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oedipus irony essay Literary Terms and Definitions: A. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. A POSTERIORI : In rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, a belief or proposition is why did australia join the vietnam said to be a posteriori if it can only be determined through observation (Palmer 381). In general, these are inductive arguments in which the thinker puts forth a belief or proposition as a universal rule she or he puts forth in of writing skills essay response to an example seen in nature--the specific observed example comes first, and the logical argument follows on a universal level later. A PRIORI : In rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, an why did the vietnam war essay argument is said to be a priori if its truth can be known or inferred independently of statement, any direct perception. Logic, geometry, and mathematics are usually held as such (Palmer 381). In general, these a priori arguments rely upon deductive reasoning--fashioning a general statement that should (in terms of logic) be true, and then applying the war essay argument to a specific instance--i.e., the universal statement comes first, and then specific applications in the real world are expected to match it. ABBEY THEATRE : The center of the importance of writing skills essay Irish Dramatic movment founded in 1899 by W. B. Yeats and Lady Gregory, built with the why did australia join the vietnam express purpose of presenting Irish plays performed by thesis statement on irony, Irish actors.

It opened in why did australia the vietnam war essay 1904 and began showing plays by almost every Irish playwright of renown. AB OVO (Latin, from the egg): This phrase refers to need analytical essay, a narrative that starts at the beginning of the plot, and then moves chronologically through a sequence of events to the tale's conclusion. This pattern is the opposite of a tale that begins in medias res , one in which the narrative starts in the middle of things, well into join war essay the middle of the plot, and then proceeds to explain earlier events through the characters' dialogue, memories, or flashbacks. Horace coins the phrase in his treatise, Ars Poeticae , a treatise not to of writing skills, be confused with the Poetics of Aristotle. Contrast with in medias res . ABECEDARIAN : See discussion under acrostic , below. ABLAUT : Jacob Grimm's term for the way in join the vietnam war essay which Old English strong verbs formed their preterites by a vowel change. This is also called gradation . An example would be the principal parts of Old English strong verbs such as I sing , I sang , and I sung . ABOLITIONIST LITERATURE : Literature, poetry , pamphlets, or propaganda written in the nineteenth century for help analytical essay the express purpose of condemning slaveholders, encouraging the release and emancipation of slaves, or abolishing slavery altogether. This literature might take the form of autobiographical writings (in the case of why did australia, many slave narratives ) or fictional accounts such as Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin . Such writings rely heavily on pathos for rhetorical technique. ABOVE, THE : Also called the aloft and sometimes used interchangeably with the Heavens , this term refers to the gallery on the upper level of the frons scenae . In Shakespeare's Globe Theater, this area contained the lords' rooms, but the center of this location was also used by the actors for short scenes.

On the other hand, in most indoor theaters like the Blackfriars Theater, musicians above the stage would perform in a curtained alcove here. ABSTRACT DICTION / ABSTRACT IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that cannot be perceived with the five senses. For instance, calling something pleasant or pleasing is abstract, while calling something yellow or sour is concrete. On Relevance And Tension! The word domesticity is australia join the vietnam war essay abstract, but the word sweat is graduate paper concrete. The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to australia war essay, century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to graduate paper, value the generality of join the vietnam, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Skills Essay! S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with concrete diction / concrete imagery . ABSTRACT POEM : Verse that makes little sense grammatically or syntactically but which relies on why did the vietnam auditory patterns to create its meaning or poetic effects; Dame Edith Sitwell popularized the term, considering this verse form the equivalent of abstract painting (Deutsche 7). Sitwell's poems from importance essay, her collection Façade are samples of this genre , including her poem Hornpipe. A sample from this poem appears below:

Watched the courses of the breakers' rocking-horses and with Glaucis. Lady Venus on the settee of the horsehair sea! (qtd. in Deutsche 7) ABUSIO : A type of catachresis known as the mixed metaphor. The term is often used in a derogatory manner. Why Did The Vietnam! See discussion and foreign affections, examples under catachresis . ACATALECTIC : A normal line of poetry with the expected number of syllables in each line, as opposed to a catalectic line (which is missing an expected syllable) or a hypercatalectic line (which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected, perhaps due to anacrusis ). See discussion under catalectic . ACATALEXIS : The use of acatalectic lines in poetry--see discussion under catalectic . ACCENT : (1) A recognizable manner of pronouncing words--often associated with a class, caste, ethnic group, or geographic region.

Thus, Americans might be able to discern a Boston accent or a Texas accent by sound alone, or they might place a foreign speaker's origin by noting a French or Russian accent. (2) The degree of stress given to a syllable--an important component of australia the vietnam, meter . (3) Any diacritical mark. Click here to statement, view diacritical marks . ACCENTUAL VERSE : A verse pattern used heavily in Russian and Czech literature. More information TBA . ACEPHALOUS : From Greek headless, acephalous lines are lines in normal iambic pentameter that contain only nine syllables rather than the expected ten. The first syllable, which is why did australia join the vietnam stressed, counts as a full metric foot by itself. All acephalous lines by definition are catalectic . See foot and meter . ACMEISM : A 1912 Russian poetry movement reacting against the Symbolist movement (Harkins 1). Acmeists protested against the mystical tendencies of the Symbolists; they opposed ambiguity in poetry, calling for a return to precise, concrete imagery. Prominent members of the movement include Nikolay Gumilyov and Sergey Gorodetski. ACRONYM (From Greek acron + onyma ; tip or end of a name): A word formed from the initial letters in a phrase. For instance, many caucasians in America are called WASPs.

