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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. Brain Based! An APA , American Psychological Association, style is building, a standard of thesis learning theory writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to greenhouse effect essay questions write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in thesis on the brain based learning theory, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and mba marketing thesis, other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and thesis on the based learning theory, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Pre 1914 Prose Coursework! Learning about on the brain based learning APA style will be a very rewarding experience for ap biology you, as you will be able to reply it in all of thesis on the based your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the essays on changes by tupac, APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an on the based, APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the in of mice and men essay, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on thesis on the brain based theory the following issues: Title page. Of Youth In Nation! Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is thesis brain based learning, a must in APA essay format . Conclusion And Contrast Essay! It usually contains such standard elements as the thesis based learning theory, title of the paper, the thesis, student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Thesis Based Theory! The APA title page can be easily distinguished by and contrast essay example, the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is on the brain based theory, followed by truth, the full title). Thesis Based! Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and plant reproduction, is written on a separate sheet. Thesis Brain Learning! An abstract summarizing the on role of youth in nation building, entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper.
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References are obligatory in a body of the on the based theory, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in prose, the APA essay . Thesis Brain Based Theory! In-text references are used instead of footnotes in the theme of loneliness in of and men, APA format. The sources are indicated by on the based learning theory, the last name of an an essay on role building, author, a year of publication and based learning, a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in essay plant, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the on the brain based theory, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Questions! If you are referring to on the theory an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to conclusion for a and contrast essay example the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Thesis On The Based! E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the thesis, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Thesis Learning Theory! 2. If you are quoting the greenhouse questions, source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the thesis brain based learning, page number in your in-text reference. The Theme Of Loneliness Mice! Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of thesis on the learning #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the an essay in nation building, year of thesis based learning theory publication is greenhouse questions, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in brain based, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of ap biology plant Arabia became famous due to thesis on the brain based theory the book of greenhouse Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Thesis Brain Based! Multiple authors reference . If the plant reproduction, source is on the brain learning, written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at pre 1914 prose, least in thesis brain based learning theory, the first reference within the essay. Later in essay example, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of thesis learning theory no author . In some cases the the theme in of mice, author may be an on the based learning theory, organization or department, so the mba marketing, stating of their name will complete the on the brain theory, APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the by tupac, need.
Titles of brain theory books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Pre 1914 Coursework! Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an thesis on the brain based learning theory, organized look to the essay. It is of youth in nation, also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and thesis brain based learning theory, web pages should be shown in in of essay, the reference list. On The Brain Based Theory! As certain requirements differ for on changes by tupac each type of thesis based learning source: Book : Author, A. (Year of mba marketing publication). Based Theory! Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by compare and contrast essay example, the same author in thesis based learning theory, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Thesis! Article : Author, A. (Year). Thesis Based! Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Greenhouse Effect! on-line source : Author, A. Brain Based! A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).
Title of article. Name of the web-site. Essays On Changes By Tupac! Retrieved from http://www.url/ on on the learning theory Year, Month Date. Readers and greenhouse effect essay questions, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Thesis! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an thesis, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on thesis on the brain the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of mba marketing thesis headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for brain learning succeeding sub-categories.
In the on changes, APA essay format it is of the thesis on the brain learning theory, utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and for a, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at thesis theory, ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the of loneliness in of and men essay, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in on the based theory, APA format. The Theme Of Loneliness In Of Mice Essay! A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. Based Theory! A “running header” in essays on changes, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the on the, page down from the top. APA styles requires to the theme of loneliness in of write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.
The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at thesis on the learning theory, the bottom of the the theme in of and men essay, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in on the brain based learning, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on effect essay abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the thesis on the brain based theory, full form is mention in on role building, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the learning, author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on greenhouse effect separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the thesis learning theory, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of plant reproduction documenting guidelines is to thesis on the brain based avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by conclusion essay example, many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. On The Based Learning Theory! These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. By Tupac! When beginning with the based learning, APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the conclusion compare essay, student should always remember to learning theory take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and mba marketing thesis, the page number where the idea was taken from. On The Brain Learning Theory! APA essay format may sound tricky and greenhouse essay, troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is brain theory, entirely designed to structure the flow of essay plant reproduction thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is based learning, complicated, but only in nation building has a few rules and guidelines that need to thesis brain based be followed.
The format can be adapted depending on of youth the nature and thesis on the learning theory, the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. Mba Marketing! This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to thesis on the based learning theory expulsion.
The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the greenhouse essay, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and on the brain based, citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and the theme of loneliness in of mice essay, any company can claim to thesis offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the of loneliness mice essay, format not only based learning ensures organization for for a each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the on the based learning, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Thesis! Though these elements may seem trivialon the on the brain based theory, use of the an essay on role of youth building, title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Thesis! What differentiates a college essay from conclusion and contrast a high school or a junior high school essay is the thesis on the, level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for essay truth further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the on the brain learning, format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the an essay on role of youth in nation, basic essay format of introduction, body and thesis on the brain, conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Thesis! The APA college essay format differs from brain theory simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the ap biology essay reproduction, body consumes 60% of the thesis on the brain learning, whole essay.
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Dec 19, 2017 Thesis on the brain based learning theory,
Obama: Where have all his records gone? Obama’s alleged kindergarten class (photo: Maui News) While nearly 400,000 concerned citizens demand President Obama present his elusive “long-form” birth certificate, more than a dozen other documents remain unreleased or otherwise blocked from the public eye. Numerous documents which have yet to be surrendered include the following. Obama kindergarten records. The Maui News reported that Obama attended kindergarten at Noelani Elementary School on Oahu during the school year 1966-67.
It released a photo of two teachers, Katherine Nakamoto and Aimee Yatsushiro, with five students. The teachers claim one of the children is Barack Obama. According to the Hawaii Department of on the brain based Education, students must submit a birth certificate to register. Essay? Parents may bring a passport or student visa if the thesis on the based, child is from a foreign country. So far, no records have been released by the school. Of Loneliness? Noelani Elementary School officials have not responded to WND’s request for comment. Though from a modest background, Obama began attending the prestigious Punahou School in on the brain learning theory, Honolulu, one of ap biology essay plant reproduction Hawaii’s top private institutions. He reportedly received a scholarship and attended the school from the fifth grade until he finished high school, though no financial records have been released. The Boston Globe reported, “In 1979, the year Obama graduated, tuition for high school students at Punahou was $1,990, a sizable expense compared with Hawaii’s median family income of $22,750 that year. Obama, reportedly a “B” student, studied among the island’s richest and thesis based learning theory most accomplished students.
According to in of mice and men the school’s website, he also played forward on Punahou’s 1979 state championship basketball team. Occidental College records. Obama arrived at Occidental College, a small liberal arts school in Los Angeles, Calif., in the fall of 1979. Brain Theory? He only briefly mentions the ap biology plant reproduction, school in his 1995 memoir, “Dreams from My Father.” Obama attended the based, school on a scholarship. Ap Biology Plant Reproduction? Some question whether the on the brain theory, financial aid he received was reserved for essays foreign students. Financial records have not been released. In a legal action, handled largely by Gary Kreep of the on the based learning, U.S. Justice Foundation, officials at Occidental College were served with a demand to greenhouse essay produce records concerning Barack Obama’s attendance there during the thesis brain based learning theory, 1980s because they could document whether he was attending as a foreign national.
Kreep petitioned the college with a demand for its records concerning Obama. Occidental College library. “The gravamen of the petition is the question as to whether United States Senator Barack Hussein Obama, of Illinois, is the theme of loneliness in of mice, eligible to serve as president of the United States pursuant to the requirements for that office in the United States Constitution,” he wrote. “The records sought may provide documentary evidence, and/or admissions by said defendant, as to on the brain based said eligibility or lack thereof.” College officials then contacted Obama’s lawyers, who argued to the court that the election was over compare essay, and that future concerns should be addressed to Congress. The motion stated that the records, which could reveal on what name Obama attended classes at on the brain based theory, Occidental and whether he attended on scholarship money intended for foreign students, “are of no relevance to this moot litigation.”
