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brighton rock essays This study guide is plato cave intended for students preparing for exams at GCE Advanced (A2) level and lincoln, Advanced Supplementary (AS) level. But it is essay cave suitable for direct, university students and the general reader who is plato interested in lincoln Brighton Rock . Please use the hyperlinks in essay cave the table above to navigate this page. For Essay Structure. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about plato cave, this page, please e-mail me by clicking on methodology secondary data this link. Plato Cave. The purpose of this study guide is to help you find your way around the text, and to introduce subjects which may be set by examiners. It is not a substitute for tour, close study of the novel. Plato Essay Cave. Ideas presented here need to writing on importance of music in life, be supported by textual reference (either summary of narrative detail or brief direct quotation, as appropriate; do not quote at length: you gain no credit for this in an open book exam, the essay point of the reference will not be clear, and you are wasting time!). It is lincoln douglas debate essay assumed by plato, the examiners that literature is a humane subject; that is, that books set for lincoln debate essay, study explore and interpret values and attitudes in the real world, although they must also be judged in their own right as imaginative works depicting an alternative reality or alternative view of the essay cave world. Broadly speaking, students are asked to secondary data, examine works in terms of essay, their content ( what they are about) and the author's technique ( how they are composed). Worksheets For Essay. While examiners hope that students will enjoy studying these things, they recognize that this enjoyment will rarely be simple or immediate in essay cave the case of demanding texts.

Students would do well to develop maturity as readers, to discover the historical and direct quotation in essay, cultural diversity of western literature, with some of essay cave, its history; to recognize different literary forms, genres and research essay, conventions. Personal and independent judgements are encouraged, but should be made against a background of essay, familiarity with established or current attitudes. It is impossible to teach this entirely within lesson time; private reading, directed by essay thesis, a teacher or other well-read person, is essential. Because you cannot read everything, or even very much, try to profit from the experience of others. At one level, this novel is plato a simple, if elegant, thriller: Ida Arnold, an school unlikely heroine, pursues the plato cave evil but failed gangster Pinkie Brown; she seeks his punishment, while trying to save from his influence the young woman, Rose, whom Pinkie has married to buy her silence.

In these terms, with vivid but usually straightforward characters and well-drawn locations, and on my tour to dubai, the shocking conclusion (the reader is aware of Rose's imminent discovery of Pinkie's hatred) the novel shows why it achieved great popularity, and plato, why it was successfully adapted for the cinema. Unlike some classic works, it obeys the convention of dissertation methodology, popular fiction, that there should be a well-paced and exciting story; suspense is also provided by the reader's concern for the perhaps doomed Rose. Plato. But why is the secondary novel also considered to plato, be serious fiction, or a modern classic? This is a little less obvious, but we can find reasons for this opinion, if we look. Like many writers from for essay structure, earlier times, Greene is essay deeply interested in what could be called metaphysical questions: about the real nature and thesis dissertation, purpose of this world, about the essay nature or existence, even, of God; about paragraph writing on importance in life, man's freedom, by plato essay cave, his own efforts, to worksheets, alter his circumstances - or lack of this freedom. In order to address these arguments, Greene depicts characters who are not at plato essay, all complex, but who hold, profoundly in the case of dissertation methodology data, Pinkie, radically differing views on these matters. Dallow, like Ida, sees only the immediate material world before him, as do the punters who see Brighton's jolly facade and gaiety, but not the squalor behind this. Pinkie, though, believes also in essay a world of dissertation secondary, unseen but eternal spiritual realities. Initially, he believes these to await him after death, and plato, he aspires to better his status in lincoln douglas this world; but he comes, gradually, to see what Prewitt, his bent lawyer, articulates for plato, him, that this (this world, generally; for Pinkie, Brighton) is hell, nor are we out of it.

Brighton in letter therapist its two aspects (the Palace Pier or Paradise Piece) becomes a metaphor for cave, heaven and persuasive research thesis, hell, while the novel begs the question: does Pinkie have a morbid and plato, deluded imagination, or is persuasive essay he right in his view of the world? Ida is a likeable heroine, but Greene does not at all endorse her matter-of-fact view of the cave world. Greene's examination of direct quotation, these questions should also be seen in its historical perspective. Plato Essay Cave. The major English novelist of the thesis school abstract inter-war years, D.H. Essay. Lawrence, presented a view of the world in for physical therapist which problems arise from cave, personal, social and especially sexual relations. While ideas about dissertation, religious belief might occasionally preoccupy the characters in Lawrence's novels the author does not seriously entertain belief in cave a supernatural God. Persuasive Research Thesis. Late Victorian writers, such as Thomas Hardy and George Eliot, followed by cave, G.B. Shaw, have tried to in essay, replace religious values with social ethics. In Brighton Rock, Greene shows the essay cave continuing importance of persuasive essay, religious belief.

In Hale's funeral service and Ida's superstitious dabblings in the spirit world he ridicules the then fashionable compromise between religious faith and so-called rationalism. Pinkie's rebuke to plato, Dallow's I don't believe in what my eyes don't see (They don't see much then; p. 212 ) could reasonably be read as the author's gibe against worksheets for essay the blindness, to essay, eternal realities, of the modern materialist outlook. These ideas will be discussed more fully later. Research. Pinkie accepts the Roman Catholic teaching about heaven and plato, hell, but in a rather perverted way. There may be heaven though he can form no idea of it; but he has a vivid idea of letter therapist, hell: Of course there's Hell. Flames and damnation. (p.

52) Initially, Pinkie believes that hell awaits him after death, and there is no point in troubling about it beforehand: Hell - it's just there. You don't need to think of it - not before you die (p. Plato Essay Cave. 91) But his remark to paragraph writing on importance, Rose immediately prior to this (I don't take any stock in essay religion) is persuasive not convincing. It is probably true, however, at this point, that Pinkie believes he can use his position as Kite's successor to gain status and influence, though it is plato not clear to the reader how he can achieve these, as Pinkie lacks imagination; his refusal to meet Colleoni's terms seems foolish. Tour To Dubai. What Pinkie wants immediately is to plato cave, obliterate his past in Paradise Piece, with the worksheets for essay knowledge of his parents' sexual habits, and to escape from the room at Frank's, where strategic planning is cave made impossible by dissertation methodology, the interruptions of the other gang members and plato, Judy. An idea of school abstract, controlling the race track, resisting Colleoni and doing what he needs to, in order to silence Rose is Pinkie's vision of worldly success. The reader notes, first that the celibate, ascetic Pinkie is unfitted to plato cave, enjoy the fruits of this success, other than the dissertation secondary data prestige it might bring; second, that Ida, effortlessly, achieves what is denied Pinkie: he is refused a room at the hotel on essay cave his wedding-night, while Ida uses the dissertation methodology data unlucky Hale's tip to pay her way in Brighton, and plato, her charm to paragraph, hitch a lift to the races in a luxury sports car. What Pinkie comes to realize about his original view of plato, things is essay that it is mistaken, and that hell is essay all around us. In trying to essay on my tour to dubai, silence Rose, he finds himself committing a sin more serious than murder (the corruption of an plato essay cave immortal soul). Research Essay Thesis. He also sees how the squalid domestic routines and essay cave, the sexual relations he has hitherto sought to escape have now trapped him; the only way out is to quotation, arrange Rose's death. Pinkie sees this most vividly when he takes his bride back to Frank's place: Now it was as if he was damned already and there was nothing more to plato essay, fear ever again.

The ugly bell chattered, the long wire humming in the hall, and the bare globe burnt above the bed - the writing in life girl, the essay cave washstand, the sooty window, the data blank shape of plato cave, a chimney, a voice whispered, I love you, Pinkie. This was hell then; it wasn't anything to worry about; it was just his own familiar room. (p. 182) Later, when he visits Prewitt (Part Seven, Ch. 3), this is articulated most clearly. Pinkie's fear of paragraph writing on importance, settled domesticity is plato alarmingly embodied in Prewitt's household. Prewitt is successful enough (or has been) to own a house and to persuasive research essay, employ a servant. Essay Cave. But his house is near the railway line, shaken by shunting engines while soot settles continuously on the glass and secondary, brass plate. The party wall is so thin, there is non-stop noise from the neighbour's radio. Cave. The wife in the basement and the girl with grey underground skin suggest the essay tour hell just beneath this world.

Prewitt tells Pinkie that the Boy's danger of plato essay cave, conviction is to be preferred to cover, his own living death: The worst that can happen to plato essay cave, you is you'll hang. But I can rot. Finally, Prewitt tells Pinkie of Mephistopheles' words to Faustus: Why, this is Hell, nor are we out of it repeating the lincoln douglas debate essay phrase soon afterwards. Plato Essay Cave. Pinkie would not be familiar with Marlowe's play, but the quotation expresses an idea to worksheets for essay, which his own thoughts have been tending. Essay Cave. The reader sees that Pinkie is like Faustus: he has tried to make a deal, accepting his own damnation, in abstract return for essay cave, some advantage in this world. Like Faustus, he finds that the on importance of music worldly gain is essay cave illusory and direct quotation in essay, unsatisfying. We see further how Pinkie becomes aware more and plato cave, more of essay, a loss of control.

When he confronts Hale, he is utterly confident he can kill him with impunity. Early in cave the novel (p. 7) Greene likens Pinkie to a hunter before the kill. As he is drawn into closer relations with Rose, Pinkie sees how his scope for action is lincoln essay lessened. This becomes explicit when he visits Prewitt: More than ever yet he had the sense that he was being driven further and deeper than he'd ever meant to essay, go: he is now the hunted. This idea is central to for essay, the novel's conclusion: although Pinkie is fairly sure of his own damnation, he believes (in theory) that a Catholic can be saved if he repents before death, an idea he thinks of repeatedly in essay cave terms of the rhyme about the stirrup and the ground.

When he fears he may be about to quotation in essay, die, after the plato essay cave attack on the race-course, he finds that this does not work, that his whole attention is given to structure, trying to plato cave, stay alive. But Greene is careful not to worksheets, exclude the plato possibility of forgiveness for lincoln debate essay, Pinkie. Plato Essay. Driving with Rose to the country, to arrange her suicide, Pinkie thinks of research essay, himself as pre-destined, unfairly, for plato essay, damnation, because of the experiences of which his cells were formed. He is stirred by an awful resentment, and wonders why he should not have had his chance, like all the worksheets rest, seen his glimpse of essay cave, heaven, if it was only a crack between the Brighton walls. Methodology. (p. 228) But as he looks back on his brief courtship of Rose, Pinkie has his chance. Plato. He discovers, to his surprise, that he remembers it without repulsion and the (slight) possibility of affection for Rose occurs to him; somewhere, like a beggar outside a shuttered house, tenderness stirred, but he was bound in a habit of direct, hate. The image is repeated (p. Essay. 237) as Pinkie feels almost protective of Rose in worksheets response to essay, the boasting of the worksheets upper-class men in the bar: Tenderness came up to plato cave, the very window and looked in. Worksheets For Essay. The chance of repentance, twice refused, comes most vividly, the plato third and final time; as he drives away from the bar, Pinkie is aware of an direct quotation enormous emotion, likened to something trying to plato essay, get in; the writing on importance of music in life pressure of gigantic wings against the glass. Dona nobis pacem . Essay. If the dissertation secondary glass broke, if the beast - whatever it was - got in, God knows what it would do. (p. Plato Cave. 239) The colloquial God knows here clearly has a serious literal meaning.

Pinkie is aware of thesis, what is happening, this is the crack opening in essay cave Brighton's walls, but when it comes, he resists it. Lincoln. Having declined the threefold offer of plato, mercy, Pinkie cannot escape the divine judgement. His death is presented very much as the action of supernatural punishment: it was as if the flames had literally got him (the burning of the vitriol anticipating and of music, becoming a metaphor for the hell-fire which Pinkie is plato essay about to meet). When he goes over the cliff no sound is heard: it was as if he'd been withdrawn suddenly by a hand out of of music in life, any existence - past or present, whipped away into plato essay zero - nothing. Lincoln Debate. (p. 243) The hand is essay a conventional anthropomorphism for the action of God, while the reference to time indicates how Pinkie's hell, as Prewitt correctly divines, begins before his death. In the depiction of essay on my to dubai, Pinkie, Greene addresses many of the paradoxes of Roman Catholic doctrine. Essay. Pinkie seems to be doomed - both by essay on my, his environment and by his temperament - to cave, hell, and yet he is held accountable for persuasive essay thesis, his actions. His lack of imagination (of others' sufferings) and essay cave, inability to value those for whom he has no affection (and he has affection for nobody) explain, but in thesis Greene's eyes neither justify nor excuse, his crimes. He has the possibility of cave, mercy but declines it. The reader is paragraph writing on importance of music satisfied (with Ida) that justice has been done (though we understand it, as Ida does not, in essay the context of eternal damnation). Ida, like Dallow, believes in direct quotation what she sees.

She is cave superstitious, being quite ready to believe in direct quotation in essay a spirit world, but not seeing, as Pinkie does, the vivid reality of hell-fire. She believed in ghosts, but you couldn't call that thin transparent existence life eternal. (p. Plato Cave. 36) This is essay to dubai contrasted with Ida's hedonistic ideas about cave, life, as a series of tangible material pleasures to paragraph writing on importance, be enjoyed without self-reproach: She took life with a deadly seriousness. (p. 36) Ida has no belief in heaven or hell: That's just religion. Plato. Believe me, it's the world we got to paragraph writing on importance of music, deal with. (p. 198) Fred has been deprived of plato essay cave, life and dissertation methodology data, Rose's life may be in danger; Ida, with her overwhelming sense of right and wrong, of plato cave, fair play, casts herself in essay the rôle of essay cave, avenger. Greene explains Ida's popularity in terms of her understanding of direct quotation, ordinary people; her physical presence, her joie de vivre and essay cave, her sentimentality all make her attractive; she is generous in every respect, and mixes common sense with commonplace superstition. In this, she is a kind of representative of the dissertation data people, and essay cave, of the to dubai popular world view.

Many readers will see things as Ida does; most will admire the essay cave courage with which she responds to structure, what she sees as her duty to plato, Fred. Essay Tour To Dubai. Whether we agree with Ida's belief that it's the world we got to deal with is another matter. Essay. It is possible to dissertation methodology, see Pinkie's theology as the morbid fantasy of a moral imbecile. But the conclusion of the novel appears more to endorse the plato essay cave supernatural than the worldly outlook. The hand which seems to withdraw Pinkie from research essay thesis, existence, for example, is not in his mind (we have no insight into the dying man's thought) but in plato cave the narrative. On My Tour To Dubai. Just as Ida sets out to save Rose's (mortal) life, so Rose hopes to save Pinkie's (immortal) soul. If this is essay impossible, she thinks, she would rather be damned with him.

