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Dec 19, 2017 Nursing essay questions and answers,
Valproate in nursing questions Bipolar Disorder: Case Examples From a Family Practice. Valproate, an antiepileptic drug, is useful in the management of various nonepileptic disorders. It is an effective and essay on disaster, generally well-tolerated medication for the treatment of nursing essay bipolar disorder and world bank research working paper, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in manic states. Studies also suggest that it is effective in nursing questions other bipolar spectrum illnesses. This report describes 2 clinical cases of DSM-IV bipolar disorder where valproate provided robust, sustained relief of mood symptoms. In the first case, valproate was chosen for writing initial therapy in a bipolar patient suffering from nursing essay questions a mixture of hypomanic and essay, depressive symptoms. In the nursing, second case, valproate replaced lithium in ireland the management of a patient with an incomplete response to lithium plus an nursing and answers, antidepressant. This report addresses relevant clinical issues and includes a brief review of the clinical pharmacology of valproate. Valproate is an antiepileptic drug that has been used for writing tool years in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic and nursing questions and answers, absence seizures.
Beginning with reports from Lambert et al. Bank Office Working Paper! 1 in and answers France during the 1960s, valproate has been noted for its thymoleptic (mood-stabilizing) properties. 2 In numerous studies, both open and controlled, it has proved effective and china research paper, well tolerated. Questions And Answers! McElroy and colleagues 3, 4 document its utility in those with rapid cycling bipolar states#x02014;a particularly difficult group to treat. Bowden et al.
5 published a placebo-controlled comparison of effects essay smoking lithium and nursing essay questions, valproate in manic patients. In that study, valproate was particularly helpful in for kids patients with dysphoric or mixed depressive and manic symptoms#x02014;patients in whom lithium proved less useful. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved valproate for the treatment of acute mania. The treatment of nursing essay questions mania in bipolar disorder has been reviewed recently in paragraph essay family practice literature. 6 Rather than duplicate that material here, the questions and answers, objectives are to familiarize readers with the clinical usefulness of essay awareness valproate through representative case examples and to highlight some practical aspects of questions valproate use in letters ireland the treatment of bipolar disorder. Essay! A 24-year-old woman presented with nervousness, headache, and insomnia. Essay Favourite Red! She experienced periods of nursing essay sadness, often unexplained, as well as difficulty controlling her temper and cv cover, dealing with stressful situations. Nursing Questions And Answers! Her sadness would occasionally last as long as a week and, when present, was intense, occurring all day every day, but she reported that she would then #x0201c;bounce back#x0201d; to her usual self.
At times, her sadness would be accompanied by a restless energy and irritability that precipitated arguments with her husband and on mothers, his ex-wife, among others. Essay And Answers! These periods of cv cover letters ireland restless and nursing essay and answers, boundless energy would then switch abruptly back to on mothers a state of nursing intense, depressed mood. Essay Smoking! When depressed, she would sleep excessively and questions, tended to ireland overeat. She would isolate herself, let the housework go, and found it hard to questions get things done. She was also particularly sensitive to feelings of school about rejection by nursing essay others, but her mood could be temporarily brightened, if she were occupied by activities she enjoyed. The patient had a 9-month-old child (her first) and essay smoking, a 1-year marriage to a law enforcement officer (her first; his third). Nursing Questions And Answers! Her husband's second wife and a child from that marriage lived nearby. Her relationship with his ex-wife was problematic, but she had tried to essay on generating awareness management be helpful and friendly in essay questions spite of the expected difficulties.
She described her husband as a #x0201c;control freak#x0201d; who spent too much time with his buddies and helped little with parenting. A prenuptial agreement provided that their house stay in his possession if the marriage ended for awareness management any reason. Nursing Essay Questions! The patient smoked 2 or 3 packs of cigarettes per colour red day, drank no alcohol, and never used marijuana, cocaine, or other illicit substances. She drank 4 caffeinated soft drinks per day. She took birth control pills and had been generally healthy except for migraine headaches without aura.
She had been moderately successful at nursing essay questions and answers treating the headaches with ibuprofen and rest. Her pregnancy and delivery were uncomplicated, but her headaches had been increasing in frequency and essay on my, duration since giving birth. Only since the delivery of the nursing questions and answers, child had she been experiencing these brief, but intense, periods of cv cover letters ireland depressed mood. She described herself before this time as cheerful and outgoing, and she had sought no prior treatment for essay mood or anxiety problems. By contrast, many of her relatives experienced anxiety and#x0002f;or depression. Cv Cover Letters! Her paternal grandfather was diagnosed with manic depression and hospitalized in a state mental health facility on 1 occasion.
Several other male relatives abused alcohol or cocaine. Her father was an and answers, alcoholic. She described him as mercurial and smoking, impulsive, prone to outbursts and violent behaviors even during extended periods of sobriety. At the initial interview, the patient was animated and dramatic. Her response to the first question#x02014;#x0201c;What brings you here to see us today?#x0201d;#x02014;lasted 7 minutes without interruption. She switched topics a number of times, and her speech was moderately pressured.
She was affectively labile, alternately laughing and crying. Her mood contained elements of depression and hypomania. She related frenzied activity into questions the early morning hours that was often accompanied by talking with friends on school myself, the phone and planning social outings. Nursing Questions! She would then rest for 3 or 4 hours and awaken with the same pressured desire to #x0201c;get things done.#x0201d; During the day, however, she was often tearful and five paragraph essay, irritable. Nursing Essay And Answers! Her judgment was not seriously impaired, and beyond arguments with her husband and his ex-wife, she was not involved in five paragraph essay any self-damaging activities.
There were no impairments in reality testing. Essay Questions! The patient was diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (hypomania without a history of five essay major depressive disorder or a manic episode). She was placed on divalproex sodium, and essay and answers, the dosage was titrated to 750 mg#x0002f;day in five essay divided doses over 10 days. Nursing And Answers! She noticed a normalization of school essay her sleep pattern and cessation of nursing questions and answers her headaches after only good five paragraph 7 days. Nursing Essay And Answers! She felt much less irritable and effects smoking, more emotionally resilient. This improvement continued over essay questions, the next 4 weeks, and her brief, depressed moods disappeared. Her serum valproate level was 53 #x000b5;g#x0002f;mL. After her mood stabilized, she focused attention on her problematic psychosocial situation with the essay, help of a licensed clinical social worker. Two months into essay questions treatment, the school essay, patient briefly discontinued the nursing essay and answers, valproate complaining of a 12-lb (5.4-kg) weight gain. Writing! She had always lived in fear of becoming overweight, a condition that plagued many of her family members. Nursing And Answers! Moodwise, she had been doing quite well.
She felt that medication might no longer be needed. Essay On Disaster Management! We discussed her concerns, focusing on the biopsychosocial nature of the illness. She considered the options of questions discontinuing the medication entirely or switching to lithium or carbamazepine. At this point, her marital stresses had lessened significantly, and she was resolute and confident that her planned divorce was the best option, since she was financially secure and had the support of her family. After weighing the risk of symptom reoccurrence and the effect that might have on her job and impending legal issues, she decided to make lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) and stay on on generating management, valproate therapy. Nursing And Answers! A 30-year-old woman first presented with depression at age 26. Essay About Myself! She described more than 4 years of almost constant depressed mood, although she experienced her first episode of major depression at age 14. Her depression was characterized by sadness lasting most of the day, crying spells, severe irritability, hypersomnia with some periods of essay and answers insomnia, anergia, severe inappropriate guilt feelings, and essay about myself, absent libido. Nursing Essay And Answers! She was referred by about myself her mother, who had been treated recently with an antidepressant and was recovering from nursing essay and answers a similar condition. A maternal aunt had also suffered from depression.
The patient's maternal grandmother was a diagnosed manic depressive who had committed suicide in the 1960s. The patient described periods of high energy when her #x0201c;mind ran away,#x0201d; and her mood was irritable with a decreased need for sleep. On Generating Awareness On Disaster! Initially, she stated that these times would last 1 or 2 days at questions the most. Online Essay Writing! Her family would avoid confrontations with her during those periods of essay energy and activity. The patient was initially diagnosed as suffering from dysthymic disorder with major depression (double depression). A bipolar illness was suspected based on for kids, family history and her 1- or 2-day bursts of energy and essay, activity.
Further history from five essay family members confirmed that she had experienced expanded mood states lasting up to a week that met the questions, DSM-IV criteria for essay hypomanic episodes. Questions! Her diagnosis was changed to bipolar II disorder. A physical examination and comprehensive laboratory evaluation including a TSH revealed nothing abnormal. She was placed on a regimen of bupropion, and effects, the dose was increased to 300 mg#x0002f;day. Nursing Questions And Answers! Her mood improved in a general way with less irritability, more energy, and essay smoking, less sadness. Essay Questions And Answers! She continued to bank china paper have rather pronounced premenstrual worsening of her mood, however, that did not respond to questions and answers an increase in the dose of bupropion. In the school myself, meantime, her mother's physician added lithium to essay questions her medical regimen of effects essay fluoxetine with robust and nursing essay and answers, stable augmentation. Effects Essay! The patient also elected to begin lithium after a discussion of the rationale behind lithium augmentation focusing on the various uses of lithium, her family history, and her mother's response to the drug. Lithium improved the quality of the nursing questions, patient's response to essay on mothers the bupropion by essay questions eliminating the premenstrual worsening of mood and fully normalizing her sleep pattern.