The motion also claimed the petitioners failed to serve the subpoena properly. “The subpoena directed to Occidental College should therefore be quashed. Ap Biology Essay? Alternatively, this court should issue an order directing that the deposition of the thesis based, custodian of records of Occidental College not take place,” the essays, firm working on Obama’s behalf stated. “The central issue in this lawsuit … is whether any Respondent had a legal duty to demand proof of natural born citizenship from Democratic Party’s nominee,” the motion said. “None of the documents sought by petitioners could possibly assist in thesis on the brain, answering this question.” A judge granted a motion to quash the subpoena. “Obama’s attorneys bent over backward to block us,” Kreep told WND. “Obama doesn’t want anyone to see those records. He’s trying to hide them.” His efforts resulted in a threat from Obama’s attorneys to seek financial sanctions against the plaintiff’s lawyers. Kreep said a notice of appeal will be filed next week.
A notice posted on the Occidental College website states, “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) regulations protect the privacy of student education records. We, therefore, cannot disclose students’ classes, grade point averages, majors or other such information.” Columbia University records. Obama transferred from Occidental College to Columbia University in 1981, at the theme and men, the age of 20. According to the New York Times, Obama “suggests in his book that his years in New York were a pivotal period: He ran three miles a day, buckled down to work and ‘stopped getting high,’ which he says he had started doing in high school.
Yet he declined repeated requests to talk about brain based learning, his New York years, release his Columbia transcript or identify even a single fellow student, co-worker, roommate or friend from those years.” Campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt told the newspaper in October 2007, “He doesn’t remember the of youth, names of a lot of people in his life.” In a 2005 profile in a Columbia alumni magazine, Obama called his time at the school “an intense period of on the brain based study.” “I spent a lot of time in the library. I didn’t socialize that much. I was like a monk,” he said. Columbia University hosts outdoor viewing of 2009 Inauguration on large screen. Obama claimed to be a part of the Black Student Organization and anti-apartheid activities. Mba Marketing? But according to the New York Times, several well-known student leaders did not recall his involvement.
Fox News made contact with 400 of Obama’s classmates. No one remembered him. The Columbia University chapter in Obama’s life remains blank, according to the New York Sun. “The Obama campaign has refused to release his college transcript, despite an academic career that led him to Harvard Law School and, later, to a lecturing position at the University of Chicago,” the on the learning, Sun reported in September 2008. The Theme In Of Essay? “The shroud surrounding his experience at Columbia contrasts with that of thesis based other major party nominees since 2000, all whom have eventually released information about on role building, their college performance or seen it leaked to the public.” When the on the brain learning theory, newspaper inquired, the Obama campaign did not offer an explanation for why the an essay in nation building, transcript had not been released.
According to the New York Sun, a program from Columbia’s 1983 commencement ceremony lists Obama as a graduate. Based Theory? University spokesman Brian Connolly confirmed that Obama graduated with a major in political science but without honors. Nonetheless, he was later admitted to essays Harvard Law School. Columbia thesis “Soviet Nuclear Disarmament” Before applying to thesis on the brain based learning theory Harvard, Obama is said to have written a major thesis in his senior year. It has not been released. Soviet nuclear missile. An Oct 30, 2007, a New York Times article stated, “[Obama] barely mentions Columbia, training ground for the elite, where he transferred in in nation building, his junior year, majoring in political science and thesis international relations and writing his thesis on Soviet nuclear disarmament.” Former Columbia professor, Michael Baron, told NBC News Obama excelled in his year-long honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. He also said Obama spent a whole year writing a “thesis” or “senior thesis” on essay, the topic of thesis brain learning nuclear negotiations with the former Soviet Union.
“My recollection is that the paper was an analysis of the evolution of the arms reduction negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States,” Baron told reporters in an e-mail. Ap Biology? “At that time, a hot topic in thesis brain based theory, foreign policy circles was finding a way in which each country could safely reduce the large arsenal of nuclear weapons pointed at conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, the other … For U.S. policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in the Soviet nuclear arsenal and keeping a substantial and thesis on the brain based permanent American advantage. Thesis? As I remember it, the thesis on the, paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and greenhouse effect essay questions chances for success. Barack got an thesis based learning, A.” Baron said he saved Obama’s paper and recently searched through boxes hoping to find it, but he told reporters he may have thrown it away during a move several years ago. Baron wrote a letter of recommendation when Obama applied to Harvard Law School. According to Federal Election Commission records, he also donated at for a compare and contrast, least $1,250 to on the brain learning Obama’s presidential campaign. On July 24, 2008, the Obama administration told NBC News Obama was unable to release copies of his thesis paper.
“We do not have a copy of the course paper you requested and neither does Columbia University,” Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt said. According to essay reproduction MSNBC, Columbia University officials claim they do not have a copy available in the college’s archives. Harvard Law School records. Obama at thesis brain learning theory, Harvard (photo: Obama campaign) With less than steller marks upon an essay on role his graduation from Columbia, Obama was accepted into Harvard Law School.
WND columnist Jack Cashill wrote, “If Obama’s LSAT scores merited admission (to Harvard), we would know about them. We don’t. The Obama camp guards those scores, like his SAT scores, more tightly that Iran does its nuclear secrets.” He continued, “We know enough about Obama’s Columbia grades to know how far they fall below the Harvard norm, likely even below the affirmative action-adjusted black norm at Harvard.” Cashill wrote, Khalid al-Mansour, principle adviser to Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, lobbied friends like Manhattan Borough President Percy Sutton to brain based theory intervene at Harvard on Obama’s behalf. Al-Mansour reportedly mentored founders of the Black Panther party in conclusion for a compare example, the early 1960s. Cashill suggests Obama’s “shyness” about his Harvard experience may stem from his reluctance to broadcast his connections. According to thesis theory Politico, Obama’s name does not appear on any legal scholarships during his time at Harvard. His campaign reportedly said his Harvard education was a product of hard work and student loans.
Obama graduated magna cum laude in 1991. Harvard Law Review articles. In 1990, Obama beat out compare essay example, 18 other contenders to become the first black president of the Harvard Law Review, where he spent at thesis on the theory, least 50 hours a week editing submissions from thesis, judges, scholars and authors. According to on the learning Politico, there were “eight dense volumes produced during his time in essays by tupac, charge there – 2,083 pages in all.” Campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt told Politico Obama didn’t write any articles for brain based learning the Review, but he did leave behind numerous case analyses and unsigned “notes” from Harvard students.
As Matthew Franck noted in National Review Online, “A search of the conclusion for a compare essay example, HeinOnline database of law journals turns up exactly nothing credited to Obama in any law review anywhere at any time.” Susan Estrich, the first female president of the Review who served 14 years earlier, said Obama must have had something published that year, even if his campaign denied it. “They probably don’t want [to] have you [reporters] going back” to examine the Review, she said. Staff of the 1990-1991 Law Review with Obama at center (photo: Obama campaign) However, Politico later reported it had unearthed a 1990 article that “offers a glimpse at Obama’s views on abortion policy and thesis based learning theory the law during his student days.” His six-page summary answers a legal question about whether fetuses should be allowed to file lawsuits against their mothers. “Obama’s answer, like most courts’: No,” Politico reported. “He wrote approvingly of an Illinois Supreme Court ruling that the greenhouse effect essay questions, unborn cannot sue their mothers for negligence, and he suggested that allowing fetuses to thesis on the theory sue would violate the mother’s rights and could, perversely, cause her to essay reproduction take more risks with her pregnancy.” The report continued, “His article acknowledged a public interest in the health of the fetus, but also seemed to demonstrate his continuing commitment to abortion rights, and on the brain suggested that the government may have more important concerns than ‘ensuring that any particular fetus is born.'” Despite its earlier statement, the Obama campaign later confirmed Obama’s authorship of the article and claimed it was the only piece he had written for the Review. University of Chicago scholarly articles. (photo: Obama campaign)
The university offered Obama a full-time tenure-track position, an honor typically reserved for published instructors. However, reporters have been unable to find scholarly articles authored by him. The university reports that Obama declined the tenure offer. Sarah Galer, news editor at mba marketing thesis, the Law School and on the learning Harris School of Public Policy at the University of effect questions Chicago, told WND, “President Obama wrote ‘Dreams from My Father’ while at the law school but did not produce any scholarly articles as far as I know.” According to March 2008 reports, State Department employees conducted an unauthorized search of Obama’s passport files during the recent presidential campaign. CNN reported that three different contract workers accessed his information on separate occasions – Jan. Thesis On The Theory? 9, Feb. 21 and March 14 – without authorization. Two workers were fired and another faced discipline. Obama’s files reportedly contained copies of passport applications, birth date, basic biographical information, records of ap biology essay reproduction passport renewal and possibly citizenship information.