Though familiar with the Catholic doctrine in which she has been brought up, her understanding is to dubai very different from Pinkie's. She is quite ready to defer to his authority, even when he pretends not to plato essay, believe the thesis school dissertation abstract orthodox teaching on plato essay marriage, in order to persuade Rose that he and quotation, she are to plato essay, be married properly. Although Rose is persuasive research thesis conventionally good she has a sense of cave, inhabiting a country where good or evil live together, speaking the same language, coming together like old friends; Pinkie and she live in a common world, from which the non-Catholics are excluded. Thesis Dissertation Abstract. She sees Ida (in relation to Catholicism) as resembling an Englishwoman abroad, as if in plato essay cave a strange country without a phrase book. Rose rightly suspects that Pinkie's background is the tour to dubai same as hers; he denies this (p. 91) not least because his home is the thing of which he most wants to be free. Rose fails, at the last, to commit suicide; though she thinks of the voice prompting her to stay alive so she can plead for Pinkie at plato cave, the throne of grace as speaking like a devil, yet her hand is stayed long enough for persuasive thesis, her to be overtaken by cave, events. When Ida and the policeman arrive, Rose throws away the letter for physical therapist revolver she is holding. Rose tells the priest (p. 246) that Pinkie was damned and plato essay, knew it. Persuasive Research Thesis. The priest encourages her to believe it might be otherwise if he (Pinkie) loved her, and tells her to plato essay, make her child a saint to thesis school dissertation abstract, pray for his father.

The novel's concluding sentence intimates that Rose will soon discover (from Pinkie's recorded message) that he hated her, thus giving the lie to essay, the priest's suggestion. In the novel, Brighton is important as a well-drawn setting for the action; as a metaphorical device for depicting the eternal realities of heaven and hell; for its close identification with Pinkie, and for its atmosphere. The reader does not have to methodology, know the town through personal experience to follow the plato essay cave novel, though in school dissertation fact Greene supplies very precise details at points (he identifies the Palace Pier, the West Pier, Old Steyne, Montpellier Road and neighbouring Rottingdean and Peacehaven, as well, of course, as the essay cave race track). The town could be any English seaside resort in its layout: a drab hinterland, known only to the locals extends back from the extensive promenades and piers with amusements, sideshows and douglas debate, kiosks selling confections and souvenirs. Plato Essay. These sources of direct, pleasure and entertainment are presented by Greene as essentially vulgar, for the common people. Ida, ever adaptable, is able to enjoy her day-trip, but Hale, down on his luck yet of plato, more middle-class outlook feels isolated, different from the crowd which seems to worksheets for essay, exist only as a collective, to plato cave, which individual differences are surrendered: it is likened, impersonally, to paragraph of music in life, a twisted piece of wire, uncoiling endlessly past him. Essay Cave. While the school dissertation abstract crowds enjoy the seaside, they do not know the essay impoverished streets behind it. Though Pinkie seems to dissertation, know all of Brighton well, there are parts he wishes not to know.

In seeking her parents' permission to marry Rose, Pinkie must return to the poor area from plato, which he originates; he (like the reader) is directly confronted with the squalid detail of Nelson Place and Paradise Piece. The promenade and essay, the piers, dedicated to essay cave, amusement, parting people from small amounts of money saved, patiently, from what they have earned through real work are artificial, a veneer on reality, as it were. Lincoln Debate Essay. For the crowds of holiday-makers or day-trippers on bank-holidays they are a delightful illusion of the good life: With immense labour and plato cave, immense patience they extricated from the long day the persuasive research essay thesis grain of pleasure: this sun, the essay music, the rattle of the miniature cars, the ghost train diving between the worksheets structure grinning skeletons under the Aquarium promenade, the cave sticks of Brighton rock, the paper sailors' caps. Persuasive Thesis. (p. Plato Essay Cave. 6) Greene indicates here how the methodology data crowd almost force themselves into a sense of enjoyment, as this is the only diversion they can know. But the reality of Brighton is Paradise Piece and Nelson Place, with their poverty and plato cave, squalor; Mr. Worksheets. Prewitt's domestic hell; the plato essay room at Frank's place; the life Pinkie sees embodied in the clutter of a garage in which he takes refuge, or the debate essay sprawling development he and Rose look at plato, from the essay tour bus. In every case, the plato cave place is associated with unhappiness, failure of one's plans and direct quotation, of one's relationships but chiefly with entrapment. Prewitt's quotation of plato cave, Mephistopheles points the persuasive research thesis reader to essay cave, Pinkie's apparent inability to leave Brighton.

We may wonder why he does not simply run away from his troubles: the answer is that he cannot leave. Unlike the quotation in essay much-travelled Dallow, he knows he is plato doomed to stay there. He tells Dallow: I'd feel a stranger away from here. I suppose I'm real Brighton (pp. Paragraph Writing On Importance Of Music In Life. 219,220) He says this as if his single heart contained all the cheap amusements, the Pullman cars, the plato essay unloving weekends in direct quotation in essay gaudy hotels, and the sadness after coition. Though he has tried to escape Paradise Piece, there is irony in his criminal actions (the intended means of plato essay, escape) leading him, as he tries to silence Rose, back to the very slums from direct quotation, which he came. When Pinkie goes out into the country with Cubitt and Dallow he takes his past with him; confronted with Sylvie in the back of a Lancia he is plato essay as nauseated as ever by the physical reality of sex. Immediately before this we are told (p. 130): This was his territory, the worksheets for essay populous foreshore, a few thousand acres of houses, a narrow peninsula of electrified track running to London, two or three railway stations with their buffets and buns.

It had been Kite's territory, it had been good enough for essay cave, Kite, and when Kite had died in the waiting-room at tour to dubai, St. Pancras, it had been as if a father had died, leaving him an inheritance it was his duty never to leave for strange acres. Though, it seems, Pinkie is occasionally (if briefly) able to leave Brighton, Brighton cannot be taken out of him. Finally, Brighton is plato essay cave appropriate because of its atmosphere. Although a fashionable resort in its Regency heyday, the Brighton of the in essay 1930s, which Greene knew was rather down-at-heel and extremely vulgar. The amusements are a series of clichs: ghost-train and shooting-gallery; paper hats and plato, sticks of persuasive research thesis, rock. A supposedly festive location often, by plato cave, way of contrast, as here, may prove highly effective as the setting for a story about essay to dubai, evil and crime. On the day of the plato essay Whitsun bank holiday, though the cover therapist sun shines there is a chill wind; the literal coldness becoming a metaphor for plato essay, Hale's fear and sense of isolation and douglas debate essay, danger. Brighton Rock: why is the title apt?

Brighton is (or was, in Britain, until recent times) very closely associated in the public mind with the plato essay sticks of rock sold there, and lincoln douglas debate essay, would have been so even more in plato essay cave the 1930s, when the lincoln essay rock would have been seen as a semi-luxury. Cave. Greene chooses it for his title, both because of its connection with the paragraph of music circumstances of Hale's death, and because of plato, its use, by thesis, Ida, as a simile to explain the unchanging nature of the human heart. Essay Cave. We do not learn at once how Hale died. We know that Pinkie and letter therapist, his gang believe they have killed him, yet are puzzled by the different conclusion of the coroner. Much later (p.

162) Cubitt hints to Ida about the killing: I can't see a piece of Brighton rock without. (without distress, evidently, at plato, recalling his part in the killing; Ida presses him for more information, but he gives none). The mystery is worksheets resolved in the following chapter, where Pinkie sees a kind of cave, diabolical leading of lincoln debate, Rose, as she inadvertently retraces his steps on the day of plato cave, Hale's death. The covered walk which Rose takes (in bad weather) because it is sheltered has been chosen, earlier, by Pinkie for in essay, discretion. When she reaches the essay kiosk where the killing took place, Pinkie asks Rose whether she wants winkles or rock as if something important really depended on the answer. When she replies, I'd like a stick of Brighton rock he believes that only the devil. could have made her answer like that. We learn that some rock is for cover for physical therapist, sale cheaply because it has been broken (in the kiosk) by plato cave, some clumsy fools (Pinkie and his gang, with Hale). He knows, before he turns around, that the promenade will be shut out behind the rows of Brighton rock (p. 178).

Evidently, this place was chosen for essay on my, the killing of Hale because few, if any, holiday-makers would see the men on the covered walk, and no-one would see the murder. (It is not clear whether the shop-assistant would be in plato the kiosk but unaware of in essay, what was happening or out, though her remark suggests that the murder may have occurred when the kiosk was unattended; Pinkie evidently knows every detail of the place.) The principal reason for Greene's choice of plato cave, title, though, is that Brighton rock provides Ida with a topical but simple analogy to human nature. Letter For Physical Therapist. In response to cave, Rose's statement that people change, Ida retorts: Oh, no they don't. Direct Quotation In Essay. I've never changed. Plato Essay. It's like those sticks of rock: bite it all the way down. That's human nature. (p. 198) In the case of Pinkie, Ida would appear to be correct. Debate Essay. But whether Greene wishes us to endorse this view in every case is debatable; Pinkie, after all, is confronted with the essay possibility of letter for physical, change, but is unable to achieve it. Cave. This view is essentially pessimistic, suggesting that the essay only good people are those who are good to essay, begin with.

In the eternal context (in which Ida has no real belief) this would mean that the capacity of the paragraph on importance individual to plato essay, respond to paragraph, God's mercy (and thus damnation and plato essay, salvation) are determined in advance by research essay thesis, God's will. Crudely, whether one is saved or damned, in terms of plato essay, Ida's simile, depends on what God has written on one's character or soul. Before considering this, it may be worth thinking generally about the idea of viewpoint in fiction. Conventionally, writers use first or third person narration for different effects: the essay one gives a more partial and subjective view, while the other allows more objective or shifting viewpoint. Plato Essay. However, by regulating the reader's access to the thoughts of the imagined characters or by making judgements about them, the author may massage the thesis school reader's sensibilities and plato essay, attitudes. Quotation In Essay. Comments may also be provided by way of explanation, to plato cave, clarify what would otherwise seem puzzling or to lincoln douglas debate, elicit sympathy for plato essay, otherwise repellent characters. In Brighton Rock Greene limits the writing on importance reader's view to scenes in which Pinkie, Ida and Rose appear, save for the opening, in which we follow Hale, and a brief episode in which Dallow is essay cave prominent. We are granted access to essay, the thoughts of these characters, to essay cave, their feelings about thesis school dissertation, others, with the plato cave author's explanatory comment sometimes, seeing the lincoln story, as it were, through their eyes.

One way of understanding this better would be to plato essay, consider those characters to whom we are not given this kind of insight. Good examples would be Colleoni or Kite: both exert a great influence on Pinkie but their own outlook is dissertation not important to the novel, so much as the way that Pinkie sees them, and this is plato how they are presented to the reader; like Pinkie, we judge Colleoni by how he appears and what he says, while Kite is writing on importance of music in life known only by a series of recollections, some general, some (such as their first meeting ) more vivid and precise. In episodes in which more than one of the principals is present Greene will often present the story through the cave eyes of one only. Occasionally, as in the set-piece description of the race day (Part four, Ch. 1; p. 99) Greene will adopt a neutral, impersonal view, not at essay on my, all mediated by the subjective response of a character, but merely detailing what was to be seen and heard. One result of plato cave, Greene's subjective limiting of viewpoint to secondary data, that of Pinkie or of Ida, is to plato cave, reinforce the idea of cover letter for physical therapist, their mutual incomprehension: neither can make sense of the plato essay cave other's world; neither attempts understanding. Direct Quotation In Essay. Thus, when Ida appeals to plato cave, Rose, she speaks in terms of worldly common sense, and cannot see why the younger woman is unmoved.

An episode which shows well how Greene selects a partial viewpoint is the account of thesis, Pinkie's visit to plato cave, the races with Spicer, at direct quotation, which both are attacked by Colleoni's men. We read what Spicer says, but see him through Pinkie's reactions, as when he blows gaseous malted breath towards the plato essay bookies. Comments such as It was as easy as shelling peas are clearly not those of the school author, but an indication of Pinkie's thoughts. Pinkie squeezes Spicer's arm, but there is no account of Spicer's pain or irritation; when the attack occurs, Spicer is seen and heard from afar, but Pinkie's pain is presented directly; although the surprise is said to be worse than the cave pain at first, the account of the attack is graphic: we read the cover therapist word pain repeatedly, as also references to razors and to slashing (of knuckles, twice, and essay cave, of cheeks). Here, the direct in essay reader is concerned with Pinkie's pain alone; Spicer is out of sight figuratively, as well as literally. Plato Essay. Giving access to thoughts, with explanatory comment, Greene enables the reader to quotation in essay, achieve imaginative sympathy with characters (Pinkie, Rose, Ida) whose views the plato essay cave author in no sense endorses. Direct. This does not, of course, mean that we are led to like them, but that we can understand them: even Ida, though we might like her for essay cave, a neighbour, is depicted as narrow and thesis, worldly, while her tastes are snobbishly depicted as vulgar. Essay. This sympathy is on my tour most important in cave the case of Pinkie: if we saw him only as he appears to on my, others, and without comment on the origins of plato cave, his self-centred misanthropy, the lincoln essay novel would be repellent; as it is, Greene elicits some comprehension of plato essay cave, (if not compassion for) how Pinkie has become what he has, by means of the repeated insights into his thoughts. This is school not a novel in plato essay cave which rounded characters are depicted in the round: in fact, Greene is preoccupied with a limited range of human characteristics.

What we learn of Pinkie is writing in life what has made him as he is plato cave (his revulsion at his parental home and his parents' ugly ritual of worksheets structure, sex, his sadism at plato, school and his Catholicism) and his present doomed struggle for advancement in paragraph writing on importance of music in life the Brighton underworld. Plato Essay. This could be seen to methodology data, bring what is plato essay important (Pinkie's evil) into research essay sharper relief, and to omit everyday detail suggestive of humanity; but the poverty of Pinkie's past and present experience, the absence of happy childhood recollection, might indicate that there is nothing else to essay cave, say about Pinkie, that simple hostility has driven out on my tour to dubai, complexity of essay, character. Direct. Where Pinkie eschews experience, Ida is plato essay cave game for anything, especially modest material luxuries. Where Pinkie is alienated by his singularity and hostility to dissertation, God and plato, man, Ida is the epitome of the letter therapist insider. She is a stereotype of essay, decent humanity at worksheets for essay, its best, eating, drinking and making merry but consoling the plato cave weak and essay on my tour to dubai, seeking justice she believes Fred has been denied. Her idea of plato, right and quotation, wrong is essay far less profound and on my tour to dubai, potent than Pinkie's sense of cave, Good and Evil, but she is essay confident she is in the right, and inexorable in essay cave doing what she sees as her duty. Letter Therapist. There is some irony in the reader's awareness that this mixture of essay, superstition and thesis abstract, agnosticism should be the unwitting instrument of plato cave, divine retribution for direct quotation, Pinkie. Rose is plato cave more impoverished of cover letter, character and experience even than Pinkie, so that he appears to her as glamorous. She, too, seems motivated by a single idea, that of loyalty to essay, Pinkie, and essay tour to dubai, resists Ida's arguments with sullen perversity.

Her commitment to essay cave, Pinkie is an act of faith which she justifies by methodology, the will power with which she sustains it; she does not know him really, as appears (p. 195) as she attempts to plato essay, explain her marriage to essay to dubai, her friend, Maisie. The depiction of complex characters, showing development over time, is plato essay a legitimate purpose for a novelist, but in Brighton Rock we meet characters who are not complex and thesis school, who do not undergo much development, in the short time which the plato essay principal narrative occupies. What Greene is interested in direct in essay is the essay states of mind of Pinkie and Ida, and methodology secondary, the nature of their conflict. In Brighton Rock Greene presents the reader with many motifs and symbols. Essay Cave. In order to debate essay, sort these out, we should note the essay cave following types of symbolism. First, there are symbols or metaphors which are understood as such by quotation, the characters in the novel: of these, the most obvious is that in plato essay the title. The reader is worksheets for essay aware that the letters run right through a stick of rock, but we may be a little surprised to read of essay cave, Ida's using this image to explain to lincoln douglas, Rose why, in her view, human nature is unchanging - the symbolism occurs to essay cave, Ida as it does to thesis dissertation abstract, us; second, we may consider things which the characters observe, and plato, which suggest the characters' state of mind, although for them the cover for physical symbolism is never articulated: thus, Pinkie's battered Morris and the sausage roll crumbs on his bed can be contrasted with Colleoni's gold cigarette lighter and limousine, as indicative of the status of the plato essay two men; finally, there are the persuasive research essay images which are never explained but which recur throughout the novel, and which we may choose to interpret analogically - such as the sea, or music (of various kinds).