In this acronym, the letters W. A. S. P . stand for the first letters in carbon and nitrogen essay the descriptive phrase, W hite A nglo- S axon P rotestant. Acronyms are quite common in governmental bureaucracies, in australia join war essay businesses, in in reducing stress in modern political jargon, and in high-tech products. Other examples include AIDS ( A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome), NIMBY , ( N ot I n M y B ack Y ard), and OPEC ( O rganization of why did join, P etroleum E xporting C ountries). In the realm of importance of writing, technology, we find that radar comes from R.A.D.A.R. ( RA dio D etection A nd R anging), and laser from L.A.S.E.R. Join War Essay! ( L ight A mplification by carbon phosphorus and nitrogen essay, S timulated E mission of R adiation). In general, acronyms first appear with periods to australia, indicate the abbreviations, (e. g. L. Thesis Statement! A. S. E. R). As the term becomes more widespread, the periods vanish (e.g. LASER), and eventually the capitalization falls away as the word enters common usage (e.g. Australia Join War Essay! laser ). Note that acronyms contrast with alphabetisms , in which the graduate thesis paper word is pronounced aloud by using the names of the actual letters--such as the IRS ( I nternal R evenue S ervice), which is pronounced as three-syllables. Australia Join The Vietnam! If it were a true acronym, IRS would be a one-syllable word rhyming with worse. Acronyms and alphabetisms are most useful when they allow a speaker to create a new, short, efficient term for a long unwieldy phrase. They are least useful when they obscure the truth, when they enable technobabble and unnecessary jargon.

Even English historical scholarship has fallen into the habit, commonly referring to the historical Great Vowel Shift as the GVS , and stress and tension, the Oxford English Dictionary as the OED , to give two examples. Contrast with anagram . ACROSTIC : A poem in which the first or last letters of each line vertically form a word, phrase, or sentence. Apart from puzzles in newspapers and magazines, the most common modern versions involve the first letters of each line forming a single word when read downwards. An acrostic that involves the sequential letters of the alphabet is the vietnam war essay said to be an abecedarius or an essay on relevance of hobbies stress and tension in modern abecedarian poem. Acrostics may have first been used as a mnemonic device to aid with oral transmission. In the Old Testament, some of the Hebrew Psalms include acrostic devices. Chaucer also wrote acrostics such as his ABC ( Prior a nostre dame ) in his younger days. Acrostics are also common in Kabbalistic charms and word squares, including the Cirencester word square of Roman origin: Abecedarian acrostics were also a common genre in why did australia join classical Hebrew poetry.

For instance, Psalm 118 in the Douay-Rheims numbering of the graduate thesis Bible (or number 119 in the King James numbering of the Bible) is an abecedarian acrostic, with each stanza headed by one of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, such as Aleph, Beth, Gimel, and so on. Why Did! Similar acrostics appear in Lamentations 3. Essay! Renaissance examples of why did australia join the vietnam war essay, acrostic poetry include the preface to carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles, Ben Jonson's The Alchemist. If a poem is built so that the last letters in each line form a word, rather than the first, the poem is why did australia join the vietnam war essay called a telestich . ACT : A major division in a play. Often, individual acts are divided into smaller units (scenes) that all take place in a specific location. Importance Of Writing! Originally, Greek plays were not divided into acts. They took place as a single whole interrupted occasionally by the chorus 's singing. In Roman times, a five-act structure first appeared based upon Horace's recommendations. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! This five-act structure became a convention of drama (and especially tragedy ) during the Renaissance. (Shakespeare's plays have natural divisions that can be taken as the breaks between acts as well; later editors inserted clear act and scene markings in these locations.) From about 1650 CE onward, most plays followed the five-act model.

In the importance skills essay 1800s, Ibsen and Chekhov favored a four-act play, and in the 1900s, most playwrights preferred a three-act model, though two-act plays are not uncommon. ACTION : A real or fictional event or series of why did australia join war essay, such events comprising the subject of a novel, story, narrative poem, or a play, especially in importance essay the sense of what the characters do in why did australia join the vietnam war essay such a narrative. Action, along with dialogue and the characters' thoughts, form the skeleton of a narrative's plot . ACYRON : The improper or odd application of a word, such as speaking of streams of graces (Shipley 5). When the writing graduate paper result is humorous or deliberately absurd, the acyron becomes a malapropism . ADAGE : A proverb or wise saying. ADAGY : The act of speaking or writing in why did join the vietnam adages. ADAPTATION : Taking material from an importance of writing essay older source and altering it or updating it in a new genre. For instance, John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi is join a play adapted from an older Italian novella. Many of Shakespeare's history plays are adaptations of Holinshed's chronicles, etc. For modern artists, if the adaptation's source is unacknowledged, the adaptation may constitute plagiarism under modern conventions. Contrast with ecphrasis . ADDITIVE MONSTER : In contrast with the composite monster , mythologists and folklorists use the label additive monster to describe a creature from mythology or legend that has an essay on relevance of hobbies in modern life altered number of body parts rather than body parts from multiple animals added together.

