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Our Stars in the Night Sky Essay Sample. * A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on the planet. Some other stars are visible from Earth during the night when they are not obscured by literature introductions atmospheric phenomena, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points because of their immense distance. Historically, the fact opinion most prominent stars on good literature introductions, the celestial sphere were grouped together into constellations and kill mockingbird statement, asterisms, and the brightest stars gained proper names. Extensive catalogues of stars have been assembled by astronomers, which provide standardized star designations. * For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into essay, helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star’s interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stars, either via stellar nucleo synthesis during their lifetimes or by supernova nucleo synthesis when very massive stars explode.

Near the end of its life, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, chemical composition and many other properties of a star by observing its spectrum, luminosity and motion through space. The total mass of a star is the kill thesis principal determinant in its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star are determined by its evolutionary history, including diameter, rotation, movement and temperature. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities, known as a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram), allows the age and evolutionary state of a star to good literature essay, be determined. * A star begins as a collapsing cloud of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and paragraph essay, trace amounts of heavier elements. Introductions! Once the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. The remainder of the star’s interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radioactive and convective processes. The star’s internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity.

Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is thesis schillinger exhausted, a star with at least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun expands to become a red giant, in some cases fusing heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. Literature Introductions! The star then evolves into a degenerate form, recycling a portion of its matter into the interstellar environment, where it will form a new generation of thesis on joseph schillinger stars with a higher proportion of essay heavy elements. Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or (if it is sufficiently massive) a black hole. * Binary and thesis on joseph, multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound, and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on good essay introductions, their evolution. Statement Thesis! Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a cluster or a galaxy. * A star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA image. * Historically, stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world. They have been part of religious practices and used for celestial navigation and orientation. Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere, and literature, that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to sample well written, track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun. The motion of the Sun against the background stars (and the horizon) was used to literature, create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices.

The Gregorian calendar, currently used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth’s rotational axis relative to its local star, the Sun. * The oldest accurately dated star chart appeared in ancient Egyptian astronomy in kill mockingbird statement thesis, 1534 BC. The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of good essay Mesopotamia in sample essay, the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (ca.1531–1155 BC). * The first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by Aristillus in approximately 300 BC, with the help of Timocharis. The star catalog of Hipparchus (2nd century BC) included 1020 stars and was used to assemble Ptolemy’s star catalogue. Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the first recorded nova (new star). Many of the constellations and star names in good introductions, use today derive from Greek astronomy. * In spite of the apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear.

In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about sample of a written a supernova, now known as the SN 185. The brightest stellar event in recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, which was observed in 1006 and good literature essay introductions, written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and five essay transition words, several Chinese astronomers. The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to the Crab Nebula, was also observed by literature Chinese and Islamic astronomers. * Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today, and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars. Research Paper On Database For Xml! They built the first large observatory research institutes, mainly for the purpose of producing Zij star catalogues. Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars (964) was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters (including the Omicron Velorum and Brocchi’s Clusters) and galaxies (including the Andromeda Galaxy). According to A. Zahoor, in the 11th century, the Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Milky Way galaxy as a multitude of fragments having the properties of nebulous stars, and good essay introductions, also gave the latitudes of various stars during a lunar eclipse in 1019. * According to Josep Puig, the Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bajjah proposed that the Milky Way was made up of many stars which almost touched one another and appeared to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction from sublunary material, citing his observation of the conjunction of Jupiter and Mars on 500 AH (1106/1107 AD) as evidence. Early European astronomers such as Tycho Brahe identified new stars in the night sky (later termed novae), suggesting that the heavens were not immutable.

In 1584Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars were like the sample of a essay Sun, and good literature introductions, may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them, an idea that had been suggested earlier by the ancient Greek philosophers, Democritus and Epicurus, and by statement thesis medieval Islamic cosmologists such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. By the essay introductions following century, the idea of the fact opinion statement stars being the essay same as the Sun was reaching a consensus among astronomers. To explain why these stars exerted no net gravitational pull on the Solar System, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed in every direction, an idea prompted by the theologian Richard Bentley. * The Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari recorded observing variations in paragraph transition words, luminosity of the star Algol in 1667. Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of nearby “fixed” stars, demonstrating that they had changed positions from the time of the ancient Greek astronomers Ptolemy and Hipparchus. The first direct measurement of the introductions distance to a star (61 Cygni at 11.4 light-years) was made in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique. Parallax measurements demonstrated the vast separation of the stars in the heavens. * William Herschel was the first astronomer to attempt to determine the distribution of stars in the sky. During the paragraph essay 1780s, he performed a series of gauges in 600 directions, and counted the stars observed along each line of sight. From this he deduced that the number of stars steadily increased toward one side of the sky, in the direction of the Milky Way core. His son John Herschel repeated this study in the southern hemisphere and literature essay introductions, found a corresponding increase in the same direction.

In addition to essay, his other accomplishments, William Herschel is also noted for his discovery that some stars do not merely lie along the same line of sight, but are also physical companions that form binary star systems. * The science of stellar spectroscopy was pioneered by Joseph von Fraunhofer and Angelo Secchi. By comparing the literature essay spectra of fact opinion stars such as Sirius to essay, the Sun, they found differences in the strength and number of their absorption lines—the dark lines in a stellar spectra due to the absorption of specific frequencies by the atmosphere. In 1865 Secchi began classifying stars into spectral types. However, the modern version of the stellar classification scheme was developed by Annie J. Cannon during the 1900s. Scientific And Essays Impact 2009! * Observation of double stars gained increasing importance during the good literature essay introductions 19th century. Research Paper! In 1834, Friedrich Bessel observed changes in the proper motion of the star Sirius, and good introductions, inferred a hidden companion. Edward Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary in 1899 when he observed the periodic splitting of the on joseph spectral lines of the essay introductions star Mizar in a 104 day period.

Detailed observations of well many binary star systems were collected by astronomers such as William Struve and S. W. Burnham, allowing the masses of stars to be determined from computation of the orbital elements. The first solution to good essay, the problem of deriving an orbit of binary stars from telescope observations was made by Felix Savary in 1827. The twentieth century saw increasingly rapid advances in the scientific study of stars. The photograph became a valuable astronomical tool. Karl Schwarzschild discovered that the color of a star, and hence its temperature, could be determined by comparing the visual magnitude against the photographic magnitude. Paragraph Essay! The development of the literature essay introductions photoelectric photometer allowed very precise measurements of magnitude at multiple wavelength intervals.

In 1921 Albert A. Michelson made the first measurements of and essays impact a stellar diameter using an interferometer on the Hooker telescope. * Important conceptual work on the physical basis of stars occurred during the first decades of the good literature twentieth century. In 1913, the Hertz sprung-Russell diagram was developed, propelling the astrophysical study of stars. And Essays Factor 2009! Successful models were developed to explain the interiors of literature essay stars and stellar evolution. The spectra of stars were also successfully explained through advances in quantum physics. This allowed the chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere to be determined. * With the exception of supernovae, individual stars have primarily been observed in our Local Group of galaxies, and kill mockingbird thesis, especially in the visible part of the Milky Way (as demonstrated by the detailed star catalogues available for literature essay introductions our galaxy). But some stars have been observed in the M100 galaxy of the paragraph transition Virgo Cluster, about 100 million light years from the Earth. In the Local Super cluster it is possible to see star clusters, and current telescopes could in principle observe faint individual stars in the Local Cluster—the most distant stars resolved have up to hundred million light years away (see Cepheids).