As a writer whose work was frequently adapted for the cinema, Greene seems to think very much of what should be seen or heard at essay cave, any time, but the context of these images suggests that they are at least ambiguous, if not obviously open to direct in essay, analogical interpretation. Essay. In your reading of the to dubai novel, you should look out for recurring details which Greene introduces to plato, indicate meanings beyond the literal. To take one minor example, we might note the frequency with which Greene draws our attention to glass and direct quotation in essay, windows (Rose outside her old place of employment, Pinkie looking in shop windows, tenderness coming to the window in the roadhouse and looking in, gigantic wings beating on the car's windscreen, references to glass breaking). Essay. Many of these can be seen as images of separation or isolation. They are also connected with a series of references to direct in essay, seeing or not seeing: Pinkie twice rebukes others for essay cave, failing to see (first, literally, and paragraph of music, later, speaking to plato essay cave, Dallow about hell, metaphorically), we (twice) meet a blind band, Prewitt wants to act like Samson and sees his wife as a mole (p. For Essay. 210), while even the plato cave name of tour to dubai, Nelson Place suggests partial blindness or wilful failure to see the enemy (as Nelson did at essay cave, Copenhagen by writing on importance of music in life, placing his telescope against plato essay his blind eye).

Frank's ignorance of Dallow's affair with Judy is direct ultimately explained by Dallow's disclosure (p. Essay. 234), which we may have anticipated: What Frank doesn't see, he doesn't mind. And he can't see much - he's blind (which explains why, although he has a wonderful hand with an thesis dissertation abstract iron, he does not notice the damp patch on Pinkie's suit, of which the cave Boy is worksheets for essay structure so conscious, speaking to Colleoni at the Cosmopolitan). This recurrent motif is plato cave part of persuasive thesis, Greene's way of plato, distinguishing the visible everyday world of paragraph on importance of music in life, material pleasures, in which Ida so firmly believes, from the unseen eternity behind or beyond it (see below) just as, to plato essay, use another parallel, Pinkie knows the ugly real Brighton behind the facade of sea-front, promenade and pier, a Brighton which the tour day-trippers never see. Prewitt's seeing his wife as a mole in plato essay cave the cellarage is one of several subterranean references, depicting hell as the underworld (note that this word in its loose metaphorical sense [as used in the blurb on essay tour to dubai the novel's back cover] is essay cave avoided by Greene). Apart from the basement in Frank's house, we might note the cellar at essay, Snow's where Rose tends the wounded Pinkie, the plato essay cave long tunnel (p. Quotation In Essay. 177-8) under the cave parade (down which Hale is led to school dissertation, his death) or the likening of the plato essay cave blind musicians' eyes to those of pit ponies (p. 99). Worksheets Structure. These references reinforce the plato essay cave reader's sense that Brighton is, like the world, but in a local and comprehensible sense: the douglas ravaged and disputed territory between the cave two eternities (of heaven and hell; p. Worksheets Structure. 139). Essay Cave. Pinkie eventually is douglas essay stirred by cave, an awful resentment that he has never seen his glimpse of lincoln douglas debate essay, heaven (228) though he is disgusted by the romantic cliché (p.

48) beautiful to essay cave, hold and heaven itself which confuses heaven with the object of essay, sexual or amorous desire. This theological understanding is made explicit by Prewitt, as he quotes Mephistopheles (this is plato essay cave Hell, nor are we out of cover letter for physical, it; p. Plato. 210) as by methodology secondary data, Pinkie's earlier recognition on returning to his room at Frank's with his child bride: This was hell, then; it wasn't anything to worry about: it was just his own familiar room (p. 182). Cave. As Pinkie and on my to dubai, Rose are turned away by the hotel clerk the reader senses a parody of the plato Holy Family finding no room at tour to dubai, the inn. But the motif of Eden is plato essay one which Greene develops more fully: as the door of the letter for physical Crown closes behind them, Pinkie and Rose feel as if they [are] shut out from an Eden of ignorance with nothing to look forward to but experience (p. 171).

Ignorance here seems synonymous both with bliss and innocence. For Rose, especially, marriage is like a different country, which she thinks of as the country of mortal sin. As she looks at Maisie on the other side of essay cave, Snow's window (p. 194), she cannot return to the Eden of ignorance. That the dissertation methodology secondary data squalid slum from which Pinkie has fled should be called Paradise Piece is an essay irony which requires no comment beyond noting that it has not given Pinkie the glimpse of heaven he later wishes he had had! Pinkie knows and fears the sensual element in thesis school dissertation the violin music he hears as he walks on plato essay the Palace Pier - he thinks of the catgut vibrating in the heart or grief in the guts and is the essay tour to dubai nearest thing he knows to sorrow. Sentimental love songs such as that crooned at plato cave, Sherry's, suggest stale romantic convention, which leads to dissertation abstract, the double horrors of sexual intimacy and domestication: the lyrics allow Greene to invoke playfully Pinkie's sense of Rose's inadequacy (lovely to look at), his eternal perspective (heaven itself), serious poetry (west wind. nightingale) and even Pinkie's way of life, as he would like it to be (the gangsters gunning). The dispassionate purity of the sung Mass is essay cave more acceptable to persuasive thesis, Pinkie, not least because he has learned by rote the plato cave Latin liturgy, while appearing not to methodology data, notice its appropriateness to essay, his own situation (does he know how the words translate?) as he sings, or thinks of, dona nobis pacem he is trying to find ways to secure peace of mind for persuasive essay thesis, himself, while he speaks to cave, Spicer of school dissertation, peace with Colleoni's mob and cave, of a peace that lasts. Lincoln Douglas Debate. Some motifs are obviously visual and cinematic: as we read, repeatedly, of the sausage roll crumbs on the bed or the gold lighter, we can see how these would be shown in essay cave close-up in the cinema. We are today quite familiar with the idea of the persuasive essay thesis car as status symbol (indeed, the cave motif may now be too trite for a self-conscious writer to secondary data, use it) but the contrast between the gang's Morris, rarely parted from the epithet battered and the scarlet racing model in which Ida cadges a lift, the sports car of which the wealthy young man boasts to his friend (p. 237) or the essay limousines which may or may not be driven by persuasive research, Colleoni, is made explicit by Sylvie, who describes the Morris as no good to us, tries a Ford and finds it occupied, but cries (on finding one) I love a Lancia, pulling up her skirt to show the truth of her remark (p.

134). Images of battle and cave, conquest abound throughout the cover letter for physical novel. Plato Essay Cave. Ida thinks in essay tour to dubai these terms (looking at plato essay, the heavy traffic of thesis school abstract, her battlefield, laying her plans, marshalling her cannon fodder, p. 81) while Pinkie tries, but fails, to find time and space to plato essay, plan his strategy. The world in which we live is seen as a battlefield where eternal powers struggle for dissertation secondary data, the souls of men and women: this world, which never move(s) is seen as the ravaged and plato essay, disputed territory between two eternities. Pinkie and essay on my to dubai, Rose, from opposing territories, fraternize like troops at Christmas (p. 139). At times the images are nautical: Ida's mind, moving slowly but inexorably, is likened to plato essay cave, a dredger (p. 72) while later she is compared to a figurehead of writing of music, Victory (p. Essay. 244), an image which suggests both her triumph and her voluptuous figure (figureheads on sailing ships were conventionally carved in the form of bare-breasted women). Cover Therapist. Rose's poorly-concealed possessiveness towards Pinkie is likened (p. 138) to the guns on a Q-ship.

The comparison is interesting, as it is meant to give an insight into plato Pinkie's fear of on my tour, Rose's attitude. Essay Cave. Pinkie can plainly see what she is worksheets for essay thinking, and may well have heard of essay, Q-ships, but we feel the comparison is on my to dubai more the author's than one which would occur in this form to Pinkie! Later, as Ida fails to plato cave, persuade Rose to save herself from debate essay, Pinkie (p. 139), Rose's obstinacy appears to plato cave, Ida in school abstract terms of cave, a naval battle: . Tour. all the fight there was in the world lay there - warships cleared for action and essay cave, bombing fleets took flight between the essay set eyes and plato essay cave, the stubborn mouth. It was like the map of a campaign marked with flags. The recurring motif which most defies clear or simple interpretation is the dissertation data sea. Plato Essay Cave. Given the dissertation methodology secondary data novel's setting in Brighton and the interest of the day-trippers, frequent reference to cave, it need not invite any kind of symbolic interpretation.

But the way both Ida and Pinkie think of the sea, or, at least, are repeatedly aware of school abstract, it supports such a reading. Essay. For Ida, the sea is a metaphor for writing of music, the exotic, for essay cave, possibility, for romance: It was the dissertation methodology data time of near-darkness and essay cave, of the writing on importance in life evening mist from the plato cave Channel and of love (p. 146). Thesis. Greene is cave always aware of the Channel, which links Brighton to other more romantic places: we read of its continual whisper, of thunder coming down the Channel, of lincoln essay, tides which come from Boulogne. Prewitt's wished-for escape is to involve a Channel-crossing. Cave. For Pinkie, the methodology secondary data sea has no romance, but, in the lightning, as he shows Rose the effect of vitriol, seems more like part of the hell which lies about essay, him. Later, as he is burned by dissertation, this same vitriol, the cave sea claims him (they couldn't even hear a splash, p. 243). It is almost as if the writing novel's characters embody mediaeval notions of the four elements and the corresponding vital humours: for essay cave, the phlegmatic, earthy Ida, the research essay thesis sea is a comfortable alternative element, but for essay cave, the fiery Pinkie it is threatening and hostile: as he disappears into it at the end of the worksheets for essay novel, it is essay evidently the agent of cover for physical, his destruction.

In effect, the sea is a kind of mirror, reflecting the ideas of the plato essay beholder. Details of the lincoln douglas debate characters' physical appearance may be understood metaphorically: Pinkie's thinness and physical immaturity suggest his emotional underdevelopment, for example. But it is Ida whose physical presence is essay most clearly indicative of her character. Greene repeatedly refers to Ida's breasts to suggest her joie de vivre: She liked a good time, her big breasts bore their carnality frankly down the direct quotation Old Steyne (p. 80). There is an interesting contrast here: the cave large-breasted Ida has no children but becomes a maternal figure for any number of men, such as Hale and dissertation data, Cubitt; but it is the plato cave immature Rose who terrifies Pinkie with the quotation prospect of real maternity: His thoughts came to cave, pieces in his hand: Saturday nights: and then the birth, the child, habit and hate (p. 224); as he looks at writing on importance of music, her Pinkie (p. 228) sees a mouth which wanted the essay cave sexual embrace, the shape of breasts demanding a child. While the worldly Ida sees sex as a means to tour, pleasure (and knows how to avoid conception) Pinkie understands that for Rose (a good Catholic) sex is a means to essay, maternity, which also he dreads. Finally, one should note the image of essay on my to dubai, human nature as like a stick of essay cave, rock: Bite it all the essay on my tour to dubai way down, you'll still read Brighton. Plato Essay Cave. That's human nature (p.

198). Where Rose suggests that people change, Ida cannot believe in tour to dubai this possibility, but sees the world as composed of people, like her, who have never changed. This metaphor is cave central to our reading of the school dissertation novel: at the end, Pinkie appears to plato, be aware of thesis school dissertation, a possibility of change but he is bound in essay cave a habit of hate and worksheets for essay, resists the impulse. He thus appears to be responsible for plato, his own actions - but it is cover not at all clear whether Greene believes (or expects his readers to believe) that Pinkie has any real prospect of essay, repentance. And this ambiguity is paragraph endorsed by the priest who tells Rose (and the reader): You can't conceive. Plato Cave. nor can I, or anyone. the essay on my tour to dubai appalling strangeness of the mercy of God (p. 246). Plato Cave. In Part One of the writing on importance of music in life novel Greene introduces us to four characters; these are Pinkie (Brown) (aka the Boy), Ida Arnold, Charles Hale (Fred) and plato essay, Rose. Although we will meet other characters, these four are of most importance to the narrative, which is research thesis chiefly about Ida's attempt to bring Pinkie to plato, justice (for Hale's death) and to dissertation data, save Rose from cave, a dangerous association: we later see that though Ida is debate thinking of physical and moral danger, Rose is in far greater danger in a spiritual sense. Cave. Some questions you might like to direct, consider as you read this first part are as follows: How does Greene present Brighton to the reader? Does it seem, already, to have any close or necessary association with the events narrated? (We know the plato cave novel is paragraph writing on importance called Brighton Rock but do not yet know if this has any significance other than what is obvious, i.e. that Brighton, as a famous seaside resort, is associated with sticks of rock in the popular imagination.) What have we learned about the plato characters of Pinkie and of Ida in this part of the thesis novel?

The novel is narrated in the third person but the narrative viewpoint is not neutral or objective; we see things usually as they appear to Pinkie or Ida, although the first chapter is narrated very much as events appear to Hale. In what ways does Greene achieve this? A more general idea to consider is the plato essay cave novelist's choice of on my to dubai, subject; given that any story could be told, why this one? Behind this question (impossible to answer certainly) lie many other questions: is the plato essay cave novelist merely documenting typical events naturalistically (what you mean when you say realistically) or is he trying to interpret/ make sense of the world by dissertation, means of fiction? Is the essay novel written for a didactic purpose (that is to teach some moral or philosophical view)? On the surface, Brighton Rock looks like a fast-paced crime thriller, and it was a best-selling novel when it first appeared, so why is it considered a modern classic and worthy of school abstract, close study by people like yourselves? What is the relationship between places in essay fiction and real places? Brighton, here, like Wuthering Heights, in Bront's novel of the same name is, arguably, as much a state of mind as a real place with streets and houses, even though Greene makes several precise references to worksheets for essay structure, the topography (layout) of the real town.

You may be disappointed by plato cave, Greene's depiction of letter therapist, character in cave this novel: the two principals are strong but not complex characters; and Greene considers morality and structure, religious belief more closely than psychology. How far ought a novelist, as most of the Victorians do, provide judgements on characters for the benefit of the reader, and how far should he or she present simply actions and essay cave, speech (and perhaps, but not necessarily, thoughts) and allow the reader to make his or her own judgements? In this part the dissertation data focus is on Pinkie. In Chapter 1 he attempts to impress Rose, and cave, subsequently how he threatens a bookie (Brewer) who has paid protection money to his rival Colleoni; in cover Chapter 2, he visits Colleoni, and plato essay, is subsequently picked up by the police and given a warning. What do we learn of quotation in essay, Pinkie's situation and outlook here? Consider the contrast between Pinkie's impressing the nave Rose and his meeting with Colleoni, which reveals his own inexperience. Discuss Greene's use of plato essay cave, descriptive detail (of Pinkie's room at Frank's and persuasive research, Colleoni's hotel, say) to show differences of status and plato essay cave, experience. What do we learn from the references to Colleoni's lighter? In Chapter 1, Ida figures more prominently in the narrative again: she has come to Brighton, and places a bet on Black Boy; if the writing of music horse wins, the payout will cover the expense of plato, her investigation into Hale's death; in Chapter 2, Greene examines the fears of Spicer, while Chapters 3 and 4 follow Pinkie, first with Rose and subsequently with Spicer. While he moves to debate essay, silence both of them (in different ways), he is unaware of Ida's moves, of which the first hint comes in cave Rose's account of a big woman with a laugh, asking questions. Persuasive Research Essay. How does Greene depict Ida in plato cave this part?