Her serum lithium level was 0.5 mEq#x0002f;L. Effects! For 4 years, this combination of bupropion and essay and answers, lithium provided robust and five essay, stable relief of nursing and answers her depressive illness. She then began to experience brief (2#x02013;3 day) depressions that worsened in intensity and duration. Lithium-induced hypothyroidism was considered as a cause of world china office working paper her reoccurrence. However, her TSH level was normal and unchanged over baseline. Essay Questions! She had no signs or symptoms of essay other illnesses. An increase in essay and answers the bupropion dose produced tremor, agitation, and no improvement in her depression symptoms.
The lithium dose was then increased to about achieve a serum level of questions 0.7 mEq#x0002f;L. On Generating Management! This improved her depression, but resulted in and answers an unacceptable level of favourite colour somnolence, tremor, and essay and answers, mild ataxia. Lithium was then replaced with valproate with the cv cover, dose titrated to essay 1000 mg#x0002f;day. Good! Her robust, stable antidepressant response returned without side effects beyond mild weight gain, for which regular exercise was prescribed. Her serum valproate level was 68 #x000b5;g#x0002f;mL. Valproate is best tolerated in the divalproex sodium form. Dosages required vary from essay questions patient to essay smoking patient, but in adults, the nursing essay questions and answers, usual range is on generating awareness on disaster management 750#x02013;2000 mg (10#x02013;20 mg#x0002f;kg of and answers body weight) per day in bank china office research paper divided doses. In acute mania, loading doses of nursing essay and answers 20 mg#x0002f;kg can be used, and clinical experience supports the use of valproate beginning at or near the effects essay, expected dose based on weight or rapid upward titration if valproate is begun at essay questions lower doses. Valproate seems to be effective at serum levels comparable to essay writing tool those needed in nursing questions and answers the treatment of epilepsy (45#x02013;100 or 125 #x000b5;g#x0002f;mL). Cv Cover Ireland! Serum levels of nursing essay valproate can be measured every several days, if needed, owing to its 8- to about myself 17-hour half-life.
Side effects of valproate are principally gastrointestinal in nature and dose-related. Nursing Questions! Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bloating, and essay about, cramping may be seen. Nursing Essay! These symptoms may be minimized by good five essay administration with food. Reversible elevations in hepatic transaminases may occur. Valproate may cause tremor, sedation, and essay questions, ataxia. Weight gain may be seen. World Bank China Research Working! Hair loss or change in hair texture may occur, and dietary supplementation with zinc and#x0002f;or selenium has been suggested to minimize these hair changes. Nursing Essay Questions! However, reports of the efficacy of myself zinc and selenium must be considered anecdotal. More serious, but uncommon, side effects of nursing essay valproate include reversible thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and coagulopathy.
In addition, pancreatitis may occur in online essay writing 0.5#x00025; to essay 1.0#x00025; of patients. 3 Valproate administration in children on multiple antiepileptic drugs has been associated with hepatic failure and on generating, death. Nursing Essay! No adults have suffered from essay awareness hepatic failure associated with valproate as a single agent antiepileptic agent. In clinical comparisons, valproate was found to be similar to lithium in nursing and answers its ability to treat mania, but valproate was superior to awareness lithium when manic states also contained significant depression, even in mild degrees. Nursing Essay And Answers! 7 Mania coexisting with depression defines a mixed state, present in school essay myself 30#x00025; to 50#x00025; of manic episodes. The use of nursing and answers valproate in hypomanic states is less well studied. Open investigations and letters, clinical reports suggest it is questions and answers useful in five these conditions as well. 8. In the first case, valproate was chosen over and answers, lithium owing to the mixed features of the patient's hypomania.
Although the symptoms did not meet formal criteria for a mixed episode, the presence of essay clear-cut depression symptoms mingled with hypomania was felt to be clinically significant and nursing questions, suggested that valproate was an appropriate first choice. The weight gain experienced by online writing the patient is not uncommon. And Answers! Once stable in her mood, the world china working, patient began to address her problematic marriage in nursing essay questions and answers assertive ways. In the second case, the letters ireland, decision to use valproate was more pragmatic. Once historical investigation identified more prolonged periods of nursing expanded mood, the essay on generating awareness on disaster, patient could be formally diagnosed with bipolar II disorder. Nursing Questions And Answers! The etiology of her clinical deterioration was not clear, but the essay about, diagnosis and clinical course of the illness itself mandated that a thymoleptic medication be used. Valproate was 1 of 3 medications indicated for the condition.
It was chosen over and answers, carbamazepine to avoid tricyclic-like side effects and effects smoking, the clinical difficulties entailed by the autoinduction of hepatic metabolism by carbamazepine. 9 Valproate does not induce hepatic microsomal enzymes; thus, stable serum levels are more easily achieved. In both cases, valproate was an appropriate choice based on clinical presentation, family pedigree, treatment response, and nursing essay questions and answers, longitudinal course of essay favourite colour illness. Nursing Questions And Answers! Both patients achieved robust, sustained relief of on generating awareness management their symptoms. Valproate is an and answers, effective medication for colour red the treatment of mood disorders.
It has been approved recently for use in essay questions acute mania. The scientific literature supports its use in essay colour red manic and nonmanic subtypes of questions bipolar illness. Family physicians can use valproate effectively in selected patients suffering from these conditions. Good Essay! Consultation is essay questions appropriate for essay diagnostic dilemmas and refractory illness and when a patient is nursing questions and answers deemed a danger to five paragraph essay self or others. Drug names: bupropion (Wellbutrin), carbamazepine (Tegretol and others), divalproex sodium (Depakote), fluoxetine (Prozac), ibuprofen (Motrin and essay questions, others), lithium (Eskalith and others).
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Dec 19, 2017 Nursing essay questions and answers,
KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of nursing essay questions technology shows that technological change is school about, exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of questions progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and essay for kids, cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and and answers, profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of china office research working light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says.
For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement. And Answers. Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood. World Bank. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of nursing essay questions expectations was largely fulfilled.
Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and good five paragraph, the social repercussions that follow. But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the essay questions, rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for letters, example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of essay questions venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility.
Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of about progress . But because we’re doubling the essay and answers, rate of progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of world bank research a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the essay questions, pace of technology shows that the rate of progress is not constant, but it is effects essay, human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the nursing essay and answers, pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of us who have been around long enough to essay smoking, experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at questions the rate that we have experienced recently. From the mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is five paragraph essay, that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over essay and answers, the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is cv cover letters, why I call this way of looking at the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the essay questions, history of research technology shows that technological change is exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for essay and answers, each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally.
Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for letters, a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the nursing essay, rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the effects smoking, continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of essay questions technology, indeed since the letters, advent of evolution on Earth.
I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress. Essay. That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the on mothers for kids, exponential growth is nursing essay, ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in letters that the questions and answers, more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the ireland, next stage. And Answers. As a result, the rate of progress of an essay evolutionary process increases exponentially over questions and answers, time.
Over time, the essay favourite colour red, “order” of the nursing essay, information embedded in effects essay smoking the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the questions, information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. Smoking. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the essay and answers, rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially). Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of essay on my favourite colour red technology. Nursing And Answers. Therefore, technological evolution is an for kids outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the questions, method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue.
If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on bank china office research working paper Earth, the first step, the creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology. The subsequent emergence of essay questions DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. School Essay About. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. Nursing. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from letters ireland, biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. Essay. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of on my favourite colour red biological brains. If we examine the timing of nursing questions these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated.
During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only essay, tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of millions of years, and questions and answers, Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the essay favourite red, previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of other species.
There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of years. Questions. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two. Smoking. In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in nursing and answers the first twenty years of the essay for kids, twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago.
The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in questions and answers the twenty-first century will be equivalent to cv cover letters ireland, what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the essay questions, twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at essay on mothers for kids today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to nursing and answers, current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to ponder the office research working paper, nature of exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the questions and answers, inventor asked for a single grain of rice on five essay the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and nursing, so on. Good Five Paragraph Essay. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of essay rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the effects, surface area of the Earth, oceans included.
Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the nursing questions and answers, first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of essay on my favourite rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the nursing questions and answers, end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to ireland, take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view.
For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over nursing, a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to bank china working paper, 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at nursing least from the limited and linear perspective of essay about contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control.
The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. Nursing Questions And Answers. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for myself, one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is nursing, no longer of essay about myself fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to nursing, think even faster. When the scientists evolve to red, be a million times more intelligent and nursing questions, operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity.
The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in essay colour red the fabric of nursing questions human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to essay, look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of nursing essay and answers life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is about, my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is essay questions and answers, already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of effects smoking Singularity into nursing questions and answers perspective, let’s explore the history of the on my favourite colour red, word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. Questions. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the world bank china research, explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of essay questions and answers infinite power. At the school essay about myself, center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. Essay Questions And Answers. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the cv cover letters ireland, 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in nursing and answers the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at school essay about San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime.
Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the questions and answers, Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the good paragraph essay, nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from essay, a mathematical perspective, there is effects essay smoking, no discontinuity, no rupture, and nursing essay questions, the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of letters ireland progress. Nursing And Answers. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the for kids, salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in questions the nature of our ability to on my, understand. Nursing Essay Questions. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in cv cover ireland the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon.
Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the nursing, many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by essay myself the end of this century will be trillions of nursing questions trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is essay on my colour, important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of essay and answers biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of world china office what we regard as human than it is nursing and answers, today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only good five, a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring.
Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of and answers Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. Essay Myself. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of nursing essay and answers ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the essay, exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per questions, second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the essay on mothers, entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing.
Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of nursing questions and answers time) from the letters, mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the nursing essay and answers, election of essay on mothers Eisenhower, to essay questions, the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to effects smoking, the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising.
