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Krishna Janmashtami Essay Essays and Research Papers. Krishna Janmashtami (Devanagari ????? ?????????? k???a janma??ami), also known as Krishnashtami, Saatam Aatham, Gokulashtami, . Ashtami Rohini, Srikrishna Jayanti, Sree Jayanthi or sometimes merely as Janmashtami , is essay, a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Krishna , an Avatar of the Hindu deity Vishnu.[1] Krishna Janmashtami is eksteins spring essay, observed on the Ashtami tithi, the responsibility, eighth day of the dark half or Krishna Paksha of the month of Bhadrapada in the Hindu calendar, when the Rohini Nakshatra is ascendant. Avatar , Hinduism , Krishna 1233 Words | 4 Pages. ? INNOVATION vs. RISK MANAGEMENT SAI KRISHNA PRASAD RAO JOGINIPALLY WILMINGTON UNIVERSITY IST-7100 (MONDAY) Innovation vs.

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Lord Krishna Lord Krishna is a Hindu deity, which is worshipped all around the world. About Responsibility? He is represented as the art and, Supreme Being. . He was born at questions about responsibility midnight, on the eighth day of the gloomy half of the month Bhadrapada (August-September), in the year 3228 BCS, Krishna was born into english helper the royal family of essay, Princess Devaki and essay her husband Vasudeva. They lived in Mathura, which was the questions, capital of Yadavas. The king of phd thesis, Mathura was Kamsa, the brother of questions responsibility, Devaki. He had gained the thrown by imprisoning his father.

Arjuna , Balarama , Hinduism 1483 Words | 4 Pages. mi The name Krishna means The All attractive one. In Kali Yuga the Lord incarnates in separate essays, the form of His Holy Name “It is better to . perform one's own duties imperfectly than to questions master the phd thesis on communication, duties of questions responsibility, another. By fulfilling the obligations he is born with, a person never comes to english helper grief.” Janmashtami is celebrated with all fervor and essay questions responsibility heightened spirits throughout the country. It marks the birth anniversary of Lord Krishna who is believed to be an incarnation of sample on my job, Vishnu as per Hindu religion. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 736 Words | 2 Pages. Deepavali or Diwali, popularly known as the festival of lights, is a five-day Hindu festival[3] which starts on Dhanteras, celebrated on about responsibility, the thirteenth . lunar day of Krishna paksha (dark fortnight) of the Hindu calendar month Ashwin and ends on Bhaubeej, celebrated on second lunar day of Shukla paksha of the Hindu calendar month Kartik. Fourth? Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra. In the Gregorian calendar, Diwali falls between mid-October and mid-November. Diwali is an essay responsibility, official holiday. Diwali , Hindu calendar , Hinduism 2014 Words | 6 Pages.

Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the sample essay job, definition is questions about responsibility, vague, overlapping with . Persuasive Essays? those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of questions, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the english helper, author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in responsibility, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.

An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and essay a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on questions about, a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an but equal, attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Essay? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the.

Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Krishna as a Transformational Leader. Krishna as a Transformational Leader James MacGregor Burns (1978) first introduced the concepts of transformational and transactional . leadership in his treatment of political leadership. According to persuasive essays Burns, transformational leaders offer a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order intrinsic needs. Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything.

They care about you and about want you to essays fourth succeed. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Charismatic authority 1455 Words | 5 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). Questions? The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. English Helper? Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. Questions Responsibility? through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to persuasive essays grade the Bible and the.

Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Krishna - as a Political Performer. KRISHNA – AS A POLITICAL REFORMER First of questions responsibility, all I would like to quote 4 lines which entails or is a crux of whole life of lord . Krishna . “AADO DEVKI DEV GARBH JANANM; GOPI GHRUHE VARDHANM, MAYA PUTAN JIVTAAP HANANM; GOVERDHANO DHARANM KANSA CHHEDAN KAURAVADI HANANM; KUNTI SUTA PALANM, ETAD SHRIMAD BHAGAVAD PURAN KATHITM; SHREE KRISHNA LEELAMRUTM” As the above lines said that first of phd thesis on communication, all lord Krishna born as a human as a Devki’s son, he was so attractive and with great personality form his. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Duryodhana 888 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam?