For instance, the Scandinavian Ettin, a troll or giant with two heads, is an why did australia join the vietnam additive monster. Sleipnir, the magical horse in help writing analytical Norse mythology, is a regular horse, except it has eight legs. Deities and demons in the Hindu pantheon often have multiple arms or eyes. The term has also been loosely applied to fantastic creatures that have modified limbs as well. For instance, the gyascutis is a fantastic medieval beast that resembles a sheep, except its limbs vary in length. Its front legs are drastically shortened, and its hind legs are drastically lengthened, which allows it to remain level as it grazes on the incline of steep hills. ADVANCED PRONUNCIATION : In linguistics, John Algeo defines this as an early instance of a historical sound change in progress (311). Why Did Australia War Essay! This early adoption of a new pronunciation is the opposite of a retarded pronunciation , in which an older pronunciation lingers in a dialect even after a newer pronunciation appears in phosphorus cycles essay other regions. ADVENTURE NOVEL : Any novel in which exciting events and fast paced actions are more important than character development, theme, or symbolism. Examples include Alexandre Dumas's The Count of australia the vietnam, Monte Cristo and burke, The Three Musketeers , H. Rider Haggard's King Solomon's Mines , or Edgar Rice Burrough's Tarzan of the Apes . AERLINN (Sindarin, aer + lin , ocean-song, sometimes spelled aerlin ): As part of his subcreation , Tolkien sought to fill out why did join the vietnam war essay, his imaginary words with complete histories, mythologies, and importance skills, poetic traditions. Accordingly, he invented the aerlinn , an imaginary genre of why did australia the vietnam, Elvish poetry that Tolkien devised to be background for The Lord of the Rings.

Aerlinns are hymns with a seven-line stanza-structure rhyming aababcc. The form may be loosely inspired by essay in modern life, the seven-line stanza invented by australia join the vietnam war essay, Chaucer in the fourteenth century that later came into its own as rhime royal . Statement On Irony! The aerlinn' s conventional theme would be a paean or an apostrophe , usually to Elbereth or another of the Valar . Join The Vietnam War Essay! Tolkien's etymology for the word connects holiness with the ocean. In his mythos , the potentially immortal Elves eventually suffer a sea-longing. Phosphorus Cycles! They feel a compulsion that calls them to sail over the western sea to australia join the vietnam war essay, join the Valar and leave behind the world of men. Carbon And Nitrogen! Below is a sample aerlinn in Elvish from the end of why did australia the vietnam, chapter one, Merry Meetings, in The Two Towers : A Elbereth Gilthoniel, silivren penna miriel. o menel aglar elenath! o galadhremmin ennorath. Fanuilos, le linnathon. AESC (also spelled ash in foreign essays on edmund Anglo-Saxon): A letter in the Old Norse runic alphabet indicating the sound /æ/ as in the word at . Aesc lends its name to the letter ash commonly used in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Click here for more information.

AESOPIC LANGUAGE : In Russian criticism, the name for oppositional political writing hidden in circumlocution, fables, and vague references so that it can bypass official censorship (Harkins 1). The term refers to why did australia join war essay, Aesop's Fabula , a collection of beast fables in which simple stories about animals contained morals or messages between the lines, so to and nitrogen cycles, speak. The coinage of the why did australia join the vietnam war essay term comes from Saltykov, who is both the first to use the term in affections burke this sense and the one whom many modern Russian critics consider the best example of such writings (Harkins 1). AESTHETIC DISTANCE : An effect of tone, diction, and presentation in australia join the vietnam war essay poetry creating a sense of an thesis statement on irony experience removed from irrelevant or accidental events. This sense of intentional focus seems intentionally organized or framed by events in the poem so that it can be more fully understood by join, quiet contemplation. Typically, the reader is less emotionally involved or impassioned--reacting to the material in a calmer manner. AESTHETICISM : (1) In general, any literary movement that encourages critical or artistic focus on the experience of beauty rather than focuses on foreign affections essays burke didactic messages or seeking truth. (2) More specifically, a Victorian literary movement in the 19th Century spearheaded by Walter Pater.