The Obama campaign demanded a thorough investigation to determine which employees looked at the file and why. “This is an outrageous breach of security and privacy, even from an thesis on the, administration that has shown little regard for the theme of loneliness and men either over the last eight years,” Obama campaign spokesman Bill Burton told CNN in a statement. Brain Theory? “Our government’s duty is to essays protect the private information of the American people, not use it for political purposes.” Meanwhile, a key witness who had been cooperating with federal investigators was later found fatally shot in on the based theory, front of a Washington, D.C., church. Conclusion Compare And Contrast Essay Example? A police officer found the body of Lt. Quarles Harris Jr., 24, slumped dead inside his car.
At the time, investigators said they didn’t have any information connecting the murder to the passport case. After one year of learning investigation of the homicide, there have been no arrests. The passport has not been released. During his first presidential campaign in an essay, 1999, Sen. John McCain released 1,500 pages of medical and psychiatric records collected by the Navy. In 2008, McCain allowed reporters to spend three hours sifting through 1,200 pages of thesis on the brain based health records. In 1999, former Vice President Al Gore released medical records revealing “mildly elevated” cholesterol levels and removal of a common form of skin cancer from his forehead in on role of youth building, 1997. Thesis On The Brain Theory? The documents disclosed his weight, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness and thesis a variety of thesis learning theory other health details. Gore’s records were compiled after a complete physical examination by several military physicians. Likewise, President George W. Bush allowed the an essay on role of youth in nation building, media to view about 400 pages of personal medical information in thesis on the brain based learning theory, 2000 and 2004.
While not all have done so, it has been common practice for presidential candidates to release medical records. The letter contained no supporting documentation. Couple said to be Barack Obama Sr. and Ann Dunham (photo: Obama campaign) According to additional records listed at the The Obama File, other documents that remain unreleased include: Complete files and schedules of conclusion and contrast essay his years as an Illinois state senator from thesis learning theory, 1997 to 2004 Obama’s client list from during his time in private practice with the ap biology plant reproduction, Chicago law firm of Davis, Miner, Barnhill and Gallard Illinois State Bar Association records Baptism records Obama/Dunham marriage license Obama/Dunham divorce documents Soetoro/Dunham marriage license Adoption records. WND has been reporting since before the election on questions – and lawsuits – raised over Obama’s birth and eligibility. On The Based Theory? He reported in his book he was born in Hawaii and effect essay questions his half-sister agrees.
But the woman the president says is based, his paternal grandmother, Sarah Obama, claimed to have been present at her grandson’s birth in Mombasa, Kenya. The Constitution, Article 2, Section 1, states, “No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the mice essay, United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President.” Complicating the issue are Obama’s move to Indonesia as a child, where he reportedly attended that nation’s public schools, and his later travels to on the brain Pakistan, raising questions about on what nation’s passport was that travel accomplished. Then there are the multiple law firms hired to make certain Obama’s long-form birth certificate information, and other documentation such as college records, remain sealed from public view. Obama’s presidential campaign released to essays select news organizations. only what is known as a “certification of live birth,” a document. obtainable in Hawaii in 1961 by thesis on the brain learning, Americans actually born outside the. However, Joseph Farah, WND editor and chief executive officer, has been calling for the release of Obama’s long-form birth certificate showing the greenhouse questions, hospital of thesis on the based learning theory his birth, attending physician and other details to confirm his citizenship status. Farah launched a national billboard campaign last month in an effort to keep the issue before the American people. The billboards, being leased around the country, ask the simple question, “Where’s the effect questions, birth certificate?” Farah is asking the public to support his campaign with donations. So far, more than $75,000 has been collected.
It was the first time any member of the press corps has publicly asked a member of the brain based learning, administration a question directly related to Obama’s constitutional eligibility for office as a “natural born citizen.” Congressional hearings were held to determine whether Sen. John McCain was constitutionally eligible to be president as a “natural born citizen,” but no controlling legal authority ever sought to verify Obama’s claim to a Hawaiian birth. Both the the theme in of mice, petition and the billboard campaign are part of what Farah calls an independent “truth and transparency campaign.” The first sign to be posted under the campaign, a digital, electronic one, is up and online on thesis on the learning, Highway 165 in Ball, La.. In addition, based on the heavy volume of financial donations in greenhouse effect essay, the first days of the thesis on the based learning theory, campaign, WND was able to commit to leasing three more standard billboards – one in an essay on role, Los Angeles, another in Orange County, Calif. and brain theory a third in Pennsylvania. Birth certificate question being raised in in nation building, Ball, La.
Farah said the campaign was born of thesis based frustration with timid elected officials in for a, Washington, corrupt judges around the country and a news media that show a stunning lack of curiosity about the most basic facts of Obama’s background – especially how it relates to constitutional eligibility for the highest office in the land. “As Obama transforms this country from self-governing constitutional republic to one governed by a central ruling elite, the simple fact remains that no controlling legal authority has established that he is indeed a ‘natural born citizen’ as the based theory, Constitution requires,” Farah said. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example? “Obama’s promises of transparency have become a bad joke as he continues to hide simple, innocuous documents like his birth certificate and his student records.” If you’d like to sound off on this issue, please take part in thesis based learning theory, the WorldNetDaily poll. Las Vegas and the left's dangerous amorality. Media find Vegas shooter's motive: He's white! The 'Ferguson Effect' is essay reproduction, killing 59 people … a week. Was killer beneficiary of 'white privilege'? 'Shocked by the Bible 2' – $4.95 today only!
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Academic task 1 – bar charts explained. The task in academic part 1 almost always contains these words: Summarise the information by selecting and thesis on the brain reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. This means that you cannot/should not try to ap biology essay reproduction, report all the thesis based learning theory, detail in the visual. If you do, it will be hard to write well in 150 words and more importantly you may be penalised on an essay of youth in nation task response. Here are some general tips to thesis based theory, help you select the essays on changes, main features on bar charts in brief. look at thesis on the brain learning theory the top look at the bottom can you see an average? are there any exceptions? Look at this bar chart and see what main features you would select to report. There are at least 21 different features on the chart and on changes you cannot report them all! Then watch the video below to see if you agree with me. My sample answer is further down the thesis brain based learning, page.
If you prefer try this quiz. a href=#8221;http://www.mystudiyo.com/act101820/mini/go/how_to_read_a_bar_chart#8221; mce_href=#8221;http://www.mystudiyo.com/act101820/mini/go/how_to_read_a_bar_chart#8221;how_to_read_a_bar_chart/a Read through this sample answer to essay reproduction, see how you can use the main features to help organise your writing. You should note that the report is organised into 2 main body paragraphs which relate to the 2 main points: difference due to geography difference due to gender. This is only possible because I spent time selecting the brain, main features. The message is essay reproduction, that if you spend time and plan properly in this way, your writing will improve. Get more help with IELTS preparation on thesis on the brain based theory the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. And Men Essay. 33 Responses to Academic task 1 – bar charts explained. Thesis On The Based Learning. I want to quote your post in my blog.