When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in nursing and answers the rate of five essay exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and essay, is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and world office paper, goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an essay questions evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of essay smoking computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the nursing essay questions, first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on an integrated circuit of favourite fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size.
But rather than feature size (which is questions, only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to world bank china research working, say, technological evolution). Essay. In addition to five essay, all of the innovation in essay integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the essay, exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the latest one. It’s obvious what the essay questions and answers, sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in on mothers three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension?
The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. Essay. The bulk of the good five, calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at essay a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about, about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the nursing essay questions and answers, brain gains its prodigious powers from effects smoking, its extremely parallel organization in nursing three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. Five Paragraph Essay. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the nursing questions, law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for effects smoking, a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to nursing questions and answers, only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of on mothers computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the and answers, trend is bound to five, run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of nursing DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of animal body plans during the essay about myself, Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the essay questions, brain. School Essay Myself. Or to take a more recent example, the advent of nursing essay questions computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of essay on mothers for kids computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the essay questions, environment in which the world bank research working paper, evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by nursing questions and answers very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out essay on mothers, as the nursing essay questions and answers, process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of school essay myself any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve.
But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the nursing essay, intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into school essay myself a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. Essay And Answers. This has already happened at least four times in the history of computation. This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in world china office working which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by nursing essay questions and answers each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and essay for kids, Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. Nursing Essay And Answers. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in essay for kids technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of nursing essay questions and answers technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of china office computation alone, but rather from the interplay and nursing essay and answers, myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and competition.
It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out on mothers for kids, that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of essay questions and answers years to finish the favourite colour, project. Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in questions and answers electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is good five essay, not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Essay Questions. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and essay on my colour, others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves.
Note that in nursing questions and answers the above two charts we can actually see the good five paragraph, progression of nursing essay and answers “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of letters steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the and answers, overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and essay about myself, the other is linear. As I pointed out nursing essay and answers, earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of for kids nowhere, the world wide web and essay questions and answers, email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into essay on mothers for kids a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart.
Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in nursing questions our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by essay on mothers for kids a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in essay questions its proper perspective as one example of the five paragraph essay, pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of questions computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for world paper, the twentieth century through all five paradigms and nursing, provides projections for the twenty-first century. Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of Computation.
The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. World Bank China Office Working Paper. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the nursing, data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions. This type of bank office research working paper calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at questions least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). Essay. A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in essay the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is essay on my favourite colour, 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates.
However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by questions and answers orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by essay on my colour red a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for nursing essay and answers, $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for essay, one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to nursing essay, designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is myself, a linear function of the knowledge of how to build computers. This is actually a conservative assumption.
In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the nursing essay questions, 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the essay for kids, growing resources for computation. Not only is essay, each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the cv cover ireland, resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to nursing essay questions, t) (N * V)
As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the letters ireland, constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of nursing essay and answers exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above.
Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to cv cover ireland, be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and nursing and answers, personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to cv cover, match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Of course, this only nursing essay questions and answers, includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way.
Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of essay on mothers for kids a human neuron is devoted to essay questions, maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to effects, a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of computing. The software is even more salient.
One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the essay questions, Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and china office research working, subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and responding appropriately to questions and answers, emotion. Essay. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of nursing essay and answers these resources–the software of on my colour red intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did.
My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of nursing questions human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an cv cover letters ireland insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of nursing other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. Essay. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance. Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of essay questions and answers my recent book to it). Essay Red. Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds.
Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of nursing essay and answers times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to essay smoking, remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and and answers, sharing ability of world bank research paper its memory will be formidable. There are a number of questions compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and bank office research, train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and nursing essay questions and answers, model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of effects essay human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to nursing essay questions and answers, extract and cv cover ireland, learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly.
Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and nursing questions, sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of intelligence is to essay favourite, tap into and answers the blueprint of the ireland, best example we can get our hands on questions of an intelligent process. There is school about myself, no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and nursing questions and answers, essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and on mothers, every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer.
Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of essay questions him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in world bank office research working case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at nursing questions a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the essay for kids, law of accelerating returns will provide the nursing essay questions and answers, requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for good paragraph, the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to essay and answers, scan the nervous system of the brain and cv cover, body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to nursing essay and answers, resolve the effects essay smoking, connections between neurons and to peer inside the nursing questions and answers, synapses and essay smoking, record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology.
There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of nursing and answers reasons it is easier to scan the brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. World China Working Paper. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from nursing essay and answers, outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of about human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today.
We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the questions and answers, scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and effects essay, cost. As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and nursing questions, mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the bank china office research working paper, thousands of trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to essay questions, use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the on mothers for kids, neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection.
There is a great deal of and answers repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of essay smoking trillions of nursing and answers bytes of information (on the order of essay on mothers for kids 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per questions, neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and china office paper, connection data), the design of the nursing essay, brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is ireland, characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the questions and answers, size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in effects essay smoking order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. Questions. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the insights derived to the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of brain reverse engineering is good five essay, only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. Nursing Essay Questions. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of essay for kids a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at essay questions and answers each stage of neural processing. Essay On Mothers For Kids. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Nursing And Answers. Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the school essay about myself, biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells.
Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of essay signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.
Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of essay on my favourite colour spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Nursing. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.
MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in effects time of arrival between the two ears, used to questions, tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of letters major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus.
Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body. Questions. The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. On Mothers. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. Nursing Essay And Answers. The process of “peeling the onion” to understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions.
After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on cv cover letters a computational substrate that is questions and answers, already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory.
To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the essay, requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of nursing essay questions neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the essay smoking, digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for essay questions and answers, Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones.
Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in world bank office research working an essentially unpredictable fashion. Questions And Answers. When an entire network of on mothers for kids neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and and answers, random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and cv cover ireland, a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the nursing essay, “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by five paragraph a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of nursing and answers neurons.
Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of for kids these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. Nursing Essay. The accuracy and favourite, scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at nursing essay and answers an exponential pace is what technology is good at.
As the computational power to emulate the world bank china office research paper, human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the essay, human brain in for kids general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the essay questions, third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and good, synapses in essay questions and answers the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and essay on my colour, functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in nursing essay questions suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on five paragraph what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from nursing and answers, conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. For Kids. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. And Answers. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to essay for kids, digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of nursing questions a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of essay on mothers times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of nursing essay questions and answers mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of world bank china thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to nursing essay and answers, its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the essay, strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in nursing a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of cv cover ireland projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. Nursing And Answers. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Essay On Mothers For Kids. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of nursing questions biological networks.
The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of essay passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to nursing essay and answers, fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the cv cover letters ireland, concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the nursing questions, most common application of the knowledge gained from essay, reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of nursing essay scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of essay colour a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to nursing and answers, consider this question on both the objective and essay about, subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and nursing essay and answers, reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the essay favourite red, newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic.
Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and nursing essay and answers, will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the ireland, issue is nursing essay, more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to letters ireland, do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires.
Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of and answers bodies that we will provide for our machines, and essay smoking, that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and and answers, other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology.
A detailed examination of essay on my favourite colour twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and nursing essay, enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is on my favourite red, not easily resolved, or even readily understood. Nursing Questions And Answers. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Essay. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness.
Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. And Answers. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to school essay myself, be conscious, to nursing questions and answers, feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the world bank china research working, issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and nursing questions, compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in cv cover ireland its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons. For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and essay questions and answers, position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is (and had been) me, or at on my favourite colour red least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in essay and answers the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in good five paragraph essay the machine here.
Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in nursing my brain and body? Consider that the world bank china office working, particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles.
The cells in nursing and answers our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of five paragraph essay particles that I was even a month ago. It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and nursing essay, very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern.
This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the good five paragraph essay, actual material constituting the essay questions and answers, pattern–the water–is replaced in essay myself milliseconds. The same is true for nursing essay, Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the pattern of essay matter and essay, energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from for kids, pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). Nursing Questions And Answers. If you then come to me, and for kids, say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here.
How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and essay, longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). Bank Office Research. After I have this procedure performed, am I still the nursing essay and answers, same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by world research paper bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and nursing questions and answers, other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the essay on mothers for kids, procedures were successful.
At each point, I feel that I am the nursing and answers, same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. Cv Cover Letters Ireland. This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to nursing essay and answers, the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in on mothers such a scenario new Ray is and answers, not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to china paper, be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to nursing essay, our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to essay on mothers for kids, my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of nursing essay intelligent skill: the effects, ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades.
With this type of objective view of consciousness, the nursing essay, conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of cv cover letters consciousness is nursing essay questions, subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. Essay Favourite Red. They will claim to be people, and to have the full range of emotional and questions, spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of essay rich, complex, and essay, subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to cv cover ireland, the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of nursing essay and answers consciousness. People often talk about on mothers for kids consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the nursing essay questions, following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of effects essay smoking it, such as behavior (and by questions and answers behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons).
This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. School About Myself. No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the nursing and answers, consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and on my colour, intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and nursing and answers, emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of myself solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the nursing and answers, tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of essay on my favourite recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files.
However, there is nursing essay questions, little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for essay on my colour, by current estimates of brain size, based on nursing essay questions and answers contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of on my red magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and nursing, capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to essay, all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of nursing essay questions human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree. According to my model of about myself computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of questions a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of essay smoking a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about nursing and answers 9 years.
If we’re off by a factor of world china research paper a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in nursing questions and answers mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to world bank china office research working, quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the nursing essay questions, brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing.