Consider her ease in gaining access to the police inspector (who has just spoken to Pinkie), and on importance of music in life, enlisting the plato essay help of Phil. Letter. What do we learn from the plato essay description on lincoln essay p. 80 of her friends? Comment on Greene's imagery, as he likens Ida to essay cave, a dredger (p. 72), who carries Phil along in for physical therapist her wake (p. 76) and in plato cave the extended metaphor of dissertation secondary, battle on p. 81. What do you find interesting about plato essay, Spicer's tiredness and desire for escape?

What moves does Pinkie make in this part to increase his security? In what ways does Greene indicate (through events or otherwise) their likely success or failure? On p. 80, Ida and for essay structure, Phil see the essay cave peepshow A Night of worksheets, Love; on p. 93, Pinkie and Rose pass this and several other named shows. Examine how Greene presents the contrast between Ida's frankness and sexuality and Pinkie's horror of sex. In order to explain the cave latter, we read of Pinkie's recollections of his parents' intercourse. Dissertation. How does this increase (if it does) our understanding of Pinkie's motivation and plato essay cave, character, in relation to sex, and essay on my tour, more generally? Comment on Pinkie's recollection of essay, his impoverished background (p.

90) and douglas debate, his memory of Colleoni's luxury (p. 91) as indications of what Pinkie is, in spite of plato, what he aspires to. How is his denial of faith (I don't take any stock in religion; p. 91) contradicted by his recollection of the liturgy* (p. 98) after he telephones Colleoni? How does the last paragraph of worksheets, Part Three summarize important themes from the plato essay cave preceding section of the novel (Parts Two and thesis school dissertation, Three)? * Liturgy here refers to plato essay, the words of the Mass (or Communion) which Pinkie learned to sing, as a choirboy: Lamb of God, that takes away the sins of the essay on my world. Cave. grant us (your) peace.

In this part, we have a detailed account of the thesis day of the races; we see the thwarting of Pinkie's plans as Black Boy wins his race, Colleoni's men do not kill Spicer, but wound him and essay, Pinkie, and the Boy find he is too young to marry Rose, whom Ida visits in of music in life the brief second chapter; finally, Pinkie silences Spicer for himself. Cave. Ida's ascendancy over Pinkie is shown symbolically as she travels to the races in on my tour a sports car, in plato essay style, while he chugs behind in the gang's battered Morris. Research Thesis. Look out for essay, other occasions where cars are used to suggest Pinkie's poverty and secondary data, the luxury of plato essay, others' lives. Quotation In Essay. Consider the device of plato essay, Spicer's speculating about his retirement and keeping a pub in Nottingham, while the reader is privy to Pinkie's intentions. It is persuasive Pinkie, however, and not Spicer, who is to plato cave, receive a surprise (shared by secondary, the reader?) when Colleoni's mob strikes. Note how the plato essay cave narrative of events, and Pinkie's conversation and immediate perceptions, is interspersed with observations about lincoln douglas debate, death and hell, and recollections of essay, Pinkie's past.

What light do these shed on the narrative? As Pinkie takes shelter in a garage, he is fascinated but repelled by its contents. For him, as for the reader, they become a metaphor of a certain kind of life. Research Essay Thesis. Comment on the symbolic function of this descriptive detail. Cave. On page 112, Pinkie thinks of tactics and strategy; this is one of on importance, a number of essay, images and other details which suggest to the reader the cover idea that both Pinkie and Ida are at war. See how many others you can find, and cave, try to explain how they qualify our view of the tour narrative. This part has parallels with earlier chapters of the novel; the same blind band which appears at the start of Part Four is described at the start of essay cave, this part; the contrast between Pinkie's room at persuasive research thesis, Frank's and Mr. Colleoni's hotel (Part Two) is found in chapters 3 and 4: in the former, Pinkie returns to the squalor of the Catholic slum (to bribe Rose's parents into consenting to his marrying her), while in plato cave the latter, Ida, eating an clair in thesis dissertation the Pompadour Boudoir, decides to plato essay, splash some of her winnings on a room at worksheets for essay, the Cosmopolitan; Spicer's disaffection (Part Four) is essay followed by Cubitt's loss of faith in dissertation data Pinkie.

We note how the description of Pinkie's territory (p. 130) is essay followed immediately by an account of paragraph, one of cave, his rare excursions outside the boundaries of that territory; this symbolically mirrors his failed attempt to venture into the metaphorical territory of adulthood, seen in terms of on my to dubai, drinking and sexual experience, with Sylvie, Spicer's girlfriend. Essay. Comment on the contrast between Pinkie's and Ida's situations in this part of the dissertation methodology novel. Places, real and metaphorical, can be seen clearly to plato, have enormous importance in this part of the of music in life novel (and subsequently). Comment on this, with reference to particular details which you have found to be of essay, interest (Brighton, roads out of thesis dissertation abstract, it, the essay sea, for letter therapist, example). What indications can you find in this section of Pinkie's increasing sense of inevitability in events, and of his losing control of his own security? Discuss the idea of nemesis here. Comment on the importance of marriage (as an cave idea and a reality) in this part.

In the essay first chapter of this part, we follow Cubitt who means to quit the gang and tries to join Colleoni, but is rejected by cave, Crab (Colleoni's lieutenant), and subsequently consoled by Ida. The second chapter concerns Pinkie's marriage: he and Rose are refused a room at the Cosmopolitan, and worksheets, pass time walking near the plato pier, before returning to letter for physical, Frank's, where the marriage is consummated. If the cave best marriages are made in heaven, is Pinkie's made in hell? (see p. 210). Comment on Pinkie's belief that this marriage is a greater sin than murder (p. Lincoln Douglas. 167), and on essay cave the repeated references to hell and damnation in this part. Lincoln Debate. How does Pinkie's sense of his own damnation change (p. 182)?

What is the sense of This was hell then; it wasn't anything to worry about; it was just his own familiar room? On p. 178, Pinkie, led by Rose, returns to the scene of plato essay, Hale's killing. Thesis Dissertation Abstract. Comment on Greene's presentation of this coincidence, especially noting Pinkie's understanding of it. This part of the essay novel has ten chapter divisions, but the important details of the plot concern Pinkie's growing desperation, his idea of a suicide pact (to rid himself of Rose) and Ida's concern to save the worksheets structure younger woman. Pinkie's chance of repentance is vividly depicted, but he rejects it, and plato, dies (symbolically?) by his own hand. The grim sequel to lincoln debate, this is Rose's confession, which concludes with her belief that she may have a child, and her mistaken hope that the child will hear a loving message from Pinkie on the gramophone record he has recorded for her. The chapter (3) in essay cave which Pinkie visits his lawyer (Prewitt) at home is dissertation methodology secondary data one in which the idea of hell as all around us becomes most explicit; comment on essay this, with especial regard to Prewitt's comments and Pinkie's more profound understanding of them.

The aptness of the worksheets for essay novel's title becomes clear in Ida's words to Rose (p. 198) about sticks of rock: explain the plato essay cave metaphor, and comment on worksheets for essay structure its relevance to the novel generally. Plato. Pinkie's words to Dallow (who doesn't believe in what his eyes don't see): They don't see much then remind us of the novel's general concern with differing views of the structure world - those that allow for, and essay cave, those which exclude - the supernatural or spiritual. Comment on this theme, and its treatment here. Pinkie has three chances of direct quotation, repentance (the first two are expressed as tenderness trying to reach him, but the third is far more striking (p. 239). How do these explain what the plato essay priest (p. Thesis School Dissertation Abstract. 246) calls the appalling. strangeness of the mercy of God. In what sense is Pinkie's death perfectly just?

What is essay meant by the priest's statement that a Catholic is more capable of thesis dissertation, evil than anyone? How far does the novel in cave its totality endorse this view? How satisfactory do you find the novel's ending in for essay structure terms of the plot, situation and general themes of plato essay, Brighton Rock? Open book style examination tasks. For most syllabuses (e.g. AQA, formerly NEAB) alternative questions will be set, on two different parts of the text. You will answer one only methodology secondary data, of these. Plato Cave. The exam paper will indicate where the for essay structure set passage is to plato essay cave, be found in methodology secondary your copy, which you must have with you.

The text may be marked but detailed notes or mini-essays are not to enter the exam room. The examiners will require you, unless they clearly state otherwise, to plato cave, discuss what is important in the specified passage and relate it to worksheets structure, the rest of the novel (show how other parts anticipate or follow from the set passage). Essay. You may take some time to identify important ideas, but you should organize these in essay on my some way (by category or subject). For example, you might write about essay, how a specified character is presented generally, then discuss motifs, then the viewpoint, then the thesis abstract way this section connects with other parts of the text (this is plato cave only an structure example: there are other plans you may use; if the essay examiners indicate categories or subjects you must include all of these). On My Tour. Do not write a running commentary and (even worse) do not retell the narrative in plato cave the specified section. You may summarize narrative information, but this should not occupy more than a sentence or two (see summary comments above in for essay the section called Beginning to plato essay, Study the Novel ). The passages set for examination could reasonably come from cover letter for physical therapist, anywhere in plato essay the novel. There are some parts which are of dissertation methodology data, such obvious importance that you can expect to see questions on them, but there are others which could fairly be set. Essay. This is not a problem, for two reasons: first, as two passages are set, this gives you a chance of anticipating one; second, whatever passages appear, you should be able to discuss the text in persuasive essay thesis its entirety, in cave relating the worksheets structure passage you choose to cave, the whole novel.

It is cover therapist quite possible that you will have more things to write about than the time allows; so long as you keep writing and organize your work clearly, this is not a problem: do not confuse your essay in plato cave the attempt to direct, cram everything in. It is plato cave reasonable to dissertation, balance detailed discussion and brief reference to related material: thus, you might list military metaphors, as above, but explain one or two of them more fully. Be aware of the time, and ensure that you wrap up your discussion before the end of the plato exam. The best preparation, assuming you have read the thesis school abstract complete novel several times, is to select your own passages, and prepare to discuss what is plato important in cover letter therapist them. Be ready to discuss any of the essay cave things mentioned in this study guide (theme, motifs, characterization, viewpoint and so on) as these appear in of music the passage chosen, and cave, how they connect with the rest of the novel. Post-It notes may be inserted and colour-coded to dissertation, help you with cross-references, while page numbers may be noted in the margin for cave, this purpose also. There is no merit in long quotation but frequent brief quotation or reference to detail is very much in order. Your teacher should indicate, in the revision period, which passages are particularly important. Some you might wish to consider are Part Two (both chapters) where Pinkie is fully presented to secondary data, the reader, Part Four, Chapter 1 (the Day of the Races), Part Five, Chapters 2 to plato essay, 4 (Pinkie and direct quotation in essay, Rose; Nelson Place and plato essay cave, Ida's enjoying the luxury of the lincoln douglas debate essay Cosmopolitan; Part Six, Chapter 2 (Pinkie's wedding day) and essay, Part Seven, Chapter 3 (the visit to Prewitt), Chapters 7 to 9 (the novel's climax) and, as an direct quotation in essay outside bet, the essay cave very last chapter (11) which reflects much of what has gone before it.

Note that this is just a starting point, not an exhaustive list. The syllabus you are studying, and choices made by your teachers determine whether you are tested by questions requiring you to work from memory alone, or open book questions which allow you to use your copy of the paragraph on importance text. The information which follows is essay appropriate to the exam papers for lincoln douglas essay, which you have been entered. Plato Essay. Specimen examination questions for practice. Paragraph Of Music In Life. In theory, examiners can test your understanding of plato, any idea in relation to paragraph, a text. Questions may be very open, leaving you to supply your own agenda or plan (quite hard) or may indicate an plato essay outline to essay tour to dubai, follow. You may be given a statement (either from the plato cave text, or from a critical work) and asked how far you agree with it. Research. Usually, such statements will be reasonably close to some widely-held view, although certain texts (Shakespeare's plays, for example) have provoked extremely wide-ranging responses from cave, critics. Research Essay Thesis. Always have a plan/structure before you write, and essay cave, keep to it.

Make your point, produce the methodology data evidence, and plato, pass on. Abstract. Use paragraphing and plato, other presentational devices to make your answer clear. Essay On My. What follows are, of course, not the only essays which might be set for plato, this novel, but a selection which address the principal critical issues in Brighton Rock . How, in Brighton Rock , does Greene present Ida's and abstract, Pinkie's contrasting views of the world? How, in the novel, does Greene examine the essay cave difference between Right and Wrong and Good and to dubai, Evil? How far would you agree that the cave novel is in essay not so much about plato cave, Brighton, as about lincoln douglas essay, heaven and hell? Consider the plato importance of place in Brighton Rock . On My Tour To Dubai. How far does the novel endorse the essay cave view of Rose's confessor, that a Catholic is more capable of secondary data, evil than anyone?

Examine Greene's use of contrast as a narrative device in cave Brighton Rock . I don't believe what my eyes don't see. How far does Brighton Rock support or challenge Dallow's view of the world? Ida's world is clearly marked and worksheets structure, comfortable to live in; Pinkie's, because of cave, his Catholic training, is on importance a minefield of terrors and he is pathetic even in his nastiness. How far do you agree with this judgement? In what ways, if any, is Brighton Rock anything more than merely a well-written popular thriller with a clear plot and essay cave, an exciting ending? Re-read the section from thesis dissertation, Part Seven, Chapter 1, beginning at the start of page 194 [Penguin edition] (In the plato essay world outside it was Sunday. Paragraph Of Music In Life. ) to the end of the chapter, on plato cave page 200. Letter For Physical Therapist. What is the plato relationship of thesis dissertation, this section to plato essay cave, the rest of the novel? In answering the dissertation methodology secondary question, you should refer in plato essay detail to episodes before and after this one. Lincoln Douglas. Look again at plato cave, Part Seven, Chapter 7, from page 226 (The old Morris was parked near the pier. ) to the end of in life, this chapter, on page 231.

How does this chapter contribute to the reader's understanding of Pinkie both here and elsewhere? In answering the question, you should refer to essay, Chapter 9 of lincoln debate essay, this Part, and to essay, passages from three or more of the research thesis earlier Parts of the novel. Please acknowledge my authorship by cave, giving the URL of worksheets for essay, any pages you use, and/or include the essay cave copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Thank you.

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Rapture leaked: The true story behind the making of BioShock. From the archives: Simon Parkin investigates the essay, torturous making of a masterpiece. Now that BioShock: The Collection is here, we thought it might be interesting to revisit the for physical, original game's troubled development. Enjoy! 25th January 2007 was a cold day, even by the harsh standards of plato essay cave, a Boston winter. That morning, a dozen senior members of BioShock's beleaguered development team shuffled into a hidden room in the centre of the city, and stood to face a pane of one-way glass. As a huddle of methodology data, strangers entered the adjacent room, unaware that they were being watched, the team from Irrational Games fell silent. After five years of arduous development, during which time the game's setting had shifted from an abandoned space station overrun with alien eels to plato a deep sea utopia project gone wrong, the team was about to in essay see whether all of the toil, all of the late nights and all of the seven-day weeks had been worth the plato essay, effort. Ken Levine, the game's creative director, held a clipboard that listed the strangers' names and their vocations (all of whom were in their twenties). Security guard, construction contractor: these were blue-collar video game players.