However, outside the Local Super cluster of galaxies, neither individual stars nor clusters of stars have been observed. The only exception is a faint image of a large star cluster containing hundreds of thousands of stars located one billion light years away — ten times the distance of the most distant star cluster previously observed. * DESIGNATION. * The concept of the constellation was known to exist during the Babylonian period. Ancient sky watchers imagined that prominent arrangements of good introductions stars formed patterns, and they associated these with particular aspects of nature or their myths. Twelve of these formations lay along the scientific research and essays impact band of the ecliptic and these became the basis of astrology. Good Literature Introductions! Many of the mockingbird statement more prominent individual stars were also given names, particularly with Arabic or Latin designations. * As well as certain constellations and good literature essay, the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own myths. To the Ancient Greeks, some “stars”, known as planets (Greek ???????? (planetes), meaning “wanderer”), represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. (Uranus and Neptune were also Greek and scientific and essays factor, Roman gods, but neither planet was known in Antiquity because of introductions their low brightness. Their names were assigned by later astronomers.) * Circa 1600, the names of the and essays impact 2009 constellations were used to name the stars in the corresponding regions of the sky. The German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps and applied Greek letters as designations to good essay, the stars in each constellation. Essay! Later a numbering system based on the star’s right ascension was invented and essay, added to opinion, John Flamsteed’s star catalogue in his book”Historia coelestis Britannica” (the 1712 edition), whereby this numbering system came to be called Flamsteed designation or Flamsteed numbering. Good Essay! * The only internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU) which has 73 member nations.

A number of private companies sell names of stars, which the British Library calls an paper management system, unregulated commercial enterprise. However, the IAU has disassociated itself from this commercial practice, and these names are neither recognized by the IAU nor used by them. One such star naming company is the International Star Registry, which, during the 1980s, was accused of deceptive practice for making it appear that the assigned name was official. This now-discontinued ISR practice was informally labeled a scam and literature essay, a fraud, and the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs issued a violation against factor ISR for engaging in a deceptive trade practice. * People have seen patterns in good literature essay, the stars since ancient times. This 1690 depiction of the constellation of research on database management Leo, the lion, is by Johannes Hevelius. Good! The constellation of scientific impact Leo as it can be seen by the naked eye. Lines have been added. * FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. * Stars are formed within extended regions of higher density in the interstellar medium, although the density is still lower than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber. These regions are called molecular clouds and consist mostly of hydrogen, with about good literature essay introductions 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. One example of research paper on database such a star-forming region is the Orion Nebula.

As massive stars are formed from molecular clouds, they powerfully illuminate those clouds. They also ionize the hydrogen, creating an H II region. * PROTOSTAR FORMATION. * The formation of a star begins with gravitational instability within a molecular cloud, caused by regions of higher density often triggered by shock waves from supernovae (massive stellar explosions), the introductions collision of different molecular clouds, or the collision of thesis galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy). Once a region reaches a sufficient density of matter to satisfy the criteria for Jeans instability, it begins to collapse under its own gravitational force. * Artist’s conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. NASA image * As the cloud collapses, individual conglomerations of dense dust and gas form what are known as Bok globules. As a globule collapses and the density increases, the gravitational energy is literature converted into heat and the temperature rises. When the protostellar cloud has approximately reached the mockingbird thesis stable condition of hydrostatic equilibrium, a protostar forms at the core. These pre–main sequence stars are often surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. The period of gravitational contraction lasts for about 10–15 million years. * Early stars of less than 2 solar masses are called T Tauri stars, while those with greater mass are Herbig Ae/be stars.

These newly born stars emit jets of gas along their axis of rotation, which may reduce the angular momentum of the good introductions collapsing star and result in small patches of nebulosity known as Herbig–Haro objects. These jets, in combination with radiation from nearby massive stars, may help to drive away the on joseph surrounding cloud in which the star was formed. * MAIN SEQUENCE. * Stars spend about 90% of their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core. Essay Introductions! Such stars are said to be on on joseph, the main sequence and are called dwarf stars. Starting at zero-age main sequence, the proportion of helium in a star’s core will steadily increase. As a consequence, in order to maintain the required rate of nuclear fusion at the core, the star will slowly increase in essay introductions, temperature and paper on database management for xml, luminosity – the Sun, for example, is estimated to have increased in luminosity by good literature about 40% since it reached the main sequence 4.6 billion (4.6 ? 109) years ago. * Every star generates a stellar wind of particles that causes a continual outflow of gas into space. For most stars, the mockingbird statement amount of mass lost is negligible. Essay Introductions! The Sun loses 10?14 solar masses every years or about 0.01% of its total mass over its entire lifespan. However very massive stars can lose 10?7 to thesis on joseph schillinger, 10?5 solar masses each year, significantly affecting their evolution. Introductions! Stars that begin with more than 50 solar masses can lose over half their total mass while they remain on and essays 2009, the main sequence. * The duration that a star spends on literature, the main sequence depends primarily on the amount of fuel it has to sample well essay, fuse and the rate at which it fuses that fuel, i.e. its initial mass and its luminosity.

For the Sun, this is estimated to be about 10 billion (1010) years. Good Introductions! Massive stars consume their fuel very rapidly and are short-lived. Low mass stars consume their fuel very slowly. Statement! Stars less massive than 0.25 solar masses, called red dwarfs, are able to fuse nearly all of their mass as fuel while stars of about 1 solar mass can only use about 10% of essay introductions their mass as fuel. The combination of their slow fuel consumption and relatively large usable fuel supply allows stars about on joseph 0.25 times the mass of the Sun to last for essay introductions about one trillion (1012) years according to stellar evolution calculations, while the least-massive hydrogen-fusing stars (0.08 solar masses) will last for about 12 trillion years. At the end of their lives, red dwarfs simply become dimmer and dimmer. Paper System! However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the good literature introductions universe (13.7 billion years), no stars under about 0.85 solar masses, including all red dwarfs, are expected to essay, have moved off of the main sequence. Literature Introductions! * Besides mass, the portion of elements heavier than helium can play a significant role in the evolution of stars. Fact Statement! In astronomy all elements heavier than helium are considered a “metal”, and the chemical concentration of these elements is called the metallicity. The metallicity can influence the good literature essay introductions duration that a star will burn its fuel, control the formation of magnetic fields and of a, modify the strength of the stellar wind. Older, population II stars have substantially less metallicity than the younger, population I stars due to the composition of the molecular clouds from which they formed. (Over time these clouds become increasingly enriched in heavier elements as older stars die and shed portions of their atmospheres.) * * An example of a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram for a set of stars that includes the Sun (center). (See “Classification” above.) * As stars of at least 0.4 solar masses exhaust their supply of introductions hydrogen at research on database their core, their outer layers expand greatly and cool to good literature essay, form a red giant. Fact Opinion Statement Thesis! For example, in about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will expand out to good literature essay introductions, a maximum radius of roughly 1 astronomical unit (150 million kilometers), 250 times its present size.

As a giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its current mass. * In a red giant of up to scientific impact factor 2009, 2.25 solar masses, hydrogen fusion proceeds in good literature, a shell-layer surrounding the core. Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and five, the star now gradually shrinks in radius and increases its surface temperature. For larger stars, the core region transitions directly from fusing hydrogen to fusing helium. * After the star has consumed the helium at the core, fusion continues in good literature essay, a shell around a hot core of carbon and oxygen. The star then follows an evolutionary path that parallels the original red giant phase, but at a higher surface temperature. * During their helium-burning phase, very high mass stars with more than nine solar masses expand to form red super giants. Once this fuel is thesis exhausted at the core, they can continue to fuse elements heavier than helium. * The core contracts until the temperature and pressure are sufficient to fuse carbon (see carbon burning process). This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by neon (see neon burning process), oxygen (see oxygen burning process), and silicon (see silicon burning process). Near the end of the star’s life, fusion can occur along a series of onion-layer shells within the star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the next shell fusing helium, and so forth. * The final stage is reached when the introductions star begins producing iron.

Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, if they are fused they do not release energy—the process would, on the contrary, consume energy. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission. Sample Well Written! In relatively old, very massive stars, a large core of inert iron will accumulate in the center of the literature introductions star. The heavier elements in these stars can work their way up to the surface, forming evolved objects known as Wolf-Rayet stars that have a dense stellar wind which sheds the outer atmosphere. * Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle. * COLLAPSE. * An evolved, average-size star will now shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula. If what remain after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1.4 solar masses, it shrinks to a relatively tiny object (about the size of Earth) that is not massive enough for further compression to thesis on joseph schillinger, take place, known as a white dwarf. The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma.

White dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs over a very long stretch of time. * The Crab Nebula, remnants of literature a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD. * In larger stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large (more than 1.4 solar masses) that it can no longer support its own mass. Research On Database! This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into good literature essay introductions, its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of inverse beta decay, or electron capture. The shockwave formed by system this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to good literature essay introductions, explode in a supernova. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the written star’s entire home galaxy. Good Introductions! When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by five paragraph essay naked-eye observers as “new stars” where none existed before. * Most of the matter in the star is blown away by the supernova explosion (forming nebulae such as the Crab Nebula) and what remains will be a neutron star (which sometimes manifests itself as a pulsar or X-ray buster) or, in the case of the largest stars (large enough to leave a stellar remnant greater than roughly 4 solar masses), a black hole. In a neutron star the matter is in a state known as neutron-degenerate matter, with a more exotic form of degenerate matter, QCD matter, possibly present in the core. Within a black hole the matter is in a state that is not currently understood. * The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation.

These heavy elements allow the formation of literature essay rocky planets. Sample Well! The outflow from supernovae and introductions, the stellar wind of large stars play an paper on database management for xml, important part in shaping the essay introductions interstellar medium. * DISTRIBUTION. * In addition to fact opinion, isolated stars, a multi-star system can consist of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit around each other. The most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. For reasons of literature essay orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of co-orbiting binary stars. Larger groups called star clusters also exist.

These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars. * It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems. This is particularly true for very massive O and B class stars, where 80% of the systems are believed to be multiple. However the proportion of single star systems increases for kill mockingbird smaller stars, so that only good essay, 25% of red dwarfs are known to thesis, have stellar companions. Introductions! As 85% of all stars are red dwarfs, most stars in the Milky Way are likely single from birth. * Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and scientific research and essays impact, dust. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable universe. A 2010 star count estimate was 300 sextillion (3 ? 1023) in the observable universe. While it is often believed that stars only good, exist within galaxies, intergalactic stars have been discovered. * The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is sample 39.9 trillion kilometers, or 4.2 light-years away. Travelling at good literature introductions the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (8 kilometers per second—almost 30,000 kilometers per paper on database management system for xml, hour), it would take about 150,000 years to introductions, get there. Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, including in the vicinity of the research management system for xml solar system. Stars can be much closer to each other in the centers of galaxies and in globular clusters, or much farther apart in literature, galactic halos. * Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare.

In denser regions such as the core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common. Thesis! Such collisions can produce what are known as blue stragglers. Good Essay Introductions! These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the paper on database for xml other main sequence stars with the same luminosity in the cluster. * A white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (artist’s impression). NASA image. * CHARACTERISTICS * Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including essential characteristics such as luminosity and size, as well as the star’s evolution, lifespan, and eventual fate. * AGE. * Most stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to 13.7 billion years old—the observed age of the universe.

The oldest star yet discovered, HE 1523-0901, is an literature essay introductions, estimated 13.2 billion years old. Research System For Xml! * The more massive the introductions star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The most massive stars last an average of a few million years, while stars of on database management system minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to literature, hundreds of research paper billions of years. * CHEMICAL COMPISTION. * When stars form in good literature essay, the present Milky Way galaxy they are composed of about 71% hydrogen and essay, 27% helium, as measured by mass, with a small fraction of literature introductions heavier elements. Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the scientific factor 2009 iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is a common element and its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure. Because the molecular clouds where stars form are steadily enriched by heavier elements from supernovae explosions, a measurement of the chemical composition of a star can be used to infer its age. The portion of heavier elements may also be an indicator of the likelihood that the star has a planetary system. * The star with the lowest iron content ever measured is the dwarf HE1327-2326, with only 1/200,000th the iron content of the Sun.

By contrast, the super-metal-rich star ? Leonis has nearly double the abundance of iron as the Sun, while the planet-bearing star 14 Herculis has nearly triple the iron. There also exist chemically peculiar stars that show unusual abundances of essay certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth elements. Sample Well! * DIAMETER. * Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in the night sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth’s atmosphere. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to good essay introductions, the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Other than the Sun, the star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus, with an sample of a well essay, angular diameter of only 0.057 arc seconds. * The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and so interferometer telescopes are required to literature, produce images of these objects. Another technique for scientific factor measuring the angular size of stars is through occultation. Good Essay Introductions! By precisely measuring the of a well written drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon (or the rise in literature essay, brightness when it reappears), the star’s angular diameter can be computed. * Stars range in size from neutron stars, which vary anywhere from on database management system for xml, 20 to good essay introductions, 40 km (25 mi) in diameter, to super giants like Betelgeuse in the Orion constellation, which has a diameter approximately 650 times larger than the Sun—about 900,000,000 km (560,000,000 mi). However, Betelgeuse has a much lower density than the Sun. * Stars vary widely in size. In each image in the sequence, the right-most object appears as the left-most object in the next panel. The Earth appears at right in panel 1 and the Sun is scientific research 2009 second from the right in panel 3. * KINEMATICS.

* The motion of introductions a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the structure and evolution of the kill mockingbird surrounding galaxy. The components of motion of essay a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is called its proper motion. * Radial velocity is measured by the Doppler shift of the star’s spectral lines, and well written, is given in units of km/s. The proper motion of a star is determined by precise astrometry measurements in units of milli-arc seconds (mas) per year. By determining the parallax of a star, the proper motion can then be converted into literature, units of velocity. Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements. * Once both rates of movement are known, the space velocity of the star relative to the Sun or the galaxy can be computed.

Among nearby stars, it has been found that population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars. The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to research impact, the plane of the galaxy. Comparison of the kinematics of nearby stars has also led to the identification of stellar associations. These are most likely groups of stars that share a common point of origin in giant molecular clouds. * The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. These stars share a common motion through space. NASA photo * MAGNETIC FIELD. * The magnetic field of a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, generating magnetic fields that extend throughout the star. The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and the amount of magnetic surface activity depends upon the star’s rate of rotation.

This surface activity produces star spots, which are regions of strong magnetic fields and literature, lower than normal surface temperatures. Coronal loops are arching magnetic fields that reach out into the corona from active regions. Stellar flares are bursts of high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity. * Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. The magnetic field can act upon a star’s stellar wind; however, functioning as a brake to research system for xml, gradually slow the rate of rotation as the essay introductions star grows older. Thus, older stars such as the Sun have a much slower rate of rotation and a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly rotating stars tend to vary in a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for periods. During the research Maunder minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity. * MASS. * One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun; its lifespan is very short—only several million years at good most.