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Movie Analysis: Little Krishna 5000 years ago, Little Krishna came to the beautiful land of questions responsibility, Vrindavan and spent his childhood . years in this neighbourhood whom its inhabitants fell in love with him. Along with them Little Krishna lefts his enchantments with the peaceful and tranquil lands of Vrindavan, whom he had shared his life with his wondrous feats. A Nourishment of Deceit Little Krishna faves yogurt and butter, especially made by her mother, Yashoda, and sometimes sneaks with his elder. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 2366 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for separate debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . About Responsibility? pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of essays fourth grade, whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay questions, essay is contest, based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts.

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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Essay! Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Separate Essays! Twenty-eight of these constituted the essay questions about, Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the phd thesis, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of essay questions, America. They were opposed by separate but equal the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the about responsibility, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on separate essays 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on essay questions about responsibility France on 3 August and eksteins rites essay, invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and essay questions about responsibility, Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to art and, recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an questions responsibility, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Eksteins Essay! Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the essay about responsibility, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and on communication, humiliated. Responsibility! The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and essay contest, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to essay questions responsibility, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of art and essay contest, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the responsibility, war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and phd thesis on communication, encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and essay about responsibility, waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by eksteins rites essay France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in essay questions about responsibility, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in essay contest, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and essay, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the art and, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the essay, United States but also in that of Europe and spring essay, the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in essay questions about, 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of phd thesis, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in essay questions, Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. But Equal Essays! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the about responsibility, 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to art and essay contest, retreat and to entrench. Responsibility! Their last attempt at separate but equal, a breakthrough was stopped by questions responsibility French and art and essay contest, British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Responsibility! By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of art and essay, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the questions, strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.

These included a tenth of the officer corps. But Equal! German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in essay questions responsibility, the west. This lasted from persuasive essays fourth grade November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from about French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in english helper, the spring of 1915 in essay questions, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. Separate! No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of about responsibility, morale in the French army. For much of the english helper, rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to essay about responsibility, breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to essay, themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from essay questions responsibility 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.

The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Art And Contest! They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. About Responsibility! But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and eksteins rites, man#156;uvre to responsibility, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. English Helper! At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the questions about, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the fourth grade, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the essay questions about responsibility, distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by persuasive fourth grade German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the essay questions about responsibility, start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of but equal, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and essay about, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in eksteins rites spring, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on essay about responsibility Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the separate, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Questions About! This had a major influence on separate essays the German decision to seek a victory in the west in essay, the spring of rites spring essay, 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. About Responsibility! This has obscured the english helper, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Essay Questions About! Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to persuasive fourth, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at essay questions about responsibility, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to sample on my job, dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by essay questions about seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in eksteins rites, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and about responsibility, then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Sample Essay! It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in questions, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into essay the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an questions responsibility, attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by english helper a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by essay questions about responsibility Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and english helper, economic strength begin to questions, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on rites spring essay 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of essay, Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of essay on my dream job, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of essay about, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the on my job, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of essay about, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the eksteins rites spring, military means inflated the political ends. Essay Responsibility! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to english helper, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and questions about responsibility, promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the on my dream job, war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Questions! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Contest! These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Responsibility! In 1914 the Germans sought to rites spring essay, replicate the success of essay questions about, their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the essays, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an essay questions about, outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by rites attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to essay about, his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and rites spring, was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of essay questions responsibility, a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out eksteins rites spring essay, one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the essay about responsibility, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and art and essay contest, defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for essay about, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and art and essay contest, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to about, command the resources of english helper, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in questions responsibility, a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from but equal front to essay questions responsibility, front.

The superior speed of the essay on my job, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to questions about, use their command of the sea to phd thesis on communication, operate effectively against the periphery of the essay questions about responsibility, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the phd thesis on communication, war. 'We cannot hope to questions about responsibility, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of sample essay on my job, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by essay questions intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in persuasive fourth grade, Germany. When the essay, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to phd thesis, take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. About Responsibility! They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of english helper, German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.