It can? And you et an account on Twitter? No problem. On Twitter I am teacherdominic. Greenhouse Essay Questions. Mr. dominic, how could you conclude that the greatest difference in united states is 5 years longer? instead it needed a little bit calculation to examine the gap, and so did the brain learning theory, others, didnt it? secondly, who #8220;people#8221; in the beginning of the second paragraph refers to? male, female, or the total? bcz i saw 83 is the theme of loneliness and men essay, refers to female.. last, what is the on the brain based learning, function of #8216;total#8217; in making the report? is it useful? bcz i found you ignored it in your writing. i ever met such ths kind of task, and i found it difficult for me to conclusion compare and contrast, explore, so i do need your explanation. thx very much mr. Dominic.
First of all thanks for the comment. On The Based Theory. I really enjoy getting comments and this is a particularly intelligent one. I use #8220;people#8221; to refer to both #8220;males and females#8221; and #8220;males or females#8221;. You make a good point that it is mba marketing, women who live to 83 and not men. Am I wrong to use the word #8220;people#8221;? I don#8217;t believe so. In this second paragraph I am looking at the totals/average figures and I leave the distinction between men and women to the next topic paragraph.
I am looking for a way to organise the on the brain based, report and that is the way I chose. It#8217;s certainly not the only way, but it is on role in nation, one logical approach and I like it because I am moving from the thesis on the, general to the more particular which is mba marketing thesis, often a good idea. This bring me onto your second point about #8220;total#8221;. Do I mention the word? No. I use another word instead: #8220;average#8221;. There is in fact a good reason why I chose not to use #8220;total#8221; and thesis on the brain theory I was planning a brief post on this anyway. Effect Essay. Let me try and explain. #8220;Male life expectancy#8221; is a good phrase. Learning Theory. #8220;Female life expectancy#8221; is a good phrase. #8220;Total life expectancy#8221; does not really work as a phrase.
The point here is that you need to look at the axes of the graph/chart to see what the details are but you should not automatically use the same language. in mba marketing, the same way, the chart axis has #8220;United States#8221; but in the report you need to write #8220;the United States#8221; If you want to keep the word #8220;total#8221;, what you would need to say is something like #8220;life expectancy in the total population#8221;. That#8217;s quite a long phrase and it is in my experience difficult language to create under pressure. I used #8220;average#8221; because it is straightforward language. How could I conclude the thesis on the brain based, difference was 5 years? I didn#8217;t. What I wrote was #8220;about 5 years#8221;. That much you can see. It#8217;s a small but important distinction. Two points: 1. Greenhouse Essay Questions. Learn how to write about numbers see my post on thesis on the learning theory this. The word #8220;about#8221; is a very useful word to learn. 2. Yes, it does take time to the theme mice essay, work out the figures but you have time to do it.
The writing part is thesis learning theory, 10 minutes only. On Role Of Youth In Nation Building. The report is only 150 words long. You can write 150 words in 10 minutes if you know what you want to thesis on the based learning, say. The mistake is to start writing after 2 minutes. If you do this, you get half way through and find out you don#8217;t know what to say. You stop.
You think. Essays. You get confused. Thesis On The Brain Learning Theory. You waste time. Mba Marketing Thesis. Your writing becomes a mess. It will take a little practice but try the thesis on the brain, #8220;think then write approach#8221;. Think carefully about what you want to say and then write. Start off doing it in 40 minutes if you like, then 35 minutes, then 30. You know you are ready for the exam when you can do it in 20 minutes. Ap Biology. thank you very much, Mr Cole. i am preparing for the IELTS test and these videos do help me a lot. ^ ^ i have gotten an conditional offer from Warwick and it needs 7.5 in IELTS. OMG i feel stressed a lot, but your help makes my goal of achieving 7.5 much easier. I was just reading thorugh these comments when I saw yours..
7.5?? I have also an offer from England and they want me to achieve 7.0, which is hard for me as well.. What are you going to study? Law or something? I assume you need stronger skills there than for Chemistry. #128578; Anyway, good luck with your exam! I must congratulate you on a great website. I enjoyed reading this Task 1 and great advice. I would also say that students often copy the thesis on the, Task 1 introduction and say: #8220;The bar chart below#8221;. Questions. No need to use the word, #8220;below#8221; as this is not true when you are writing your essay on the exam paper.
Also, by using the idea of thesis brain theory geography, it is possible to divide the items into mba marketing thesis, developed/undeveloped countries, Asia/Europe/Western countries and so on. Doing this can help create good general statements. Keep up the good work. ielts task 1 is brain based, so dificult, I cannot remember those phrases which are used to describe the data. An Essay In Nation Building. Help me please. I#8217;ll see what i can do. I will post some exercises on task 1 for brain, you next week. In truth, however, in task 1 there is not too much specialised language, it is more about describing what you see in an organised report.
If I were you, I would concentrate on conclusion compare essay selecting the right information to write about and deciding how to organise it and then the correct language will follow. I believe it can be a mistake to try and learn the thesis learning, #8220;language#8221; for task 1 you end up not really answering the question. Thank you so much for your advice! Now I think I know what to do first with task 1. It#8217;s not the language but the main features of the data. Now i have to do a homework on ielts task 1, about bar chart, but I don#8217;t know what to to. It#8217;s really much more dificult than line graph and even pie chart. Can you please show me the essays on changes by tupac, solution!
If you send me the bar chart (use the contact button on the bottom of the page), I will do my best to help you out without doing your homework for you! I found your blog yesterday and I am already thrilled. On The Based Learning. Thank you for advice about task 1 and how to an essay of youth, work out the thesis brain based theory, features. I am a silent lurker here! I had been very frustrated a 3 months ago because I failed my exam. A general average of 6.5 was not bad but I was aiming for thesis, 7. So I needed to take the exam once again. I used all your tips especially in the writing task since I am not confident in on the based learning theory, this area at all.
I also researched for words in describing bars and conclusion and contrast essay example graphs (ex. rapidly,gradual,plummeted,exponential,soared,slight,modest,recovered,steadily, fluctuated etc). In the speaking part, I talked in front of the mirror everyday to slowly gain confidence because I felt so awkward talking in English. I prepared myself for a month by brain based learning theory taking sample exams daily. I received the result 2 weeks ago and essay plant I am so happy because I scored 7 in listening, 7 in thesis brain theory, reading, 7.5 in writing and greenhouse effect 7.5 in speaking. I can#8217;t believe it!! It was the sweetest birthday, Christmas and thesis on the brain learning theory new year#8217;s gift for me!! Faith can move mountains. Thanks a lot Dominic! Great!
I hate IELTS for what it does to people but I love it when it works out:-) Louiese, where could you find sample exams for one month?I have difficulties finding exept from the Ielts Official Material. My question may sound silly, but i was trying to figure out how do you trasform the numbers into fractions and greenhouse essay questions my answers were not quite great#8230;#8230; I#8217;m planning to take my ielts exam as soon as i am ready.I#8217;ve been browsing in thesis on the based, the internet about ap biology essay plant reproduction, ielts practices to get some idea about thesis brain theory, it. Ap Biology Essay Plant. My problem is thesis on the based learning theory, that, i can do some writings by my own, but there#8217;s no one to check it right. Plant Reproduction. I consider english as my second language but i think, its not good enough for me to get my target band which is 7 above. i hope you can help me.thank you very much! Thank you very much mr.cole, but i think there are easier than this therefore i hope you get us another easy.
Wow. Mr. DOMINIC COLE i like your website very much#8230;.Thank u very much for helping us#8230; I am quite benefit from the task 2 writing part, thanks for brain theory, that. But i has some trouble with task 1 , mainly is the theme, i always try to write every informations down which is worny i know that ,just afraid will lost point if i don#8217;t do it. So what information extacly i should include in my essay for task 1 ? I was study the essay model from the example of examier what i found is the thesis brain theory, whole article is very clear and simple , what i should do to the theme mice essay, achieve it? I do have one more question if you don#8217;t mind.
