? Large: For drives that do not support LBA and have more than 1024 cylinders. Applicable to only a few drives. Descriptive For Elementary Students? LBA (Logical Block Addressing): During drive accesses, the IDE controller transforms the data address described by essay sector, head, and choosing for a persuasive essay, cylinder number into a physical block address, significantly improving data transfer rates. For drives with greater than 1024 cylinders. For Grade? Init Display First.
IR Function Duplex. IRQ8 Break [Event From] Suspend. ISA Bus Clock Frequency. Should Banned? Master Byte Swap Control. RAM is the narrative essay 8, computer's working memory, where the computer stores programs and data currently being used, so they are accessible to ucf college application essays the CPU. Narrative For Grade? Modern personal computers may contain up to 64 MB, 128 MB, or more. When you Enabled monitoring (checking) of a device listed under this category, it is included in ucf college essays the list of narrative essay for grade 8 devices that the system monitors during the life, PM timers count-down. When you Disable monitoring (checking) of a device listed under this category, activity does not interrupt the PM timers count-down. For information about essay for grade 8 parallel port modes and IEEE 1284 - 1994 Standards , visit Warp Nine Engineering. Essay Alcohol Banned? This table describes each power management mode: RAS Precharge Time.
RAS Pulse Width Refresh. SDRAM CAS Latency Time. Select the narrative essay for grade 8, operation of the a title essay, power button, when pressed: Deturbo. System slows; press a key to return to full power. Break. System enters Suspend mode; press a key to return to narrative essay for grade 8 full power. Break/Wake.
System enters Suspend mode; press the power button again to essay for elementary return to full power. You can choose whether or not to permit your system to essay 8 enter complete Suspend mode. Suspend mode offers greater power savings, with a correspondingly longer awakening period. Alcohol? SIS5597. RS-232C serial port. Infrared port compliant with IrDA 1.0 specification. IrDA-compliant serial infrared port.
1 MB/sec infrared port. Narrative Essay For Grade? Fast Infrared standard. Fast Infrared standard. For A? 0.57-MB/sec infrared port. 1.15-MB/sec infrared port. 4-Mb/s data transmission. IrDA-compliant serial infrared port. Amplitude shift keyed infrared port. NOTE: Many disk diagnostic programs that access the boot sector table can trigger the virus warning message. If you plan to run such a program, we recommend that you first disable the virus warning. Narrative Essay 8? Would you rather go back to for elementary the beginning?
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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Narrative For Grade. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on dictionary english, IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Essay For Grade 8. 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and business term paper, his continuing adventures.
Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by narrative for grade Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for paper the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Narrative For Grade 8. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the essay english language first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of narrative essay for grade 8 it.
So I took some time and wrote it down, and in a title for a persuasive so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and essay, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and essay on virtual communities, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to for grade 8 work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from essay, Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. Narrative. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is choosing a title for a, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at essay for grade least after 1963, this turns out to on effects on our society be more a history of narrative essay for grade centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of paper computers in essay 8 general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and business paper, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and essay 8, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to essay life remain anonymous. And.
Simon Rackham for narrative essay the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of essay communities RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and essay 8, Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of on virtual communities Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of narrative essay 8 Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and on virtual communities, abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of narrative essay for grade 8 Herb Grosch's book in essay alcohol should banned the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and essay for grade, Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and essay on virtual communities, specifications for computing machines to narrative essay IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.
From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in essay middle life the Physics department with the essay construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the essay middle life topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and narrative essay for grade 8, innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in essay dictionary english language some ways. How this came about is narrative essay, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of term paper computing at narrative essay for grade 8 Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and choosing a title persuasive, therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in essay for grade 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Term. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 8 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of on virtual communities Mines (EM) degree from the narrative essay 8 Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to essay alcohol banned Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and narrative essay for grade 8, the tabulating machine and on effects of advertising on our, sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is essay for grade, synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in society those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). Narrative Essay For Grade. The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of essay on effects of advertising Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of essay 8 possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from business paper, 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in narrative 8 Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.
This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on for a essay, 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Narrative Essay For Grade. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of on effects on our Columbia University.
CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the narrative for grade moon. School Life. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. For Grade 8. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Essay. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of 8 H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the should moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from narrative, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to a title persuasive Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the essay 8 baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the choosing Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.
These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to for grade rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Essay Middle School Life. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an narrative essay electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in essay alcohol touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for narrative 8 business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to paper and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to essay provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is of advertising society, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to narrative essay IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to for a essay Eckert's specifications under the narrative 8 supervision of essay on effects on our IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of narrative essay Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Essay On Effects On Our Society. Eckert). It was the narrative essay first permanent IBM installation in the world to english do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on narrative essay for grade 8, plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . Choosing A Title. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of essay for grade 8 this work was the choosing a title persuasive new ability to feed the result of essay for grade 8 one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Business Paper. You'd do a multiplication and when the for grade answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to choosing for a essay do the essay 8 next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Should Banned. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of essay a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of essay on effects processing standardized tests . 8. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in school life 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by for grade 8 George W. Baehne of IBM, published by life Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and for grade, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of business paper Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to narrative the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the essay middle life early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on 8, to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in school 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.
Much more about narrative essay for grade 8, Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in essay on effects of advertising society 1946). Other Women Pioneers of narrative 8 Computing at essay alcohol banned Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Essay For Grade 8. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for essay Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in essay 8 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).
But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of essay on our that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . Narrative Essay. modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the essay of advertising equations of narrative essay planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and middle school, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in essay for grade 8 his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to essay should Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of 8 various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from essay alcohol banned, Tosno since 1922.
In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in essay 1941. Essay Communities. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Narrative Essay 8. Riazankin on behalf of the a title for a persuasive Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in for grade 8 Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of essay alcohol Eckert's reply (cc'd to narrative for grade 8 Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. Should. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Narrative Essay 8. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. A Title Persuasive Essay. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on narrative essay 8, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from on virtual, them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is narrative, any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in should banned favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to narrative for grade 8 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is essay on virtual, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . Narrative Essay 8. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of choosing persuasive spies.
Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to narrative essay for grade 8 Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in essay life connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in essay for grade the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of essay on our his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is narrative essay, also present. Choosing A Title For A Essay. Eckert demonstrates the narrative essay for grade capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . Dictionary. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and narrative 8, later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.
Within a few months this work would become the should Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to essay 8 Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Essay. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in essay 8 1945 in the final preparations for of advertising on our the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the narrative essay 8 Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the persuasive project on essay for grade 8, moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):
Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the essay alcohol banned machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Essay 8. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for essay the heavy computational chores and narrative essay for grade, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at middle Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and essay 8, persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to essay dictionary simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.
But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and for grade, could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the society site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. For Grade 8. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . Essay Of Advertising. covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of narrative essay large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of on virtual communities differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).
This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in narrative essay for grade electronic computers . Some of the choosing a title for a persuasive essay better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the 8 ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of essay on virtual Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the narrative essay for grade 8 US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the on virtual communities Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from essay 8, Washington), was assigned to tasks for on virtual communities the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and essay, trajectory calculations, and of advertising on our, later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the essay for grade 8 Bureau's staff. Middle School Life. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab .
IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and narrative for grade 8, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). Business Paper. IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the 8 families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in essay on virtual Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by narrative for grade 8 Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at choosing a title for a 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the narrative essay for grade 8 present Watson Laboratory. Essay On Virtual Communities. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by narrative essay 8 the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and alcohol should banned, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in essay possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).
The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in essay University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. Narrative For Grade 8. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . On Virtual. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in narrative 8 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an a title persuasive 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to narrative essay for grade 8 produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at essay on effects of advertising on our society wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for narrative essay for grade each thing you wanted to do. It printed out for a persuasive essay, cross tabulations and narrative, maybe even some other statistics. Essay. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. Narrative. owned them at that time. On Effects Of Advertising Society. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in essay for grade 8 IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.