Pater believed the goal of art was to make those experiencing it live their lives more intensely and encourage the pursuit of beauty. AFFIX : James Algeo defines an affix as a morpheme added to why did join war essay, a base or stem to modify its meaning (311). If an affix attaches to the beginning of a stem (or base word), the affix is need analytical essay called a prefix . If an affix is why did australia the vietnam war essay attached to the end of a stem, the affix is called a suffix . From Old English, Modern English speakers gain prefixes like un- ( unlike, undo, unafraid ). From Latin, we gain prefixes like re- ( redo, replay, reactivate ). From Old English, we gain suffixes such as -dom (kingdom, freedom). From Latin, we gain suffixes such as -ician ( beautician, mortician ) and -orium ( pastorium , i.e., a Baptist parsonage). From Greek -izein , we gain the popular verb ending -ize ( criticize, harmonize, pasteurize , even neologisms like finalize ). AFFIXATION : Making words by adding an importance of writing skills essay affix to a previously existing base word or stem. For instance, the affix -ly can be added to the base word (or stem) quick to create the why did war essay word quickly . Statement On Irony! This process is australia the vietnam war essay affixation. See also affix . Contrast with declension . AFFRICATIVE : A sound stop with a fricative release. Affricatives involve a stop plus a movment through a fricative position (i.e., the blade of the tongue initially moves up in the position of a stop, but then move through a fricative or spirant position rather than remaining in the stop position).The affricatives include two different sounds.

The first sound is need analytical essay found in j u dg e , g em , sol di er , and spina ch . The second affricative sound is that sound found in ch ur ch , bu tch er , i tch , ni ch e , and c ello . AFRO-ASIATIC : A family of languages separate from Indo-European languages . The two main branches of Afro-Asiatic are Hamitic and Semitic. Other examples of non-Indo-European languages can be found elsewhere on this website. AGGLUTINATIVE (from Latin, glued to): In a now outdated linguistic classification, an agglutinative language was any language with complicated but (for the join the vietnam most part) regular derivational forms (Algeo 311)--especially those based on single-syllable morphemes. This term or classifaction first appeared in 1836 in on relevance stress life the linguistic theories of Wilhelm von Humboldt. Agglutinative languages were thought to include Turkish, Basque, Hungarian, and many Tibeto-Burman languages. Australia Join! These were were originally thought to be more advanced or developed than isolating languages like Chinese in statement on irony which every word was formed by distinct monosyllables. On the other hand, agglutatinative languages were thought to be more primitive than incorporative or inflective languages such as Eskimo and Latin, respectively. Modern historical, linguistic, and anthropological findings have largely demolished the earlier arguments. The primary problem is that this classification depends upon the assumption that primitive languages tend to be formed from monosyllables, and advanced languages were thought to become gradually polysyllabic.

However, many language like Chinese may have grown more monosyllabic over a process of thousands of why did the vietnam war essay, years, for instance, disproving this idea. It is now clear that languages can actually grow simpler over time, rather than growing more complicated. AGRARIAN IDEALISM : The conviction that farming is an especially virtuous occupation in comparison with trade, craftsmanship, manufacturing, or other means of commerce. Romans like Hesiod and Virgil, for instance, praised the simple, hard-working ethics of the Roman farmer. (See the Eclogues for an example.) Jefferson dreamed of a future America composed primarily of gentlemen-farmers who lived off the fruits of their plantations without the need for outside trade in his Queries . The agrarian ideal manifested equally strong in carbon phosphorus and nitrogen essay Romantic writings as one form of the war essay American Dream motif. AGREEMENT : Having different parts of a sentence agree with each other in grammatical number, gender, case, mood, or tense. In British grammar books, agreement is also called concord . AIDED (plural: aideda ): A tale in prose or mixed prose and poetry in which a hero, poet, or ruler suffers a violent death, often occurring at a liminal time or place such as the Samhain festival or at an otherworldly banquet-hall. Frequently the statement on irony ending follows the motif of the threefold death . According to Dan Wiley's article in Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia , some thirty-five such tales explicitly labeled aideda survive from australia, Old or Middle Irish between 650-1250 C.E. (see Duffy 10-11).

AIDOS : The Greek term for the great shame felt by a hero after failure. AISLING (Irish Gaelic: dream, vision, pronounced ash-ling): a genre of Irish political poetry popular in carbon phosphorus cycles essay the 1600s and 1700s in which a Spéirbhean appears who mourns the recent down-fallen status of Ireland and predicts a coming return to fortune, often linked with the return of a Stuart ruler to why did australia join the vietnam war essay, the throne of Britain. In later centuries, the form often became used satirically or jokingly. The most famous example of aisling poetry is Róisín Dubh , and the earliest major aisling poet was Aodhagán Ó Rathaille, often called the importance of writing father of the aisling . Cf. visio . AKEDAH : The akedah is a section of Genesis including Genesis 22:1-19, of join the vietnam war essay, foundational importance in the three Abrahamic traditions of of writing essay, Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. ALAZON : A stock character in why did australia join the vietnam Greek drama, the alazon is a stupid braggart who is easily tricked by the clever eiron who tells the alazon what he wants to paper, hear. ALBA (Provençal dawn): A medieval lyric or morning serenade about the coming of dawn. The alba's refrain typically ends with the word dawn. The theme can be religious, but more frequently the theme focuses on why did australia join the vietnam war essay two lovers parting with the coming of day. Cf. the more common term used in English, the closely related aubade . ALCAICS : A stanza written in alcaics is written in the meter created by the Greek poet Alcaeus.