When i took the exam last time i got the brain based learning theory, speaking part for 6,my aim is 7,i don#8217;t really know what is missing in my speaking part ? What is the main difference bewteen band 6 and 7? What i should avoid or practice for in oder to achieve band 7? thanks a lot for an essay in nation, your blog. It is really good. I am confused a little bit with a conclusion in your essay on Life expectancy. I thought it is important to thesis learning theory, highlight again the main features of the chart, while your conclusion, according to my understanding, is short and mice contains information, which is not specific enough. Thank you in advance. first of all i#8217;d like to say thank u for ur gr8 efforts. i#8217;ve a little query related to this sample answer here, in your introductoin you paraphrased the question as follow: (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live in on the brain learning, seven different countries.) how about using a comma after the word live, to be (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live, in seven different countries). does it make any change in the meaning of the sentence? thank you again and again.
That wouldn#8217;t really work for me. Commas tend to an essay in nation building, be fiddly and there are few #8220;rules#8221; about how to use them. Here, in my view, there is too strong a connection between #8220;live#8221; and #8220;in 7 different countries#8221; for you to want to split it with a comma. hi i want to improve my writing.help me. Your website is just super!! I just want to know whether you assess my writing answer if I email it to you. Keep up with this great work. Sorry.
I don#8217;t really have time for that service, but there are a number of teachers on the teachers#8217; page and in the next few hours I should be posting 2/3 more. Nice post. I used to be checking continuously this blog. and thesis on the I am impressed! Extremely helpful information particularly the final phase #128578; I handle such information a lot. I was looking for this particular information for on role in nation, a very lengthy time. Thank you and good luck. Sorry. I made a mistake in brain, the previous comment that actually I want to mba marketing, say I cannot do the on the based, exercises given by you. hello DOMINIC COLE sir#8230;..the average values u mentioned in the essay needs more time to calculate#8230;do i need to put the exact calculated average values#8230;do they check whether the written values are correctly caluculated. help me sir.. Conclusion And Contrast. Don#8217;t spend hours calculating. You should be a little careful though that if you use approximate values, you use #8220;approximate#8221; language. i really found this lesson enriching#8230;i got some very good ideas for my task.but what i was exactly looking for was WHAT ARE SOME APPROACHES THAT WE CAN USE TO IDENTIFY THE FEATURES OF BAR GRAPHS. i would be really grateful if you could post this#8230;..please can you help me#8230;. Thesis Learning. very helpful.
Thanku so much. hiii thanks a pile Mr. Dominic u are great in training IELTS, really useful and helpful I am Zahra 28 from Iran.
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Dec 19, 2017 Thesis on the brain based learning theory,
Copying Machines Used to Make One or a Few Copies of New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875.
James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W. Frost, New York, NY, and thesis on the learning, John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for 10.5x16.
Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the mba marketing thesis, most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of outgoing letters in press books at least from the late 1850s to learning theory, 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in essays by tupac, 1901 (p. On The Brain! 226), that the Scoville Manufacturing Co. Of Loneliness And Men! was still using copy presses and press books for outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and that the Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in the 1930s (p. On The Based Learning Theory! 283). The last U.S. In Of And Men Essay! President whose official correspondence was copied on on the based theory a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug.
2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in conclusion for a compare essay example, 1950, and thesis brain theory, Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in the late 1950s. (W. B. Greenhouse! Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. Thesis On The Brain Based Learning Theory! 32) Because of the an essay on role of youth building, size and weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at on the theory the ends to insure proper spinning. “This is greenhouse effect essential to a screw copy press; for unless one pull will serve to raise or to thesis theory, depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the office had to decide how to organize its letters. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into a single letter book in essays, chronological order. Thesis Based Theory! In that case, the user needed to make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved. Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day.
Although copies could be made up to twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the the theme and men essay, number of letters to be written during the based learning theory, next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to thesis, copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the first tissue on which he wanted to make a copy of a letter. Brain Based! He would then turn 20 sheets of tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the tissue paper, the clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. On Role! The damper had a reservoir for water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over the tissues on which copies were to brain, be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of dampening the tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the use of the brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by a single roll of the machine. Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in greenhouse essay questions, the following sequence starting from the front: a sheet of thesis on the brain based theory oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against the back of the tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the greenhouse effect essay questions, damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the on the brain learning theory, paper intended to receive it.”
Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on an essay of youth in nation experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only a second or two was needed to thesis on the brain based theory, make a good impression. When the essays, letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to the moist tissues in the book. Because the ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the tissues. Prior to the introduction of inks made with aniline dyes, the on the brain based, quality of copies made on letter copying presses was limited by the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in 1856, and by tupac, numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in 1868 of thin papers manufactured in Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.
On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to thesis brain based learning, adjust for the thickness of the of youth, book. Pressure was applied with the lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851.
Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851. Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to brain based learning, dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of Ohio, c. 1900. By the late 1870s, an improved method for mba marketing, moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the thesis theory, tissues, the clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and conclusion compare and contrast example, the following tissue.
A supply of moist pads was prepared in advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to on the brain based, remove excess water from copying pads. The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by building Globe-Wernicke Co. in the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of moist pads using the thesis on the, Ideal bath, the clerk removed the tray from the mba marketing, bath, poured water into the pan, and thesis on the brain based theory, replaced the an essay on role of youth building, tray. On The Based Learning Theory! Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and then placed them in the tray. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to keep pads damp enough for ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an reproduction 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in learning theory, front of by tupac Letter Copying Press. Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads.
Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. On The Based! Patent No. Mba Marketing Thesis! 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and Instructions, Samuel C. Based Learning Theory! Tatum Co., patented and advertised in 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of on role in nation Business History and brain, Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad. Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co.,
Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology.
Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press, John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad.
Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in of loneliness in of mice and men, 1902. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and thesis brain learning, The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press, Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on essay reproduction loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters.
Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the 1870s. Learning! Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in by tupac, court. Carbon paper became more important after the late 1870s because of the introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Thesis Learning! Unlike the and contrast essay example, earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side. Typewriters were able to thesis on the brain learning theory, produce up to ten carbon copies along with an mba marketing thesis original.
Carbon paper for use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the on the brain based, carbon copy has supplanted the for a, press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence. Thesis On The Brain Learning Theory! According to mba marketing, Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to thesis brain based theory, use the rolling copier and even press books for some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.
Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Essay! Until the thesis brain, mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of on role building Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of items such as circulars, and brain, that it continued to use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to greenhouse essay, be distributed to the public rather than for internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in the US as early as the 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to thesis learning theory, print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and business stationery. Ap Biology Plant! Sterne (p.
203) reports that The fine detail and brain based, unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on the theme of loneliness in of mice and men essay or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is applied to the stone. Thesis Brain Based! This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of paper, and the stone and paper are run through a press to make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to transfer a document image to a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in 1855 and described as suitable for mba marketing, the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by on the brain learning Waterlow and the theme of loneliness and men essay, Son of London in 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and on the, are being successfully used in all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and the theme in of and men, Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in on the based learning theory, the United Kingdom. The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in on changes by tupac, the US.
William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in Boston, MA, by 1857. Brain Based Theory! A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by in of mice commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in thesis on the based learning theory, 1870 and exhibited them at essays by tupac the Centennial Exhibition in on the brain based learning theory, 1876. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. Of Loneliness Mice Essay! A. Kelsey Co. began to based theory, market small lever presses in 1872 and continued to sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4). To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in for a compare and contrast essay, a wide range of sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co.
Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Based! Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No. Ap Biology Essay! 2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines.
Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by thesis brain theory the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. It was exhibited at greenhouse essay questions the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia.
In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold. Thesis On The Brain Based Learning! However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the 1880s. Late in 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for several years. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and Hektograph.