A study of the Arches cluster suggests that 150 solar masses is the five paragraph essay words upper limit for stars in the current era of the universe. The reason for good literature this limit is not precisely known, but it is partially due to sample well, the Eddington luminosity which defines the literature maximum amount of scientific research and essays impact factor 2009 luminosity that can pass through the atmosphere of a star without ejecting the gases into space. However, a star named R136a1 in the RMC 136a star cluster has been measured at 265 solar masses, which put this limit into questions. A study determined that stars larger than 150 solar masses in R136 were created through the collision and merger of massive stars in close binary systems, providing a way to sidestep the 150 solar mass limits. * The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center), a variable star with about 3.5 times the literature essay mass of the Sun. The black patch of transition words sky is a vast hole of empty space and not a dark nebula as previously thought. Introductions! NASA image * The first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more, due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in research on database for xml, their composition. This generation of super massive, population III stars is long extinct, however, and currently only theoretical. * With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to literature essay, AB Doradus A, is the research on database for xml smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core. For stars with similar metallicity to the Sun, the theoretical minimum mass the good literature essay introductions star can have, and still undergo fusion at the core, is management system estimated to be about 75 times the mass of Jupiter. When the metallicity is very low, however, a recent study of the essay faintest stars found that the minimum star size seems to be about 8.3% of the on joseph solar mass, or about 87 times the good essay introductions mass of Jupiter.

Smaller bodies are called brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly defined grey area between stars and gas giants. * The combination of the radius and the mass of a star determines the surface gravity. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of scientific a star’s spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the good introductions absorption lines. * Stars are sometimes grouped by five words mass based upon their evolutionary behavior as they approach the end of their nuclear fusion lifetimes. Very low mass stars with masses below 0.5 solar masses do not enter the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) but evolve directly into white dwarfs.

Low mass stars with a mass below about literature essay 1.8–2.2 solar masses (depending on on joseph, composition) do enter the AGB, where they develop a degenerate helium core. Intermediate-mass stars undergo helium fusion and develop a degenerate carbon-oxygen core. Essay Introductions! Massive stars have a minimum mass of 7–10 solar masses, but this may be as low as 5–6 solar masses. These stars undergo carbon fusion, with their lives ending in fact opinion thesis, a core-collapse supernova explosion. * ROTATION. * The rotation rate of stars can be approximated through spectroscopic measurement, or more exactly determined by tracking the rotation rate of star spots. Young stars can have a rapid rate of rotation greater than 100 km/s at the equator. The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial rotation velocity of about 225 km/s or greater, giving it an equatorial diameter that is more than 50% larger than the distance between the poles.

This rate of good essay rotation is paragraph essay just below the critical velocity of 300 km/s where the star would break apart. By contrast, the Sun only rotates once every 25 – 35 days, with an equatorial velocity of 1.994 km/s. The star’s magnetic field and the stellar wind serve to slow down a main sequence star’s rate of rotation by a significant amount as it evolves on essay, the main sequence. * Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum—the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for a contraction in and essays factor 2009, size by introductions increasing its rate of spin. A large portion of the star’s angular momentum is dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind. In spite of essay this, the literature essay rate of rotation for fact a pulsar can be very rapid. Literature Essay Introductions! The pulsar at the heart of the Crab nebula, for example, rotates 30 times per second. The rotation rate of the pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation. * TEMPERATURE. * The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of on database management system energy production at the core and introductions, the radius of the star and is often estimated from the star’s color index. It is normally given as the effective temperature, which is the temperature of an idealized black body that radiates its energy at research management for xml the same luminosity per surface area as the star. Note that the effective temperature is only a representative value, however, as stars actually have a temperature gradient that decreases with increasing distance from the core.

The temperature in the core region of a star is several million Kelvin’s. Good Literature Essay! * The stellar temperature will determine the rate of energization or ionization of different elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in scientific research and essays impact factor, the spectrum. Good! The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is used to classify a star (see classification below). Mockingbird! * Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50,000 K. Smaller stars such as the good literature Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand K. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of on joseph about 3,600 K, but they also have a high luminosity due to good essay introductions, their large exterior surface area. * RADIATION. * The energy produced by stars, as a by-product of well written essay nuclear fusion, radiates into space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. The particle radiation emitted by good literature essay a star is manifested as the stellar wind (which exists as a steady stream of electrically charged particles, such as free protons, alpha particles, and beta particles, emanating from the star’s outer layers) and as a steady stream of kill statement thesis neutrinos emanating from the star’s core. * The production of energy at the core is the reason why stars shine so brightly: every time two or more atomic nuclei of one element fuse together to form an literature essay introductions, atomic nucleus of a new heavier element, gamma ray photons are released from the nuclear fusion reaction. This energy is converted to scientific research impact factor, other forms of electromagnetic energy, including visible light, by the time it reaches the star’s outer layers. * The color of a star, as determined by good literature the peak frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star’s outer layers, including its photosphere.

Besides visible light, stars also emit forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible to the human eye. In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the scientific research impact longest wavelengths of radio waves and infrared to literature essay introductions, the shortest wavelengths of ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. All components of stellar electromagnetic radiation, both visible and invisible, are typically significant. * Using the thesis stellar spectrum, astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity of a star. If the distance of the star is known, such as by measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the star can be derived. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on good literature, stellar models. (Mass can be measured directly for stars in binary systems.

The technique of gravitational microlensing will also yield the mass of a star) with these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the statement thesis age of the star. Essay Introductions! * LUMINOSITY. * In astronomy, luminosity is the sample written essay amount of light, and other forms of radiant energy, a star radiates per unit of time. The luminosity of a star is determined by the radius and the surface temperature. However, many stars do not radiate a uniform flux—the amount of energy radiated per unit area—across their entire surface. The rapidly rotating star Vega, for example, has a higher energy flux at good essay its poles than along its equator. * Surface patches with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as star spots. Small, dwarf stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small star spots. Kill Mockingbird Statement Thesis! Larger, giant stars have much bigger, much more obvious star spots, and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening. That is, the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk. Red dwarf flare stars such as UV Ceti may also possess prominent star spot features.

* Generally, stars have different colors because they have different temperatures. Carbon on the star’s atmosphere absorbs much of its blue light, making the literature essay introductions cool star appear even redder than it should for its temperature. Kill! Astronomers use colors to classify many objects including stars, galaxies and quasars. They can use color to estimate the spectral types of stars, the types if galaxies, to sort asteroids into different classes, and to estimate the distances to galaxies and quasars * However, the history of the stars making the mind of an individual human being in the world extended or continuously improving , learning more new discoveries with the help of the astronomers and great deal of our extent technologies to improve the science, the history if it, and to give more knowledge to us as a unity of mankind in the whole world. * Pickover, Cliff (2001). The Stars of Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514874-6. * Gribbin, John; Gribbin, Mary (2001). Stardust: Supernovae and Life—The Cosmic Connection. Yale University Press.

ISBN 0-300-09097-8. Introductions! * A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. 1988. ISBN 0-553-17521-1. * Kaler, James. “Portraits of Stars and their Constellations”. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2010-08-20. * “Query star by identifier, coordinates or reference code”. SIMBAD. Five Paragraph Essay Transition! Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Good Essay! * “How to Decipher Classification Codes”.

Astronomical Society of five transition words South Australia. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Our Stars in the Night Sky. essay editing for only $13.9 per literature essay, page.

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Mother Tongue essay: The importance of the good literature introductions topic. It is a known fact that our mother tongue has an important role to play in our lives and this is something you should make sure to mention in your Mother Tongue essay. According to the author, Amy Tan, the language a person speaks defines the five paragraph words person they are and the choices they make. In her work Amy Tan writes about how her mother language has affected her life over good literature the years. Schillinger? This is an especially important topic especially in good literature essay, the case of people with bilingual backgrounds. According to the author, if a person isn’t a native English speaker or doesn’t speak the language perfectly it doesn’t mean that they are any less intelligent than the thesis on joseph people who do. Language has a very important role to play in a family, being one of the good essay family values. Tan also suggests that it is difficult to live with parents who only speak limited English. In your essay mother tongue should be the central topic and you have the possibility to share a little something from thesis your own personal experience as well.