This stanza-form was later used with slight changes by the poet Horace. An example in English appears in Tennyson's imitation, as appears below: O mighty-mouthed inventor of harmonies, O skill'd to sing of Time or eternity, God-gifted organ-voice of England, Milton, a name to resound for skills essay ages.

ALCHEMY : The medieval and Renaissance precursor to modern chemistry, characterized by mystical philosophy and attempts to turn base metals such as lead and tin into noble metals such as gold and silver. The tenets of alchemy were based on the theory of the four elements (see elements, the four ), in which all matter was composed of varying proportions of why did the vietnam, four substances--air, earth, water, and fire. Each element had a corresponding type of spirit associated with it--sylphs, gnomes, undines, and salamanders. While alchemical beliefs were taken seriously as a matter of pseudo-scientifical inquiry in early centuries, by the end of the medieval period, the and tension life practice was often synonymous with chicanery and con-artistry. Chaucer's Canon Yeoman's Tale focuses on the deceptions of false alchemical practitioners, and Shakespeare's The Tempest borrows heavily from alchemical lore in its depiction of the island's magical spirits. In later, more enlightened times, alchemical beliefs became a subject of mockery. Alexander Pope's mock epic , The Rape of the Lock , employs the traditional alchemical spirits, but alters their purpose so that their primary duties involve protecting young girls' virginity from the advances of handsome rakes, for instance. Click here for a downloadable PDF chart of the elements. ALEXANDRINE : A twelve-syllable line written in iambic hexameter. War Essay! Alexandrines were especially popular in French poetry for drama between 1500-1800 CE, but their invention dates back to paper, the late 1100s.

The earliest medieval examples include Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem and Roman d'Alexandre (from which the name alexandrine comes). Why Did War Essay! Racine in carbon and nitrogen essay particular makes good use of join the vietnam, it in Andromaque . Graduate Paper! Classical French Alexandrines are a bit different from modern English ones in join the vietnam that a strong stress falls on the on the sixth and last syllables with a wandering unstressed syllable that can appear in-between the need help analytical essay strong stresses on each side of the caesura. An example of an English Alexandrine appears in australia the vietnam war essay the second line of Alexander Pope's couplet: A needless Alexandrine ends the song. That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.

The form has been less popular in English, and Pope actually mocks it in his Essay on Criticism. However, Spenser uses an carbon Alexandrine to good effect as part of his spenserian stanza . Robert Bridges speaks of his loose Alexandrines in The Testament of australia war essay, Beauty , which consists of unrhymed, metrically irregular twelve-syllable lines (though in carbon cycles essay many cases, the twelve-syllables are the result of why did australia join war essay, elision). ALLEGORY : The word derives from the Greek allegoria (speaking otherwise). The term loosely describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning. This narrative acts as an extended metaphor in phosphorus which persons, abstract ideas, or events represent not only themselves on the literal level, but they also stand for something else on the symbolic level. An allegorical reading usually involves moral or spiritual concepts that may be more significant than the actual, literal events described in a narrative.

Typically, an allegory involves the interaction of why did the vietnam war essay, multiple symbols, which together create a moral, spiritual, or even political meaning. The act of thesis paper, interpreting a story as if each object in why did join the vietnam war essay it had an allegorical meaning is called allegoresis . If we wish to be more exact, an allegory is an act of interpretation, a way of understanding, rather than a genre in carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles and of why did australia the vietnam war essay, itself. Poems, novels, or plays can all be allegorical, in whole or in essay on relevance in reducing in modern part. These allegories can be as short as a single sentence or as long as a ten volume book. The label allegory comes from an interaction between symbols that creates a coherent meaning beyond that of the literal level of interpretation. Probably the most famous allegory in English literature is John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678), in which the hero named Christian flees the City of Destruction and travels through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, Vanity Fair, Doubting Castle, and finally arrives at the Celestial City. The entire narrative is why did australia the vietnam war essay a representation of the human soul's pilgrimage through temptation and doubt to reach salvation in heaven. Medieval works were frequently allegorical, such as the plays Mankind and Everyman . Other important allegorical works include mythological allegories like Apuleius' tale of Cupid and Psyche in The Golden Ass and Prudentius' Psychomachiae . More recent non-mythological allegories include Spenser's The Faerie Queene , Swift's Gulliver's Travels , Butler's Erewhon , and need writing, George Orwell's Animal Farm . The following illustrative passage comes from why did australia join the vietnam war essay, J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory , 3rd edition (Penguin Books, 1991). I have Americanized the British spelling and punctuation: To distinguish more clearly we can take the old Arab fable of the frog and the scorpion, who met one day on the bank of the River Nile, which they both wanted to foreign, cross. The frog offered to ferry the scorpion over on his back provided the scorpion promised not to sting him.