Through the methodology data, glass, Levine and essay cave his team watched as each person sat down at one of the various television sets arranged around the room and played the game. They began at the very start: a plane crash over the ocean. The character, a lone survivor, swam to a nearby lighthouse where he discovered an elevator that dropped him into the oppressive splendour of the for physical, ruined city of Rapture. The early days of Irrational, around the time of essay, System Shock 2. Photo from After an hour or so, the men put down the controllers and gathered for quotation in essay, a QA session to plato cave answer questions about what they'd seen and paragraph of music in life played.

The players spoke candidly, not knowing that the developers could see and hear everything. The feedback was brutal. The game was too dark. They didn't know where they were supposed to go. They had grown weary of collecting all that loot. Plato Essay? Nobody trusted Atlas, the disembodied voice who acted as both welcoming party and guide to Rapture. One attendee described Atlas, who at the time spoke in a Morgan Freeman-esque Southern drawl, as a lecherous Colonel Sanders. Another player somehow missed the dissertation methodology, fact that Rapture was an underwater city.

Most of the group found the story entirely confusing. The feedback was direct. It hurt. With only a few months to go before the game's release, the essay cave, temptation for the designers was to criticise the players, rather than listen. Someone pointed out that one of the for physical therapist, players didn't seem to essay cave know how to hold the controller properly. Someone else cast aspersions on the players' literacy: perhaps these people lacked the education to catch the for physical, game's highbrow references? Someone else suggested that they had perhaps shown off the essay cave, wrong sections of the game. Persuasive? Jonathan Chey, one of Irrational Games' three co-founders, suggested the way that the session had been organised was as much of cave, a problem as the game itself. But behind the direct quotation in essay, carapace of bargaining, everybody knew there was truth to essay what had been said. At some point during the QA, I realised that it's bulls*** to take this kind of adversarial stance, says Jean Paul LeBreton, one of structure, BioShock's level designers.

If they didn't understand something, my first instinct should be to figure out how to make it clearer without making it worse. Sometimes player entitlement is unpleasant, sometimes critique is unfocused. There is almost always truth hidden in essay cave it, though. Levine, the weight of secondary data, a $25m underwater world on plato, his shoulders, agreed. The last thing we wanted to do was ship something just because we've done the work already, he says.

Looking back at it, you think of those days as some of the high points, because those are the ingredients for making something special. They are the price that you pay. Paul Hellquist was fired on his first day at Irrational Games. It was a running gag that Ken Levine had at the time just to freak out the dissertation secondary, new guys, he recalls. It worked. It's an unusual way to welcome a new staff member to plato cave any company, the sort of mild hazing usually meted out in college fraternities. But it was perhaps indicative of the studio's small size and cover lack of experience at plato cave, the time.

Hellquist, who had no previous experience in the industry, joined Irrational in September 1999 when the company was run out of a four-room office with vast windows and exposed brick that had previously housed a school. Irrational was so small and they had so little money at the time, that they were in the tough position of hiring entirely junior, never-been-in-the-industry greenhorns like myself, says Hellquist. When I started, the level design team was comprised of three modders, like myself, led by Ian Vogel. I was not qualified, but they needed to take fliers on rookies with the limited budget they had at the time. Levine co-founded Irrational Games with Jonathan Chey and Robert Fermier in 1997 when he was 31 years old. The team was comprised of former employees from Looking Glass, another Massachusetts-based game developer, and initially the Irrational team worked out of the Looking Glass office. We were a tiny company - only about 20 employees total, recalls Dan Kaplan, gameplay programmer on BioShock.

Any time someone came up with something cool, the entire company would quickly know about it and would be riffing off it - it made for a great sense of accomplishment with even the smallest creative efforts. There was a real sense of unity. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to his unpleasantness with the team. BioShock, as shown at Microsoft's 2006 event X06. Irrational's first project was System Shock 2, a science-fiction horror title that pioneered a number of new techniques in interactive storytelling, which the team co-created with their former colleagues at Looking Glass. The year after System Shock 2's release, Levine sent a two-page pitch for a sequel to dissertation secondary data publisher Electronic Arts.

The document was bare bones, describing how the previous game's cliff-hanger would be resolved. EA rejected the idea, most likely because, while System Shock 2 was a critical success, it was also a commercial failure. While Irrational continued to work on other projects - Deep Cover, a cancelled game made in conjunction with Looking Glass, Freedom Force and The Lost, a game that was completed but never released due to legal complications - Levine wanted to return to System Shock's freeform, immersive style of narrative. The first demo for what would become BioShock was created in 2002 for Microsoft's first Xbox using Unreal Engine 2. Set within a utopian project turned to essay dystopian ruin, the cover for physical therapist, underwater city of plato, BioShock's Rapture has become one of video gaming's most enduring locales. But this initial demo took place not in Rapture, but on a space station plagued by genetic mutants. Enemy designs were pulled directly from B-movie science-fiction with working names like 'eel man' and 'jelly man'. Around this time the worksheets, story centred on essay cave, a protagonist called Carlos Cuello, 'cult de-programmer' (Levine borrowed the name from one of quotation, Irrational's own programmers).

While the team struggled to plato cave work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to look, word that the studio was working on a game in the System Shock lineage got out. While the team struggled to work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to look, word that the to dubai, studio was working on a game in the System Shock lineage got out. Plato Cave? LeBreton, who grew up in Texas, applied for persuasive essay, a job at plato essay, the studio after reading that the studio was working on the spiritual successor to System Shock 2, the game that had inspired him to enter the games industry. LeBreton's final interview for the job was also with Levine, but this meeting was less confrontational than in Hellquist's case. We talked about Civilization 4, which had just come out, LeBreton recalls. Ken opened the game's box and unfolded the tech tree with relish. The young designer's impression of Levine was lasting.

I felt that I was in the presence of a hero, he said. He was charismatic, articulate and passionate about all the stuff I was passionate about. We were going to work together and raise the standard of what games could be. I was thrilled. There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work. Jelly man, a design from an earlier version of BioShock. Image from Levine had a talent for persuasive research essay, finding and inspiring young game-makers. Cave? He discovered Bill Gardner, who would later become lead level designer on BioShock, while shopping at a local video game store, where Gardner worked. Ken was a regular, says Gardner.

Somehow I hit it off with him and he invited me to methodology secondary data apply for a job in QA. On Gardner's first day he was assigned a game to test. After a few hours, Hellquist walked into the testing room and asked Gardner what he thought. I told him it was great, says Gardner. Essay Cave? Then I asked him about a particular quest in which you had to kill spiders. For Essay Structure? The spiders would lay eggs and undermine your progress, which was frustrating. Hellquist grabbed Gardner and frog-marched him into a design team meeting.

There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work, says Gardner. I'm totally unprepared, but I make my case. Before I know it somebody yells: 'No f***ing spider babies should count toward the cave, slaughter quest!' It was the first of many impassioned debates about persuasive essay thesis design. But I think that speaks a lot to the sort of environment we had. In late 2004, Irrational formally announced BioShock. The response from the press and essay public was unanimous excitement, and this positivity permeated the studio. As the game moved from pre-production into full-scale development, the studio left its loft in quotation South Boston and moved into a larger office in Quincy. For the first year of development there were only essay six team members. During the next two years this number would swell to 60, partly thanks to an influx of money when the video game publisher 2K acquired the studio in research essay thesis late 2005 (although this wasn't announced until January 2006). While the expansion was swift, the studio tried to maintain its close-knit culture.

Irrational had a flat structure back then: Ken at the top, department heads beneath and then a bunch of artists, programmers, designers beneath that, says LeBreton. This worked well for the studio's size. The atmosphere was that of plato cave, a team that had shipped multiple solid games together. On Importance In Life? I felt like the new guy, as all these other folks had been in the trenches together. But I felt like I fit in. There were, however, problems brewing, ones that would almost entirely scupper BioShock's development and which would resurface during the plato, development of its follow-up, BioShock Infinite, Irrational last game before the studio was closed earlier this year. While BioShock's story (a modern-day nightmare of the terrifying nexus between religious fanaticism and unbounded science. in an undersea complex as Levine's original design pitch put it) began to come together, the art team couldn't find a strong style for the game. The project struggled at the beginning to persuasive essay thesis develop a visual identity, says Chey, director of product development at Irrational at the time. There was a period of time where the levels looked like typical grey industrial space corridors and essay the opponents were the to dubai, usual mutated monsters that you'd fought a hundred times before. Part of the struggle came from the creative difficulties that existed between departments, which prevented the design team and the art team from properly collaborating. There was a rift between artists and designers at the time I came on, says LeBreton.

Early in 2006, we hired a new level artist named Hoagy de la Plante. He picked up on plato cave, the same cultural tensions within the team and asked for permission to direct quotation in essay work with me on a week-long experimental level-building process, in which we collaborated closely on a small space. We were both pretty new at the time, and we didn't have some of the historic friction between Irrational's design and art departments that influenced some of the essay cave, other studio veterans, says de la Plante. We collaborated on Arcadia's initial art and design vision and ended up with a few rooms of the level, which later became the 'Tea Garden' area. When Levine saw the pair's work he declared it the first environment he'd seen that met a 'next generation' visual standard.

Ken showed off our work to the entire studio as an example of a great BioShock space, as well as an example of what can happen through cross-disciplinary collaboration, says de la Plante. That felt pretty great for for physical, me, because Irrational was my first real developer job. While the plato, rifts didn't disappear with the shift in worksheets working process, they also didn't curdle into the sort of dysfunction that can destroy a blockbuster game at its foundations. Nevertheless, perhaps due to publisher indifference to the System Shock 3 pitch, Levine was eager for the team to move away from the cyberpunk trope. Ken's relationship with design gradually became an adversarial one, says LeBreton. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at essay cave, many points on the project, to his unpleasantness with the essay thesis, team. At the time, creating a game that was set in plato essay an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy. Despite the natural creative friction seen by direct quotation in essay, most large teams who work on a blockbuster project, many of BioShock's most memorable ideas were born of essay, successful collaboration. LeBreton claims that he originated the idea of introducing mind-control as a way to instruct the player on direct, what to do next in plato essay cave the game through the narrative.

I thought that those 1950s-era 'subliminal messages' seen in movies like The Manchurian Candidate might be a more novel way to restrict a player's access than the traditional locked doors and keys. The idea was that Atlas had this conditioning something into the player character's biology with he could be controlled. During the first half of 2006, Hellquist wrote an outline script for each area in the game that Levine could work from when he came to write the letter for physical therapist, first draft of the plato, dialogue. Hellquist had the worksheets for essay structure, idea of making the control a spoken phrase. Initially he used a single world, 'Excelsior', which later became 'Cedo Maiori' (I yield to a greater person). But these phrases too obviously signalled Atlas's treachery. Plato Essay Cave? They needed a mind-control phrase that was more conversational, which could be slipped unobtrusively into dialogue.

As the secondary, team prepared to show off the game at the E3 games conference in 2006, Levine began to work on a marketing tagline for the game. He settled on, Would you kill people, even innocent people, to plato essay survive? The line stuck and, later that year reappeared in writing on importance of music in life Levine's first draft of the game's script as the famous triggering phrase: 'Would You Kindly?' Not every aspect of the game evolved so effortlessly. At one point the team needed to plato create a demo for the American video game magazine Game Informer. The magazine was set to run a BioShock cover story. Direct In Essay? The pressure was on to create something that would impress, and our deadline was looming, says LeBreton. In a level review, there was some discussion of how an AI should be presented in the short demo.

Someone mentioned System Shock 2's evasive cyborg ninjas as a reference point. Ken threw his glasses down and yelled: 'I don't want to hear anything about any f***ing cyborg ninjas!' When Paul Hellquist, lead level designer on plato essay, the project tried to interject, Levine screamed: Shut up! This stunned everyone into silence, recalls LeBreton. This was still early in my time at Irrational, and I wasn't sure what to make of direct, it. Other folks were upset, but in a way that indicated this was something that had happened before. One of the central themes of BioShock's development was the plato essay cave, tension between our initial aim to worksheets for essay make a spiritual sequel to System Shock 2 and the need to cave make a very successful mass-market console game, recalls LeBreton. Shortly after the game's strong showing at E3 2006, Ken emerged from discussions with 2K marketing and announced to the team that we would be marketing the game as a shooter - but not to worry, we were still making the persuasive, same smart FPS/RPG hybrid, we might just make a few small design adjustments here and there to make it accessible to the Halo crowd.

Lead artist Shawn Robertson understands why 2K made the plato essay cave, change. At the time, creating a game that was set in paragraph writing on importance in life an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy, he says. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him. JP LeBreton, a level designer on BioShock and plato essay now a member of DoubleFine. As the structure, game's budget swelled, the pressure to create something with mass-market appeal increased in kind. LeBreton considers that Levine's outburst derived not only from a desire for plato cave, creative rigour, but also fear. I think it stemmed from a growing lack of trust in the people he'd hired. Levine's strong objection to the reference to 'cyborg ninjas' may also have stemmed from a tension between his own formative nerd interests, and dissertation data the desire for his work to plato essay cave reach a wide, mainstream audience and to be respected as a creator outside of the secondary, video game playing public. During a BAFTA interview in cave 2013, Levine talked candidly about how, as a lonely child, he would play Dungeons Dragons by himself. Video games were my only friend, he said at the time. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him, says LeBreton.

LeBreton claims that these high-pressure incidents happened regularly during BioShock's development. There was always some thematic connection, says LeBreton. Someone was always being 'sand in essay tour the gears', a phrase Levine used a few times to plato essay describe his time at Looking Glass, when he battled designer and tour programmer egos. The pressure was on him and he probably felt people didn't see the gravity of the situation, or have his clarity on the broader project. Chey, who by this point had been sent to run 2K's Australian studio but who continued to spend most of his time in Boston, agrees. Plato? Ken and I always had a core idea of what it was we were trying to create. Even if we couldn't see that in the build in front of us, it was always important for us to continue to believe in it and quotation in essay try to communicate that vision to others who couldn't see. It's easy to plato cave get overwhelmed by negativity but, as a director, you have to keep that inside and not let it sway you from your course.

With hindsight, LeBreton is able to express sympathy for any creative director on a blockbuster video game. They are expected to be both godhead and pontiff of vast collaborative projects, un-insulated from either the tour, fiscal realities that hang over them or the daily difficulties of making games. They must defend their choices to their teams and then to the world; they're given too much credit or not nearly enough. Levine's distance as director granted him a useful distance to provide valuable guidance and feedback. I recall an early design question involving Fort Frolic's quest logistics that we'd been banging our heads against for a while, says LeBreton. Ken came into the situation without the preconceptions we'd built up and offered a solution that fit perfectly. He cherished such victories. I remember him saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the plato essay cave, Greek princess granted the gift and curse of prophecy.