In her work, Amy Tan doesn’t only speak about the language itself, but also how it affected her life. Good Literature Essay Introductions? As her parents didn’t speak the research paper on database management system for xml language very well, she needed to translate for them for a long time. Although she respected her parents and claims they were intelligent people, she was worried about how others perceived them because of the language barriers. All children are selfish in their own way and you could write some creative essays on this topic. Even the author admits that she felt annoyed by the situation at literature introductions times and she considered it her duty to help her parents, which is something that children shouldn’t have to go through. Five Essay Transition Words? However, she knew that if the situation was the other way around, her parents wouldn’t hesitate for good literature essay, a minute to help her.

When you are looking for case study examples, you should think about what the author has to say about the topic. Right at the beginning of her essay, Amy Tan refers to how powerful a language can be. According to her, it can remind people of an emotion, idea, visual image, or just a simple truth. Mother Tongue essay in an international setting. Multiculturalism is something normal in this day and age and people are moving to well essay new places all the time. In this setting, it is the duty of essay all people to on joseph schillinger pass down their own language, but learning a new one opens new possibilities for them, making the world become a little larger. According to psychologists, the language that the parents use to talk to a child is very important.

This will shape the way they see the world and the way they express themselves. The child will use this language to express fear, joy, and good introductions, sadness for well written essay, the first time. It is said that if you talk to someone in a language they understand, it will go to their head. Good Literature Essay? However, if you talk to them in their mother tongue, it will go to scientific and essays impact factor their heart. It’s not only psychologists who recognize the importance of mother language and this is introductions, something you could mention in your essay about mother tongue. Several studies have been conducted in this field these all showed that people react differently if they are shown words in their mother language than if they see words written in other languages they understand.

As a matter of fact, there is brain reaction to the words in the mother tongue even before the brain manages to understand their meaning. Another important aspect to research paper on database system mention in your essay on mother tongue is cultural identity. Native language is used for a child to communicate with their family and their surroundings. If a person doesn’t know their mother language well enough to express themselves freely, they will soon be looking for good essay introductions, a new cultural identity. Children identify themselves with the language they speak. This aspect is most important in the case of fact opinion thesis immigrant parents. Good? They have to make sure their children are proficient enough in their native language. If someone doesn’t know their mother language well enough, they won’t be able to learn other languages either, as this is the basis for all other languages. The parents need to talk to their children and tell them stories to fact statement develop their literary skills. Literature? It is important for children to observe the nuance differences between various terms and expressions and to apply the same principles when learning a new language.

In case of the children of immigrants it is common for the parents not to offer enough support by teaching them their native language and soon the management for xml second language will take the place of their mother tongue. In an international setting it is important to promote the use of the native language. In order to make your mother tongue essay look well-researched, you may try to find some solutions to this problem. First of all, the essay parents should try to find ways to motivate their children to use their native language and speak to them in their mother tongue at home. Reading and writing is also important, for children and the parents have to find time for kill thesis, such activities. Good Essay? Telling children stories about the parents’ childhood is a good way to get them interested in their family heritage. Paragraph Essay Transition Words? In a world of essay introductions digital media it is important to have multimedia and books in the children’s mother tongue. You shouldn’t be afraid of writing something wrong in your essay. Teachers know how to critique an article in paper management, a constructive manner. This won’t be one of the peer reviewed articles, so you shouldn’t stress too much about it.

However, you have to make sure that it is well-researched and good literature introductions, well-written. Although you might be tempted to use a college paper writing service, using your own ideas will go a long way. It is on joseph schillinger, a known fact that our mother tongue has an good introductions important role to play in our lives and this is something you should make sure to mention in your Mother Tongue essay. According to the author, Amy Tan, the language a person speaks defines the person they are and the choices they make. In her work Amy Tan writes about how her mother language has affected her life over the years. This is an especially important topic especially in the case of people with bilingual backgrounds.

According to the author, if a person isn’t a native English speaker or doesn’t speak the language perfectly it doesn’t mean that they are any less intelligent than the people who do. Language has a very important role to play in a family, being one of the family values. Tan also suggests that it is difficult to of a well written live with parents who only good literature speak limited English. In your essay mother tongue should be the central topic and five paragraph, you have the possibility to share a little something from your own personal experience as well. In her work, Amy Tan doesn’t only speak about the language itself, but also how it affected her life.

As her parents didn’t speak the language very well, she needed to translate for them for good essay introductions, a long time. Although she respected her parents and claims they were intelligent people, she was worried about how others perceived them because of the scientific research impact 2009 language barriers. All children are selfish in their own way and you could write some creative essays on this topic. Even the author admits that she felt annoyed by the situation at times and essay introductions, she considered it her duty to help her parents, which is opinion thesis, something that children shouldn’t have to go through. However, she knew that if the situation was the other way around, her parents wouldn’t hesitate for essay introductions, a minute to well help her. When you are looking for case study examples, you should think about what the good introductions author has to say about the topic. Right at the beginning of on database management system for xml her essay, Amy Tan refers to how powerful a language can be. According to her, it can remind people of an emotion, idea, visual image, or just a simple truth. Mother Tongue essay in an international setting.

Multiculturalism is something normal in this day and age and introductions, people are moving to new places all the time. Research On Database Management System? In this setting, it is the duty of all people to pass down their own language, but learning a new one opens new possibilities for them, making the world become a little larger. According to essay introductions psychologists, the language that the parents use to talk to schillinger a child is very important. This will shape the way they see the world and the way they express themselves. The child will use this language to good literature express fear, joy, and sadness for the first time. Research Management? It is said that if you talk to someone in a language they understand, it will go to their head. However, if you talk to them in their mother tongue, it will go to their heart. It’s not only literature introductions psychologists who recognize the importance of mother language and schillinger, this is something you could mention in your essay about mother tongue.

Several studies have been conducted in this field these all showed that people react differently if they are shown words in their mother language than if they see words written in other languages they understand. As a matter of fact, there is brain reaction to good essay introductions the words in the mother tongue even before the brain manages to understand their meaning. Another important aspect to mention in your essay on kill mockingbird statement mother tongue is cultural identity. Native language is used for good introductions, a child to communicate with their family and their surroundings. If a person doesn’t know their mother language well enough to express themselves freely, they will soon be looking for a new cultural identity. Children identify themselves with the language they speak. This aspect is most important in sample of a, the case of immigrant parents. They have to make sure their children are proficient enough in their native language. If someone doesn’t know their mother language well enough, they won’t be able to learn other languages either, as this is the basis for good literature essay, all other languages.

The parents need to talk to their children and tell them stories to develop their literary skills. It is important for children to observe the nuance differences between various terms and expressions and to apply the same principles when learning a new language. In case of the children of immigrants it is common for the parents not to offer enough support by teaching them their native language and soon the second language will take the place of their mother tongue. In an international setting it is of a well written, important to promote the use of the native language. Literature? In order to make your mother tongue essay look well-researched, you may try to find some solutions to this problem. First of all, the parents should try to find ways to motivate their children to use their native language and fact statement, speak to them in good literature, their mother tongue at statement home. Reading and good literature essay, writing is also important, for children and the parents have to thesis find time for such activities. Telling children stories about the parents’ childhood is a good way to get them interested in their family heritage. In a world of digital media it is important to have multimedia and books in the children’s mother tongue. You shouldn’t be afraid of writing something wrong in your essay.

Teachers know how to critique an article in a constructive manner. This won’t be one of the peer reviewed articles, so you shouldn’t stress too much about it. However, you have to make sure that it is well-researched and well-written. Introductions? Although you might be tempted to use a college paper writing service, using your own ideas will go a long way. It is a known fact that our mother tongue has an important role to play in our lives and this is something you should make sure to research mention in your Mother Tongue essay. Essay Introductions? According to the author, Amy Tan, the statement thesis language a person speaks defines the person they are and the choices they make.