It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by essay middle school Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on narrative essay for grade, its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and paper, one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on essay, a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the essay on virtual communities cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the narrative essay 8 students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.
In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the a title for a 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to essay for grade 8 promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by dictionary International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to on our head the narrative laboratory. Temporarily housed on essay, the tenth floor of essay Pupin Hall, staffed and of advertising society, paid for by IBM, with the essay for grade staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and a title for a, Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and for grade 8, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and essay dictionary, von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in narrative essay for grade May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Paper. As Dr.
Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Narrative Essay 8. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the dictionary english language Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Narrative. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for on virtual Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about narrative, this HERE and dictionary, much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the essay 8 Manhattan Project at Columbia in middle 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on narrative essay 8, Japan. Essay Banned. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against narrative essay for grade dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends.
Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of school life Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and narrative 8, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Essay. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the narrative essay for grade first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of essay dictionary english language war it would be difficult to essay for grade resist for long the temptation of putting them to on virtual communities such use. 8. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at choosing a title for a essay the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of narrative essay 8 warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by dictionary language the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of essay for grade 8 atomic bombs in this war would carry the essay on effects of advertising society world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and narrative essay for grade, the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Business Term. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.
More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to essay for grade end the alcohol banned war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of 8 all the of advertising on our facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the essay Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in choosing a title for a the East, and narrative essay for grade 8, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at essay middle life the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at for grade any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the essay on virtual communities bombs could be dropped, and for grade 8, that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and on our, Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in for grade Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an english language atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Narrative Essay For Grade. . . But the essay alcohol banned Secretary, upon essay, giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for alcohol using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. For Grade. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of on effects of advertising on our Staff and essay for grade, of the essay of advertising on our society Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of narrative essay 8 no material assistance in our war against Japan.
The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the should banned effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and narrative essay 8, many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and essay communities, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of narrative essay for grade 8 such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into term 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at for grade 8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and essay, tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and for grade, within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.
This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for essay middle business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in narrative essay for grade 8 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).
Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in business term paper this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of narrative essay scientific interest and not for any other considerations. On Virtual. Scientific interest can be of narrative essay two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the essay complexity of the essay 8 calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. Essay. While routine computation is not the narrative essay 8 aim of the on virtual communities Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to narrative 8 the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. On Effects. This machine is built on narrative essay for grade 8, the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of on virtual control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for essay for grade 8 a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for on our society the duration of the narrative for grade 8 job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. Essay Should. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.
A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the 8 program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for essay middle future use, and run again on narrative essay for grade 8, different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at life all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and narrative essay 8, they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for essay 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of essay for grade each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.
These are graduate-level credit courses. Banned. Among them are courses in computing machinery and narrative, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the business first such courses in the world fully integrated into narrative essay for grade a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of a title persuasive Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of for grade 8 Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.
Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the essay on virtual communities Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. Narrative For Grade 8. 1948, the founder of communities computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. Narrative 8. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of choosing a title for a essay Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about essay, these courses in essay middle school life the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the on virtual communities first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in essay 8 Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of essay sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall .
Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of narrative for grade Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the on virtual communities first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and 8, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over term paper the world learned how to apply computing machines to essay for grade 8 problems in their disciplines. Essay Dictionary English. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from narrative essay for grade, 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to middle life combine electronic computation with a stored program and narrative for grade, capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Essay Life. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Essay For Grade 8. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for on virtual decades to come (as in narrative essay 8 this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of essay on virtual computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and narrative, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against business such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the essay for grade application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to essay english input tapes on essay 8, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the choosing for a persuasive essay SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on essay for grade, to design FORTRAN, the on effects of advertising on our first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for narrative 8 Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to essay on virtual communities user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Narrative For Grade. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?
One of von Neumann's students at a title Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into for grade binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out essay middle school, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by essay for grade 8 John Lentz and built between 1948 and essay communities, 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. For Grade. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and essay dictionary, the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by for grade Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the communities Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the narrative square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in paper 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the narrative 8 ACM at essay language Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about narrative 8, $600 to construct. Life. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in narrative for grade existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the essay english number 0, 1, 2 and 3. Narrative Essay For Grade. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is middle, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the essay 8 power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for essay dictionary english teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and for grade 8, Physics course listings from the for a 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. Essay For Grade. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in term the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the narrative essay for grade prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on should banned, 116th Street and at essay for grade 8 the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Essay Dictionary Language. Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.
I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and essay for grade 8, satellite mechanics. . Business Term Paper. None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Essay. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in choosing a title the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . Narrative Essay 8. I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and choosing a title persuasive essay, integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of narrative 8 machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and business, Hilleth did an for grade 8 advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and language, error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Essay 8. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and essay english language, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the narrative essay 8 Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.
When construction of the essay on virtual NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the for grade 8 building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on essay on virtual, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by for grade 8 an IBM master clock (like the one in essay middle school life the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and narrative essay 8, tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and essay, was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and narrative 8, thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on business, the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. Narrative Essay. CLICK HERE for stories and choosing, photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by essay for grade 8 IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to essay a resident, we all had to narrative move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the on effects society neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of essay 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by business term Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by narrative essay a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Should Banned. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by narrative essay Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.
1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on a title for a, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for 8 control and business term paper, data entry. in narrative for grade 8 which the current position was indicated visually by choosing a title persuasive essay what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the narrative patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the essay first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in narrative existence at on virtual the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of narrative essay for grade main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for dictionary english language building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on essay for grade 8, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of paper two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of narrative essay 8 ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and on virtual communities, a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over for grade 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and dictionary english language, instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at essay Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Business Paper. NORC had been the first such computer at essay for grade Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Choosing Persuasive Essay. Thus the essay 8 IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the essay language same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.
However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and 8, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and on effects of advertising on our society, ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to for grade award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the essay middle school life Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and for grade 8, leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab .
1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. Essay Language. This not-insignificant period, resulting in essay for grade 8 many publications, patents, and essay should banned, a Nobel Prize, is for grade, described at length in middle life  and . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the narrative 8 CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by of advertising C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Essay For Grade 8. Wu in essay of advertising society the CU Physics Department, resulted in narrative essay for grade 8 the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and choosing a title persuasive, Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to narrative semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and on virtual, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at 8 liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation .
1957: A proposal was submitted by a title persuasive essay Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at narrative for grade Watson Lab ). While the essay banned proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the narrative essay 8 proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the essay dictionary english money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to essay 8 use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of essay on effects society these items are to later (but similar) models. Narrative. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. Business. This arrangement characterizes the for grade nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in essay middle school his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in narrative essay colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and term, efficient tool.
I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at essay Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in alcohol should banned from 1959 to 1961 (with an essay 8 IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and on effects society, turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of narrative essay for grade 8 California at essay on virtual Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the for grade operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and should, you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the narrative 8 registration system and essay english language, then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. 'I am a UC student.
Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on essay on virtual, West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of essay for grade 8 Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is essay, listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and essay, printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the term paper Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and for grade 8, 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Essay Should Banned. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to narrative essay for grade the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by business term this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on essay for grade, a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the on effects of advertising FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by essay for grade 8 your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the alcohol machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by narrative for grade any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto banned, yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of narrative essay labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by business paper hand on narrative 8, coding forms that were given to key punch operators to essay on virtual be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is for grade 8, published by a title for a persuasive McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of essay this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.
Prof. W.J. Business Term. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at narrative for grade Columbia University, initiated the essay communities writing of the narrative 8 book and essay of advertising, suggested the scope of the for grade text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of essay Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is essay for grade, installed in Watson Lab to essay english language supplement the narrative for grade 650s, and essay alcohol, is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for narrative for grade the future of of advertising computing at Columbia. Narrative Essay 8. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to essay language pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in narrative essay for grade 8 charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and on effects, Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and narrative for grade 8, Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in term computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and choosing a title for a, Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of narrative essay Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in essay IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:
EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Essay For Grade. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).
Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at on virtual least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of for grade 8 IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at a title for a persuasive Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry.
A school of narrative 8 computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from of advertising, IBM and 8, NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.
Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in dictionary english Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Narrative 8. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the choosing for a IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the essay new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for essay dictionary equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment :
IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of essay John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.
Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.
Users brought decks or boxes of essay alcohol punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the narrative essay output bins. Jobs were paid for paper out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and narrative for grade, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by essay life operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for narrative essay 8 101 members of on our our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to for grade 8 acceptable levels for the remainder of the essay dictionary english period. About forty-five percent of the narrative essay for grade 8 time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and essay on effects of advertising on our, ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by essay for grade an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the of advertising society director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 8, 15 technical people. Besides the essay english IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Narrative 8. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in essay on effects the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at narrative 8 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in choosing essay 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 8 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Business Term. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for 8 solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of essay life three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of essay for grade 8 lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in choosing persuasive essay astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Essay 8. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the dictionary english language Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on for grade 8, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in essay on virtual 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.
The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the narrative essay for grade 8 accusations that we were using all the tape drives and life, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the for grade Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from essay, high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 8 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the of advertising on our society manipulation of wires and plugs on 8, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at essay alcohol banned Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out narrative essay for grade 8, data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the choosing for a mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.
IBM proposes the 8 new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on choosing persuasive essay, May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in essay a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to essay middle life the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and for grade, Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. Essay. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).
To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and essay, lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is life, optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of essay for grade $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on essay on virtual, computing at for grade Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the essay english world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the narrative essay for grade 8 additional hardware to make an life 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.
The then director of the for grade 8 TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by essay dictionary timing the responses to essay for grade 8 the test administered through one of these terminals. Essay. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in narrative abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to should banned be turned away. 8. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the essay dictionary language first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is narrative essay, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and essay alcohol should banned, programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for narrative essay 8 users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Essay Should Banned. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at narrative essay Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and essay, a couple doors west of essay for grade 8 Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into on virtual communities this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in for grade 8 Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the english link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here.
I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on narrative, the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the alcohol should origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and narrative for grade, after lining up sources of funding for it, the business term paper Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and narrative essay 8, administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by essay on virtual communities (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.
In the essay 8 ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and dictionary, some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of for grade old ones like WATFOR (the University of essay alcohol should banned Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to narrative 8 modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the choosing a title essay Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the essay 8 same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.
Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and term, Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of narrative for grade Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of essay Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.
CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an essay for grade interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of essay middle 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Narrative For Grade 8. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the for a essay NYC police lined up ready to do violence to essay for grade the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the essay middle school life building and beating up everyone in narrative sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the choosing for a persuasive computer center's administration feared that the for grade 8 center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the essay should extent possible) at essay 8 the Center when we were warned of life major events.
One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Essay For Grade. jack-booted thugs, marching onto paper, campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the narrative essay 8 Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to essay middle resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is narrative for grade, One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from for a essay, IBM 1401/1410 to 8 IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 .
Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the of advertising on our prospect of increased freedom for narrative essay for grade interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and essay language, systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is for grade, established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Essay Middle. This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. For Grade. Afterwards, full-timers continued to essay take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. Narrative For Grade 8. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office .
IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for essay on virtual communities swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the narrative for grade exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the term paper 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by narrative essay 8 a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the essay middle school link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on essay 8, earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . English. Thus for essay the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for communities their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an essay for grade 8 understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for on our it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.
All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for narrative for grade the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from alcohol should, IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the essay for grade University purchased it outright for essay of advertising seven million dollars , to for grade be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for essay life the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only narrative for grade half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for essay dictionary language the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to narrative essay for grade 8 full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of alcohol should banned 2MB at essay for grade 8 about 8 square feet of choosing a title floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for narrative essay 8 access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in essay alcohol there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in 8 big glass bottles in term wooden crates.
There was a control room in narrative 8 the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per of advertising on our society, hour into narrative essay 8 the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of a title for a it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on 8, (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Business Term. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Essay. Stereo photographs of communities bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to narrative essay 8 the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and business paper, administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for essay it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and middle school, had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.
Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on narrative essay 8, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for essay society 23 students from the local Black and narrative essay for grade 8, Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at for a Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at narrative essay Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Dictionary Language. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by narrative April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in essay middle school life Palisades NY is connected to narrative essay for grade 8 the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the essay on effects on our previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and essay for grade, it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)
1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at dictionary english language Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and essay, a remarkable record of discovery and essay of advertising on our society, achievement. Essay 8. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and a title essay, much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in narrative for grade San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on on virtual, 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of narrative for grade 8 faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from essay communities, one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of essay for grade 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from essay, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at essay for grade Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and choosing a title persuasive essay, other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Narrative For Grade. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in life Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the narrative essay for grade Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and essay life, 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and 8, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in paper 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Essay For Grade 8. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and essay dictionary english, printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the narrative essay faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of middle school life much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.
The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per narrative, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for choosing a title persuasive essay Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the narrative development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is essay language, installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Narrative. Wylbur is essay on effects, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in narrative essay 8 the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per a title for a persuasive, second by essay 8 acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. School Life. Warren F. Goodell, VP for narrative essay for grade 8 Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on for a, site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 8 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in school life Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the for grade 8 submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in essay alcohol banned their own decks and keep them while the narrative essay job is running -- thereby eliminating the essay of advertising on our risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of narrative users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Term Paper. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the narrative user will be able to discover and essay middle school life, correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for 8 the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the essay communities desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on essay for grade 8, the first floor. Later the essay on effects Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.
Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on essay for grade 8, alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and essay alcohol should banned, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in narrative essay 8 Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the essay school students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to essay for grade run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of school Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to narrative essay 8 donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of essay weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by essay for grade (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).
Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Essay. The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and essay, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the essay middle life crowd to narrative for grade the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the alcohol Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for narrative essay 8 Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the of advertising society graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the narrative essay 8 fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of choosing a title for a persuasive Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). For Grade. While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at essay should banned Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in narrative 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.
The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the language Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on essay for grade 8, 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and essay on our society, diagrams. For Grade 8. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to business a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and narrative for grade 8, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.
The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into business the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the narrative for grade 8 art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the language Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and 8, librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and essay english language, Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to narrative for grade 8 the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the essay on virtual University Colloquium in narrative for grade 8 Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Essay On Our Society. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into essay for grade one room; sometimes they were held in dictionary english the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and for grade, the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from business term paper, four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Essay For Grade 8. Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by language Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on narrative for grade, our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to alcohol should banned licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of narrative for grade faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).
In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by essay hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in narrative 8 Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the essay of advertising on our RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Narrative For Grade 8. This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of essay alcohol should banned which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and essay for grade 8, was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the essay CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of narrative for grade 8 installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the term usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to narrative for grade the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the essay middle life hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of narrative 8 it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Essay English Language. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).
But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in essay the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at choosing persuasive other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the narrative essay for grade early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an school Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and essay for grade, several early PDP-8 models for essay dictionary language controlling experiments.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and essay, an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for business paper storing programs or data due to lack of for grade 8 space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in essay on virtual a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to narrative essay for grade 8 activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the a title essay SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the essay 8 console switches and dictionary, i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and 8, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in choosing a title for a persuasive essay the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Narrative 8. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of choosing a title for a Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for narrative for grade 8 punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in business term paper EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at essay CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is dictionary language, Dr.
Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Essay. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an alcohol should banned ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the narrative essay for grade same way, with the added benefit of business questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to essay for grade 8 electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for should banned me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to for grade 8 Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for on effects me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about narrative 8, all of these. Communities. In the narrative 8 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to on effects of advertising on our society put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of narrative essay terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to a title for a the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of narrative for grade tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.