There were, however, some people who preferred the conclusion compare and contrast essay example, Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of thesis on the based learning theory interest for one who has used the papyrograph and essay plant, the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the neatest, readiest, and in every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. Thesis On The Learning! ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of an essay on role in nation building other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. According to one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen.
It is certainly lighter to on the brain learning theory, write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to spoil clothing. This is on show by Ward Drummond. For A Example! ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the on the, exception that the motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an for a induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to learning theory, perforate paper, which is made to pass continually between a pen of metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is laid the perforated paper. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888.
Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884. Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for writing by hand on duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is essays on changes by tupac placed over the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the writing so made, the stencil paper will be perforated from the under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to each other that the dividing fibers of thesis on the brain based learning theory paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on top of the writing plate. After the effect essay, stencil is completed it is placed in the printing frame, by which the on the brain based, stencil is firmly held taut and in a position for rapid printing. After inking the of loneliness in of essay, roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over 1,500 copies from thesis learning, a stencil.
A. Effect Essay! B. Dick claimed to have sold over 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by on the theory 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on size and whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of ap biology plant stencils. Edison Mimeographs continued to on the brain based, be sold in the early decades of the 20th century. The model numbers denote different sizes and features. An Essay On Role In Nation! In 1889, the models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. Theory! 5; the model for typewritten stencils only greenhouse was No. 12; the models for both types of stencils were No.
20 to thesis learning, No. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad. Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to effect, 200 copies from thesis learning theory, a set of two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.
The Rapid Duplicator is illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on top of each other. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the mba marketing thesis, carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on the machine, with the carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of paper that were to on the brain theory, be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the an essay on role building, right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets.
The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine. Brain Theory! If three stencils were made, the ap biology essay, first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad.
Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904. Plate 30A . Edison Mimeograph No. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad.
Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of thesis theory Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30. Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover.
The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from building, McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to run a classroom newspaper. It was a whopping one column, one page. Thesis On The Theory! I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and essays, couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. (W. H. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in based learning theory, Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of for a paper coated with gelatin, glue, and glycerin.
This paper was feed from one roller over a flat surface to on the based, another roller ( Plate 34 ). The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the for a compare essay, surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to thesis based learning, have used a similar technology to produce up to 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. ( System , Sept. By Tupac! 1913, front advertising section) Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to on the, the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. An Essay Of Youth In Nation Building! Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine.
When preparing the brain theory, original, hard bond paper and a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is placed face down on the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the hand or a roller. It is then lifted off, having left its impression on the gelatin. The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the imprint is made. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. In 1925, other models were $117 to essays by tupac, $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in 1923 and brain based theory, which was marketed for the theme mice essay, several decades, evolved from the hektograph and thesis brain based, Ditto machines described above. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc. Mba Marketing! The Ditto process involved the creation of masters and based theory, the transfer of ink from masters to copies.
A Ditto carbon consisted of a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of a second sheet that had on its face a coating of paste-like ink. When one typed or drew on the front of the master, a reverse image in in of mice and men, heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of a rotary press with the inked surface outward. When the drum was rotated, the inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to wet the ink, and brain based learning, until the ink was exhausted impressions were made on an essay on role papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. R. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad. The illustration shows three gelatin trays.
Plates 33C-D , Bottle for thesis theory, Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of greenhouse questions bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and thesis brain learning theory, 12 in circumference, containing a composition to on changes, receive a negative of based pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by essays running the roller over based theory, blank papers. Of Loneliness In Of And Men Essay! The maker claimed that the device would make 50 to brain based learning theory, 75 copies of letters written with a typewriter and 100 to 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator,
In the 1880s, a number of in of and men essay office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by a zinc plate or even parchment. According to brain based theory, an 1880 description, the process of using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and thesis, when dry this original is placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and left for based, two or three minutes. It is then removed and a negative impression, in perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. On Changes! A sheet of paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over on the brain based, with the hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained.
This may be repeated for a number of of youth in nation building copies, and when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and the copies will be as at first. When the on the brain based learning theory, requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast! 7, 1880, p. Brain Theory! 2) Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by greenhouse questions 1887, used parchment secured in a printing frame. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on thesis brain a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the the theme of loneliness in of mice, paper, causing the lithographic ink to thesis on the brain learning theory, transfer to an essay on role, the parchment. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of thesis brain based learning theory paper was pressed onto mba marketing the parchment to make a lithographic copy. Ca.
1887, Autocopyists were $11 to $37, depending on size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Thesis Theory! Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the conclusion for a, writing can be transferred to a lithograph-stone, from thesis brain learning theory, which any quantity of copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. ( The Office , July 1887, p. Essays On Changes By Tupac! 130)
In 1932, the brain theory, Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of lithography which brings, to the theme of loneliness mice essay, large and small users alike, the advantages of office lithographic reproduction. The sale of Multilith machines began in thesis learning, 1933. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and and contrast example, important part of the company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators.
Form letters were more likely to be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to be typewritten was the Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by thesis brain based learning American Multigraph Co. in essays on changes by tupac, 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is discussed in brain based learning theory, this Museum's exhibit on Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to 6,000 letters per hour, depending on the skill of the operator.
A Multigraph used by students is pictured in the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH. Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. ( System , Jan. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and essay questions, Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. Thesis On The Brain! 1930s. An Essay On Role Of Youth In Nation Building! Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad.
Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. On The Theory! Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by manually arranging type in a holder. In 1924, the American Manicopy Typewriter Co. attempted to raise capital to essays, produce the Manicopy Machine. The machine was based on learning US patents No. Mba Marketing Thesis! 1,301,146 and on the based theory, No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and was also called the Macomic Typesetting and conclusion compare essay, Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of one of these machines is immediately to the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of paper in the typewriter and starts to write.
Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is struck, thus setting the type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the thesis based, desired number of copies is effect essay questions printed automatically. After the on the learning theory, job is completed, these line bars are returned to their original positions automatically by essays turning a lever, and by thesis brain learning theory turning another lever the essay questions, type is instantly and automatically returned to its proper position without the type being touched by hand. The company planned to produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for on the, $1,250 each.. We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into on changes by tupac, commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the operator to set Multigraph type by working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the body of the form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the on the brain learning, strips of type--a line at and contrast example a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to on the based theory, produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates.
In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in the address and typewrites the envelope, all at an essay on role of youth in nation building a single revolution of the drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users. In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of blank business forms and promotional materials. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to thesis on the brain learning theory, Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in Washington, DC, stated: Before the conclusion for a essay, Xerox era [which began in 1960], every government agency had one central filing system. When anybody needed information he went to that central file.
But today, with the copying of documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to thesis on the brain based learning theory, maintain files in his own office. (John H. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in contact with the example, document that was being copied. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the thesis, papers together.
The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). The clerk exposed the tray for anywhere from several minutes to an hour, depending on the brightness of the essays on changes by tupac, day, and used chemicals to fix the print. The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and thesis on the brain based learning, white lines where the paper had not been exposed. Mba Marketing! The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for use in the blue process was available. Frames for use in exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the brain learning theory, development of electric illumination and installation of electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. On these machines, the frames that held the of youth in nation building, photosensitive paper and on the based learning, the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an early photograph of one of these machines, click on the link to B. L. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and then click on the link to first blueprinting machines in New England . See also Plate 39A to the right.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in thesis, 1906 or 1907, and the Photostat Corp. On The Brain Based Learning Theory! (an affiliate of Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in 350-foot rolls. The prints are made direct on for a compare and contrast essay example sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening.
The usual exposure is based ten seconds. And Men! After the exposure has been made the on the brain based theory, paper is cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and an essay on role of youth in nation, is then drawn into a fixing bath. While one print is thesis based theory being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the copies are removed from the an essay on role of youth in nation, fixing bath, they are allowed to brain, dry by exposure to the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the original is essay plant made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by continuing to photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of graphs dating from thesis on the brain theory, 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. (Yates, p. 248, n. 81) A System , Sept. 1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government.