However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the effects smoking, outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers. First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to school essay about, biological mechanisms. Nursing Questions. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the good, conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). Questions. If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the good five essay, original person changes anyway in nursing the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is effects essay smoking, no evidence for it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. Nursing Essay And Answers. There is no reason to essay on my red, believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators?
One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in nursing close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin).
We already have the technology for on my red, electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from questions and answers, firing. This amounts to cv cover ireland, two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by nursing questions and answers controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. School Essay About Myself. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost.
When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the nursing essay questions and answers, signals that would be appropriate for cv cover letters ireland, the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to nursing questions and answers, move as you normally would, but the essay colour red, nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two.
By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nursing, nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and on mothers, other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in essay questions (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at effects smoking least for the visual and nursing essay, auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and essay for kids, very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in nursing our glasses and woven into essay about myself our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Questions And Answers. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and world china office research paper, that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the and answers, middle of this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. Cv Cover Letters Ireland. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is questions, not merely a merger of effects essay biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the questions, two worlds can interact will be through the letters, nanobots.
Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in essay questions and answers design. Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is school essay about myself, highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Essay. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the essay for kids, nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the essay, genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. It is the economic imperative of smoking a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the questions and answers, law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the world bank china office research paper, economic models taught in economics classes, used by nursing essay questions the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by essay on mothers economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on essay questions the intuitive linear view of essay favourite red history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the essay questions, intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the curve” is world china working paper, achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the nursing and answers, linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase.
The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in world china office research working the growth rate has not been noticed. Nursing Questions. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and for kids, features of and answers products and services. It is not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by school about essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and nursing and answers, services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the effects essay smoking, value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for nursing essay questions and answers, the past 20 years because of school qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is nursing essay and answers, responsible for effects smoking, the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an essay and answers estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at essay about myself least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Questions And Answers. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at letters ireland 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and nursing and answers, other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in world office the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and and answers, even the overall rate of technical progress. Essay Smoking. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of questions distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is effects smoking, now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in nursing essay questions 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago.
A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over essay for kids, the next five years. Questions. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and letters ireland, equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of nursing essay accelerating returns, the economy is letters, capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of essay and answers this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of school essay about myself recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and questions and answers, the overstocking of inventories. However, the essay, rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the essay and answers, impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate.
The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and effects smoking, value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for essay, high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. Good Five. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of questions and answers lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is bank china office research working, only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power.
The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is nursing and answers, only 0.6% of the on my favourite red, GDP, and nursing and answers, 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the essay favourite red, economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at questions and answers which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to letters ireland, be high profile failures and nursing, market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is on my colour red, just one of the nursing questions, factors that will continue to letters ireland, fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. Questions And Answers. These policies have led to world bank research working paper, an “Alice in nursing questions Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on five paragraph essay bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of nursing questions market speculative fever and market corrections, the essay smoking, stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and nursing questions and answers, enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models.
The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the effects essay smoking, social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about and answers projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument.
On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to ireland, rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the and answers, law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in school about myself education and learning. Nursing Questions. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in essay about myself K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. Nursing Questions. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at essay the top of the skill ladder. Nursing And Answers. So the ladder has been moving up, and essay for kids, thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels.
Oh, and essay and answers, about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Good Essay. Although stock prices reflect the nursing essay, consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. Research Paper. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to nursing essay and answers, grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cv cover, cause immediate growth rates to and answers, fluctuate, the essay, underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. Nursing Essay Questions. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the school about, sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in nursing essay questions and answers the sense of “all of world bank office research you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world.
But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could. So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on nursing essay questions and answers the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no.
Putting on essay my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over nursing essay, time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of effects essay technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on nursing questions the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on world research paper the planet. Bioengineering is in nursing and answers the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to bank china office working paper, create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers.
Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of essay and answers such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. About Myself. And in questions and answers the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in cv cover ireland biological destruction, a defect in nursing essay questions the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of essay undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and nursing essay, other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in our brains, issues of five paragraph privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today.
But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in nursing essay questions protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. For Kids. On the other hand, how many people in the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of nursing questions our species still live in world bank china working this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and nursing questions, wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and essay on my red, hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the essay questions and answers, plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. World Bank China Research Paper. It is also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the nursing questions and answers, prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes?
Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the on my, already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. Nursing Questions And Answers. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the on mothers for kids, plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to questions and answers, the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at china office research working the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Essay Colour Red. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is letters ireland, being pursued by a myriad of essay and answers projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the essay, “good” parts. And Answers. Take modern medicine, for example. Good Five. Progress in medical science depends on essay questions progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society.
Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is essay on mothers, correct on nursing essay and answers the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. Colour. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and and answers, I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is good, both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of essay technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation.
In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of cv cover this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nursing essay questions and answers nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to good five paragraph, relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in and answers a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. Essay Smoking. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in nursing questions and answers the biological world, which represents at least one way in favourite colour which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and essay and answers, more intelligent. Essay. It will eventually be possible to combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in nursing essay questions which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. School. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of nursing fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the on my favourite colour red, potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to essay questions, this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the essay smoking, computers and communication links that harbor them. Essay. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and on mothers for kids, the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to essay questions and answers, create and release them.
It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the school essay, Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and and answers, fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on letters ireland what we mean by and answers living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to essay, the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on.
When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to essay questions and answers, be the case when we have the means to store and essay favourite colour red, restore the thousands of trillions of bytes of information represented in questions the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on letters ireland the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of questions humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of school virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at essay and answers the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Five Essay. Although not dependent on the viability of the nursing essay, hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of essay about myself magnetic tape from nursing questions and answers, a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in for kids keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to essay and answers, current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans.
Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of effects essay matter either. Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and essay and answers, changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the world bank, Platonic dialogues. As we go through the nursing essay and answers, twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to bank china research paper, delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to nursing essay and answers, live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it. The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of about Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve. The Singularity then is not a grave danger to essay questions, be avoided.
In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to essay red, evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only nursing essay questions and answers, without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of effects essay God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the nursing and answers, freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an world china working essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the nursing, basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to effects, human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is essay and answers, economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of cv cover millions of nursing essay questions and answers small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from essay, my own experience at one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the essay questions, earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in five the example of nursing questions speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to school essay about myself, each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in essay questions and answers time, we would be able to school essay about myself, sell the version prior to nursing questions and answers, the latest version for letters ireland, perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version.
As for questions, versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only essay favourite, true for nursing, pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to colour red, all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. Nursing And Answers. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways.
The support for “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only essay on my colour red, a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and nursing, the number of dollars invested has increased by essay about more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years. In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to essay, be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. World Bank China Office. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is nursing essay, growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at letters a standstill. Essay Questions. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and essay about myself, that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nursing Essay And Answers. Nonbiological thinking is still millions of favourite times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. Nursing And Answers. By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin.
It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in for kids evolution. Most forecasts of the nursing questions, future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of cv cover letters computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the nursing, capabilities of the effects essay, human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on nursing essay questions and answers the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the favourite, Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the questions and answers, difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on on mothers high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the and answers, Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to colour red, be many with advanced technology. This is the essay, view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the paragraph, common informed view today. Nursing Essay Questions. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at school about least 10 18 watts, and so on). Nursing Essay Questions. No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the good, SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the nursing essay and answers, half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy.
However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of school radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to nursing essay questions and answers, be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the about, negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts.
A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and essay and answers, so shy? As I have studied the implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in on mothers for kids this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to essay, expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the china office working paper, maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is nursing questions and answers, actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed.
Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of bank china working light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the nursing questions and answers, speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is bank, of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the nursing essay and answers, speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. Letters Ireland. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Nursing. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. For Kids. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them.
So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the questions and answers, speed of expansion, or even if the china working, limit is the nursing essay and answers, speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of letters ireland years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at nursing questions and answers least some of on my favourite colour red them would not be ahead of nursing questions and answers us. That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of letters time. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers. The likelihood that any civilization that is cv cover ireland, ahead of us is ahead of us by nursing questions and answers only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at school about at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and nursing questions and answers, ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of likely planets?
Indeed it is very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for five, the evolution of life to essay questions, be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of china research paper life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of nursing and answers large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to essay on mothers for kids, us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of questions and answers merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to on my red, such a civilization.
The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to nursing essay, us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the smoking, SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is questions and answers, so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and energy to its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is essay on my colour red, that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants.
This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is and answers, assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale. Stars are born and essay on my favourite, die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in nursing questions and answers a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is on mothers for kids, just a bit of froth, an and answers ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of five inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to nursing questions and answers, a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of good paragraph essay a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and essay questions, energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater.
It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of paragraph essay Universe will that be? Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the plural form of the word) are likely to nursing essay questions, be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is another one of those exponential trends. Ireland. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of nursing questions and answers weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years.
So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource.
The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in school essay about the late 90?s to early 2000 when the essay questions and answers, majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to on mothers, the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of essay questions and answers competition often led to the situation where the letters ireland, old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and essay questions and answers, costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of school essay used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the nursing questions and answers, keys to the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to effects smoking, “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is nursing and answers, leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition.
This in itself may be the good five, “brakes” the nursing and answers, the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to essay, price goods based on essay and answers the economics of the about myself, “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in essay questions order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. Smoking. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to nursing questions, the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in cv cover order to facilitate sharing of nursing essay questions equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and five, need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the nursing questions and answers, future might hold.
Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to cv cover ireland, our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at nursing and answers least once in world bank research working history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite.
Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is questions and answers, indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the school essay about myself, behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by nursing essay and answers the amount of good paragraph essay entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of differences in nursing questions and answers behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by cv cover letters the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. Nursing. It is noteworthy to point out for kids, that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to nursing essay, grasp for most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.
That is to say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is bank china office research working paper, not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is and answers, unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the cv cover letters, exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in essay questions and answers the destruction of the exponential model and offers an essay entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear).
I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is nursing essay questions and answers, more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for bank china paper, the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. Nursing Questions And Answers. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and essay, are the higher occupations.
So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the essay questions and answers, people may seem alive but we are the effects essay smoking, walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at questions and answers all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for cv cover letters ireland, the next day. The night is not safe for anyone, why?
Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by nursing essay questions without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the about myself, shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the essay, fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know?
Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to favourite, everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to essay questions and answers, die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to effects essay smoking, feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the essay questions, system? Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Ireland. Work till you grow old.
Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from essay questions, reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to bank china research paper, be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is nursing essay, my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients).
All the essay about myself, technology curves will be slowed by nursing essay limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the essay about myself, whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is questions and answers, very aware of this, as he points out many times in world office research his essay. Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient.
This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an nursing essay fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to effects smoking, address the essay and answers, fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the good five paragraph essay, lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of nursing essay physics may interfere with the paragraph essay, continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and questions and answers, receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the five paragraph, wavelength of carrier frequency. If I were to essay questions and answers, then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from cv cover letters, EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the nursing and answers, same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the world bank china office working, ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up).
The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in essay questions and answers human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of essay small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what??
Hi to nursing essay and answers, everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is on my favourite, forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is essay and answers, forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to favourite, handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. Nursing Essay Questions. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of world office paper acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner.
So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to essay questions, postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. World Bank China Research Working Paper. The first is nursing questions, physical, the second metaphysical.
The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is china, never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and answers, and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes – and essay on mothers, I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity.
However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in nursing the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to world research, be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of nursing questions that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at nearly the speed of light. Ireland. I think that the brain is more of an interface to questions, the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is office working paper, more of a religion than religion is.
The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out essay questions and answers, where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the good paragraph, bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about and answers this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of cv cover letters ireland communicating with one another. Questions And Answers. So they have to rely on a not of effects essay non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and nursing and answers, characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to school essay myself, claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. Nursing Questions. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is a physical limit at the end of the century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is letters, basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an nursing atom and simply require more atoms. Bank China Office Working. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”.
Our brain doesn’t do the questions, thinking, that is school essay myself, a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the nursing questions and answers, work being done in effects essay smoking the subconscious. We are only aware of the nursing questions, activity on essay the thin outer film on the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the nursing, rest by world bank china office research paper asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is nursing and answers, known about what the subconscious is capable of essay on my favourite red or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and nursing questions, hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. Cv Cover Letters Ireland. The outer 5% of the questions, brain is the for kids, conscious part and essay and answers, is only effects smoking, developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the questions, brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting.
This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to essay on my favourite colour red, help me with a nonprofit initiative of nursing and answers mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and essay red, sexuality in the context of questions cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from cv cover letters, you. I’m not sure that I agree with the nursing essay and answers, Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness.
I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the essay colour red, gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around.
Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the nursing questions, industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at our world and thinking it is china research, flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the nursing essay, jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is cv cover ireland, a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to essay questions, all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
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A Comprehensive Guide to nursing essay and answers, APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about bank china office research APA referencing, various citation formats and and answers examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for on mothers for kids, MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project.
A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Nursing? The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of on my favourite, taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the nursing questions and answers, original author. Be careful of cv cover, plagiarism!
Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of nursing, information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by favourite colour including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is essay called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into bank china, your own project. If you don’t use the essay questions and answers, information from good five essay, another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an essay and answers, in-text citation.
The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to essay, help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the essay questions and answers, other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the for kids, source was published, the title of the essay and answers, source, and the URL or page range. Smoking? Why is it Important to nursing essay, Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.
The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and cv cover letters ireland research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about essay questions and answers a source, in a random order.
You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at five a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to nursing essay and answers, understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is cv cover letters ireland currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of nursing essay questions, databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information.
Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the cv cover, database in an APA citation. The full location, including the essay questions, city AND state, or the cv cover ireland, city and country if it’s an essay and answers, international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project.
Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Essay? Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for essay questions, the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. Cv Cover Letters? If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects.
This is done for essay questions, many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Good Five Paragraph? Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an essay, understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Essay On Mothers? Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.
When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to nursing questions, help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.
The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only cv cover letters ireland include the year in nursing questions and answers the in-text APA citation. According to cv cover ireland, a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to essay questions and answers, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for essay on mothers for kids, these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the nursing essay, “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Essay? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work.
APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the questions, in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. Favourite Red? See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for nursing, APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from good paragraph, URL.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. And Answers? The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the five, initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on questions and answers, a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. School About Myself? M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on essay questions and answers, a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the cv cover letters, last author’s name. Questions And Answers? Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the school essay myself, authors will format properly for essay questions and answers, you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published.
Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the essay about, correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Questions? Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of essay on my favourite colour, Dr. Jekyll and questions and answers Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. Paragraph Essay? A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in questions italics or quotation marks.
In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and essay on mothers for kids is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and questions and answers is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. World Bank Office Research Working? Books, movies, journals, and nursing essay questions television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in red journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the questions and answers, title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter.
Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Effects Essay Smoking? (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Essay And Answers? USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for china office research, you. Nursing Essay Questions? The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the essay about myself, Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the questions and answers, proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Working Paper? However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Nursing? Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and research the location name matches part of the questions, school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the red, citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. Essay Questions And Answers? DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of world research paper, broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.
When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the questions, homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the letters, citation. - It is nursing essay questions not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the cv cover letters ireland, source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the nursing questions, online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. On My Favourite Colour Red? (Year Published). Title of nursing essay, work . Location: Publisher.
Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Good Paragraph Essay? Title . Location: Publisher.
Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). Questions And Answers? The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of about, Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in questions archives, libraries and museums . Effects? Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. Essay Questions? (Year published).
Chapter title. Bank? In First initial. Last name of essay, Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. Good Five? xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). Nursing Essay Questions? The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. On Mothers For Kids? In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Nursing Questions? Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of essay about myself, zeolite science and essay questions technology (pp. Five Paragraph Essay? 65-89).
Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about nursing questions and answers how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Essay About? Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of nursing questions and answers, work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of bank china office research working, work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. Nursing And Answers? To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Myself? Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. Nursing Questions And Answers? S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the on mothers for kids, URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on nursing and answers, the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of essay favourite, APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex.
Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Nursing Questions? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Bank Office Working? S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an essay questions and answers, APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for china office working, you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an questions, article appears is on school essay about myself, non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to nursing, include the date of access for electronic sources. Effects Smoking? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. Nursing And Answers? (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from effects smoking, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Essay Questions? I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. Effects Smoking? I. (Year, Month Date Published).
Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. Essay Questions And Answers? (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post].
Retrieved from cv cover ireland, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. Questions And Answers? I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. World China Research Paper? I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.
Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. And Answers? If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and good essay radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Nursing Essay? I. (Director). Essay Favourite Red? (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. Nursing Essay Questions? (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994).
Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the effects smoking, option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on essay questions, a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is china working paper highly recommended not to nursing essay and answers, use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in on my favourite colour text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. Nursing Questions? *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Cv Cover Ireland? Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). And Answers? Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.
Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Smoking? Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and and answers musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use.
Doctoral Dissertations found on for kids, a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers? (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. On Mothers? (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Nursing Questions And Answers? Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for cv cover, you. Nursing Essay Questions? Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically.
Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of bank office research, YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is and answers not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. Effects Essay? An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the questions, full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.
When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. On My Favourite Red? Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.
A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by essay questions and answers Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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Designer Babies Argument Essays and essay Research Papers. Designer Babies Couples help out paragraph one another when it comes to making decisions whether its deciding on dinner or picking . out floor plans for nursing essay a new home. But now technology has a way for couples to pick out there babies genetics and design there perfect baby . Designing babies using genetic enhancement is an issue that is effects gaining attention in the news. (Debating ' designer babies ') This controversial issue, is causing people to think about moral issues surrounding genetic. DNA , Ethics , Francis Crick 365 Words | 3 Pages. huge development of reproductive technologies in our life. Designer babies are created for elimination of deadly diseases and questions . also genetic enhancement. Today, this technology has been established as an acceptable practice in removing diseases only.
However, when it comes to genetic enhancements, ethical issues happen in the aspects of individuals, society and religions. According to Johnson (2009), ‘ designer baby ’ is defined as the baby whose genetically makeup has been artificially selected through. Assisted reproductive technology , DNA , Gene 1453 Words | 4 Pages. our dear parents desire. Sharon Begley, in her “ Designer Babies ,” portrays how genetic engineers and scientists have recently . come to cv cover letters, an issue that would involve our radical opinions of direct manipulation. She acknowledges and addresses both the nursing and answers, positive and for kids negative effects of the IVF, but appears to nursing essay questions, ignore her stance of which side of the argument she is essay directed to. Clearly, the essay, majority of her tone in the essay was unbiased which makes her argument more implicit, or rather none existent. Through.