Another source of tension for the Irrational team and the game's publisher 2K was the Little Sisters, the young girls who harvest stem cells from corpses left lying around Rapture. The Little Sisters started life as armoured slugs and, while the design changed to little girls, they remained vulnerable; the player was supposed to prey on for essay structure, them. Cave? This murderous interaction matured into the idea that the dissertation methodology data, player could also 'save' the Little Sisters, by performing a form of exorcism. For a while, this was implemented as a plasmid that you'd fire at them, recalls LeBreton They'd double over and start rejecting the essay, slug, and their protectors, the Big Daddies, would take this as a sign of aggression, so you were still in for a big fight. Saving the girls was a harrowing process, and it was ambiguous as to in essay whether 'saving' them was even doing them a favour. The Little Sisters in plato cave their original guise. Image from cover, Towards the end of 2006 Levine and Chey were unhappy with the system. We couldn't really figure out how to make them work properly, and plato cave we thought about cutting them a number of writing on importance of music in life, times, says Levine.

Part of the issue was that, if a player chose to plato essay save a Little Sister rather than murder her, he or she received a markedly smaller reward. Persuasive Research? One team member recalls 2K's boss Greg Gobbi saying: We are not shipping a $25m product where the plato essay, player gets punished for doing the right thing. Moreover, 2K was nervous that the paragraph, fact players could kill children in the game would cause issues with the cave, ratings board. Paragraph Of Music In Life? In the trenches we were pretty sure it was a no-go, says LeBreton. I remember booting up Deus Ex with the team present to confirm that, yes, you can trivially kill children in the game's second mission. but that was released into the game industry of 2000, before Hot Coffee. The way the player interacted with the Little Sisters was always going to be a tricky issue, says Chey. Not because of what upper management thought of plato cave, it, but because of what the press and the public would think. We were worried about secondary data it. We weren't looking to create controversy and we didn't want outrage to plato overshadow the real point of the game. We had to research essay thesis find a solution that conveyed the plato essay, tough decisions we wanted the player to make without bringing out the mob and the pitchforks. The team's solution was to make the Little Sisters invulnerable, only allowing the dissertation methodology data, player to harvest or save the plato, child after their assigned Big Daddy was eliminated.

This involved writing a massive kludge into persuasive essay the game's fiction that I still cringe thinking about, says LeBreton, but maybe it was the plato essay cave, only way given the other constraints. As BioShock entered its final year of of music, development, the pressure on the team to work ever harder increased. Two of the lowest points on BioShock's development were when mandatory six and later seven day weeks were instituted, says LeBreton. According to the designer the decision to force the team to work without days off came directly from Levine; the plato essay, game's producer, Alyssa Finley (who would later become studio head of 2K Marin) was against the move. I'm dubious of essay on my tour, any real quality gains from the plato essay cave, decision, says LeBreton, especially given the morale cost. The team would find different ways to on importance of music in life cope with the bruising workload. I needed a break from all of the late nights but didn't know how to switch off,” says John Abercrombie, a programmer at the time who later became AI lead on BioShock and lead programmer for plato cave, BioShock Infinite. In Essay? I didn't want to play pinball or whatever so I decided to replace the grenade that the grenadier AI used with a 3D model of a cat, which would explode on essay, contact. Abercrombie called the mod 'cat-astrophe' but when management found out about the work he was made to promise he wouldn't include it as an Easter Egg. I guess they were concerned about the ASPCA or someone getting wind of it and it causing all sorts of media troubles.

So I just made a video locally and then went on, fixing bugs. The increased work hours coincided with the fracturing of the core design team. The rift between Paul and on importance of music in life Ken grew as Ken asserted more direct control over the design process, says LeBreton. Hellquist was increasingly shut out of plato cave, key meetings. The reasoning seemed to be that time was short and some decisions could only for physical therapist be made by the most critical people, and Paul was either deemed non-critical or considered an plato essay cave, impediment to the decision-making process. Hellquist corroborates LeBreton's account, but is more understanding of why he was sidelined.

The shift upset me and ultimately led to my departure, he says. But with the benefit of five years' distance from that time as well as sitting in the creative director chair since then I have a totally different perspective on that situation. I was a pain in Ken's ass towards the end of methodology secondary data, development. I was constantly challenging his opinions and directives and, having sat in plato that chair now, I expect he was exasperated. In retrospect I should have been more quick to say: 'OK, I'll do it.' For Hellquist, the data, estrangement reminded him of his first day at essay, the studio. I felt that, despite eight years at Irrational, Ken still thought of me as the junior level designer who he fired on structure, my first day, he says.

I thought he should consider me his equal. I felt my opinions deserved more weight than they received. Hellquist's forced move to the sidelines came at a time when he was tasked with improving the Medical Pavilion area of the game. I was no longer asked to be involved in meetings. It hurt, but I channelled that frustration into plato essay making that portion of the game as good as I possibly could. Letter For Physical? Hellquist left Irrational Games almost exactly two months after BioShock's completion. Despite the plato cave, natural friction of egos under pressure, there were those who found the high-pressure environment exhilarating. Persuasive Research? Jordan Thomas joined Irrational in January 2007 as a senior level designer, eight months before BioShock's release.

I remember the hunger, he says. Essay Cave? I came on dissertation methodology secondary data, late, but you could smell it, like an animal; everyone there had something to plato essay prove. And when we let ego fall away, and that engine of collective intent began to methodology secondary roar, man - there was a beauty to the naked momentum of it. Maybe you were at the wheel, maybe you were fuel. On the best days at Irrational, it didn't matter. Thomas, who would go on to found 2K Marin with LeBreton, where he directed BioShock 2, remembers the essay cave, sense of elation when a design fell into place. One night he was working on the area of the game for which he was responsible, Fort Frolic, where an cover, insane artist, Sander Cohen, holds the player captive. Chris Kline, lead programmer at the time, was there at 2am with me, and would give me a first read on new content. I was trying to show him Cohen's big final entrance scene, and had been tinkering with it for several days, with the savvy assistance of JP LeBreton. That night, though, some minor bug fouled it up.

Chris left to go home. Thomas remained at plato cave, his desk and, after some time, solved the issue. In the paragraph writing on importance of music in life, scene Cohen descends - applauding himself. Plato Cave? There's canned cheering and the music swells. but the only people there to observe his work are you, his prisoner, and the dead. Oblivious in research my pride I stood to my feet, arms thrown up, and bellowed: 'IT IS DONE!' to a completely empty building. As Cohen sat there in his looping poses, admiring his masterpiece, I realised that, in plato cave a way, I had become him. We had to structure find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the plato, player to make without bringing out the for essay structure, mob and the pitchforks. The Big Daddy changed during the design process, too - originally, they were seated in wheelchairs. As BioShock neared its scheduled completion date and plato the natural pressures on the team intensified, the game's publisher made an announcement that startled the team: they had added three extra months to the schedule in writing on importance which to finish the game. Cave? It was double-edged news offering the prospect of three more months of physically and cover therapist psychologically exhausting seven-day weeks, but also the opportunity to realise the game's grand ambition.

I think the team, or at least I was happy to have had the time to plato essay cave be able to structure polish the game more, says Levine. When Ken stood up in front of the essay, team and announced that we had three extra months to work on the game, it was a mixed feeling, recalls Robertson. Letter? We had been crunching for plato, a while and were ready to get the game out the door, but on the other hand, we saw those three months as a way to put that extra bit of polish in and really ship something we were proud of. Any time a game you're working slips, it is definitely a little demoralising, says Keith Shetler, assistant producer on the project. When you realise that the light at the end of the tunnel just got moved further away, it hurts. Structure? Hellquist agrees: When we got the extra months added to the schedule it felt like a blessing and a curse. I was excited because I knew that was the time we needed to really make something special but the curse was that we knew we had more months of crunch before we could rest. The wearying news was made more palatable for essay cave, some staff members by the fact that they felt like they were on the verge of direct in essay, greatness with the project. We knew the potential was there and cave just needed that project to pull everything together, says Gardner. In every way fathomable, BioShock was that project. Paragraph Writing On Importance? I imagine it's how a band feels before they enter the studio to record their breakthrough album.

There's just an energy. Other team members were less certain the game would be a success. I'm the guy who is always looking for problems - with the plato cave, goal of trying to find solutions, of course, says Chey. That means that I can have a pretty negatively skewed view of the for essay structure, product. Shetler is essay, even less equivocal: I didn't think anyone would like it. The play-test behind the one-way glass in January 2007 only seemed to confirm these fears. Paragraph In Life? But, after the plato cave, initial sting of the criticism, the on my tour to dubai, team went away and redoubled their effort. The art team redesigned the game's lighting to make Rapture appear less murky. A great deal of plato essay cave, work went into reworking the control, UI and essay to dubai feedback. The team implemented a 'quest arrow' to direct the player on where to go next (much to the chagrin of some designers). Atlas was recast as an Irishman.

The introduction was re-directed to show off multiple sea vistas to plato essay cave ensure there would be no confusion as to where the game was set. As the worksheets for essay, final submission date approached, confidence grew. Towards the end of a video game's production the issue of accreditation is raised. How one's work is credited in a video game is plato essay cave, important not only for worksheets for essay structure, validating one's sense of contribution, but also as an essential part of establishing a career record. Plato Cave? With blockbuster productions, establishing the boundaries of authorship can be difficult, especially when the project is for essay structure, led by plato essay cave, something of an auteur. Ken is paranoid about people taking credit for what he considers his work, LeBreton claims. He chose people's titles in the credits carefully and did the same for research, the BioShock Infinite team. I think deep down he knows how much of a weird collaborative thing game development is, and he's insecure about his claim to what became the 'genius' of BioShock. I sympathise; I contributed to the game significantly, but when I play I see my fingerprints flicker between 'everything' and 'nothing'. In video games so many people touch the work and no idea is the same in two or more minds. I remember Levine saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Greek princess granted the essay, gift and curse of prophecy.

BioShock's launch trailer, as first aired in 2007. BioShock launched on 21st August 2007. The reviews were universally positive. Irrational had succeeded in its lofty aim: to bring an involved, thematically rich simulation game to the mass market. But the team was broken. I don't remember what I felt like when it went gold, but I do remember when the game came out I went into direct in essay a sort of essay, postpartum depression, Levine tells me, over methodology data, email. When your life is cave, so focused on something for such a long time and quotation then all of the sudden you wake up in the morning and you're not sure what you're supposed to plato essay be doing exactly, it can be very confusing. Tour? I worked on the game for a long time, and it was very special to me. Plato Cave? I was in a bit of an odd place because I wasn't sure what I was going to do next. It was a feeling echoed across the team.

After the on importance of music, game's launch, many team members left, either - as in Jordan Thomas and plato LeBreton's case - to found 2K Marin, or, as in Hellquist's case, to move to new studios where they could step out of Levine's shadow. It's often the case, says Hellquist of mass departures following a multi-year game project. Paragraph On Importance In Life? Making games is hard. Plato Essay? We pour so much of our lives into them and methodology data sometimes people feel like they need to move to reignite the creative fires. It's also just generally the right time to do it. You feel like you are not leaving your friends holding the bag like if you left during crunch or during those dog days. Plato Cave? It's just the right time to shift your focus.

Despite the research, strains of the final few months of BioShock's development, and the creative tensions that existed long prior to essay that, many team members look back on the project with fondness, the pain salved by time and distance, and the near universal praise the game received and has maintained. It's certainly one of the things of which I'm most proud, says Levine. It wasn't a game that we made to anybody's specifications. We made exactly the thing that we wanted to make. Grant Chang, one of letter for physical, just three animators who worked on plato cave, BioShock, agrees: I was so green in worksheets those days. Maybe I look back at the experience with rose-tinted glasses, but it was definitely one of the plato essay, most satisfying professional experiences of my life. Essay Tour To Dubai? For Chey, who now works as an plato, indie developer, it was a fierce learning experience, We learned a ton of things making that game and, at the same time, made something that a lot of people loved and enjoy to this day. Essay On My Tour To Dubai? Although, if you just let me redo one thing, I think it would have to essay be the Atlas boss battle. We weren't great at boss battles. I have nothing but respect for Ken, says Hellquist. Research Thesis? He taught me so much about games, design, narrative, and the craft of game making that I will always be in debt to him for essay cave, that.

Ken can be a tough guy to thesis work for sometimes, but he is driven to make his games great and drives his team towards that same goal. I always aspire to that goal in my work and plato essay probably learned that from paragraph writing in life, him. For LeBreton, who describes working on BioShock as the essay cave, turning point in his career as a designer, the experience gave him strange expectations for his future career. I formed a bad habit, he says. I conflated my career's success with my self-esteem in a way that more or less caused my entire life to implode. Unlike Hellquist, who subsequently worked as creative director on Borderlands 2 at Gearbox Software, LeBreton stepped away from the path that would, perhaps, have led him to a similar role.

Despite his departure, he has fond memories of his time at the studio. I miss working with them, he says. Irrational was a fine group of people to work with. LeBreton now leads a tiny team at Double Fine, which, in his words, he tries to lead with empathy, consensus and trust. We'll see how it goes, he says. Game development makes fools of us all. PC, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Mac. Follow the games you're interested in and we'll send you an email the instant we publish new articles about them. Sometimes we include links to online retail stores. If you click on one and make a purchase we may receive a small commission. For more information, go here.

Simon Parkin is an award-winning writer and journalist from England, a regular contributor to The New Yorker, The Guardian and a variety of other publications. Comments for this article are now closed, but please feel free to continue chatting on the forum!

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26 Awesome Resume Mind Maps to essay cave, Inspire You. A memory-jogging exercise and a creative way to show off your accomplishments. If you'd like to mind map your own resume, here are some free tools: Freemind arguably the best known free, downloadable mind maping software. Freeplane a better Freemind than Freemind, I switched to using this a few years ago. Xmind nice user inteface and available in thesis 7 languages. Plato. cute tool, lets you make the mind maps in your browser window. Dabbleboard a cool online charting tool that can be used for mind maps, flow charts and more. MindMeister is another online mind mapping site with very handy features.

Their basic/free plan is very limited (you're only on importance allowed to essay, save 3 mind maps) but they provide a free resume mind map template so you can get started quickly: Subscribe to JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on on my to dubai, Twitter for more ways to use mind maps in your job search. Essay Cave. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of direct quotation in essay humor. I like to help people. At The Last Minute: Where To Find Summer Jobs on Twitter. 32 Brilliant Celebrity and Celebrity Wannabe Actors’ Resumes. Although you have worked hard, But I feel that these kind of resume format are not in practice. We should go for plato cave such a format which is very simple, straight forward so that a recruiter may not be puzzled or feel any type of stress. How ever a great creative work!

Great article, and great collection of essay on my tour to dubai resources. Just a slight correction, the plato essay cave, link that you#8217;ve provided to our resume template is broken. It should be pointing to: As this is for essay structure a template, all MindMeister users can clone this map to their account and get started right away. Plato. Likewise, using our handy sharing features, instead of presenting an image, you could embed your mind map resume directly into a webpage. Thanks again for the mention, and happy mind mapping! I love these! Before you even read the mind maps you can tell so much about the person. For Physical Therapist. The format, the colors, the pictures give such insight into plato cave, the person. So powerful! But I do understand that most recruiters would have no idea what to do with or how to read these mind maps, I think they are a good idea.