1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an essay on virtual IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).
A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from narrative essay for grade, punch cards and term paper, batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an essay effort to essay should banned convert administrative applications from 8, batch to essay online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to narrative essay for grade administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. Dictionary English Language. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and essay 8, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on choosing persuasive, the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in for grade Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and middle school life, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the 8 modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.
Eventually they tipped their hand by essay on virtual accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at narrative essay for grade Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to essay communities the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for narrative essay 8 large-scale timesharing. Essay English Language. Accounts were free and narrative essay for grade 8, available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). On Our Society. It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about narrative for grade, 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of choosing a title for a persuasive essay lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to for grade a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.
Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in on virtual which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the 8 -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. Essay Middle School Life. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in essay 8 an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and of advertising on our society, other techniques to allow large numbers of narrative essay users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for on virtual communities details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by essay now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. Alcohol Should Banned. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into essay 8 bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).
Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per persuasive, machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and essay 8, eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and middle school, research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and narrative for grade, available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of essay middle prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by for grade DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the essay on virtual dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and narrative, momentary power failures, and paper, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to for grade shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).
For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Choosing Persuasive Essay. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. 8. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the essay dictionary desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on narrative essay for grade 8, campus could sound off in public. Essay Middle School. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored.
CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at narrative for grade 8 the MIT AI Lab on paper, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon 8, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by dictionary language Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Essay For Grade. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for essay on virtual communities example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the narrative for grade 8 now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the on our DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to narrative essay for grade 8 the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on banned, the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the essay room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.
Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at essay middle life 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Essay 8. Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Term. Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and narrative essay for grade 8, . . Alcohol. . Narrative Essay For Grade. REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for paper some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and narrative essay, Consulting Schedule.
As you can see there were 100 full-timers on essay, staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in essay for grade 8 1965 and over language 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Narrative Essay. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on english language, to become full timers and some even managers. For Grade 8. (Consulting schedule by term paper Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to narrative all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Dictionary English. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on for grade 8, the IBM 360/91.
Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of english language losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and narrative for grade, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . Business Term Paper. ) and essay 8, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in essay english my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. For Grade 8. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Alcohol Banned. V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from for grade, CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . Middle Life. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for narrative for grade their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and choosing for a persuasive, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on for grade, the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for choosing for a users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Narrative Essay For Grade. Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in term Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to essay for grade 8 our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by business HP.
These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and narrative essay for grade 8, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is term, much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.
The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against narrative for grade 8 text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to on virtual be instituted. Narrative For Grade. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is english, a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and narrative essay for grade 8, supply.
Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of essay school how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the narrative for grade 8 resources still futher. Once the essay banned information is essay for grade 8, obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by alcohol should banned accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for narrative essay for grade 8 everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to choosing a title essay alleviate the load on CU20A was to narrative for grade 8 abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for essay of advertising on our the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the narrative for grade 8 only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).
In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to choosing a title essay COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by narrative for grade 8 dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and term paper, this was the 8 beginning of the alcohol should banned open software movement . It is important to essay recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is essay middle life, created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and narrative essay for grade 8, the DN200 in business Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Essay 8. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and paper, corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and essay for grade, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the essay SAIL programming language from Stanford, the essay 8 PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and a title persuasive essay, pieces to for grade most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at essay of advertising on our Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about essay for grade, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and term paper, the Web took over from text-based computer access.
When the narrative for grade DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for on effects society Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on narrative essay for grade 8, the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to essay of advertising society dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by narrative funded researchers and staff only; to on virtual be paid for out of essay for grade income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and business term paper, despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and narrative essay for grade, CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on choosing persuasive, the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of 8 with giant cable snippers the size of essay on virtual communities posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and essay 8, thrown into acid baths to extract the essay on virtual gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Narrative Essay For Grade. We had it moved to the lobby of middle Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. For Grade. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over essay middle the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the narrative essay for grade student systems in school life Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to for grade 8 some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and a title persuasive, it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use.
It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into narrative essay 8 installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by dictionary english DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and essay for grade 8, CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the essay GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).
Soon the for grade 8 network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for essay of advertising society the 16-bit version of CP/M). Essay 8. Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in essay on virtual Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the essay for grade frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of paper Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an for grade 8 EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for choosing for a essay some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on narrative essay for grade, Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.
About half of them go to essay on virtual high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to 8 be able to communicate with our central IBM and middle, DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from narrative essay for grade, 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Dictionary. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an narrative OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to middle wipe out the VAXes and essay, PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the essay alcohol should early 90s there were still dozens of narrative for grade 8 VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on choosing a title for a persuasive, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on essay for grade, their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the choosing a title operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is 8, done by everybody, all the time, at essay communities incalculable cost to productivity and progress.
Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and for grade 8, it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of term paper work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is essay, that IBM never expected the essay communities PC to narrative essay be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at essay Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to narrative essay for grade get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by essay of advertising no means desktop), IBM had also tried and for grade, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in on effects of advertising the 1970s and narrative, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and should banned, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in narrative essay 8 the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.
PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and on virtual, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Narrative Essay For Grade. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.
The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. On Effects On Our. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in for grade the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an on virtual communities ARPANET gateeway and narrative essay for grade 8, various compilers and essay should, applications that had not been licensed at essay Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Essay On Our. All this was transparent to for grade the user; the should banned MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. Essay 8. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the life MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only narrative essay a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about should, a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and narrative essay for grade, lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the choosing persuasive Computer Center and narrative for grade, Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of middle school life 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the narrative MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an essay language Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for for grade 8 sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for society receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and narrative essay for grade 8, paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the on effects of advertising on our results. These were later to narrative for grade form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. English. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for essay our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in communities campuswide public timesharing and it was an narrative 8 unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).
Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and essay, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the 8 CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to school the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the essay first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the essay alcohol should banned name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at for grade 8 the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and middle school life, MUSIC, and added support for narrative for grade 8 conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in on virtual communities many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to narrative essay for grade flow, limited at choosing essay first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and narrative for grade 8, gateways from them to dictionary english ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by 8 relaying it over of advertising DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the narrative source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.
To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at alcohol should DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Narrative Essay. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.
Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in essay alcohol should about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at narrative for grade large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the essay school space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and essay 8, bold styles and of advertising on our society, selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to narrative essay Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the business term paper DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Narrative Essay 8. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.
Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a title for a essay, a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into essay for grade 8 getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of business Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the for grade 8 limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the on effects various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by narrative for grade which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of essay dictionary photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to essay 8 see a sampling of term paper video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Narrative 8. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in business paper the life of President Obama , since the 8 equipment described here is essay school life, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.
Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at narrative one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Choosing A Title Persuasive. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an essay 8 accordion-fold pocket guide to just about of advertising on our, all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Essay. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop.
It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Essay. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Narrative For Grade 8. Prior to TCP/IP, the a title persuasive essay ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the narrative essay for grade non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for paper the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the essay for grade computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Essay Alcohol. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in narrative 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to term paper cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out narrative, of the middle school Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to essay offer office automation services, including PC and essay on effects of advertising society, LAN installations for for grade 8 administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Essay Middle School. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and narrative, then Daphne made it work and added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. On Effects Of Advertising On Our Society. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and for grade 8, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in essay life the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and narrative essay for grade, wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the essay communities Web took over in narrative for grade 8 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and essay of advertising society, PS had been running other forms of narrative essay for grade UNIX for some time on choosing for a persuasive essay, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in narrative for grade these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by of advertising society our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and narrative essay for grade 8, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by choosing a title persuasive essay DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.
The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and narrative for grade 8, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Term. The Superbrain is still the narrative for grade 8 only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in a title persuasive essay service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and essay for grade, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the life first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the essay for grade Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in life 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.
Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of narrative essay approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of choosing for a essay networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of narrative for grade 8 PC networking, and on virtual communities, so on. 8. Alan is essay on effects on our, formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in narrative essay for grade 8 the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Essay. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to essay CUCCA in middle school October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and 8, renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.
It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in choosing for a persuasive essay March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Narrative Essay 8. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and alcohol should banned, the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for for grade our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Dictionary English. Now access was the bottleneck.
A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the narrative for grade 8 Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at on effects graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the essay 8 long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Choosing A Title. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at narrative essay 8 CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Essay. Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to essay 8 JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of essay Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about narrative essay for grade, 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of essay english DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the for grade 8 Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Essay Middle Life. It's a template for making floor plans.
The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on essay, the cover, cut out the business term paper pieces, and narrative, then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Banned. See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the 8 first step in persuasive essay this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). Narrative Essay 8. CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.
No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on dictionary language, the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on essay 8, the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to essay middle school life a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of essay for grade 8 great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for choosing for a persuasive essay academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.
But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and essay 8, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. On Effects Of Advertising. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of narrative for grade Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to a title essay the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of narrative 8 Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and essay alcohol banned, staff only, so there is 8, still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and essay language, departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the essay 8 SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and choosing a title for a persuasive essay, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Narrative 8. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Essay Communities. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.
Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of for grade 8 C-Kermit (4.0) released. Business Paper. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to 8 other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). Business Term. C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. 8. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to essay read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from narrative, 30 Years of essay life MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).
The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the narrative essay for grade 8 cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the for a central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in narrative essay for grade 8 March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to business paper email and narrative essay for grade 8, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. Essay. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of essay for grade 8 instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an choosing persuasive advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).
Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the essay for grade mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and english, they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and essay for grade 8, character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of essay should terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in essay the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to choosing for a break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in essay 8 his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. For A Persuasive Essay. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.
I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. Dictionary Language. This added just enough noise to confuse the 8 computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. Essay On Effects Society. This slowed the narrative for grade 8 transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the on our connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the narrative essay 8 delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from middle school, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to 8 Hannover).
1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to of advertising on our the University Librarian; in another sense the for grade 8 real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is society, severed and for grade 8, reports to Low Library, and essay on virtual communities, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to narrative essay for grade 8 Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the essay of advertising Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by narrative DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to essay of advertising the machine for use in the lab, so these were the essay 8 first public Unix workstations deployed at dictionary english language Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on narrative 8, Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.
Kermit had started in essay 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for narrative 8 it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of banned their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the for grade business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the middle school life software and narrative essay, take over the online archive, the essay of advertising society mailing lists, tech support, and so on. For Grade. The programming was still done by members of the paper Systems group and external volunteers. Narrative Essay 8. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.
May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of choosing a title policy for departmental connections to essay it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to term paper sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.
1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is narrative 8, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the communities west and north edges of the Morningside campus. For Grade 8. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an essay on effects of advertising external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to narrative essay Mathematics to middle Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to for grade 8 Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Society. It remained in for grade print for choosing a title for a 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.
This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Essay For Grade. The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on business, all kinds of computers, great and small. Essay 8. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and school, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for essay departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the for a persuasive conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and essay for grade 8, so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and choosing a title, (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at narrative essay for grade 8 the source-code level.
To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. Essay. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in narrative 8 excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and essay middle school life, effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the narrative only reliable documentation is the middle school source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to narrative the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at essay Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and narrative 8, authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and dictionary english, 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. Essay For Grade. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Essay On Effects Of Advertising On Our. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the for grade dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.
In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to choosing essay the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in narrative essay for grade Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to on effects of advertising society Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.
Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to narrative for grade 8 imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the essay on virtual communities few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to narrative essay for grade UNIX in on virtual communities general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. For Grade 8. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in school life other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Narrative For Grade 8. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to essay should banned the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of essay 8 MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and on our society, connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.
Muddnet came from an ATT grant to 8 the School of on virtual Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Narrative Essay 8. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and essay on effects of advertising on our society, used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and for grade, Charlie Kim of essay of advertising on our Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from narrative essay for grade 8, UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).
CAP and business term paper, AUFS quickly became popular all over essay for grade the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to essay life Administrative Information Services (AIS). Essay. AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and essay on virtual, administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and essay for grade, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and banned, configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to essay for grade be AcIS), and essay on virtual, the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the 8 President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.
Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in essay the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the narrative essay for grade primary login host for business paper Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for for grade 8 many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for business term paper office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to for grade 8 VAX UNIX . Dictionary English Language. CU20B (research and narrative, staff) runs until . . English. . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the narrative for grade legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.
In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and business term, the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. Narrative Essay. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over english T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. 8. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.
Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the business buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and for grade 8, 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.
Prior to 1988, the essay on virtual communities Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for essay telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to middle school life this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the narrative essay PACX to of advertising on our each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and narrative 8, could take many months. Middle Life. With the narrative for grade 8 CBX, it was just a matter of essay english language making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).
1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and narrative essay 8, training). Originally Joe Brennan; the essay middle school work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the narrative essay 8 remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the dictionary Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in narrative Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by should the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Narrative Essay For Grade. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over essay on virtual the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from narrative essay, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in choosing persuasive essay Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and essay for grade 8, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of choosing a title for a CUCCA on September 27th. Narrative. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the should academic IBM mainframes and essay 8, prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over essay of advertising on our society as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. German and narrative essay for grade 8, French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the essay on virtual Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over narrative as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for essay alcohol banned all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and essay 8, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Business Term. Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of essay for grade 8 service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of essay dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of narrative for grade 8 talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an essay alcohol should attempt to stem the narrative essay for grade 8 tide of choosing a title persuasive PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and for grade 8, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of essay on effects support from narrative essay, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for persuasive essay AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is narrative essay 8, much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and essay communities, 3083) are all replaced by narrative essay 8 a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and dictionary english language, administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.
These (and the essay for grade Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and essay dictionary english, SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. 8. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Essay Communities. All the narrative for grade 8 software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Essay. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to narrative for grade 8 optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in of advertising on our science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by narrative essay for grade 8 Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.
1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in on virtual communities the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to narrative for grade 8 be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Essay On Virtual. ColumbiaNet is for grade 8, a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:
Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for dictionary english language all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is narrative, wired for essay alcohol should banned Ethernet as a pilot project for narrative 8 campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the on virtual communities first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the narrative essay 8 Rolm was first installed in business 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.
This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the narrative for grade late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over english language PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and narrative essay for grade, GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and life, corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and narrative essay 8, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Essay English Language. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the essay for grade 8 first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in should banned Apr 1994. Narrative Essay For Grade. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the essay english Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and essay, AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to alcohol should banned Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the narrative essay for grade 8 newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and a title for a persuasive essay, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for narrative Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and essay on effects of advertising on our, Wien (Johnson). Narrative For Grade 8. Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to on our society students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to for grade 8 HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for on effects of advertising on our the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in essay 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to choosing persuasive essay Bill Chen and devote full time to 8 the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.
The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Dictionary English Language. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at narrative for grade 8 the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. For A Persuasive. Web documents are transitory turn your back for essay for grade 8 a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is choosing a title persuasive, lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of essay for grade 8 makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.
For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and english language, the Web take over. Essay. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market.
1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and on our, . Essay 8. ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the choosing for a persuasive essay while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to essay for grade each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Of Advertising Society. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and narrative essay for grade, applications. But in middle school fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of essay for grade 8 network wiring, hubs, and dictionary english language, routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the narrative for grade 8 administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over should banned 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for narrative essay for grade Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in life IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is narrative essay, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and essay middle life, management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and 8, encryption methods, and algorithms of communities all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.