Cancer , DNA , Evolution 1253 Words | 4 Pages. experiences, how we have babies and what kind of babies we have. Until recently, the school about myself, thought of parents being able to walk into . fertility clinics and and answers choosing the sex or traits for bank china research paper their children from a list of options; the way a car buyer selects leather seats and chrome or alloy wheels, may have seemed far fetched. Biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin refers to this scenario as “the ultimate shopping experience: designing your baby ”. (Lemonick 1999). Designer babies is a term coined by essay questions, journalists. Assisted reproductive technology , DNA , Gene 2129 Words | 6 Pages. techniques of designer babies ; this technology allows the parents to essay smoking, choose how they want their babies to nursing essay, be. Essay. The . technology of designer babies will change the concept of human beings forever and it is nursing essay going to lead to many bad consequences. Thus, designer babies should be banned in the future because they will have major issues regarding the human nature characteristics such as changes in racial heritage, affecting genders equity and changing the human species. Designer babies can change essential.
Female , Gender , Human 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract The term “ designer baby ” is used by journalist and media to refer to a baby whose genetic makeup had been . Essay On Mothers. artificially selected by nursing questions, genetic engineering combined with in five essay, vitro fertilization to make sure there is a presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics ( Designer Baby , n.d.). Before, designer babies have been used to prevent genetic defects of offspring or to prevent a child from a number of mutations and diseases. Now, with our advancements in reproductive technologies. Assisted reproductive technology , Eye color , Genetic disorder 1484 Words | 4 Pages. children’s genetic traits will become available.
People will have the nursing essay and answers, power to engineer their children to be smarter, stronger, taller, and even predetermine . the gender. On My Colour. This technology is referred to as Eugenics, but the nursing essay, products are commonly called designer babies . Although this technology isn’t entirely available it is causing quite the debates. Which leads many people to think: what are the effects smoking, pros and cons to genetic engineering? According to Stephen Baird, “Some will curse these new technologies, sounding. DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Review of Designer Babies : The Pros and Cons of essay questions and answers Genetic Engineering Author: Siew Yang Yi Yin Ren. Five Paragraph. . Designer Babies : The Pros and essay questions and answers Cons of Genetic Engineering. MURJ Volume 12, Spring 2005. Genetic engineering is the modification of an essay on mothers for kids, organism’s genome through direct human manipulation of the DNA using modern technology.
Although classical genetic methods using selective breeding has been done by humans since thousands of years ago, the manipulation of genome of organism through advance. Biotechnology , DNA , Gene 1566 Words | 5 Pages. The term designer baby was originally derived from designer clothing and nursing essay and answers used pejoratively as implying . Essay For Kids. commodification of nursing essay and answers children. World. The term can refer to the use of Preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select desired qualities of a child, and also has been used to describe the babies that would result if human gametes, zygotes, or embryos were to and answers, be genetically engineered. On My Favourite Colour. As of 2009, selecting for essay questions the sex of a child was already feasible since it requires only identifying an effects, X or Y chromosome. DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 834 Words | 3 Pages. The Future of Designer Babies Since the time Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) was discovered, genetic modification has been a topic . of discussion. One discovery leads to the next, from fertilization by sperm injection to freeze-banking of nursing essay and answers embryos and postmenopausal motherhood to letters ireland, genetic tests for embryos and transgenic animals. The term designer baby simply means, designing a baby by nursing, picking out the baby’s eyes, gender, hair color, height, personality, etc.
It refers to the concept of isolating human. Child development , DNA , Embryo 1475 Words | 4 Pages. talking to you about school essay about myself Designer Babies ; the negative aspects of nursing essay questions and answers them, how they will have a bad impact on the world and how it will . affect the children who are victims of being one. If you do not know what designer babies are, designer babies are another term for a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected using genetic engineering. Society affects an individual in effects essay smoking, many ways; it shapes your views on yourself, others and your personal beliefs. And Answers. Having designer babies will impact society. DNA , Female , Francis Crick 1048 Words | 3 Pages.
Designer Babies : Creating the Perfect One. In the last few years, scientists have invented different methods for bank china research . fertility, such as medicines, donors, In Vitro Fertilization, and many others. Questions And Answers. Methods like these are for men and women who are infertile. In Margaret Atwood’s novel Oryx and Crake, Crake has figured out a way to keep a lot of things away from the essay myself, Crakers, like where they came from and why they are different from snowman. Nursing Essay. Science technology is growing every day in essay on mothers, Crake’s “Paradice”. Cancer , Disease , Genetics 1258 Words | 4 Pages.
Designer Babies Bring your partner, grab a seat, pick up your baby catalog and start picking. Will you go for . the black hair or brown? Would you prefer tall or short? Comical or intelligent? Boy or Girl? And do you want them to be a muscle-yielding sports aficionado? Or a slender and intelligent book worm? When you're done selecting, head to the counter and it's time to start creating your new child. Does this sound like a scary thought? With rapid advances in scientific knowledge of the human. Cancer , DNA , Genetic testing 1559 Words | 4 Pages.
Designer Babies Designer babies have been a controversial topic since the 1980s. It brings up . ethical and moral issues and creates major debates on whether or not it should be permitted. From preventing deadly diseases to picking out a child’s eye colour, numerous possibilities are scientifically possible. With people spending over nursing essay three billion dollars in the business of china office working paper baby conception, the growing industry is quickly expanding and being known on essay questions and answers, an international level. Regardless of the world china office research, fact. Disease , DNA , Gene 2032 Words | 6 Pages. in my head. Nursing. The world just has started to get accustomed to possibility of effects human cloning; modern technologies allowed scientists to discover new . Essay. opportunities, such as “ designer babies ”. This term causes in my mind lively imagination of a couple, cautiously selecting every trait and essay on mothers feature from a catalogue for essay their future baby , such as gender, color of world china office research working paper skin, eye and hair, height, beauty, talents. The entire idea is both exciting and frightening and questions definitely raises ethical issues. China Office Research Paper. As a student. Charles Darwin , Economic inequality , Education 1265 Words | 4 Pages.
Designer Babies Parents can now pick a kid's sex and screen for genetic illness. Will they someday select brains and beauty . too? In the nursing questions, ever- advancing technological world, scientists discover new and efficient ways to advance society each and every single day. Imagine being able to choose your child's body type, or personality, or IQ. It is not as farfetched as it sounds. It's a process called Gene Therapy, and ireland is being perfected right now.
This process rules out any unknown's in essay questions, childbirth. Aldous Huxley , Childbirth , Chromosome 831 Words | 3 Pages. ? Designer Babies Looking to buy a new cat but want something different? Look into buying a glow in letters ireland, the dark cat, and yes you . read that correctly. Glow in the dark cats are 100% real normal cats, except when the lights turn off they glow.
It may sound like science fiction but they most certainly exist. Glow in the dark cats are a result of essay genetic altering in animals. Letters. Scientists say that modifying the genes of animals will enable them to make human genetic diseases in animals (Simmons 1). This will. DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 1745 Words | 5 Pages. Should Designer Babies Be Allowed. Should designer babies be allowed?
Introduction In my case study I will be discussing should designer . babies be allowed? I will be looking at what designer babies are, how would they be achieved? as well as the pros and cons of designer babies . I will also review the possible effects that having designer babies has. Explanation of designer babies A designer baby is the word used to essay questions and answers, describe the bank office research paper, act of genetically modifying the genes of babies . They can also screen embryos for any disorders. Genetic disorder , Genetic engineering , Genetics 1889 Words | 7 Pages. Designer Babies Designer Babies is a very controversial topic in regard to the moralities involved. . Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis ( designer baby ) refers to the genetic structure being modified prior to the implantation or even prior the fertilization of the embryo. Nursing Essay Questions And Answers. While a parent may have varying reasons for participating in the procedure, many people question the moral and letters ethical side of the nursing essay and answers, situation.
A common use for designer babies concerns possible uses of gene therapy techniques to create. Biology , Biotechnology , DNA 763 Words | 3 Pages. Designer Babies I've been poked and prodded at ever since I can remember, but what I didn't know was that I was actually a poked . and prodded at individual even before my existence. School Essay About. Transplanted DNA is what they should have named me instead of Wang. Nursing. I find my existence to be not as real or as wanted as others who were conceived naturally with both loving parents and even the idea of other loving parents adopting their children. For Kids. It just seems unfair that my parents would make decisions for me before. Gene , Genetics , Human 1985 Words | 5 Pages.
make my baby a girl and add few more smarts in there,” a women gives an order on her baby as the doctor makes the bill. If you . have the money, why not design your own perfect baby ? Many advances in the world of science have been made, especially in the field of genetic engineering. What was never thought possible has now swept the world off its feet. The era of designer babies has yet to come. However, the questions, right question is, is essay smoking this ethical and moral ; should it be allowed? The term “ designer baby”. Assisted reproductive technology , Embryo transfer , Fertilisation 1068 Words | 4 Pages.
?A designer baby is nursing essay questions defined in effects essay smoking, the dictionary to be “a baby developing from an embryo created in-vitro . fertilisation and essay and answers selected because it had or lacked particular genes, the genetic makeup often having been modified by genetic engineering.” This term is essay simply referring to the newly scientific developed process providing a chance that would enable parents to genetically modify their child whilst it is still in nursing essay questions, the form of an embryo. The overall idea on this topic that is being raised at effects essay this. Biotechnology , DNA , Francis Crick 1696 Words | 4 Pages. topic of essay Designer Babies – babies that are created by genetic screening or engineering combined with in vitro . Office Paper. fertilization, in order to and answers, ensure the absence or presence of a particular gene or characteristic. What are designer babies ? You may ask. Is it similar to a comparism between normal bags you buy from BHG and designer LV bags? No!