In her work Amy Tan writes about how her mother language has affected her life over the years. Essay Introductions? This is an five transition especially important topic especially in the case of people with bilingual backgrounds. Good Literature? According to five paragraph essay the author, if a person isn’t a native English speaker or doesn’t speak the language perfectly it doesn’t mean that they are any less intelligent than the people who do. Language has a very important role to play in a family, being one of the family values. Tan also suggests that it is difficult to live with parents who only speak limited English. In your essay mother tongue should be the central topic and you have the possibility to share a little something from essay your own personal experience as well. In her work, Amy Tan doesn’t only speak about the language itself, but also how it affected her life. As her parents didn’t speak the language very well, she needed to translate for them for a long time. Although she respected her parents and claims they were intelligent people, she was worried about how others perceived them because of the language barriers.

All children are selfish in their own way and you could write some creative essays on this topic. Even the author admits that she felt annoyed by kill thesis, the situation at times and she considered it her duty to help her parents, which is something that children shouldn’t have to go through. Essay Introductions? However, she knew that if the situation was the other way around, her parents wouldn’t hesitate for a minute to help her. When you are looking for case study examples, you should think about what the author has to say about the research system topic. Right at the beginning of her essay, Amy Tan refers to good literature introductions how powerful a language can be. According to her, it can remind people of an emotion, idea, visual image, or just a simple truth. Mother Tongue essay in an international setting. Multiculturalism is something normal in this day and age and people are moving to new places all the time. In this setting, it is the duty of all people to pass down their own language, but learning a new one opens new possibilities for them, making the world become a little larger.

According to psychologists, the language that the parents use to talk to a child is very important. This will shape the way they see the world and the way they express themselves. The child will use this language to express fear, joy, and thesis, sadness for the first time. It is said that if you talk to someone in a language they understand, it will go to their head. However, if you talk to them in their mother tongue, it will go to their heart. It’s not only psychologists who recognize the importance of mother language and this is something you could mention in your essay about mother tongue. Essay? Several studies have been conducted in this field these all showed that people react differently if they are shown words in their mother language than if they see words written in fact opinion statement thesis, other languages they understand. As a matter of fact, there is brain reaction to the words in the mother tongue even before the brain manages to understand their meaning. Another important aspect to literature essay mention in your essay on mother tongue is cultural identity.

Native language is used for a child to scientific research and essays factor communicate with their family and their surroundings. If a person doesn’t know their mother language well enough to express themselves freely, they will soon be looking for a new cultural identity. Children identify themselves with the language they speak. Introductions? This aspect is on database for xml, most important in the case of immigrant parents. They have to make sure their children are proficient enough in their native language. If someone doesn’t know their mother language well enough, they won’t be able to learn other languages either, as this is the basis for all other languages. The parents need to talk to their children and tell them stories to essay develop their literary skills. It is important for children to observe the nuance differences between various terms and expressions and to apply the same principles when learning a new language. Thesis? In case of the children of immigrants it is good literature essay, common for the parents not to five essay offer enough support by teaching them their native language and soon the second language will take the place of their mother tongue. In an international setting it is important to promote the use of the native language.

In order to make your mother tongue essay look well-researched, you may try to good essay introductions find some solutions to this problem. First of all, the parents should try to find ways to fact opinion statement motivate their children to use their native language and speak to them in their mother tongue at home. Reading and essay introductions, writing is also important, for paper, children and the parents have to find time for such activities. Telling children stories about the parents’ childhood is essay introductions, a good way to get them interested in their family heritage. In a world of digital media it is important to have multimedia and books in the children’s mother tongue. You shouldn’t be afraid of writing something wrong in your essay. Teachers know how to critique an article in and essays impact 2009, a constructive manner.

This won’t be one of the peer reviewed articles, so you shouldn’t stress too much about it. However, you have to make sure that it is good, well-researched and well-written. Although you might be tempted to use a college paper writing service, using your own ideas will go a long way.

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essay starter ideas English Teaching Online. the one with all the STARTER ACTIVITIES. Are you one of those people who just loves laminating? Do you wake in the morning with a spring in your step, knowing that you've got 30 sets of beautifully prepared cards waiting to literature essay introductions, be chopped into tiny pieces before period 1? Beware of undertaking too much at the start.

Be content with quite a little. Mockingbird Statement? Allow for accidents. Allow for human nature, especially your own. No? Then worry not.

None of these writers assumes you're really a Blue Peter presenter (as Geoff Barton so succinctly puts it) with a production team to match. In fact, there's more than a dose of good introductions healthy scepticism about the kill statement thesis whole business of starter activities. If you've ever felt a moment's guilt about not doing them, or about failing to keep them within a perfectly formed 10 minutes, then Phil Beadle's piece will put you reassuringly straight. On the literature essay introductions other hand, there's plenty here that you will want to try: creative, realistic ideas to get your students thinking, that won't involve you doing fifty times as much work as them. There's a great range, too: Barbara Bleiman has lovely suggestions for thesis, A Level, Andrew Buckton gives an SEN perspective and good introductions, Helen Dobson's thinking skills starters are brilliantly flexible. At the end we've thrown in some links to starters from statement, Teachit's whizzy things - all of them free. Which means that you won't be spending breaktimes scrabbling around under desks collecting stray whiteboard pens and bits of chewed-up card. Instead, you'll be sitting in a comfy chair with a mug in good essay introductions, your hand, guilt-free. Two starters to last you for life | Philip Beadle. I don't really hold with starters. In fact, I think they may well be the very worst of the many bad ideas the DfES have inflicted on teachers, who were quite busy enough before the advent of this fresh new torment.

Start every day off with a smile and five essay, get it over with. The initial reaction that teachers had when this idea was first introduced remains true: where's the time to write, design and implement a whole new additional six lessons per day on good literature top of the lessons I am already teaching? The answer is, 'There is no additional time you spineless drone,' and mockingbird, so my advice would be, don't do 'em. Ignore the four part lesson plan until such point as you are being observed, and then slap out good literature, a perfunctory starter or, better still, do a lesson without a starter that is so good nobody will notice that it doesn't follow the government's strictures. A decent ten-minute start to fact statement, a lesson can take a decent hour to prepare.

And those who are too scared to call it for what it is literature, end up either getting the Scrabble out and letting the children play with squares of ivory for ten minutes, or plunging helplessly in the direction of the of a well written wordsearch. However, you may be working in essay, one of those schools where obedience, from both staff and from pupils, is perceived to be a sign of quality; and for you, here are a couple of starters guaranteed to get senior staff off your back. Bring in a small ghetto blaster and play them some music: something lyrical; something that excites a response: Tupac, Bob Dylan, MC Paul Barman, Sparks, The Silver Jews; anything which is of interest linguistically, and thesis, get your class to literature, transcribe the lyrics. This is not only a really buzzy way to start a lesson, but it gets students quiet, developing their ability to listen pointedly, and allows them a brief moment bathing in language; which may just be a reasonable definition of the service we are employed to thesis, provide for them. Ask them to read their transcriptions back after the introductions exercise. You will find yourself in well written essay, an interesting debate about how language creates meaning. The only other starter I have ever used employs - whisper it - PowerPoint. If you are lucky enough to good essay introductions, have a stock of mini whiteboards and a surfeit of marker pens, then all the better. Otherwise pieces of blank, unlined paper will do well enough. Ask your students to write the words 'possessive' and 'abbreviation' on either side of a piece of paper or mini whiteboard, then show them a series of phrases on a Powerpoint which could be one or the other.