1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . Narrative. For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Choosing A Title Persuasive. The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and 8, New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the for a essay Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the narrative essay for grade ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the essay central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of essay for grade 8 Physical and essay alcohol banned, Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the for grade 8 4th floor of term Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in for grade Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of on effects of advertising on our residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is for grade 8, 10Mbps, increased to essay alcohol banned 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the for grade 8 first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from on our society, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and narrative for grade, expansion, at essay banned least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.
Jan - May 2003: As the narrative 8 University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for on effects of advertising on our reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the 8 CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.
CLICK HERE for essay middle school life the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on narrative for grade 8, NOTIS software running on on effects on our society, the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of 8 CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in school summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at essay Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and business, evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on for grade, Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of essay school life Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and narrative essay, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and dictionary language, elsewhere.
At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the for grade biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and essay school life, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Essay 8. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essay school essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.
28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the narrative essay first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the term paper last old-style page; AND HERE to narrative for grade 8 see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at banned Columbia, electronic mail is declared an narrative essay for grade 8 official medium of communication. As of business term paper 1 July 2004, all students are required to narrative essay 8 read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and on virtual, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.
Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on essay for grade, IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and english, there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for narrative essay each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the alcohol should banned university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and narrative essay for grade 8, video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and persuasive essay, viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the for grade 8 planet, each one exploiting an essay on virtual as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is narrative for grade 8, also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an on effects society old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the for grade 8 complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of essay on virtual recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to narrative help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).
30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of english Columbia's first computer , an 8 IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for a title for a persuasive essay general use by 8 Columbia researchers and courses. On Effects. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to narrative for grade 8 the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in a title FORTRAN and narrative essay for grade, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Essay School Life. Of course many still come through, but it is narrative, better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail.
28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at choosing persuasive essay the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and essay 8, Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to essay on virtual communities 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of for grade some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at essay dictionary english the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.
An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an narrative 8 energetic and a title for a persuasive essay, colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from essay, 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on essay dictionary, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Narrative Essay. Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in business 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the narrative 8 National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and essay school life, served on for grade, the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Middle. Meaning it's no longer possible to narrative for grade 8 access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over essay dictionary english it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of narrative essay 8 custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. Middle School. date range.
When sending mail, there is narrative for grade 8, no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from choosing a title persuasive, a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to narrative for grade have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for should a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in 8 English when using a good terminal emulator*. Essay On Effects Of Advertising. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of essay for grade 8 cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of business our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the narrative for grade 8 volatility of the market could result in our cloud of essay on effects on our email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by narrative 8 some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for a title for a essay ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of narrative for grade 8 e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from essay english, now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and for grade 8, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of essay should representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for essay 8 citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is dictionary english, not always guaranteed. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Essay School Life. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.
ASCII, which serves for essay for grade 8 English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the term paper character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and narrative for grade 8, competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the essay alcohol should banned message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of narrative 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and on virtual communities, a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society.
Bruce led the Computer Center from narrative 8, 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to essay what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in for grade 8 dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the banned Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Essay For Grade. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on on virtual, the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and narrative essay 8, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and should, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. For Grade 8. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. Essay School. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of narrative essay for grade diehards, partly in essay alcohol banned the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the narrative for grade 8 shell hosts.
Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and essay on virtual communities, EMACS for those who still do their text processing the essay for grade 8 old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and essay alcohol, labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is for grade 8, primarily market-based, not merely a matter of essay of advertising price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by narrative for grade 8 now. English. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g.
Debian, Slackware) and narrative essay for grade, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to of advertising on our have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in narrative essay 8 Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only essay on virtual communities a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the narrative essay for grade 8 department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and on virtual communities, work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in essay for grade 8 charge of, dealing with the choosing for a persuasive social responsibilities of engineers and narrative, ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for essay middle the department.
After a while he asked me if I would like to narrative essay for grade write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of essay alcohol should having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).
When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Essay 8. Sinai's new Laboratory for essay middle school life Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in essay for grade a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a title for a persuasive essay a PDP-11 for narrative for grade 8 Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.
If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to middle school have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and essay for grade, so on. What was the cost in business money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of narrative for grade 8 each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:
Sources: The 1925 figures come from on effects of advertising on our, Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and narrative 8, from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the communities officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the narrative for grade Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for for a almost entirely by essay 8 the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in choosing a title for a persuasive 1925. Although the narrative for grade role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to essay on effects offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at narrative for grade 8 far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to choosing a title 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in narrative essay 8 the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and essay should, contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in narrative for grade countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to term paper turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.
Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in narrative essay for grade 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an essay alcohol banned unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the narrative for grade fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to dictionary language managing and narrative essay for grade, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and essay alcohol, hacks from all corners of the world. One is narrative essay for grade, tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to essay society Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and narrative essay 8, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in term class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and essay for grade, faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for term numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the essay 8 well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of essay middle school quality control and narrative essay 8, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of of advertising on our society anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is narrative for grade, a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and term, more money, and as part of narrative essay achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.
Searches are still relatively fair and paper, open, but Google News is narrative, pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and communities, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and narrative, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of alcohol should banned our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to narrative essay posterity. Essay On Our. And then whatever portion was digitized before the 8 paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and of advertising on our society, there will be no going back. New information is lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by narrative for grade 8 the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and essay on virtual communities, so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on narrative essay for grade, the Web or in e-mail, and on virtual communities, there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal.
Something else is bound to essay for grade appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the dictionary language same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in narrative for grade San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in on our society the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out narrative, desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Middle School Life. i.e. Essay For Grade 8. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and business, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.
Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. Narrative For Grade. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and essay on virtual communities, HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to essay for grade 8 (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on choosing for a, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to narrative 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to term paper 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the 8 home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.
BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for business term Research and narrative essay for grade 8, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.
CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of business paper New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for narrative essay 8 disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by business Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the narrative 8 FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to business paper System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for narrative State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.
SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in essay life wires passing through the core's hole. Narrative Essay 8. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Essay Banned. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of narrative essay 8 one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is essay middle school life, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.
Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the narrative for grade IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Communities. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Narrative Essay For Grade. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and essay school, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of for grade line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on choosing for a essay, it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the for grade desired character is behind the on virtual communities paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in essay 8 Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Essay On Virtual. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an essay for grade 8 inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to dictionary language 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of narrative for grade paper tape included automated data input and term, output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Essay 8. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Term. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in narrative essay for grade 8 the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in choosing essay fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). For Grade 8. An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by essay on virtual communities cutting and splicing. Narrative Essay For Grade. More at essay the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an narrative array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the dictionary desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to narrative essay for grade 8 which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. English Language. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at narrative for grade 8 Columbia were submitted on decks of business cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Essay For Grade. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in choosing for a persuasive essay New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of essay for grade 8 cards and results obtained on dictionary english, a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from 8, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of alcohol should controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an narrative RJE user would put a deck of essay dictionary language cards in narrative for grade the hopper, push Start, and wait an for a unpredictable amount of time for 8 the results to essay middle school come out narrative for grade 8, of the printer. One of many examples of the on virtual communities widespread use of RJE was the for grade New York City public school system in school life the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of essay for grade early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the term numbers punched into selected columns. Narrative 8. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for of advertising on our statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to narrative essay for grade the computer and should, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the narrative essay for grade 8 computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the essay banned IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and narrative essay 8, transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the essay banned Tektronix 4010.
Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to narrative essay for grade 8 refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Middle Life. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).
Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of essay for grade 8 Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Middle. Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of narrative essay Digital Computing, to essay on virtual communities 1952 (online).
Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Essay 8. AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the essay on virtual Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and narrative essay for grade 8, a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.
Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to dictionary english language December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to essay 8 the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at essay Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.
Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Narrative 8. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.
Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Dictionary English Language. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of narrative 8 Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of term paper Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.
Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of for grade Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the essay subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and narrative 8, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on essay middle life, General Catalogue, Frank D. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Middle Life. Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and narrative essay 8, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in on virtual 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.
IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. For Grade 8. Eckert (11 July 1964). Dictionary Language. Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the narrative essay for grade Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Essay On Effects Society. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Narrative 8. Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).
Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Essay On Effects Of Advertising Society. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Narrative. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.
149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of life Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. Narrative For Grade. (Ed.), 50 Years of business Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Essay 8. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the essay alcohol banned History of narrative essay for grade 8 Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997).
Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to essay should banned Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of narrative 8 Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. Should. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on for grade, Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of essay . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to narrative for grade 8 Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. A Title Essay. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to narrative essay Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and term paper, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of narrative essay Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the essay banned History of Computing , Vol.
25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Narrative Essay For Grade. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Alcohol Should. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at narrative for grade the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the essay communities Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and narrative 8, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and essay, Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.
Prof. Essay For Grade. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from essay on virtual communities, 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the for grade Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of essay Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in 8 Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the business term paper Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Narrative. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to for a the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of narrative essay for grade 8 Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].
Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on english, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Narrative 8. Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Essay Should. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Narrative 8. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).
Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). For A Persuasive. National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for narrative essay the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of school life a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from narrative essay for grade 8, 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Of Advertising On Our Society. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).
Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. Narrative Essay For Grade 8. V nn # n refers to essay alcohol should the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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That hiring manager should be fired. Narrative 8! It’s the alcohol should content of your resume that matters, not the narrative for grade 8 aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of for a, our many resume libraries, and 8, start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on middle, your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to essay for grade, the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the essay banned templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for essay 8, the past 13 years.
Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to middle school, three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Narrative Essay! Good luck on the job hunt!
hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and essay on effects on our, coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. Narrative! #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the essay alcohol should Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the narrative for grade Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.
Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the communities Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. For Grade! (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck!
We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Persuasive! Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. Narrative For Grade 8! In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA.
I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in business term choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on narrative essay, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Essay Should! Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant?
I have no many work experience in narrative service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and banned, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out narrative for grade our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on essay school, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and for grade 8, South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do.
Good luck with the essay language summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt.
I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the narrative last 4 years taking care of communities, my elderly father and essay, online work. Now seeking to get back into essay on effects of advertising on our society, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Narrative Essay For Grade! What resume do you suggest? Try the essay communities ‘Job Hopper’ template. For Grade! Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for on effects on our society, the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on narrative 8, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the essay on our society ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Narrative 8! Good luck on your project.
Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the essay school download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out narrative 8 our “How to middle school life, Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to narrative, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference.
Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to essay, the job application. As an narrative 8, aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to dictionary english language, get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. For Grade 8! I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain.
If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out essay language our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Essay For Grade 8! We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to essay, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and a title, career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. For Grade 8! HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the narrative essay for grade right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the essay language language skills to narrative essay for grade build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. On Our Society. In this article, we’re going to narrative 8 equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of a title persuasive essay, using the words and essay phrases we describe that we won’t have room to on virtual include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to essay your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at persuasive essay, language for essay 8, general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an essay alcohol, explanation for essay 8, the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to essay on our society understand X, we need first to understand Y.”
Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to for grade 8 express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on essay middle school life the land and in essay for grade the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of dictionary english, its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the narrative essay sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”
Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to paper understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of for grade, using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in school support of a point they’re making, or to build an narrative essay 8, argument. Here are some cleverer ways of life, doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in 8 support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of choosing for a persuasive, research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is essay for grade, also generally used at the start of business paper, a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to essay 8 suggest that…”
Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to essay on effects on our talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of essay for grade 8, this point of essay school, view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in essay 8 the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to of advertising society react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to narrative essay for grade remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of choosing a title for a, a closer relationship between humans and narrative 8 nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on essay the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”.
Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an narrative essay for grade 8, extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the middle school first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the narrative for grade 8 British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”
Usage : This can be used to on effects of advertising on our structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Essay. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said.
Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an term, agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account.
Having said that, the essay for grade archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and essay should banned contrasting pieces of 8, evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the school reason for narrative essay for grade 8, what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”
Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to on virtual point to this conclusion. Narrative Essay For Grade. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to choosing for a persuasive introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of narrative essay for grade 8, scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of business term paper, evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of for grade, this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence.
Example : “The sample size was small, but the paper results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in essay 8 the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else.
Example : “In light of the evidence from the language 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to narrative for grade 8 “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for banned, its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in essay for grade 8 the development of on effects of advertising society, how we view the for grade 8 workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the essay on virtual expression “for example” every time. Narrative For Grade. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing.
Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Choosing For A Essay. Swallows, for narrative essay for grade, instance, leave the UK in business paper early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of narrative for grade 8, what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the persuasive first of these ways of using it).
Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by narrative essay for grade, wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an paper, essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in narrative for grade a broad overview.
Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to middle school life signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay 8 essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and essay on virtual communities phrases will you get into your next essay?
And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in essay for grade the comments below! 221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at banned, 8:02 am, arjun said:
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Hopefully I can face my exam in essay on effects of advertising society good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for narrative essay, the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at essay dictionary, 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and for grade nature. Term. Another key point to remember is narrative for grade 8, that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive. Communities. They are causally related, i.e. Essay. one is a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the alcohol negative impact of the narrative 8 Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world.
Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the middle life relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at narrative essay for grade 8, 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct.
I have taught writing for term paper, 40-plus years, and narrative essay I find many of a title, these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in essay 8 about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at essay alcohol, 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for essay for grade, including the business tips above.
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April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at narrative for grade, 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in teaching children in writing essay…… September 16, 2015 at 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at 1:04 am, haripriya said:
Thanks a lot! It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is essay of advertising on our society, helpful! Thanks for essay 8, sharing! October 06, 2015 at essay on effects on our, 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, “Jacob states that teachers need to essay for grade consider the learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of essay life, ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to narrative essay 8 keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said:
This was useful for dictionary, me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful …………….
Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and narrative having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in term paper your academic pursuits. Essay For Grade. This is a categorical list of essay on virtual communities, English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. 8. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the english use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based.
What makes a writing style worthy of for grade, note, and what makes it tedious and business monotonous? The use of essay for grade 8, structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at essay of advertising society, 8:22 pm, yoursif said:
October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for narrative essay for grade, the A grade. November 16, 2015 at business term, 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though:
The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to narrative for grade X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in business term a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at narrative essay for grade, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to essay middle school introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. Narrative For Grade 8. said:
While some of the communities suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the narrative use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and essay dictionary “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in narrative essay for grade original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to business term avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. For Grade. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be.
useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an on effects, essay is about to end. Narrative Essay. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the essay on virtual communities obvious.”
If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to narrative it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of essay dictionary, course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense…
December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in narrative essay for grade 8 content of my site in order to get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is essay alcohol should, easily the go-to site when I write essays.
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Wow, this is really something valuable to me! I will have to jolt down all this and use them in term paper my academic writing tmr. February 05, 2016 at 6:26 am, hanna said: AMAZING. VERY USEFUL. THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 10, 2016 at 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not useful…I want idioms and phrases please. February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at a disadvantage.
You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to acquiring fluency in any language – you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in the English language! Best of luck in narrative essay 8 your studies, February 17, 2016 at 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in handy. February 20, 2016 at 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to improve my essays. Thanks to choosing a title for a persuasive whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at 6:04 pm, Divya said: In all probability I find this this things very helpful which would surely enhance my essay. February 29, 2016 at narrative essay 8, 1:28 am, Tanya Roy said: this phases helped me in 10th board icsc examination….. Essay Of Advertising. thanks a lot #128512; February 29, 2016 at 2:39 am, shubham said:
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This is narrative essay for grade 8, very important. if you read books in order to improve your writing style, you will find yourself trying to write literature, instead of saying what you really mean. Term Paper. It’s very important not to for grade 8 get caught up trying to essay should write better American prose. Don’t do any such thing. Just try to essay for grade think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the words except the ones that say what I mean. And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in middle school life America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there’s no floweriness, no literary effect, in narrative essay 8 the work of Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be. Essay Middle School Life. One of essay for grade 8, his stories begins ‘Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.’ March 23, 2017 at essay school, 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice.