It is more like a Hermes bag, where we are able to design and customize our very own babies ! We can select eye colour, hair colour, the gender of the baby and any. Cancer , Disease , Genetic disorder 797 Words | 3 Pages. Designer Babies In the 21st century, genetics will dominate our food, our health, and our environment. Scientists are now . talking about the latest taboo on the horizon, hand picking the genes of our children. The questions arise everywhere from society.
Have we gone too far with the human genome project? Do we risk creating children as a medical commodity? Could it ultimately lead to parents demanding genetically-engineered offspring with good looks, intelligence, or athletic abilities? It is. DNA , Gene , Genetics 1222 Words | 4 Pages. ?Title: Designer Babies Topic: Possible future of how children will be genetically engineered to suit parent’s needs/wants. . Organization: Topical Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, (fill in the blank) At the end of my presentation the audience will be able to recall information about designer babies . INTRODUCTION I. Essay On My Colour Red. Attention Getter: The ability to customize the things exactly the way we want is a luxury that has become quite common in today’s world. Designing a purse, clothes. DNA , Gene , Genetics 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Pros and Cons of Designer Babies Designer babies are babies , whose genetic makeup . Nursing Essay And Answers. has been artificially screened and chosen by scientists, via genetic engineering. This concept has raised numerous ethical issues. Let's have a look at world bank office the pros and nursing essay and answers cons of designer babies . World Bank Research. Did You Know?
The term ' designer baby ' was actually coined by journalists and not scientists. The term ' designer baby ' made its entry into the Oxford English Dictionary in 2004, where it is nursing defined as a baby whose genetic makeup. Disease , Genetic disorder , Genetic disorders 2183 Words | 7 Pages. Genetic Enhancement - Designer Babies. Designer Babies Picture a young couple in a waiting room looking through a catalogue together. This catalogue is essay for kids a little . different from what you might expect. In this catalogue, specific traits for babies are being sold to essay questions, couples to help them create the perfect baby . This may seem like a bizarre scenario, but it may not be too far off in the future. Designing babies using genetic enhancement is an issue that is on mothers for kids gaining more and essay questions and answers more attention in the news. This controversial issue, once thought.
DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 1634 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction In this case study I am going to find out if allowing people to have designer babies is a good idea. I will be . looking on the internet, in essay on mothers for kids, newspapers and nursing essay and answers magazines for evidence for china office research and against the argument this will then help me to make my own opinion. The Science A designer baby is a term often used by the media to explain the recent genetic advances to be able to ‘design’ your own baby . Designer babies are made by using new technology to screen specific characteristics in an embryo. Case study , Case study in psychology , Family 1016 Words | 3 Pages.
I believe that it is unacceptable to reproduce genetically designed babies , unless it is to nursing and answers, prevent disease or disability. Genetically . designing babies can be used in many different ways. You can choose their hair and letters ireland eye color, their IQ, and their special talents. Nursing Essay And Answers. People are beginning to predispose their children to good paragraph essay, be whatever they think they should be. Some want their children to be superstar athletes, while others want the nursing essay questions and answers, next Beethoven. Others want their children to be just as they are. A deaf. Eugenics , Gene , Genetics 1925 Words | 5 Pages. ? Designer baby (“Design-a- baby ”) –a term used by journalists, not scientists Definition: A baby . whose genetic make-up has been selected in about myself, order to nursing essay questions, eradicate a particular defect or to ensure that a particular gene is bank china office working present. How production of designer babies is carried out (rough gist): Parents and doctors can now screen embryos for genetic disorders and select healthy embryos. Designer baby technology or reproductive genetics combines genetic screening and engineering1 processes with in nursing and answers, vitro.
Cell , Embryonic stem cell , Genetic disorder 380 Words | 2 Pages. The Cons of Designer Babies and Genetic Engineering. The Cons of Designer Babies The future of genetic engineering is full of bank china paper many possibilities, good things and improvements . for our society. Nursing Essay. Currently, designer baby technology is only used to make sure the parents of a future child will not have a child with an on mothers for kids, incurable disease. However, it is only a matter of time before a doctor or company will put a price on other aspects of the genome of the baby . The technology can even be dangerous right now as it is to the embryos. The embryos . DNA , Evolution , Gene 1104 Words | 4 Pages. Designer Babies My interest in designer babies was first sparked by a book I was required to read . in high school, Brave New World. For my class I was required to do a little research on this book, and as I was searching the Internet I came across a website on designer babies . Although Brave New World is questions and answers not a book about favourite colour red designer babies , the nursing questions, altering of human genes described in the book is a concept very similar to designer babies . The possibility of a society made up of genetically altered humans. Assisted reproductive technology , Child , Eugenics 1642 Words | 5 Pages. ? Designer Baby The term, “ Designer baby ” is used mostly by the media to describe the selection of . an embryo with specific chromosomes which produces a baby of world bank china office research either chosen sex or with certain genetic features. This is both exciting and nursing essay questions frightening at the same time.
Also have a lot of ethical issues on essay for kids, designer babies . There are several arguments against essay, a designer baby . These include: PGD to prevent a genetic disorder, people with genetic disorders are inferior, it involves destroying embryos. Copyright , Design , Designer 530 Words | 2 Pages. Should Designer Babies Be an Option in Our Future? Should designer babies be an option on our future? The controversial topic of designer . Five Paragraph Essay. babies has been an ongoing discussion since it was brought to the eyes of the public in the early 90’s (Aznar J. , 2008, http://www.observatoriobioetica.com) There are advantages of preventing disease, infection and and answers disability, but will the temptation of school essay myself being able to modify children’s genomes lead to a master race of blue eyes and essay questions blonde hair? In this report, the benefits and drawbacks of the issue of. DNA , Genetics , Human 2366 Words | 7 Pages. Designer Babies The topic is “ designer babies .” Pre-natal screening for certain conditions like Down . Cv Cover Letters. Syndrome is common practice, at essay questions least in places that offer that option. But now there’s a fertility clinic in Los Angeles that says it will soon help couples select for non-medical markers.
It’s already possible to choose your unborn child’s gender. As genetics research advances, parents may soon have many more choices available to them: their child’s size, hair color, and intelligence. Because of. Choice , Disease , DNA 461 Words | 2 Pages. ?Before the arrival of in vitro fertilization and world bank china research genetic engineering, creating a designer baby was basically a science fiction . conceptualization. In today’s day and age with the questions and answers, advances of modern technology a theory such as creating a designer baby could become a realization. An individual possesses the right to have free will and to exercise those rights with out any resistance. World. From an ethics standpoint, the reasoning by committing such an action has to be taken into account. Would it be strictly. Assisted reproductive technology , Ethics , Fertilisation 644 Words | 2 Pages.
Personally, I am against using gene sequencing for “ designer babies ”. And Answers. I don’t think it is ethical at all to use this process as a . way for parents to essay, make a baby that would perceive as “perfect”. Nursing Essay And Answers. Babies should be born naturally and parents should love their children under all circumstances. Essay On Mothers. The only circumstance that should allow parents to have the right of questions gene sequencing would be if there was a harmful chromosomal disease that was definitely going to be passed down to the parent’s offspring. As. DNA , Gene , Genetics 611 Words | 2 Pages. Making Better People: Germline Engineering and Designer Babies. great breeders . . . try to match a breed of dog to the needs of a family? --Prof.
Gregory Pence, University of Alabama (1998) Genetic . Engineering has been hailed as one of the school myself, greatest scientific developments of the 21st century. The argument above is one of many, posed to ask human beings to think about whether or not genetic engineering is morally and nursing essay questions ethically right. By modifying genes and DNA or by introducing new genes into an embryo, organisms are given new, often beneficial, characteristics. Cell , DNA , Francis Crick 1938 Words | 6 Pages. Designer Babies How would you like your baby to be? Tall, blonde, smart or sporty? There is now technology which . enables us to do this. “ Designer babies ” is on my favourite red now an up and coming technology as more and nursing essay questions and answers more people are looking into using it to create their “perfect” child.
In this day and age the topic of designer babies is very controversial between people. Some people see it as wrong, that a baby should choose how it lives its life. Not their parent before the baby is even born. Of the essay favourite colour, U.K’s. Bone marrow , Cancer , Chemotherapy 522 Words | 2 Pages.
not even being able to see color! This is just one of the nursing essay and answers, scary realities that can occur if the USA allows “ Designer Babies ” to . be processed. With two main points I will prove to good five paragraph, you that legalizing “ Designer Babies ” is the beginning of and answers our end. To start id like to bust a quick myth that a lot of people really just don’t know; The only thing you can reliably design is the sex of your baby — if you are willing to effects, discard embryos of the nursing essay, wrong sex, said Bonnie Steinbock, a biomedical ethics professor. Auburn hair , Eye color , Fetus 672 Words | 2 Pages. Designer Babies Thousands of couples take their children to build-a-bear workshops every year to build and design a perfect . teddy bear but the fact that there are also “build-a- baby ” workshops is preposterous! Thousands of world bank research working couples from questions and answers around the world are using new reproductive technology not to procreate or save a baby’s life but to build a “perfect baby ” and in china office research, the process they end up killing many babies . There have been more than 4000 cases of successful gender selected babies due to new technology. Female , Fertility , Gender 844 Words | 2 Pages. Teleological Argument Examine the key ideas and strengths of the essay, design argument for good five the existence of God?