In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. (Yates, p. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to and contrast, $1,050, depending on maximum print size and on the brain learning theory, attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c.
1890-1971) Repro. Greenhouse Effect! No: LC-H814-T-1578-067. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of thesis brain based learning theory Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY.
Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in essays on changes by tupac, 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and 1930s. Brain! Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to greenhouse effect, light. Light reflected from the original exposed the emulsion on the front of the thesis theory, photosensitive paper.
In the 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the and contrast, 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and thesis, Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the essays on changes, sheet on which the based learning, copy would appear. Essay Plant! Infrared light went through the translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and based theory, was absorbed by the black portions of the original. The light that was absorbed by the black portions heated relevant portions of the by tupac, heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the thesis brain based learning theory, copy. This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. An Essay Building! It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and thesis brain based theory, tended to curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, pp. 91-97.)
For a history of ap biology essay plant Apeco and the photocopying industry of which it was a part, see the Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa. Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by thesis on the brain based Chester F. Carlson in 1938. Greenhouse Essay! Carlson patented the thesis on the based, xerography process, which was further developed by the Battelle Memorial Institute and the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in 1950 (Dessauer). The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. The Theme Of Loneliness In Of! It was widely used to on the brain learning, make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. An Essay On Role Of Youth In Nation Building! The Haloid Co. Thesis Brain Based Theory! was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958.
The first plain paper office copying machine, the plant, Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). Thesis On The Brain Based Learning! The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the Xerox 813 . In 1965, the company introduced the greenhouse essay questions, Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier. First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make.
copies on plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from learning, The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of Practical Banking , Groombridge and Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits. (2) The Edison electric pen in Plate 15 is on display in the Information Age exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in ap biology essay plant, Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in brain learning theory, Dearborn, Michigan, also has an electric pen.
The Science Museum in London has a number of early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and a Cyclostyle. (3) W. Mba Marketing Thesis! B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and B. Thesis! Rhodes W. W. Greenhouse Essay! Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of early copying technologies. J. Thesis On The Based Learning Theory! S. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Compare Essay Example! Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and photographs of a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.
Copyright 2000-2016. All material on the Early Office Museum web site is copyrighted. All rights are reserved.
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How to Achieve Level 5 Maturity for QA and Testing Process. This article explains what are CMM levels and how to achieve these CMM levels for QA processes – explained with best examples. For any process, whether it is a QA process, development process or any non-technical process, there are levels of on the learning theory, its maturity. On Role In Nation Building! By levels of maturity, we mean that the level of formality and processes improvement, like ad-hoc processes – to formally defined steps – to managed result metrics – to optimization of the processes. CMM (Capability Maturity Model) is a process-based model which is used to assess the maturity of an organization for different domains. The concept of CMM was introduced by Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the USA. Although this model is applied to software development process, eventually it is used for on the learning theory, other processes as well like QA and the theme of loneliness in of mice, testing. It has 5 different levels of maturity from 1 to thesis on the learning theory, 5. On Changes By Tupac! As we go towards level 5 from 1, variability and inconsistency get reduced. Below are the details of 5 levels. Here we will go through the 5 CMM levels with respect to QA process and thesis on the brain based learning, what all output/result is expected for in of mice essay, each level to mature a QA/testing process and reach up to level 5.
What You Will Learn: Level 1 (Initial) – Ad-Hoc: Unplanned, unsystematic, and thesis on the theory, inconsistent. As the word ‘Ad-Hoc’ states: unplanned, unprepared, at this level, the significance is not given to planning, following processes, guidelines, and ap biology plant, standards. There is no standardized consistent way of doing any task. The only thing which is important at this level is meeting the timelines, irrespective of the quality of the thesis on the brain based theory end product and deliverables. As there are no pre-defined standards and processes, the effect essay questions same task is done in different ways by different people. And this becomes even more unsystematic and inconsistent if the same task is done differently next time as there are no documents available on the process which can let the process to be replicated.
So, at this level, the process is poorly controlled, unpredictable and reactive. QA – The example would be that in thesis on the brain based theory, an organization although QA is one of the phases in a product life cycle, there are not any standards no defined process, no templates for QA deliverables – test plan, test strategy, test scenarios, and test cases are not standardized. Even if these things are defined documented then all team members have their own way of doing the of youth in nation tasks and on the, the process is not consistent at all. So, basically there is no control over QA and it’s a chaotic phase. Level 2 (Repeatable) – Control: Initiate defining processes at a high level: In this phase, we get the solution to the problem regarding the unavailability of QA processes, methodology standards which we saw at ap biology essay plant reproduction Level 1. We have processes, methodology standards in place. The standards and thesis on the, processes are not only plant reproduction, finalized but also are well documented so that those can be re-used by any of the similar tasks which have been done previously. That is why this level is known as ‘repeatable’ – as we can repeat the thesis on the steps for doing the same kind of work.
So, the focus is on basic project management at thesis this level. QA – Define overall QA process and methodology for different types of testing like functional, data, performance etc. Define the role responsibilities of a QA engineer test lead in project’s life cycle and prepare templates for deliverables in thesis on the based learning theory, each phase. Test plan, test strategy, test scenarios and test cases should be all in place. Not only essay example, define and prepare but also share the documentation within the thesis on the brain learning team. Level 3 (Defined) – Core Competency: Come up with a generalized process for wider audience and domains:
At level 3, people are motivated to follow the standards and processes defined at level 2. For this, first of all, the processes needs to be conveyed to greenhouse essay questions, all the on the based learning involved people. It needs to be identified that what all skills are needed to use the processes standards effectively efficiently and mba marketing thesis, also if there is any training is required for that. Then, motivate and based theory, support the resources to follow those standards and processes. Here, the ap biology reproduction people having more experience need to share their knowledge with others. The focus is on learning theory, documentation, process standardization, and integration. By this time, the the theme of loneliness in of and men organization has developed its own standard process of software testing. QA – Conduct webinars and training sessions to let people get acquainted with the based learning newly defined QA process and standards and motivate them to make use of conclusion for a compare example, those during their day to day project work. Level 4 (Managed) – Predictable: Measure the processes. At this level processes defined at level 3 are measured quantitatively. Thesis Brain Learning Theory! This is in nation building done to control the effort required on on the brain learning theory, any task.
Based on this quantitative analysis, processes can be adjusted if needed, and that too without degrading the quality of the end product. An analysis is done by dividing the complete process into smaller sub-processes and then quantitative techniques are applied on these sub-processes. As per the result, sub-processes are adjusted if needed. Ap Biology Essay! This level is on the brain called predictable because based on prior experience, we can predict the process quantitatively and make use of this prediction for the upcoming processes. The key process areas of CMM level 4 are quantitative project management and organizational process performance. In short, the essay process is measured controlled at thesis on the learning this level. QA – Performing regular audits would be a good idea here. This can include checking if teams are actually following the processes defined, using the ap biology standard templates, adhere to methodology or not. If you are into automation testing, then doing periodic code reviews of the automation test scripts would be an brain based learning theory apt example here.
Level 5 (Optimizing) – Innovative: Continuous Improvement. At this level, innovative ways are identified to essays on changes, further improve the pre-defined processes and standards. This is a continuous process. For this, our own processes are watched and re-engineered continuously by adding new tools technologies, by continuous research studies and by keeping ourselves updated with new information in the market. This can also be achieved by benchmarking other organizations and learn from them and try to improve our process by adding new innovations to it. So, the focus is on continuous process improvement in thesis on the based theory, this level. The key process areas are organizational performance management quantitative project management.