If nothing more than a tool for the job seeker to for physical therapist, understand themselves. High value! Mind Map resumes are great way to plato essay cave, stand out from the crowd! Some of the quotation in essay, more colourful and linear Mind Maps (Jane Brotchie, Jennifer Goddard, Skanda Kumarasingam and plato essay, Zehra Oguz Lebrun) have been created using iMindMap from ThinkBuzan. We offer a free-for-life version of the in essay, software called iMindMap Basic which you can download at plato essay cave, Philip- you wouldn#8217;t send a mindmap resume to a recruiter unless you wanted to persuasive research essay, show off your creativity. Otherwise, you might put it on your website. Dan- it#8217;s Jacob #128578; Thanks for pointing out the plato essay, broken link, I just fixed it. Paragraph On Importance In Life. Kimba- agreed! It#8217;s a great way to plan your more conventional resume, which you would send to essay, recruiters. Dissertation Secondary. Charlotte- thanks for pointing that out.

Great selection of maps! You may find some other interesting examples in the #8220;careers#8221; section of the mind map library at Even if you dont submit the map itself to a recruiter, it is essay a great way of brainstorming and exploring your personal and cover letter, professional strengths. Everyone should give it a try! I#8217;m glad you liked my mind map. You asked me privately how this mindmap came about. I produced this after becoming a licensed instructor for essay imindmap see This is not free software, but I invested in it as it provides lots of extra functionality and is really simple to use.

There are lots of direct free programmes that are great too. The beauty of plato cave mindmapping is that it helps you take your thinking one step further after I created this I actually saw my work experience in a different light. I think now you have reminded me of this I should update it to include on therapist, my new website at plato cave, This is a great collection thanks for pulling it together. Direct In Essay. The idea for my CV came from a similar one produced by Michael J Scheroter when he worked for MindJet.

I liked it so much as it provided links between the main themes of my career. It showed progression and development really whilst providing material in a more familiar list format. Due to the number of nodes in my mind map/resume I actually walk through an IBIS map/decision tree with every employer. Question Should we hire Richard? Idea 1 We hire Richard. Plato Essay Cave. Idea 2 We don#8217;t hire Richard. I then go through all of the positives of hiring me and the potential risks/negatives. I then do the same with not hiring me.

By the end of essay on my it, I always get hired. Hi, Thanks for your post. I used mind manager 8 to create my resume. I was learning about essay cave mind mapping and had the persuasive essay, idea of trying it on my CV, as i was looking for a new job. Now i use it to resume books, courses, even in business#8230; I never sent my mind map CV, but it really helped me to plato essay, structure my experience in my head, and structure, be prepared for plato essay cave interviews. Structure. Since I use mindmapping a lot in my job, it gave me the idea to create also a CV version. I use this mindmap version a lot when I introduce myself individually to team members of a project I#8217;m starting. It just is a great way to plato cave, get a clear overview over who I#8217;m, what I do and cover letter for physical, what thrills me. Essay. I advice everybody to make such a version#8230; Thank you noticed my mind map. I have used Freemind to create it.

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Essay, Research Paper: Drugs And Crime. years, both the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of. Justice have funded many studies to try to better understand the connection. Plato Essay Cave. One. such study was done in Baltimore on research essay, heroin users. This study found high rates of. criminality among users during periods of plato essay active drug use, and essay thesis, much lower rates. during periods of nonuse (Ball et al.

1983, pp.119-142). A large number of. people who abuse drugs come into plato contact with the criminal justice system when. they are sent to jail or to other correctional facilities. The criminal justice. system is methodology data, flooded with substance abusers. The need for expanding drug abuse.

treatment for this group of cave people was recognized in the Crime Act of 1994, which for on my the first time provided substantial resources for federal and state. jurisdictions. In this paper, I will argue that using therapeutic communities in. prisons will reduce the plato essay cave, recidivism rates among people who have been released. from prison. I am going to use the paragraph writing on importance of music, general theory of crime, which is based on. self-control, to help rationalize using federal tax dollars to fund these. therapeutic communities in prisons.

I feel that if we teach these prisoners some. self-control and alternative lifestyles that we can keep them from reentering. the prisons once they get out. I am also going to describe some of today’s. programs that have proven to be very effective. Gottfredson and Hirschi. developed the cave, general theory of crime. Direct Quotation. It According to their theory, the.

criminal act and the criminal offender are separate concepts. The criminal act. is perceived as opportunity; illegal activities that people engage in when they. perceive them to be advantageous. Crimes are committed when they promise rewards.

with minimum threat of pain or punishment. Crimes that provide easy, short-term. gratification are often committed. The number of offenders may remain the same, while crime rates fluctuate due to the amount of opportunity (Siegel 1998). Criminal offenders are people that are predisposed to committing crimes. This. does not mean that they have no choice in the matter, it only means that their. self-control level is plato, lower than average.

When a person has limited. self-control, they tend to data be more impulsive and shortsighted. This ties back in. with crimes that are committed that provide easy, short-term gratification. These people do not necessarily have a tendency to commit crimes, they just do. not look at essay long-term consequences and they tend to be reckless and. self-centered (Longshore 1998, pp.102-113). These people with lower levels of. self-control also engage in non-criminal acts as well. These acts include.

drinking, gambling, smoking, and illicit sexual activity (Siegel 1998). Also, drug use is a common act that is performed by these people. Direct. They do not look at. the consequences of the drugs, while they get the short-term gratification. Sometimes this drug abuse becomes an addiction and then the person will commit. other small crimes to plato essay get the drugs or them money to get the drugs.

In a. mid-western study done by Evans et al. (1997, pp. 475-504), there was a. significant relationship between self-control and use of illegal drugs. The. problem is for essay structure, once these people get into the criminal justice system, it is hard to. get them out. After they do their time and are released, it is much easier to plato be. sent back to for essay structure prison. Once they are out, they revert back to their impulsive. selves and continue with the cave, only type of life they know. They know short-term.

gratification, the quick fix” if you will. Being locked up with. thousands of other people in the same situation as them is persuasive essay, not going to change. them at all. They break parole and are sent back to prison. Plato Essay. Since the second. half of the 1980’s, there has been a large growth in prison and jail. populations, continuing a trend that started in the 1970’s. The proportion of. drug users in the incarcerated population also grew at the same time. By the end.

of the 1980’s, about one-third of those sent to state prisons had been. convicted of a drug offense; the highest in worksheets for essay structure the country’s history (Reuter. 1992, pp. Essay. 323-395). With the arrival of crack use in cover for physical therapist the 1980’s, the strong. relationship between drugs and crime got stronger.

The use of cocaine and heroin. became very prevalent. Essay. Violence on worksheets for essay structure, the streets that is caused by drugs got the. public’s attention and that put pressure on the police and plato, courts. Consequently, more arrests were made.

While it may seem good at first that these. people are locked up, with a second look, things are not that good. The cost to. John Q. Taxpayer for a prisoner in Ohio for a year is around $30,000 (Phipps. 1998). That gets pretty expensive when you consider that there are more than. 1,100,000 people in paragraph of music United States prisons today (Siegel 1998). Cave. Many prisoners. are being held in local jails because of dissertation secondary overcrowding. This rise in plato essay cave population. is largely due to the number of inmates serving time for drug offenses (Siegel.

1998). This is where therapeutic communities come into play. The term. “therapeutic community” has been used in many different forms of treatment, including residential group homes and special schools, and different conditions, like mental illness, alcoholism, and drug abuse (Lipton 1998, pp.106-109). In. the United States, therapeutic communities are used in the rehabilitation of.

drug addicts in and out of prison. These communities involve a type of group. therapy that focuses more on for essay structure, the person a whole and not so much the offense they. committed or their drug abuse. They use a “community of peers” and role. models rather than professional clinicians. They focus on lifestyle changes and. tend to be more holistic (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109).

By getting inmates to. participate in these programs, the prisoners can break their addiction to drugs. By freeing themselves from this addiction they can change their lives. These. therapeutic communities can teach them some self-control and ways that they can. direct their energies into more productive things, such as sports, religion, or. work. Seven out of every ten men and plato cave, eight out of every ten women in paragraph writing on importance the. criminal justice system used drugs with some regularity prior to entering the. criminal justice system (Lipton 1998, pp.

106-109). With that many people in. prisons that are using drugs and the connection between drug use and crime, then. if there was any success at essay all it seems like it would be a step in the right. direction.

Many of these offenders will not seek any type of reform when they. are in structure the community. They feel that they do not have the cave, time to commit to go. through a program of rehabilitation. It makes sense, then, that they should. receive treatment while in prison because one thing they have plenty of is time. In 1979, around four percent of the prison population, or about letter, 10,000, were.

receiving treatment through the 160 programs that were available throughout the. country (National Institute on plato cave, Drug Abuse 1981). Forty-nine of these programs. were based on methodology secondary data, the therapeutic community model, which served around 4,200. prisoners. In 1989, the percentage of prisoners that participated in these. programs grew to about eleven percent (Chaiken 1989).

Some incomplete surveys. state today that over plato half the states provide some form of treatment to their. prisoners and about twenty percent of in essay identified drug-using offenders are using. these programs (Frohling 1989). Essay Cave. The public started realizing that drug abuse and. crime were on the rise and that something had to be done about it. This led to. more federal money being put into treatment programs in prisons (Beckett 1994, pp. 425-447). The States were assisted through two Federal Government. initiatives, projects REFORM and RECOVERY.

REFORM began in 1987, and laid the. groundwork for the development of effective prison-based treatment for. incarcerated drug abusers. Presentations were made at letter for physical therapist professional conferences. to national groups and policy makers and to local correctional officials. At. these presentations the principles of effective correctional change and the. efficacy of essay prison-based treatment were discussed. New models were formed that. allowed treatment that began in prison to continue after prisoners were released. into the community.

Many drug abuse treatment system components were established. due to for essay structure Project REFORM that include: 39 assessment and plato, referral programs. implemented and 33 expanded or improved; 36 drug education programs implemented. and 82 expanded or improved; 44 drug resource centers established and 37. expanded or improved; 20 in-prison 12-step programs implemented and 62 expanded. or improved; 11 urine monitoring systems expanded; 74 prerelease counseling. and/or referral programs implemented and 54 expanded or improved; 39 post. release treatment programs with parole and 10 improved; and 77 isolated-unit.

treatment programs started. In 1991, the new Center for Substance Abuse. Treatment established Project RECOVERY. This program provided technical. assistance and training services to start out prison drug treatment programs. Most of the states that participated in REFORM were involved with RECOVERY, as. well as a few new states. In most therapeutic communities, recovered drug users. are placed in a therapeutic environment, isolated from the general prison. population.

This is due to the fact that if they live with the general. population, it is much harder to break away from old habits. The primary. clinical staff is usually made up of former substance abusers that at one time. were rehabilitated in therapeutic communities. The perspective of the cover, treatment. is that the plato essay cave, problem is with the whole person and not the drug. The addiction is. a symptom and not the quotation in essay, core of the disorder. The primary goal is to change.

patterns of behavior, thinking, and feeling that predispose drug use (Inciardi. et al. 1997, pp. 261-278). Plato. This returns to the general theory of crime and the. argument that it is the opportunity that creates the problem. If you take away. the opportunity to quotation commit crimes by changing one’s behavior and thinking then. the opportunity will not arise for the person to commit these crimes that were.

readily available in essay cave the past. The most effective form of therapeutic community. intervention involves three stages: incarceration, work release, and parole or. other form of supervision (Inciardi et al. 1997, pp.261-278). The primary stage. needs to consist of a prison-based therapeutic community. Pro-social values. should be taught in direct in essay an environment that is separate from the normal prison. population. This should be an on-going and evolving process that lasts at essay least.

twelve months, with the essay on my to dubai, ability to stay longer if it is deemed necessary. The. prisoners need to grasp the concept of the addiction cycle and interact with. other recovering addicts. The second stage should include a transitional work. release program. This is plato, a form of direct quotation in essay partial incarceration in cave which inmates that. are approaching release dates can work for pay in the free community, but they. must spend their non-working hours in worksheets either the institution or a work release. facility (Inciardi et al. 1997, pp.

261-278). The only essay, problem here is on importance, that. during their stay at this facility, they are reintroduced to groups and. behaviors that put them there in the first place. If it is possible, these. recovering addicts should stay together and live in a separate environment than. the general population. Once the plato cave, inmate is worksheets for essay structure, released into the free community, he. or she will remain under the supervision of a parole officer or some other type.

of supervisory program. Treatment should continue through either outpatient. counseling or group therapy. In addition, they should also be encouraged to. return to the work release therapeutic community for refresher sessions, attend. weekly groups, call their counselors on a regular basis and spend one day a. month at the facility (Inciardi et al. Plato Essay Cave. 1997, pp.

261-278). Since the on my tour, early. 1990’s, the Delaware correctional system has been operating this three-stage. model. It is based around three therapeutic communities: the KEY, a prison-based.

therapeutic community for men; WCI Village, a prison-based therapeutic community. for women; and CREST Outreach Center, a residential work release center for essay cave men. and women. According to Inciardi et al. (1997, pp.261-278), the continuing of. therapeutic community treatment and sufficient length of follow up time, a. consistent pattern of reduction of drug use and recidivism exists.

Their study. shows the effectiveness of the program extending beyond the in-prison program. New York’s model for rehabilitation is called the Stay’n Out Program. This. is a therapeutic community program that was established in 1977 by a group of. recovered addicts (Wexler et al. 1992, pp.

156-175). The program was evaluated. in 1984 and it was reported that the program reduced recidivism for both males. and females. Also, from this study, the “time-in-program” hypothesis was. formed.

This came from the finding that successful outcomes were directly. related to the amount of time that was spent in essay tour treatment. Another study, by. Toumbourou et al. (1998, pp. 1051-1064), tested the time-in-program hypothesis. In this study, they found a linear relationship between reduced recidivism rates.

and time spent in the program as well as the level of plato essay treatment attained. This. study found that it was the attainment of level progress rather than time in the. treatment that was most important. The studies done on dissertation methodology secondary data, New York’s Stay’n Out. program and Delaware’s Key-Crest program are some of the first large-scale. evidence that prison-based therapeutic communities actually produce a. significant reduction in recidivism rates and show a consistency over time.

The. programs of the past did work, but before most of the programs were privately. funded, and plato essay cave, when the paragraph, funds ran out in cave seven or eight years, so did the on my tour to dubai, programs. Now with the government backing these types of plato programs, they should continue to. show a decrease in recidivism.

It is much more cost effective to treat these. inmates. A program like Stay’n Out cost about $3,000 to worksheets for essay $4,000 more than the. standard correctional costs per inmate per year (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). In a. program in Texas, it was figured that with the money spent on 672 offenders that. entered the plato, program, 74 recidivists would have to be prevented from returning to. break even. It was estimated that 376 recidivists would be kept from returning. using the therapeutic community program (Eisenberg and Fabelo 1996, pp.

296-318). The savings produced in crime-related and drug use-associated costs. pay for the cost of worksheets structure treatment in about two to three years. Cave. The main question. that arises when dealing with this subject is whether or not people change.

According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, the persuasive, person does not change, only the. opportunity changes. By separating themselves from people that commit crimes and. commonly do drugs, they are actually avoiding the opportunity to commit these. crimes. They do not put themselves in the situation that would allow their low. self-control to take over. Starting relationships with people who exhibit. self-control and ending relationships with those who do not is a major factor in. the frequency of committing crimes. Addiction treatment is very important to.

this country’s war on drugs. While these abusers are incarcerated it provides. us with an plato essay, excellent opportunity to give them treatment. The will not seek. treatment on their own. Without treatment, the on importance of music in life, chances of them continuing on. with their past behavior are very high.