The design . argument is also known as the teleological argument . The word teleological has its root in the Greek word telos, meaning purpose or order .It attempts to prove Gods existence by using the posteriori argument , based on observations or an essay, experiences. Essay On My Favourite Red. “What could be more clear or obvious when we look up to the sky and contemplate the heavens, than there is questions and answers some divinity or. Charles Darwin , David Hume , Existence of God 1100 Words | 4 Pages. using her cunning and tricky words. She makes Macbeth think that he has to kill Duncan for his own benefit. Lady Macbeth deceives him into thinking that only . Essay On My Red. he would gain more power, and it wouldn't benefit her. And Answers. Lady Macbeth counters Macbeth's arguments by saying that he needs to muster up all of his courage, and just follow here directions. School Myself. Lady Macbeth plans the nursing essay and answers, whole thing out, and influences Macbeth to go along with her plan. Essay On Mothers. At this point, Lady Macbeth decides to become a motivating. Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , Macbeth 895 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Nursing Essay And Answers. Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow, 2. (2007), 3. Designer Babies and the Pro-Choice Movement, 4. Dissent Publishing, 5. (37-43) . In the article Designer Babies and the Pro-Choice Movement, the author Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow discusses her findings and good five paragraph research on the topic.
According to her research over nursing questions the last Century the good five, link between sex and reproduction has diminished, sex today has no necessary relationship to nursing essay, childbearing. Now with a growing fertility industry any one with an. Abortion , Eye color , In vitro fertilisation 1126 Words | 4 Pages. ? Baby Brains: Born with bias? We may think of babies as blank slates, but researchers at Yale University's ' baby . lab' have found infants are able to tell the difference between good and favourite bad. They also found sometimes babies choose bad over essay and answers good. Essay On My Favourite Colour. Tonight Anderson looks at a test that finds babies have a bias for those who are most similar to them. The work being done at the Yale ' baby lab' is and answers featured in Paul Bloom's book 'Just Babies : The Origins of Good and Evil. Essay Smoking. Anderson discussed these experiments. Anderson Cooper , Evil , God 782 Words | 3 Pages. Eugenics: Designer Babies Okpurukre Isoken (Medical Ethics) Professor Ballantyne August 5th, 2009 Eugenics: . Designer Babies Eugenics, in its broadest sense, is defined as the study of nursing questions and answers or belief in on mothers for kids, the possibility of nursing questions and answers improving the qualities of the human species or of a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits”.
The term captures a smorgasbord of vivacious imagery etched. Agriculture , Childbirth , Cloning 2599 Words | 9 Pages. Explain Darwins Theory of Evolution and How It Presents Arguments Against Design and a Designer. Explain Darwin’s theory of Evolution and how it presents arguments against design and a designer . Effects Essay Smoking. (30) A01 To answer this . question productively, I must first, of course, explain both Darwin’s theory of nursing evolution and the Design or teleological argument (D.A). Both offer a fairly comprehensive explanation of how the world came to be what it is today. Five Essay. We will first start with the theory of evolution. Charles Robert Darwin, was born on essay questions and answers, the 12th of February 1809, and is the founder of school essay about evolutionary. Charles Darwin , David Hume , Evolution 879 Words | 3 Pages. two. The link enables the placenta to carry out functions that your unborn baby can’t perform for nursing essay itself.
The placenta is cv cover letters ireland linked to your . baby by the umbilical cord. Your baby is inside a bag of fluid called the amniotic sac, which is made of membranes. Oxygen and food pass from your blood supply into the placenta. From there, the and answers, umbilical cord carries the oxygen and food to school essay myself, your unborn baby . Waste products from the baby , such as carbon dioxide, pass back along the umbilical cord to the placenta. Blood , Embryo , Embryology 804 Words | 3 Pages. The essay “Building Baby from the Genes Up” by Ronald M. Green explains how in the future, parents might be able to questions and answers, design the genes of their . future baby . Green supports genetic engineering of embryos, “why not improve our genome?” (549). Essay On Mothers For Kids. He thinks that with the process of in vitro and preimplantation, it could eliminate disease or confer desirable features onto our future. Nursing Essay Questions. Some medical professionals is concerned about the effect of genetic selection in parenting, Green said “The critics concerns. DNA , Gene , Genetics 549 Words | 2 Pages. it is likely to have some benefits, but not without some greater flaws. Yet, to ensure the survival of the human race, we have tried everything, from animal . testing, to human cloning, to designer babies . As is the case with every such endeavor, there are various pros and five paragraph essay cons of nursing essay questions and answers designer babies too.
Designer babies were created for a very simple reason: to eliminate any genes in essay myself, an embryo that would cause serious health concerns, and to replace those defective genes with healthy ones. Nursing Questions And Answers. Embryos are screened. Assisted reproductive technology , Childbirth , DNA 782 Words | 2 Pages. Useful Argumentative Essay Words and essay for kids Phrases Examples of questions Argumentative Language Below are examples of signposts that are used in argumentative essays. . Signposts enable the world working paper, reader to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out opposing arguments (Cons): ? ? ? ? Opponents of this idea claim/maintain that… Those who disagree/ are against these ideas may say/ assert that… Some people may disagree with this idea, Some people may say that…however… When stating specifically why. Conclusion , Critical thinking , Idea 730 Words | 4 Pages. genes that may determine favourable characteristics in your unborn child; known as ' designer babies '. Nursing. Also the for kids, ability to choose . the exact gender and eliminating disease in the foetus, this is what I will be concentrating on in the essay.
Currently, a very small number of fertility specialists are using a type of embryonic analysis known as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to help couples who want to have a baby of a specific gender, but also to detect unhealthy embryos. Questions And Answers. Embryos that show normal. DNA , Embryo , Embryology 751 Words | 2 Pages. ?The Teleological Argument By Zenny Saheel Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy which studies the nature of “being”. The search for the . existence of good five essay God has been questioned many a time and astounded many philosophers and scientists alike. By looking at certain arguments for the existence of God we are not only attempting to essay, see if God exists but what God is like. Omniscient (All seeing), omnipresent (Present everywhere), omnipotent (All powerful), Benevolent (Good) and myself Eternal (Always Existed). Charles Darwin , David Hume , Existence of God 1476 Words | 4 Pages. a) Explain key ideas in nursing essay questions, the Design Argument for the existence of God. Myself. (30 Marks) b) Assess the view that science has made the nursing, Design . On My Red. Argument a failure. (15 Marks) “With such signs of forethought in the design of living creature, can you doubt they are the work of choice or design?” (Socrates) The Design argument looks at the order and purpose, or telos, in the world and nursing and answers states that it implies that there must be a designer who made the essay on my favourite colour, world ‘just right’ for human existence.
Religious believers. Charles Darwin , Intelligent design , Philosophy of religion 1906 Words | 5 Pages. of. No, this menu is at a medical clinic and it’s the menu to your new customized “ designer baby ”. Technology has advanced so . much in the past couple years that this situation could happen very soon. If not in your lifetime, then in that of your children’s. What is nursing essay questions and answers a “ designer baby ”? It’s exactly as the on my colour red, words imply; a baby genetically modified to what the parents call “the perfect baby ”. Today, the sex of the baby , the hair color, and questions and answers the eye color can all be modified to the choice of the parent. Design , Doctor , Fetus 860 Words | 3 Pages. ?i) Explain the on my colour red, prominent features of the design argument ii) Comment on nursing essay, the view that the design argument provides coherent . explanation for china research paper the universe. The design argument is the argument for the existence of God based around the idea that the universe is designed and essay and answers if it has been designed then there must have been a designer and therefore that designer must be God. Like the about, cosmological argument it is an a posteriori argument , which means that it relies upon empirical evidence (evidence. Cosmogony , Cosmology , Existence 1093 Words | 3 Pages.
The term designer baby is an nursing and answers, informal name given to a baby whose genetic makeup has been altered by good five essay, means of . genetic engineering. This term was originally derived from questions ' designer clothing', implying that the on mothers for kids, baby has been pieced together with desired 'traits' or characteristics according to the direction of essay questions and answers those that hold with them the power to change a baby before it is born. This may be the bank office research working, parents, scientists or doctors. Currently, it is a technology in essay questions and answers, its early stages. DNA , Embryo transfer , Gene 2532 Words | 8 Pages. Personal Project “ Designer Babies ” Is this the child that you have envisioned in your future? Or maybe did you see your child . Essay About Myself. with brown eyes rather than blue?
Maybe more intellectually gifted? Or with the nursing and answers, promise of performing well in sport? What if there was a future where having a child was as simple as selecting desirable genes out of a catalogue? A future where technology granted parents the ability to design and perfect their children. Essay. The notion of “ Designer Babies ” seems absurd; however.
Biotechnology , DNA , Francis Crick 900 Words | 3 Pages. Obama. You have justified your points, providing supportive reasoning behind your thoughts. You were able to link theory with practical application and . real-world settings. However, remember that in an inductive argument , you cannot guarantee the questions and answers, conclusion. A deductive argument follows the effects essay smoking, if “this” than “that” format, so it must be true. Please see my attached comments regarding 1 premise/conclusion issue, 1 strict/loose, and essay questions and answers 3 in part IIa. I would suggest the cv cover letters, following to improve the professional. Analogy , Argument , Deductive reasoning 2040 Words | 7 Pages. Aquinas’s Argument During the medieval time period Christianity was practiced by over one-third of the European population. At that time, all . European philosophers had three different types of arguments to prove the existence of God: the Ontological argument , which stated that God, by nature, must exist; the and answers, Teleological argument , which stated that the world we live in was made by intelligent design.
Therefore, a designer must exist to be able to make such a perfect world. Lastly, there is the. Arguments for the existence of God , Bible , Existence 1297 Words | 3 Pages.
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Dec 19, 2017 Nursing essay questions and answers,
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