The scorpion agreed so long as the frog would promise not to drown him. The mutual promises exchanged, they crossed the river. On the far bank the scorpion stung the frog mortally. Why did you do that? croaked the frog, as it lay dying. Why? replied the scorpion, We're both Arabs, aren't we? If we substitute for a frog a Mr. Goodwill or a Mr. Prudence, and for join the vietnam the scorpion Mr. Treachery or Mr.

Two-Face, and help, make the river any river and substitute for We're both Arabs . . Why Did Australia Join! . We're both men . . Analytical! . Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! we turn the fable [which illustrates human tendencies by using animals as illustrative examples] into graduate an allegory [a narrative in which each character and action has symbolic meaning]. Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! On the other hand, if we turn the need help writing analytical frog into a father and the scorpion into a son (boatman and passenger) and why did australia join, we have the cycles essay son say We're both sons of God, aren't we?, then we have a parable (if a rather cynical one) about the wickedness of human nature and the sin of parricide. (22) ALLIOSIS : While presenting a reader with only two alternatives may result in the logical fallacy known as false dichotomy or either/or fallacy, creating a parallel sentence using two alternatives in parallel structure can be an effective device rhetorically and artistically. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! Alliosis is the thesis statement on irony rhetorical use of any isocolon parallel sentence that presents two choices to the reader, e.g., You can eat well, or you can sleep well. For more information, see schemes. ALLITERATION : Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the join the vietnam same vowel sound. For instance, the phrase buckets of big blue berries alliterates with the consonant b . Carbon And Nitrogen! Coleridge describes the why did australia join the vietnam war essay sacred river Alph in Kubla Khan as Five miles meandering with a mazy motion , which alliterates with the consonant m . The line apt alliteration's artful aid alliterates with the vowel sound a . One of Dryden's couplets in Absalom and Achitophel reads, In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin, / Before polygamy was made a sin . It alliterates with the letter p . Walt Whitman's Song of Myself employs the technique: I l ean and l oaf at my ea s e ob s erving a s pear of s ummer gra ss . Most frequently, the alliteration involves the sounds at the beginning of words in close proximity to each other. Alliteration is an example of a rhetorical scheme. Alliteration in which the first letters of essays on edmund, words are the join the vietnam same (as opposed to consonants alliterating in the middles or ends of words) is more specifically called head rhyme , which is a bit of a misnomer since it doesn't actually involve rhyme in a technical sense. If alliteration also involves changes in the intervening vowels between repeated consonants, the technique is essay on relevance called consonance . See alliterative verse , alliterative prose , assonance , and consonance . See also alliterative revival and sound symbolism . ALLITERATIVE PROSE: Many texts of why did australia war essay, Old English and Middle English prose use the statement same techniques as alliterative verse . Aelfric (c. 955-1010 CE) and Wulfstan (d.

1023) wrote many treatises using skillful alliteration. The Herefordshire texts known collectively as the why did australia The Katherine Group ( Hali Meiohad , Sawles Warde , Seinte Katerine , Seinte Marherete , Seinte Iuliene ) are some examples in Middle English. ALLITERATIVE REVIVAL: The general increase or surge in alliterative poetry composed in the second half of the 14th century in England. Alliteration had been the formalistic focus in Old English poetry, but after 1066 it began to affections essays burke, be replaced by the new convention of rhyme, which southern courtly poets were using due to the influence of join the vietnam war essay, continental traditions in the Romance languages like Latin and French. Between 1066 and importance essay, 1300, hardly any poetic manuscripts using the alliterative form survive. There are two theories to explain this absence. Theory number one argues this absence is a quirk of textual history, and why did the vietnam war essay, that individuals were still writing alliterative verse, but by coincidence none of the writing thesis paper manuscripts survive to the modern period, or that the tradition survived in why did join oral form only and on relevance and tension life, was never written down. The second theory suggests that, after alliterative verse had been mostly abandoned, a surge of australia join war essay, regionalism or nationalism encouraged northern poets to return to it during the mid- and late-1300s. In either case, during this time, Piers Plowman , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and other important medieval poems were written using alliterative techniques. Foreign Affections Essays Burke! See alliteration , above, and alliterative verse , below.

ALLITERATIVE VERSE: A traditional form of Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse poetry in which each line has at least four stressed syllables, and those stresses fall on syllables in which three or four words alliterate (repeat the australia war essay same consonant sound). Essays On Edmund! Alliterative verse largely died out in English within a few centuries of the Norman Conquest. The Normans introduced continental conventions of poetry, including rhyme and octosyllabic couplets. The last surge of alliterative poetry in the native English tradition is known as the alliterative revival during the Middle English period. Why Did The Vietnam! See alliteration , above. ALLOMORPH : A different pronunciation of a morpheme. For instance, consider the -s plural morpheme. The standard /s/ sound (as in elks ) becomes a /z/ sound in some allomorphs (such as boxes .) However, the same grapheme s is used to represent each sound. ALLOPHONE : A predictable change in the articulation of a phoneme. For example, the letter t in the word top is on relevance of hobbies stress and tension in modern life aspirated, but the why did the vietnam war essay letter t in stop is unaspirated.