When they are shown the legend, 'The Teacher's shoes look like Cornish pasties,' they should raise the side to you which says 'possessive': when they are shown the statement thesis sentence 'The teacher's a fool who wears Cornish pasty shoes,' the literature essay introductions 'abbreviation' side should be on display. When observed, it makes sense to pretend to take some note of their answers. Two starters should be enough to five paragraph essay words, see you through a whole teaching career. You will rarely be observed more than twice by good literature introductions the same person. And the whole nonsensical idea will probably have been dropped by the point that the third one is opinion statement, booked. Leave the sticky-backed plastic at home | Geoff Barton.

The problem in the early days of the National Literacy Strategy was that starter activities could leave you feeling a bit inadequate, as if it wasn't a teacher that was needed but a Blue Peter presenter. It sometimes seemed that a starter wasn't a starter if it didn't involve cards, envelopes, washing lines, mini-whiteboards and the occasional roll of sticky-back plastic. My own rubric for essay, starters is that they should involve almost no written work by pupils, or at least just quick note-taking, and on joseph, not too much preparation by me. The emphasis should be on thinking, problem-solving, collaboration and literature essay, as often as possible silliness. I'm also not convinced that a starter needs any obvious link with the main activity of the scientific research factor 2009 lesson. Instead, I aim for coherence across a sequence of literature starters.

So we might have a two-week blitz on certain spellings, let's say difficult homophones (practise/practice; affect/effect; it's/its). Today I might ask pupils to listen to kill, a sentence containing one of the words 'The cat was licking its (wait for it) paws'. Good Literature Essay? Which version of 'it's/its' is it? Pupils have three seconds' thinking time. Then, when I clap my hands, they either stand up to show the opinion statement thesis spelling is 'it's' or get under the table if it is 'its'. Then the next word: 'practice'. I say a sentence containing the word.

Tomorrow pupils might be asked to quack like a duck for word A or moo like a cow for word B. The day after it might be hum a Kylie song for A and whistle Beethoven for B. Those laborious days of spelling tests have been replaced by fast-paced and memorably daft games. Pupils are learning from each other how to spell more accurately they can explain their spelling strategies better than I can. In fact, memory tricks makes a good starter in itself. Dish out some frequently mis-spelt words (e.g. 'necessary') and good essay, give pupils two minutes to invent a wacky mnemonic ('never eat chips eat sausage sandwiches and five paragraph words, raspberry yoghurt'). Prepare pupils for key stage 3 tests with a succession of mystery texts, photocopied at random from travel books, brochures, autobiographies and so on. Good Essay Introductions? Stick them on an OHP and thesis schillinger, make a quiz of literature essay it. 'I'm going to show you five mystery texts. What can you tell about the text type, who wrote it, and kill, who it is aimed at? Then tell me one language clue that helped you to work it out”. Bam flash through the literature essay texts, getting pupils looking at them in pairs. None of these starters involves squeezy bottles or pots of glue.

But they do build pupils' confidence in skills and knowledge that benefit from regular repetition. In the sample well written process, they also kick-start our lessons with something very active and a little unpredictable. Good? And there aren't enough lessons where pupils can say that. Thinking skills for English starters | Helen Dobson. English lends itself naturally to the explicit teaching of of a written thinking skills. The National Curriculum and the NLS are full of 'thinking words' students should learn to essay, do, including hypothesise, reflect, make connections, evaluate, judge, to name just a few. Activities could include sequencing information, sorting and classifying, distinguishing facts and opinions, brainstorming, thinking up solutions, making predictions, ordering priorities. Of A Written Essay? Having a thinking skills starter is a great way to 'wake up the brain' and essay introductions, help the opinion students to be receptive to learning. 1. Ask students to good essay, find the 'odd one out' in kill mockingbird statement thesis, a list. For example: carrot, cabbage, onion, broccoli, plum.

The obvious answer is essay introductions, 'plum', the scientific research and essays only fruit, but other possibilities arise. 'Onion' begins with a vowel. Literacy skills can be developing, by using words with the same vowel combinations, the literature introductions affixes or word class. For example: happiness, wedding cake, bride, bouquet, coffin. 'Coffin', is not associated with weddings, but some might say 'happiness', because this is an abstract noun and of a written, the rest are concrete nouns. Others might say 'bride' - the literature introductions only living creature. 2. Scientific Impact Factor? Hand out a worksheet of the alphabet with room to write next to literature introductions, the letters. Five Words? The task might 'List words describing Macbeth beginning with each letter of the good essay introductions alphabet'. Such a chart structures thinking and works especially for boys, creating a sense of competitiveness to fill as many boxes as they can. Thesis Schillinger? It stops the usual list of five responses and the 'Have I done enough yet?' cry.

It doesn't matter if some letters are not fruitful. 3. Introduce the language of instruction by asking students to write instructions for unusual tasks e.g. How to clean your teeth without a toothbrush. It encourages alternative thinking and problem-solving skills. 4. Introductions? Teach the language of argument by getting students to justify the ridiculous, such as 'Five year olds should be allowed to drive a car'. 5. Encourage a weekly ten minutes of creative writing. Set a different, unusual task each week that challenges thinking, encouraging originality e.g. create a fifth season and describe it. 6. Provide 'answers' e.g. Written Essay? anteater, peanut butter, marigolds. Essay Introductions? Then ask students to write inventive questions. Share the best.

7. Encourage abstract thinking: get students to jot down responses to such questions as: What shape is grief? What is the system for xml colour of essay introductions emptiness? What is the on database management system for xml texture of a rainbow? 8. What if. questions can encourage similar thinking: What if clouds dreamt? What if flowers could talk? These could be turned into poems. 9. Literature Essay Introductions? Ask pupils to decide where different aspects fit on a continuum using post-its.

It could be how persuasive different aspects of a text are; who is most to scientific research and essays 2009, blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet; how relevant different facts are to an argument; how wise a character's decisions are in a novel. Students have to make value judgements. Literature Introductions? A more active version would be to get the pupils to stand in line. 10. Play Metaphorical Thinking using a character from a text. Research And Essays Factor 2009? The class asks questions e.g. if this person was a piece of good literature introductions furniture, what would they be? Get the students to justify their thinking. Research System For Xml? It also works well the other way round, getting the students to good literature essay introductions, practise personification by inventing personalities for an old armchair; a bean bag; an antique French-polished dining chair; a child's plastic chair. And Essays Impact Factor 2009? This could lead to good literature essay introductions, drama / speaking and listening activities, as the chairs have a conversation! Helen Dobson teaches at The Wensleydale School. Starters for research management, A Level | Barbara Bleiman.

Nearly all the things I do that are of good any merit at all start off just being good fun. Starters and English A Level: the connection might seem a little surprising, given the typical association of starters with KS3. But A Level students aren't so very different to any other learners they need to be woken up when they walk into the room, they need to learn through memorable experiences and they need to have their learning broken up into manageable chunks. Kill Statement Thesis? So sometimes short, lively introductory activities can be a really good prelude to good literature introductions, more sustained discussion or group work. It's useful to have a wide repertoire of scientific and essays factor approaches and to match activities carefully to literature essay introductions, the particular texts or topics being taught.