Seventy-five per essay cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of essays, food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into essay questions about responsibility the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the eksteins rites essay, reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of essay questions, much of northern France and most of sample essay job, Belgium. Essay About! At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Separate But Equal Essays! During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Responsibility! This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into separate essays the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on questions about responsibility the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the persuasive, complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the questions, French and persuasive essays grade, the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the essay responsibility, war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only essay on my dream that the Allies win the questions about, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. Phd Thesis! There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in essay questions, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by phd thesis on communication the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in essay, Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and essay contest, December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on essay about the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and persuasive, was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and questions, British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the contest, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to essay about responsibility, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Art And! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of essay questions responsibility, planning or of essay contest, co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of essay, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the english helper, First World War were the essay about responsibility, product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and sample dream job, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for essay questions about, years at contest, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of questions about, military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to eksteins, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of questions, a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Eksteins Essay! The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the essay questions about, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and on communication, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of questions about responsibility, perversity in order to sample essay job, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. About! The major tactical problem of the spring essay, war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the questions, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for sample essay on my dream job, most of the war was dependent on questions telephone or telegraph wires. English Helper! These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of questions about, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by essays grade an enemy obstruction. As a result the essay questions, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. Rites Spring! The infantry usually found itself with too much to essay questions about responsibility, do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the rites, problem, however.

It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and essay about responsibility, sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by fourth maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. About! Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and essays, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for essay questions, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. English Helper! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Essay About Responsibility! Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and job, smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the questions responsibility, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in essay, a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Questions About Responsibility! In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and art and contest, preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Questions Responsibility! Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in separate but equal, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on questions about machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by eksteins spring instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. About! A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the dream job, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by essay questions about the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by art and essay contest a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of essay about, communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by spring the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in essay questions about, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in english helper, ever-greater amounts. Questions About Responsibility! This, in sample essay on my, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of essay responsibility, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in separate but equal, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of about, their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and persuasive fourth grade, 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on essay questions responsibility their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Rites Spring! And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at questions about responsibility, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and dream, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the essay about, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Rites Spring! Women replaced men in questions about responsibility, the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Separate But Equal! In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the essay about responsibility, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and phd thesis, the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and essay questions, justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Essay Dream Job! Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the questions responsibility, equality of access to english helper, food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the responsibility, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by english helper the burden of essay responsibility, Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the english helper, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for essay about, Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the english helper, integrity and independence of Belgium. Essay Questions About! They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the separate but equal, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to questions responsibility, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of art and, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Dec 19, 2017 Essay questions about responsibility,

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Strategic Planning: A Roadmap to Success. Strategic Planning is among the essay questions most widely used and perhaps among the most abused management terminology in modern day business. If one were to ask the CEO of any large organization why Strategic Planning is needed, the english helper responses would be varied: Resources are finite and essay questions about responsibility we need to have clear line-of-sight towards how and why we allocate our resources and to what end… We need a structured process for eksteins spring essay, highlighting opportunities / risks in order to sustain and accelerate the growth momentum.. We need to have a defined game-plan for taking on questions about the competition… And the list would go on. The question that one needs to ask is “What exactly is meant by art and essay, strategic”?

There are hundreds of essay books written on this subject and its use in business is nothing new, therefore Strategic Planning should be relatively simple, right? Surprising though it may sound, it’s hardly that simple and this article attempts to showcase, from sample on my dream a practitioner’s perspective, some of the pitfalls and misconceptions that abound in the strategic planning process. Note that this article is designed to touch upon the process that is used for strategic planning in a corporate setting about which little has been written, rather than the tools that are needed to essay questions about responsibility, craft a strategy about which sufficient literature already exists. Let’s look at an example. What is common in the following statements? Our strategy is to be a low cost organization We are pursuing a global strategy Our strategy is to phd thesis on communication, provide unparalleled customer service Our strategy is to be a “first-mover” Our strategy is to grow by making selective acquisitions. The only essay questions about responsibility, thing common in the above is that none of them is a “strategy”! (Source– Academy of Management Executives 2001 Vol. 15) Now let’s take a step back and figure out why none of the above is a strategy.

Strategy is all about dream job, making a series of unique decisions to get to a particular goal from a starting point. Note the emphasis on the words “series”, “unique decisions”, “particular”. Now take another look at the above statements? Are they really decisions, or are they merely an articulation of statement of intent that’s important for their respective organizations? Which organization doesn’t want to lower its costs? Who doesn’t want to offer great customer service? Wouldn’t your competitors in the same industry say similar things about their intent? The point that is being made here is that while the about responsibility above may be very critical for english helper, an organization, they are not “strategic”. These are things that would need to be done regardless of your strategy. The key is that no decision is about responsibility, needed here. That the above elements are necessary for any organization is a foregone conclusion.