But with the treatment programs we have. today, things might be looking up. The studies done on the various programs, such as New York’s Stay’n Out and Delaware’s Key-Crest program, prove that. there are cost effective ways available to treat these prisoners. Not only are. they cost effective, but they are also proven to reduce recidivism rates. significantly. Cave. These findings are very consistent throughout all of the. research, there are not opposing views. I believe that we can effectively treat. these prisoners while they are incarcerated and they can be released into.

society and be productive, not destructive. Structure. Nothing else has worked to essay cave this. point, we owe it to them, and more importantly, we owe it to cover for physical ourselves. We can. again feel safe on the streets after dark, and we do not have to spend so much. of our money to do it. Ball, J.C., J.W. Shaffer, and D.N.

Nurco. 1983. “Day-to-day criminality of. heroin addicts in Baltimore: a study in the continuity of offense rates.” Drug. and Alcohol Dependence. 12: 119-142. Plato Essay. Beckett, K. Dissertation. 1994. “Setting the plato essay cave, Public. Agenda: “Street Crime” and Drug Use in American Politics.” Social.

Problems. 41(3): 425-447. Chaiken, M.R. 1989. “In-Prison Programs for. Drug-Involved Offenders.” Research in Brief. Washington, DC: National. Institute of Justice. Eisenberg, M., and Tony Fabelo. 1996. “Evaluation of the. Texas Correctional Substance Abuse Treatment Initiative: The impact of policy. research.” Crime and Delinquency.

42(2): 296-318. On My. Evans, T.D., F.T. Cullen, V.S. Burton, R.G. Dunaway, and M.L. Benson. 1997. “The social consequences of. self-control: Testing the general theory of crime.” Criminology. 35: 475-504. Frohling, R. 1989. “Promising Approaches to Drug Treatment in Correctional.

Settings.” Criminal Justice Paper No. 7. National Conference of State. Legislatures, Washington, DC. Inciardi, J.A., S.S. Martin, C.A. Butzin, R.M. Hooper, and plato cave, L.D. Harrison. 1997. Essay On My To Dubai. “An effective model of prison-based treatment. for drug-involved offenders.” Journal of Drug Issues.

27(2): 261-278. Longshore, D. 1998. “Self-Control and Criminal Opportuinty: A Prospective Test. of the plato essay, General Theory of Crime.” Social Problems. 45(1): 102-113. Lipton, D.S. 1998. Writing Of Music. “Therapeutic communities: History, effectiveness, and prospects.” Corrections Today. Cave. 60(6): 106-109.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. 1981. “Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons.” Treatment Research Report Series. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Phipps, B. 1998. “Criminology class lecture. notes.” Reuter, P. 1992. “Community Crime Prevention: a review and synthesis.

of the literature.” Justice Quarterly. 5(3): 323-395. Siegel, L.J. 1998. Criminology. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Toumbourou, J.W., M. Hamilton, B. Fallon. 1998. “Treatment level progress and time spent in treatment in the. prediction of outcomes following drug-free therapeutic community treatment.” Addiction.

93(7): 1051-1064. Wexler, H.K., D. Lipton, G.P. Falkin, and research thesis, A.B. Rosenbaum. 1992. Plato Cave. “Outcome evaluation of a prison therapeutic community for. substance abuse treatment.” In C.G. Leukkfeld and F.M. Tims (eds.), Drug Abuse. Treatment in Prisons and Jails. pp.

156-175. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Help other users to find the for essay, good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Get a Custom Paper on Alcohol and Drugs:

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How to Write a Functional or Skills-Based Resume (With Examples + Templates) Every job applicant knows how to cave write a resume. Few know how to direct in essay do it well. Fewer still are candidates who know how to strategically format a resume to their advantage. After all, a resume is a resume, right?

Not quite. There are three types of resumes, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Chronological resume : Highlights your work history and most recent job title first. It’s the most commonly used format for resumes. Functional or Skill-based resume : List your skills and accomplishment first, while shifting focus from your employment history. Combination resume : A qualifications summary or achievements summary highlights the most notable parts of your career, but your work history will still include details of your job description, skills, and plato essay other accomplishments not included in the summary. Whether you choose to use a professional resume template, or start from scratch, today we'll teach you some key considerations to figure out when to persuasive essay thesis go with a functional resume versus a chronological or combination resume. First, let's look at what the benefits of functional resumes are. The Unsung Merits of Functional Resumes.

Functional resumes highlight your skills and accomplishments, regardless of the length of your career, the job titles you held, and the industries you’ve worked in. In short, it gives applicants with limited experience, or non-traditional career paths a better fighting chance. 5 Situations Where a Functional Resume Works Best. Functional resumes are great for highlighting transferable skills that will be applicable to essay your new line of direct in essay work. Your job title and plato essay cave job description as a UX designer might not translate to an impressive resume for an Android/iOS Developer position. But your experience in on importance of music in life software development and knowledge of different programming languages will. “Functional resume are great when a candidate is either going back to plato essay where they were earlier in their career, or if there is quotation a gap in their employment, such as if they’re taking care of an ill parent or child ”, says Bill Humbert, Recruiter and Talent Acquisition Consultant. It’s also good for discreetly presenting work histories with employment gaps due to cave layoffs.

You can do this by listing employment dates without the months, as compared below: Graphic Designer, XYZ Productions, May 2009 - October 2012. Graphic Designer, ABC Web Design LLC , April 2013 - Present. Graphic Designer, XYZ Productions, 2009 - 2012. Graphic Designer, ABC Web Design LLC, 2013 - Present. In the example above, the on my tour to dubai five to plato essay cave six month gap is less obvious because only the years are listed.

Unfortunately, this isn’t a fool-proof strategy, as recruiters who read hundreds of dissertation methodology secondary data resumes a day are used to this tactic. It’s just a band-aid strategy to downplay employment gaps enough for recruiters to see your potential. To avoid any confusion and conclusion jumping on the part of recruiters, include a brief cover letter explaining the essay employment gaps. Don’t’ be afraid to tell the worksheets for essay truth. Recruiters are humans, too, so they understand layoffs, restructuring, and the need to take care of ailing parents.

3. Fresh Graduates with Limited Work Experience. Chronological resumes aren’t the plato best fit for methodology fresh graduates because they don’t have much experience in the first place. And in essay many cases, whatever work history they have is either unrelated to letter the job they’re applying for, or not considered as ‘on-the-job experience’ by recruiters because it’s part of college, and not an ‘ actual job’ . It’s better for plato essay cave fresh grads to for physical therapist start their resume with a list of essay cave skills learned through course-related projects, volunteer experience, extra-curricular activities and internships, and dissertation data then briefly list their academic achievements and employment history. Listing ‘photography skills’ under work history then citing the school’s newspaper as ‘ employer’ won’t hold much weight in the eyes of employers. Maybe you were lucky to land a good job in a solid company that knows how to take care of its employees.

So you stayed with them for plato essay years. But that doesn’t mean you didn’t grow in quotation in essay your field. You might have held different positions, worked in different departments and acquired a diverse set of skills, even if you stayed put in one company. Because you’ve had only one employer, a chronological format that relies on career progression and mention of different companies in plato essay the employment history won’t do you justice. A skill-based resume, on the other hand, emphasizes your achievements and skills. It also helps you side skirt hesitations about dissertation methodology what you ‘ might have missed, ’ as a result of working solely for one company. 5. Candidates that Rely on their Portfolio. Marissa Klein, founder of Choice Personnel Inc staffing agency, describes why designers should use a functional resume and not over-rely on their portfolio alone: If you’re sending a resume and plato cave portfolio straight to a hiring manager — not a recruiter who hires for multiple positions in different industries — there’s a huge possibility that hiring manager is methodology secondary experienced in hiring on the basis of essay cave a portfolio’s merit. Worksheets Structure? But if you’re applying online, uploading onto cave, a platform, or submitting to recruiters, you MUST have a functional resume in order to be seen and reviewed correctly Functional resume for designers should look more corporate — with roles, skills, and dates as HR would traditionally expect to see them. And not just a list of essay on my tour to dubai random projects thrown together.

The recruiters I talked to for this tutorial are split when it comes to essay functional resumes. Some recruiters said using this format, especially when you’re not changing jobs or field of direct quotation in essay work isn’t to essay the applicant’s advantage. Others say it’s a less than usual format in some circumstance but just the right format for some high level positions. Bill Humbert, Recruiter and cover letter for physical therapist Talent Acquisition Consultant says: Generally, I am not impressed with a functional resume since it is so difficult to determine when the essay candidate performed specific tasks. Research Essay Thesis? But then, most managers like chronological resumes for the same reason. Functional resumes work well for plato essay cave senior management positions, where what you can do is more important than what you have done. Obviously your employment background is an important foundation, so you must include enough detail to bolster your application.

Michelle Riklan, former Senior HR Manager and writing on importance of music current Resume Writer, agrees: Job descriptions for CEOs and senior executives are varied and extensive. Functional resumes are preferred for plato senior roles because it gives them freedom to display achievements front and center of the writing resume – be it a 25% increase in sales, a 1M to 1B growth, or opening a new office abroad – so it’s not lost and buried in their extensive job description. Writing Your Own Functional Resume. Now we get into cave, the nitty-gritty of resume writing. In this section, I’m going to paragraph break down the cave basic parts of a skill-based resume then explain its purpose and typical approach to content. When available, I’ll also show you snippets of how these elements look like in real skill-based resumes. Methodology? Names and other private information are either blurred out or changed.

Includes your name, mobile number, professional email address—no usernames like partygirl_21 please. You can also include your website URL and portfolio here. It’s the second part of your resume, positioned directly below your name and contact details. It’s also called “Professional Summary”, “Career Highlights” or even “Personal Profile” in plato some cases. Tour To Dubai? Because you only have six seconds to catch a recruiter’s attention, the plato essay cave summary should describe the most attention grabbing and impressive tidbits about you as an paragraph on importance of music in life employee. You can go with a bulleted list, a first-person narrative, or write it from a third person’s point of view. The latter is recommended for managerial and executive positions. Catch the recruiter's attention with a question. Notice how the plato above example draws your attention by asking a question, something many resumes don’t do.

According to Riklan, the resume writer mentioned earlier, Ned managed to secure a more senior level position with the help of this resume. Resume summary for an IT professional written in the first-person. Casual, first-person summary for a fashion and graphic designer. Skills can be categorized into paragraph on importance, three types: Job-related: Learned at essay cave, school or on for essay the job, and essay are relevant to your target position. In Essay? For example, a Web Designer’s skills might include knowledge of Adobe Creative Suite, understanding cross-browser compatibilities, and fluency in HTML and CSS. Transferable Skills: Applicable to cave different roles and industries, and are generally emphasized when you’re in career transition. Transferable skills could be people-related, such as managing a team, communicating well, or negotiating. But it can also be general tasks, such as gathering information, working with vendors, and change management. Check this guide if you’re not sure what your transferable skills are. Adaptive or Personal Skills: Include character traits that are hard to prove on paper but is important in showing the kind of employee you are, such as ‘an honest, team player with a can-do attitude’ . You might think adaptive skills are only important if you’re a beginner with not much job-related skills to boast of.

But in reality, many employers look for candidates with a good mix of all three skill sets. After all, for most positions it’s not hard to find candidates with the right job-related skills. On My Tour To Dubai? What’s hard is finding people who can work well with their team and understand the company’s corporate culture. Functional cv/resume template, to essay cave showcase your skills to potential employers. Below is an example of a skill-based resume for tour an IT Director position, which was customized to cave focus on the candidate’s leadership, negotiation, and IT skills. Essay Tour? All his transferable and IT-related leadership skills are at plato essay, the top, while his technical skills are itemized and grouped below it.

Skills section of to dubai a functional resume for an IT Director. Your resume has to be tailored to the job you’re applying for plato essay cave so make sure the skills listed in the ad are also in your resume. And if you can, back it up with specific experience and ‘power words’ so it doesn’t look like you just copied the direct job ad. Here is plato essay cave a job description example: “Expert knowledge of Adobe Creative Suite, InVision, Sketch, or similar tools.” Now modified with personal experience and ‘power words ’ in your resume: Created graphics and designs for restaurant flyers, travel brochures, and cover letter therapist marathon events using Adobe Creative Suite, Sketch and cave InVision.” Only include accomplishments relevant to your target position. Employers won’t care if you’ve won a hotdog eating contest in a previous job, but they care about awards for direct quotation leadership, great service to the company and other job-specific matters.

If you’re in transition, say from healthcare to tourism, I suggest replacing industry specific words with general terms. Words like ‘ patient’ and plato essay cave ‘ doctor’ can be replaced with ‘ clients’ so recruiters won’t think your achievements are only applicable to the healthcare industry. Don’t forget to quantify your achievements through percentages, time saved, or a monetary amount. Common Formulas for Writing Accomplishments: Situation + What you did + Result Work challenge + Action + Result End result + Why it was needed (situation) + Action. Ask these Questions to Determine Your Accomplishments: Have I received awards or special recognition for letter for physical my job?

Have I increased the essay efficiency of research certain procedures in my work? Did I help my team save money or accomplish more with fewer expenses? Have I won new clients or projects for the team? Have I led or managed a team for a certain project? Did I identify a problem no one realized? Have I prevented an issue from escalating? Have I been promoted? Have I ever taught my team mates new skills? Put your accomplishments in a bullet list, and if necessary, group it according to the top three to four skills for your job. Your accomplishments can also be used to plato essay prove the skills listed in your resume.

Here’s an worksheets for essay example from a fresh graduate with a couple of plato freelance projects under his belt. If you’re in transition or have limited work experience, don’t forget to writing on importance of music include internships, personal projects and volunteer work in this section. No one said your work history should be limited to plato essay cave paid roles. Functional resume template, which emphasizes your skills, experience, and worksheets structure projects broadly, rather than your work history. If you’re a freelancer or have worked on plato essay multiple part-time or project-based jobs, you can list your employment history chronologically. Just write the name of the organization you worked with, the quotation in essay work duration, and a short description of each project or job.

List the degree you got, major and essay where you studied. Include seminars, online courses, and training, too. If you speak another language, you can add it here or in the skills section. Education and training section example. Whether you put a graduation date or not is up to you. For Essay Structure? If you graduated more than 20 years ago, some recruiters say not listing the date minimizes your risk of encountering ageism. Education section example without dates. Your functional resume is plato cave complete. You can send it as is, or jazz it up with these extra credibility-boosters.

Don’t be scared to get creative. For Essay Structure? Just remember that everything you add should improve your image to potential employers. Consider the plato following: Portfolio : Thumbnails of your portfolio or a link to your website. Testimonials : References are usually ‘available upon request’ and only asked for when you’re at the last stages of the application process. But no one said you can’t put in a good word about worksheets for essay yourself, in advance . Links : Add a link to your Github, LinkedIn, or other professional networking site.

Download our free PDF worksheet on Power Words for Writing a Functional Resume, which includes a resume checklist to make sure you're hitting all the essay cave right points. Use a Professional Resume Template. We have a number of professional resume templates available for purchase on GraphicRiver. They have numerous features to persuasive thesis build a chronological resume, functional resume, or combination resume. Many of these templates also have additional creative options for displaying your portfolio, include a well-branded cover letter template, and cave more. All these features can help you stand out visually and land that job you're applying for!

Mono Resume: A functional resume template that features skills, available on GraphicRiver. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!