For instance a collapsed poem, as the fact starting-point for discussion, might work brilliantly on a short text with lots of repeated patterns, or surprising combinations of good literature lexical groups but less well on a longer poem with a more prose-like style. A short poem in a traditional form, such as a sonnet, might be ideal for five paragraph words, a 'getting out of your seats' activity, such as giving each student a line and asking them to walk around the room hearing each other's lines, before physically putting themselves into the correct sequence to introductions, be able to read the whole poem out loud. By the time the students come to discuss the poem, a lot of it will already be in their heads they may be able to draw on this familiarity in their discussion, rather than having to rely so heavily on the teacher's knowledge of the poem . And something like a quick re-cap of likely expectations of a modern novel, pooled as a flipchart before reading on, can be a helpful reminder of what an experienced student of narrative will be likely to notice about the use of narrative voice, the handling of narrative structure and statement, time, or the experimentation with genre. Setting up some key ideas, at the start of the lesson, can help orientate students and focus their reading and thinking. In English Language A Level, short games can be an excellent way of good introductions reinforcing specific aspects of language, such as word classes, while quick role-plays can be used to scientific research impact factor, teach about rules and conventions in conversational discourse. (A collection of literature such games is available as a resource on emcextra.com, the English and Media Centre's subscription library.) Equally, having an explanatory ten minutes at mockingbird statement thesis, the start of good essay a lesson can give the teacher a clear run at explaining something that a number of students might be finding difficult, with a chance to of a well essay, check whether they've absorbed that knowledge. Criticism of the current A Level Englishes sometimes focuses on the fact that students spend huge amounts of time on just a few texts, rather than having a broader literary context in which to place them. The first ten or fifteen minutes of an good literature essay A Level lesson can be used to at least suggest something of the bigger picture.

For instance, if you're teaching Blake, why not take in an Isaac Watts poem, not for close, painstaking study, but for a quick read as a point of comparison. Starting a lesson with the big picture can help students to understand the significance of the smaller details. Barbara Bleiman works at the English and Media Centre. Joined up starters | Harry Dodds. Starters are usually fun, fast, focused, and appealing activities. Much as I like them, however, I feel that they don't always enhance learning. Transition? Here's why. Some people should just start ideas and other ones should carry them out.

The best and literature, most productive question to ask when beginning to plan a lesson is, 'What will pupils learn from statement thesis, this?' If that's the literature essay starting point, and if every part of the lesson is designed with that question firmly in mind, the research and essays factor likelihood is that a good lesson will emerge. If, however, the starting point is 'What will pupils do in this lesson?' then the whole plan is likely to take a less productive course. It's often the starter that's to blame because they're perceived as activities, they throw the focus of the planning on to doing rather than learning. That's why one so often sees a completely free-floating starter, unrelated to literature, any previous learning, and doing nothing to inform the body of the lesson. 'It seemed like a fun thing to well written essay, do' well, yes, but how did it contribute to good literature essay, the learning in the rest of the lesson? Well judged starters are useful and functional. Aside from their subject-specific contribution, they: signal to kill mockingbird thesis, pupils that they have moved from their world into introductions, a purposeful learning environment. provide a short period of focused activity that helps you take charge of the lesson.

help create a positive classroom climate. Starters that look back to prior learning the re-cap, the quick quiz, the 'Tell me three things about…' help pupils feel that their learning is part of an mockingbird thesis ongoing process, rather than a jumble of random encounters with unrelated chunks of knowledge. It's the forward-looking starters that seem to bring out teachers' creativity most effectively, though, and essay, that persuade pupils that they have a stake in the learning that's to follow. Sound uses for paragraph words, contextualised, preparatory starters: Establishing pupils' opinions before they explore an issue: establishing pupils' opinions before they explore an issue. presenting a scenario that covers the literature introductions same ground as that in the body of your lesson. picking up minor points of language use that you know need attention, and and essays factor, that you will incorporate in the success criteria for other activities in the lesson. Just make sure that your starter is good literature introductions, part of your own joined-up thinking pupils learn better when things fit together.

A bigger picture approach to starters for students with SEN | Andrew Buckton. Most teachers are aware of the fact opinion need to settle a class down when they come in from breaks or other such significant transitions. Teachers generally have a panoply of tricks up their sleeves to literature, create a sense of calm and prepare the class for the lesson. The mainstream model hammered home through the National Strategies promotes the idea that children need to have whole group time at the beginning of fact thesis a session that is teacher led. Good Literature Introductions? The rationale is that a starter session stimulates the pupils' attention and helps them to listen to and focus on paragraph essay transition words the teacher. Furthermore, the concept of a whole group activity enhances the sense of the group or class 'gelling' together, which will, in theory, serve well if the pupils are to split into good introductions, smaller groups to collaborate. In my field of special needs, supporting pupils through any transition in order to kill mockingbird, help them calm down, focus and regain their attention is essential, and so 'starter activities', in various guises, are very much a part of everyday teaching.

What tricks could you add to essay, your repertoire? One approach is to move away from essay transition, creating a direct link between the planned topic and the 'warm up' (or slow down!) and to introductions, look at different ways of achieving the generic aims of sample of a essay focusing, becoming more attentive, settling down, listening etc. Good Literature? For example, if you're teaching a lesson on haiku for a year 7 class, rather than having a specific starter activity on syllables, you could simply have a period of quiet reflection maybe just listen to mockingbird thesis, a piece of music, in order to good essay, settle and get grounded again. Some teachers are converts to of a written, educational kinesiology (or brain gym) the idea that the human brain functions best when different 'networks' have information flowing between them well, stimulated by literature essay movement. Some schools, in particular teachers working with pupils with learning difficulties and attention difficulties (ADHD) adhere to simple exercises as starter activities which aid the development of schillinger listening, speaking, moving, thinking, organisational skills, and focusing amongst others. Improvements in attitude, attention and behaviour have been reported. Another alternative to the traditional starter activity is neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), which some teachers use for starters activities. Essentially it is a set of guiding principles, attitudes, and techniques about behaviour, and not a scientific theory. Within the classroom context, teachers can use its principles to conduct starter activities that will focus on essay the pupils' readiness to participate and learn. It is sample well written essay, all very interesting and certainly I think legitimate to spend a bit of time looking at the bigger picture of what you are trying to achieve.

If you do get the time to browse, at least the experience of checking out the NLP website should be 'warm and fuzzy' - or so they claim. That's not a bad starter activity. Most of us need a few pints to feel like that. Webwatch - essential weblinks for essay introductions, starters | Rhiannon Glover. Visit the DFES Standards site to remind yourselves of the paper on database management for xml purpose and good literature introductions, principles behind using starter activities as part of the scientific and essays National KS3 Literacy Strategy. Here you will also find: 19 word level starters; 7 sentence level starters and 3 text level starters. The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) and the Key Stage 3 Strategy have developed these materials jointly. Also for good literature essay introductions, KS3, you can download snappy free samples from The Little Book of English Starter Activities by Sue Kilner from www.starteractivities.com. For children at primary level, effective whole class 5 minute warm-ups for primary can be found on Longman's teaching tips page and some free resources which would make interesting starters for of a well, KS1 and 2 can be found at Longman's KnowledgeBox. Finally, a popular way of both gaining students' attention for the lesson and revising recent work is to start a lesson with a quiz. You can easily create your own Blockbusters -style game to use on good essay introductions an interactive whiteboard at teachers-direct.

Whizzing it - some free Teachit starters for computers or interactive whiteboards. What makes a good partner? Engaging ranking activity to inspire discussion. Use as a way into Much Ado About Nothing or any other romantic text. Euphemisms - match these well-known ones Soft words that cover up hard facts. Match the examples, think of kill mockingbird statement others and consider why we use them. Timed grammar quiz A wake up call for Y12/13. Put your A Level Language students under pressure with this 15-minute timed quiz. November 5th Sentence puzzle for Firework's Day.

Reassemble this first line from Philip Pullman's book, The Firework-maker's Daughter : 'A thousand miles ago, in a country east of the jungle and south of the mountains, there lived a firework-maker and his daughter, Lila.' The winter of our discontent Choptalk version of the opening lines from Richard III . Put this word jigsaw puzzle back together again. Word challenge Who can create the longest word using only literature essay introductions, these letters? Repeat each letter as many times as you like - but you're not allowed any others. Two starters to last you for life | Philip Beadle. Leave the sticky-back plastic at home | Geoff Barton. Joined-up starters | Harry Dodds.

A bigger picture approach to starters for students with SEN | Andrew Buckton. Webwatch - essential original writing weblinks | Rhiannon Glover.