ALLUSION : A casual reference in literature to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works. Authors often use allusion to establish a tone, create an implied association, contrast two objects or people, make an unusual juxtaposition of references, or bring the reader into a world of cycles, experience outside the limitations of the story itself. Authors assume that the readers will recognize the australia original sources and relate their meaning to the new context. For instance, if a teacher were to refer to his class as a horde of Mongols, the students will have no idea if they are being praised or vilified unless they know what the Mongol horde was and what activities it participated in historically. This historical allusion assumes a certain level of education or awareness in statement the audience, so it should normally be taken as a compliment rather than an insult or an attempt at why did join, obscurity. ALOFT, THE : Also called the above and sometimes used interchangeably with the Heavens, this term refers to the gallery on the upper level of the frons scenae . In Shakespeare's Globe theater, this area contained the lords' rooms, but the center of this location was also used by the actors for short scenes. On the of writing skills other hand, in why did australia join war essay most indoor theaters like the affections on edmund Blackfriars Theater, musicians above the australia join the vietnam war essay stage would perform in statement on irony a curtained alcove here. ALPHABET POEM : An acrostic poem of thirteen lines in which each line consists of two words, each word beginning with sequential letters in australia join the alphabetic pattern ABCDEF, etc.

Deutsche noteas that many poets like Paul West take liberties such as using Greek or Russian letters and introducing -ex compounds. Here is an affections example from West: Yum-yum! (West, qtd. in Deutsche 11) ALPHABETIC : The adjective alphabetic refers to any writing system in which each unit or letter represents a single sound in theory. English writing is theoretically alphabetic--but in why did australia the vietnam actual point of fact is so riddled with exceptions and oddities that it hardly counts--as discussed here. ALPHABETISM : A word formed from the initial letters of other words (or syllables) pronounced with the letters of the foreign essays alphabet--such as the IRS , CIA , the VP , or VIP . See further discussion under acronym . ALTAIC (from the why did join the vietnam war essay Altai mountains): A non-Indo-European language family including Turkish, Tungusic, and thesis statement on irony, Mongolian. ALTER EGO : A literary character or narrator who is a thinly disguised representation of the australia war essay author, poet, or playwright creating a work. Some scholars suggest that J. Alfred Prufrock is an alter ego for T. S. Eliot in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, or that the wizard Prospero giving up his magic in The Tempest is an alter ego of help writing, Shakespeare saying farewell to the magic of the stage. Contrast with persona . ALTHING : The closest approximation the Icelandic Vikings had to a government/court system/police--a gathering of representatives from the local things to decide on policy, hear complaints, settle disputes, and proclaim incorrigible individuals as outlaws (see below). The thing was a gathering for each local community in Iceland, but the althing was a gathering for the entire island's male population. ALVEOLAR : This adjective refers to any sound made by the tongue's approaching the gum ridge.

Examples include the why did australia the vietnam sounds /n/ , /l/ , /z/ and /s/ . ALVEOPALATAL : This adjective refers to any sound made by the tongue's approaching the gum ridge and the hard palate. Examples include the consonant sounds found in the beginning of the words Jill , Chill , and shall and the beginning and ending sounds of the carbon essay word rouge . AMALGAMATED COMPOUND : A word originally formed from a compound, but whose form is no longer clearly connected to its origin, such as the word not --originally compounded from Anglo-Saxon na-wiht (no whit). AMANUENSIS (from Latin, ab manus , by hand, plural amanuenses ): A servant, slave, secretary, or scribe who takes dictation for join an author who speaks aloud. Many works of literature--especially from Roman and medieval times--result from the labor of such a scribe. For instance, the illiterate Margery Kempe had two friars who served as amanuenses to of writing essay, write down her Book of Margery Kempe . Many Roman poets kept slaves who worked as their personal amanuenses, such as Cicero's slave Tyro, and so on. AMBAGE (back formation from ambi + agere , to drive both ways, pronounced in a manner that loosely rhymes with damage): Circumlocution or periphrasis designed with an eye toward deceiving or confusing the audience. Why Did Australia The Vietnam! In the essay on relevance of hobbies in reducing stress life plural, several such instances are ambages . See discussion under periphrasis . AMBIANCE : Loosely the term is equivalent to atmosphere or mood, but more specifically, ambiance is the atmosphere or mood of a particular setting or location. The Vietnam War Essay! Ambiance is particularly vital to gothic literature and to the horror story, and to many young college students' dates. See atmosphere , mood and setting . AMBIGUITY : In common conversation, ambiguity is a negative term applied to a vague or equivocal expression when precision would be more useful. Sometimes, however, intentional ambiguity in literature can be a powerful device, leaving something undetermined in paper order to open up multiple possible meanings. When we refer to literary ambiguity, we refer to any wording, action, or symbol that can be read in divergent ways.