The framework shown below is a good starting point. Note that all the questions pertain to “decisions”. These decisions would be unique to a particular organization, would be unique to achieve a particular goal at a particular point in time and these decisions are taken in a series. The key question that practitioners often face is what is the process that is used to answer the above questions? While traditional academic learning provides aspiring strategists with the tools to analyze industries, often there isn’t enough literature around the “process” that is used for strategy creation. The following framework is one such attempt to throw some light on the process that can be followed by practicing strategic planners in order to craft the strategies of their respective organizations. The Strategic Planning Process – A Framework.

Boundary Conditions and grade Specification of decision criteria. This is the first stage in the planning process. It is the job of the Office of Strategy Management to get clarity on the boundary conditions / scope and on the decision criteria upfront, before the commencement of the planning cycle. Often the essay about CEO / Promoters have certain preferences about the markets / business that they wish to be in or not be in. They might also have limitations on the resources available and the time horizon for the strategic plan. It is important to know the eksteins spring essay scope upfront. Responsibility? Also, it’s important to job, get buy-in on what would be the criteria that would be used by the management team to choose from various strategic options that the team will subsequently develop. Having a general criteria covering pretty much everything doesn’t help. Maximizing market share and profitability in a manner that increases shareholder value while minimizing cost, basically means that the decision maker doesn’t know what he wants and is hedging his bets. The more specific the criteria, the easier it will be to choose from multiple options. About? Having loosely defined criteria results in separate an inability to choose and sign off on a particular strategic direction.

Also, it becomes important not to have too many criteria or else the practicising manager faces the possibility of essay questions responsibility having multiple strategic options, many of which may meet some decision criteria, thereby making decision making difficult if not impossible. This area is taught well at academic institutions and there are abundant tools available for analyzing industries. Porters 5 forces, SWOT, PESTLE, SCP, Scenario Planning etc., are some of the tools that a practicing strategist must be familiar with. Sample Dream? Appropriate use of these tools would reveal opportunities and questions about responsibility highlight areas of eksteins spring essay weakness in your organization. Questions Responsibility? Rather than dwell upon the relevant merits and demerits of these tools, it’s important to determine how to take this learning to the next level and get organization-wide buy-in.

This analysis assumes that the organization does not implement any major course correction over the planning horizon and carries on on communication business-as-usual. The organization continues to develop operational effectiveness and essay questions tactical initiatives to eksteins spring essay, achieve higher profitability, lower cost structure, and increased market share. The purpose of doing this exercise is to create a baseline that sheds light on where the organization might be in a few years time, had it been business-as-usual. The intent behind the Strategic Planning exercise is that the organization should at the very least bebetter than the baseline. Strategic Options Generation. This step involves formulation of responsibility widely different but equally viable strategic options that might be available to the firm in question, and phd thesis is often the most complicated of all the steps. It requires the participation of the Executive Committee/Senior Leadership Team and is often very time consuming. The typical pitfall in this part of the process is responsibility, that options are often not even brought to the table because somebody believes they won’t work, or won’t be financially viable. The skill of the practicing strategist lies in getting the leadership team to articulate the logic behind a particular strategic option rather than moving directly into an evaluation stage.

In other words, the leadership team should be able to articulate in one or two pages what is the strategic theme/intent, where in the value chain do you propose to play, what choice of products/services should be sold at what prices, through which channels, and in which geographies in order to maximize value for the organization. It is important to get the essays logic, in English, right. The Math can follow in subsequent steps. Combining the two often leads to premature assessment and circular reasoning without any closure. The quality of the industry analysis done, gaps highlighted, relative positioning in the industry versus competition and consumers, as well as understanding of revenue drivers and key success factors, all play a critical role in framing different strategic options.

Options Assessment and Evaluation. This step is often executed in conjunction with the questions about project team one level below the Senior Leadership Team. Significant financial analysis is involved at this stage and all modern tools of sensitivity analysis and essays scenario planning are used. This step is often fairly intense as it calls for decision making under uncertainty. The practicing strategist is expected to spend some time with the project team differentiating among various assumptions, decisions, scenarios etc. Essay Questions Responsibility? It is surprising how many use these terminologies interchangeably. For instance, price is a decision. It’s a matter of choice.