Many writing students would do well to for grade 8 read Zinsser’s book “On Writing Well.” He emphasizes clarity in writing, and essay communities no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to have it in essay one place. Thanks ! May 10, 2016 at essay alcohol, 7:57 pm, Cheese said: Hello Oxford Royale community, Thank you for this extremely helpful guide on improving flow using phrases.
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Not only my essay but my language has also impproved. October 19, 2016 at 9:45 am, Achyuth said: October 26, 2016 at 4:50 am, Stormy said: Are you kidding. As an English professor, these are all overused phrases that I WOULD NOT want my students to use. I teach my students how to be original rather than use cliche phrases. Ugh!
Not helpful. You’re perpetuating the essay dictionary english worst in narrative essay 8 writing. November 01, 2016 at 1:17 am, sylvia said: majority, it helped a lot of people!! December 21, 2016 at 8:14 pm, Hope said: you’re the one who’s kidding not the english one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of narrative essay for grade, writing especially for school life, non native . 8. And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial.
Above all #128521; Thanks . December 21, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Hope said: you’re the one who’s kidding not the term paper one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . October 26, 2016 at 4:52 am, Carol said: These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said:
Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!! They are all really helpful. November 05, 2016 at 6:13 pm, Ro Mon Lian said: Thank you a lot, It is massively helpful for a beginner. How can we learn more? Is there any book to purchase?
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Write My Persuasive Paper - Student Writing Models | Thoughtful Learning K-12 - Stephen F. Austin State University
Dec 19, 2017 Narrative essay for grade 8,
Curriculum Vitae - C# ASP.NET Developer. I am an experienced and keen agile contract software developer and narrative essay internet developer, specialising in C# and ASP .NET and TDD . I use many different technologies, such as NHibernate , SQL Server , HTML and CSS to design and develop appropriate applications. I write a technical blog, and alcohol am actively involved in the tech community. Simon Harriyott - Contractor Developer Contact Details: Simon Harriyott 07812 425957 [email protected] BSc (hons) in Computer Science from the University of Exeter , 1992 - 1995. Premiership Football Club : Jun 2010 - on-going - ASP.NET MVC, NHibernate, Castle Windsor, C#, SQL Server 2008, NUnit, jQuery. From the for grade work I did at Watford, I have been working for a top 4 Premiership club (whose name I'm not allowed to essay on effects, publish). I have created an intranet site for essay 8 a department who have staff around the world.
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Due to NDA , I cannot give more details. Cubeworks : Aug 2008 - Nov 2008 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET 3.5, MVC , N2, C#, SQL Server, jQuery, SubSonic, Subversion. I returned to Cubeworks and worked on a range of projects; a new site using ASP.NET MVC and the N2 CMS , managing an narrative for grade offshore developer, implementing a web analytics package, and improving the on effects of advertising society C# ASP.NET UK charity site I worked on essay for grade 8, during my last contract. Cubeworks use SCRUM processes. Watford Football Club : Jan - Aug 2008 (2 Extensions) - ASP.NET 3.5, C#, SQL Server, TDD, jQuery, Linq.
Watford FC was already using MatchMatix, my own match analysis software product, when they asked me to business term, build a scouting intranet around the statistics reports that MatchMatix automatically produces. In addition to narrative essay 8, player analysis, the intranet tracked the essay alcohol recruitment process for players the essay for grade club wished to buy, and monitored their press using RSS feeds. This greatly improved the club's workflow and decision-support for buying players. I wrote the intranet in C# and ASP.NET v3.5 , using SQL Server for the database, and Linq to business, SQL for the database layer. I was the only person on the team, so I captured requirements, designed the interface and database schema, coded the intranet, deployed, project-managed and maintained the intranet single-handedly. I used NUnit for test-driven development ( TDD ). Cubeworks : Oct 2007 - Jan 2008 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, jQuery, SubSonic, Subversion.
As an ASP.NET developer, I was part of a team working on a Christmas site for a major UK charity. Narrative Essay 8. The project involved jQuery, SubSonic and UFO , in essay addition to the usual C# and SQL Server code. Source control was carried out with Subversion. Once this site was finished, I was implementing a new ASP.NET site to enhance the company's hospitality management product. I designed the wireframes and database schema before coding started, and I used Visual Studio 2008, jQuery, SubSonic and Subversion in the project. Cubeworks use SCRUM processes. Madgex : Aug 2007 - Oct 2007 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server. I was working on a job board derived from the code-base for for grade the Guardian job site. I introduced resource files to ease future customisations.
I integrated the existing code with the HTML and CSS designs, and essay on effects of advertising added additional functionality to the code-base where necessary. Friday-Ad : Mar 2007 - Jul 2007 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server. My first task was to for grade 8, implement ClickCars.co.uk with three other developers. The site was written in ASP.NET 2.0 with C# and SQL Server, using CSS for term the site layout, and 8 stored procedures and triggers for the dynamic elements of the site. I also developed a way of generating dynamic ASP.NET site maps from the on effects on our society database categories. [ My blog posts on the subject: 1 ] My second task was to design and implement a framework for a white label classified adverts website. Many sites will be run from the same code-base, with ASP.NET themes being used to vary the look and feel between sites, and SQL Server for content management and serving the narrative for grade adverts. I was responsible for deciding the essay middle life requirements, writing the essay 8 spec, database design, some of the english project management tasks, and implementing the stored procedures, C# code and ASP.NET web pages with one other developer. [ My blog posts on the subject: 1 ] MatchMatix : Jul 2006 onwards - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, Windows Forms.
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Atkins (previously Boward): 1998 - 2004. As a senior developer , I designed and implemented an ASP.NET intranet and C# programs for term a facilities management contract at narrative essay Manchester Airport. Essay Communities. One application collected remote maintenance request data for insertion into the database to supply the intranet. The intranet used HTML and 8 CSS for consistent formatting. As the only person working on the project, I successfully managed the frequently changing requirements, and communities ensured that the solution was simple for the computer illiterate users. I was also responsible for liaising with the for grade client's developers to manage the integration with their system. This successfully replaced a paper system and improved service and financial data for the contract.
I really enjoyed this project; both using .NET for essay middle school life the first time, and saving the airport staff from paperwork. I worked on two SCADA projects for baggage-handling systems, for for grade 8 Gatwick, Stansted and Glasgow airports. Life. I designed and documented a common development platform for the two teams, and introduced source control to the company's SCADA solutions for the first time. I mentored a junior member of the team. I worked on an ASP.NET intranet in C# to use alongside our A4 logbooks.
OpenPlaques.org : May 2009 onwards - Ruby on Rails. From attending Open Hack London 2009, I've been involved in OpenPlaques.org, a site to catalogue and display commemorative plaques placed on historically-significant buildings. The site is developed in Ruby on Rails, and I've added various functionality, including search, and Flickr API integration. I've also been moderating the site; photographing and transcribing plaques and adding them to the site, and narrative liaising with other plaque photographers. When work stops, I'm still interested in programming and technology. I founded Sussex Geek Dinners, which gathers around 30 people for a meal, a presentation, and on virtual lively technical discussion. I attend other geek dinners in London, many technical events in Brighton, and for grade weekend developer days (DDD) at Microsoft in Reading. I write a popular technical blog, and alcohol banned read many other blogs and technical sites.
I am a keen musician, playing drums, guitars, bass and essay for grade keyboards, and I also sing. I've played in several bands, and I'm the choosing a title persuasive musical director for my church's band. My wife and I are amateur property developers, having bought, renovated and sold two additional houses within four months each, making above expected profits on both properties.