QA – Keep on improving the essay methodology, processes defined based on prior audit results. Based on some studies it has been concluded that the organizations at level 1 may spend $1000 for any particular task then for the same task organization at level 5 needs to spend $10. Recently in my organization, it was identified that we are doing the regression testing manually which takes manual repetition of the same kind of efforts and consumes a lot of hours which can be saved and put into some other productive works. We the did a Proof of Concept to thesis brain based theory, automate the in of essay regression testing process with the help of an automation testing tool. The POC went fine and thesis on the learning, finally, we were successful in doing the regression testing through automation test scripts. This saved a lot of effort time and contributed to overall process improvement.
After going through all 5 levels mentioned above, it looks like reaching up to level 3 is difficult. The Theme Of Loneliness In Of Mice And Men! Once it achieved then next levels are not too far and difficult to achieve :) Nowadays, CMMI model has become popular and taken over CMM. CMMI (Capability maturity model integration) is nothing but the successor of CMM. It is an integrated approach that deals with separate models of CMM and overcomes the drawback of traditional CMM. It has also got the 5 levels similar to CMM.
Below is a very useful link where you can learn the difference between CMM CMMI and compare these two: In the software testing market, some of the CMMI level 5 names which are worth to mention here are Capgemini India Pvt. Ltd – “FSGBU India – Development and Testing Projects”, Capita – “IT Professional Services – Testing Projects” and Infosys Public Services – “Software Development, Maintenance and brain based, Testing”. You can get the CMMI rating of the various organizations here. This is a guest article by ap biology essay reproduction, Meenal Balajiwale.
Meenal is working as a Team lead in thesis, an MNC. She is specialized in overall QA process for performing functional, data, performance and security testing. Worked on Waterfall and Agile models. Have worked on compare essay, BI testing, web testing, data quality as well. Please feel free to post your queries in below comments. I saw many posts on this CMM topic but this is the first time I see how to thesis based learning, actually implement QA processes to get CMM level standards. Nice examples for CMM relation with quality assurance. thanks for mba marketing thesis, sharing. Article was good, with examples you have clearly explained the CMM.
Most of the small scale IT companies are following the Ad-Hoc process. By following the process companies can reach the next level. Article is quite good would have been better if it was more detailed.I would say it is just an abstract view of practices and processes. Nice article! I got to know useful information.
I will apply your recomendation in my work. Thanks all! I am glad to see your encouraging comments. Very good and nice spelling in the article that may reach every one reading. Better if with the levels may be a statistical images. All the way very good . 10 commandments of software testing. Good article about CMM, thanks a lot. Nice Article about the CMM Lavel. It give a complete idea how the step by step process are going on. Nice examples for CMM lavel relation with quality assurance.
hi. i am sagar. I am textile engg. I have 2 yrs experience in on the based theory, textile. but now i want to ap biology essay plant reproduction, do software testing from pune. Can I get the job? which institute i should choose,seeds or SQTL. pls help me out. This provides the complete detail structure … I am 6 years exp manual tester with 1.6 years in silk performer and silk test. Have worked in unix,sql,web testing. Mail me at [email protected] if there is any job opening in your company. JavaOne 2012 is apparently being held at Hyderabad this year as well (3-4 May). Brain Based Learning Theory! They have also started accepting registrations. Conclusion For A Compare Essay Example! Check this: http://www.oracle.com/javaone/in-en/index.html?pcode=WWMK11024795MPP084#038;src=7268797#038;Act=155 ). I think this is a good overview of moving between the different levels however what’s not explained is how long it can take to reach the next level; Also it’s not explained how much time, effort and money is needed to thesis based, achieve the next level.
Article was good.As a fresher how can u say the testing is the important at the software industry? I am in manual testing from last 2 years and want to enter in automation which scripts are need to study to mba marketing thesis, start? Hello , please tell me which best automation tool for test web application ? Could you post a detailed write-up on Testing Maturity Model (TMM). S he article is based learning good in outlisting the SPM stages and mba marketing thesis, QA. Well done. Hi , this is very nice article about the CMM Level.Really i got good idea about CMM Level, thaks for sharing this.. Processes for brain based learning, people to follow are like laws. 1. there have to be laws in place that are defined. 2. people have to be willing to follow the laws, and conclusion for a example, 3. Thesis Brain Based Theory! there must be enforcement and penalty for not following the laws.
Given that, it seems you are putting in place 1. but how to the theme of loneliness and men essay, convince people to thesis on the brain based learning theory, follow the processes? You say in 3 to put the processes out to a wider audiences through training… but everyone says they are too busy right? then what? Really fruitful….a good article, but all that i say if some more example make it best…. wow…opened this article after a long time and it’s good to see so many positive responses. I am glad I could put together something which is useful and fruitful. @Steven (# 16)..well time required is I guess up to us…how fast and mba marketing, how effective we incorporate all these levels in our organization. Thesis Brain Learning Theory! And as it is said ‘charity begins at home’ so we can take initiative to improve our own day to day work using this stuff…I am sure that will lead to improve overall organization’s standard and an essay on role in nation building, processes. Please let all of us know your valuable thoughts on the same. @George (#20)…Thanks for suggesting me a new topic to write about.
I will get information on that and try to put some stuff here. @isaac L (#23)…yes even I have faced same issue…people normally follow what has been going on since long and it is difficult for them too to adopt a new thing. But we should keep motivating them. Let’s move forward step by step. Such changes do not occur over night. If we are at level 1, target for brain based learning theory, level 2 for greenhouse essay questions, say for a project first, then move to thesis theory, level 3 and so on. We have to develop first acceptance for mba marketing, this change among people. Once they see better results out of it, they will definitely put efforts for this.
This I am telling from my personal experience. Please let me know your thoughts on the same. I have tried to brain, answers all questions here…if in case I have missed any then please let me know. I will share my thoughts for sure. Thanks you so much all who have recognized my work here. This motivates me to mba marketing thesis, put more information. Thank you all. @ Lalit (#24)…Some thoughts are in my mind to put a generic example so that every body can relate. I will post asap.
Thanks! I think you must first go for QTP (very famous functional testing tool). Hi I Rachana Panchal wanted to thesis on the based, become a QA Auditor. Currently, I am in software company working as Sr. QA. Mba Marketing! I have 4 + yrs of experience in the software testing and QA processes. thanks… very helpful for us. can anybody tell me which is the best software training institute in bangalore which also have the placements assistance,[email protected] this is mail id, thanks in advance. thanks and brain based theory, Regards.
Naveen Kumar T S. Dis Is Kumar , I completed my B-tech ECE IN 2008, I am Having 4 yrs Experience in electronic . i resigned my jobs . Essay Reproduction! i want to thesis brain based learning, join in software tesing . i completed testing course both manual and automation in of loneliness in of mice and men essay, Hyderabad. On The! can i mention my experience in resume or not? please give me suggest. thanks and essays by tupac, regards. Good articles, One thing is missing..how to one QA person can start career or learning CMM and which kind of job he can find after this… -How to start with CMMI. -From Manual Testing or Automation testing point of view … – What are the target course.
– Which kind of job in market. Pleaseupdate me one my email address if you add anything liket his. This is really a good article to thesis on the brain theory, understand about CMMI levels. Right now I am working as Configuration Manager in a company from last 4 yrs. I want to change my profile from mba marketing CM to QA auditor ( I also have 1.5 yrs of Exp in Maual Testing), But I have no idea about how to become a QA Auditor…. Can you please guide me about the brain based learning theory respective certifications and the theme of loneliness in of mice, courses i should do to thesis based, change my profile.
Nice article , showing very simple easy way to know about CMM. Thanks for sharing. Nice article and nice idea ;) Thanks for your comments, you all motivate me to write more and one more article of mine has been published. Please take a look at essays it: Your suggestions are warmly welcome. On Level 4, Measuring the process is not audit alone. As per Industry standards we need to come up with Metrics, which is key and critical to measure the project performance. Need to measure the project/product metrics against the Industry specified metrics, to brain theory, take corrective action.
In fact defining and usage of Metrics comes from Level 3 onwards. How we can implement any one CMM process in project from QA perspective. Download FREE eBooks, Videos and Best Software Testing Articles..