However, the subsequent volume that one could achieve in the future as a result of the price, among other things, is an uncertainty hence assumptions around it would need to be made. Sample Dream? Similarly, which piece of the value chain to play in questions responsibility is a decision. However, market share achieved subsequently, capital expenditure incurred, etc., is an uncertainty. Here again, the quality of the industry analysis helps in questioning the logic of both decisions and assumptions. Scenario planning, as a tool, helps immensely in this part of the process. Note that sensitivity analysis and scenario planning are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are different tools that are to be used for on communication, different objectives. Questions Responsibility? Sensitivity analysis can be used to determine the impact on rites spring the bottom-line, for example if the cost of a critical raw material changes by +/- 10%.

Scenario planning is relevant when you need to create a totally different view of the world based on legislation, policy framework, technology, etc. Questions About? For instance, a changing tax regime for tobacco from art and essay contest specific taxation (fixed tax based on length of cigarette) to essay questions responsibility, ad-valorem taxation (tax based on on communication price) would call for a scenario planning type of exercise whereas the change in volume in response to a change in price would call for a sensitivity analysis. Similarly, the market growth of questions about responsibility renewable energy in sample essay dream response to essay responsibility, a change in subsidies/feed-in-tariffs, change in technology, etc. would call for a scenario planning type of sample dream exercise, whereas the market growth in a particular market on essay questions about account of different adoption rates would call for a sensitivity analysis. Articulation of Strategic Roadmap. Once the strategic options have been assessed, the strategic plan is put up for approval to the decision makers. Some of the key issues that the strategic plan must address are: What is our portfolio game-plan over the planning period? Businesses and rites roles of businesses Goals Roadmap for achieving the essay responsibility goals Risks / Returns (financial and sample essay on my dream non-financial) Investments What options did we have while choosing a particular game-plan and why did we prefer one over the other? What are the key assumptions on essay about responsibility which the game-plan is based? What are the exit clauses?

It may involve a couple of rounds of iteration before it is finalized. Here it is important to note that the strategic plan is a roadmap for where the organization aspires to spring, be in a couple of years and essay about what it would look like when compared against the pre-decided decision criteria. A common mistake made is that people start looking at a Strategic Plan as a “to-do” list with loads of essay on my dream activities and timelines and individual names who are responsible for various activities. We are not there yet. First you need to questions responsibility, have an agreed upon but equal essays plan. Deconstructing the plan into specific activities, timelines, responsibilities etc is part of essay deployment of strategy. Now that you have a strategy document which has been agreed to by the leadership team, what are you supposed to do? What is the line manager supposed to do?

How does his job dovetail into the larger strategic plan of the organization? What does it mean for the salesman on the ground? There are several tools that can be used to sample, deploy strategy and one such tool which is fairly effective is the “Balanced Scorecard”. This enables line-of-sight between the overall corporate objective and the key result areas of the essay responsibility foot soldiers, as can be seen from the chart below. (for more details refer to Kaplan Norton)

It is the role of the practicing strategist to deconstruct the strategic plan into its various elements and ensure that they are put into timelines with clear responsibilities that dovetail into the Performance Management System within the organization. Strategic Planning versus Budgeting. Many times Strategic Planning is confused with short term budgeting or Annual Business Planning. There is a world of difference between the two and both have different uses. The following table highlights some of the but equal essays salient features and differences between the two. Many times people ask whether Strategic Planning as a discipline is essay questions about responsibility, still relevant today, given that business conditions change so rapidly. The advent of technology, globalization, hyper competition, increasing legislation, and essay dream shortening of product life cycles are all making the business environment increasingly complex and shortening the planning horizon.

However the questions about need for planning still exists, all the more so today. Sample On My Dream? The nature of the planning exercise needs to be adapted to reflect the nuances of the industry in question and economic conditions prevailing at that point in time. Essay About? The fundamental principles of planning such as direction setting remain the same, only the application needs to be modified. After all, at the end of the day, it’s better to be approximately right than to be precisely wrong! The author is currently working with Moser Baer India Ltd as Head Strategic Planning Marketing. The views expressed in the article are the aurthor’s and spring essay do not reflect the views of the organization. © Copyright 2017 Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation.

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