As William Empson put it, ambiguity is any verbal nuance, however slight, which gives room for alternative reactions to the same piece of language (qtd. in Deutsch 11). AMELIORATION (from Latin, melior , better): A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly favorable connotation. For instance, the Middle English word knight used to mean servant (as German Knecht still does). The word grew through amelioration to mean a servant of the why did join war essay king and later a minor nobleman. Similar amelioration affected the importance of writing skills Anglo-Saxon word eorl , which becomes Modern English earl . The opposite term, pejoration , is a semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotations. AMERICAN DREAM : A theme in why did the vietnam war essay American literature, film, and art that expresses optimistic desires for self-improvement, freedom, and self-sufficiency.

Harry Shaw notes that the term can have no clear and fixed expression because it means whatever its user has in need writing mind a particular time (12). Why Did Australia The Vietnam War Essay! In general, it connotes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in foreign on edmund burke Thomas Jefferson's phrasing. One expression of this is the why did australia the vietnam materialistic rags-to-riches motif of many nineteenth-century novels. Here, through hard work, cleverness, and honesty, a young pauper rises in socio-economic status until he is a powerful and successful man. An example here would be the essays on edmund burke stories by Horatio Alger. Other expressions of this theme focus on more abstract qualities like freedom or self-determination. Many critics have argued that this dream is in many ways a myth in the twentieth- and twenty-first centuries, given America's frequent discriminatory treatment of immigrants and its continuing economic trends in which an ever smaller number of wealthy people accrue an ever larger percentage of material wealth with each generation, i.e., the rich get richer and why did australia the vietnam, the poor get babies. Other events, such as the loss of the American frontier, segregation and exclusion of need essay, minorities, McCarthyism in the 1950s, unpopular wars in why did australia war essay Vietnam in the 1960s, and gradual ecological devastation over the last hundred years, together have inspired literary works that criticize or question the American Dream--often seeing it as ultimately selfish or destructive on one or more levels. Examples of these writing would be Miller's Death of A Salesman, Ellison's Invisible Man, and Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath . AMERICAN ENGLISH : The English language as it developed in North America, especially in terms of its diction and the spelling and grammatical differences that distinguish it from foreign affections essays on edmund burke, British English. AMERICANISM : An expression that is why did australia the vietnam characteristic of the U.S.A. or one which first developed in America.

AMESLAN : American Sign Language--a language composed of foreign essays on edmund burke, hand-signs for the deaf. AMPHIBRACH : In classical poetry, a three-syllable poetic foot consisting of a light stress, heavy stress, and a light stress--short on why did the vietnam both ends. Essay! Amphibrachs are quite rare in English, but they can be found in special circumstances, especially when the poet manipulates the caesura to create an unusual effect. See caesura . An example of an English word forming an amphibrach is crustacean . An amphibrach is the reverse-form of an why did join war essay amphimacer . AMPHIMACER : A three-syllable foot consisting of a heavy, light, and affections on edmund burke, heavy stress. Poetry written in amphimacers is australia join the vietnam called cretic meter . Writing Graduate Thesis Paper! Amphimacer is rarely used in English poetry, but it is quite common in australia war essay Greek. An example of an English phrase forming an amphimacer is on relevance in reducing stress life deaf-and-dumb . An amphimacer is the reverse-form of an australia amphibrach . AMPHISBAENIC RHYME : A poetic structure invented by Edmund Wilson in which final words in strategic lines do not rhyme in the traditional sense, but rather reverse their order of consonants and vowels to carbon cycles, appear backwards. For example, Wilson writes: But tonight I come lone and be lated -- Foreseeing in why did join war essay every detail , And resolved for a day to side step.

My friends and essay, their guests and their pets . The colored sections above have the why did join the vietnam amphisbaenic features. AMPHITHEATER : An open-air theater, especially the unroofed public playhouses in need help essay the suburbs of London. Shakespeare's Globe and the Rose are two examples. ANACHRONISM : Placing an event, person, item, or verbal expression in the wrong historical period. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar , Shakespeare writes the following lines: Cassius: The clock has stricken three (Act II, scene i, lines 193-94). Of course, there were no household clocks during Roman times, no more than there were Blu-Ray disk players!

The reference is an anachronism, either accidental or intentional. Elizabethan theater often intentionally used anachronism in its costuming, a tradition that survives today when Shakespeare's plays are performed in biker garb or in Victorian frippery. Indeed, from surviving illustrations, the war essay acting companies in Elizabethan England appeared to deliberately create anachronisms in their costumes. Some actors would dress in current Elizabethan garb, others in importance garb that was a few decades out of date, and australia war essay, others wore pseudo-historical costumes from essay of hobbies and tension in modern, past-centuries--all within a single scene or play. ANACREONTICS : Poetry or song-verse modeled on the poetry of the australia join war essay Greek poet Anacreon--i.e., carpe diem poetry praising hedonistic pleasures of wine, women, and song, written in trochaic tetrameter. Importance Of Writing Skills Essay! Here is a typical example of Anacreon's poetry in why did australia the vietnam Stanley's translation: Fruitful earth drinks up the rain; Trees from earth drink that again; The sea drinks the air, the sun.

Drinks the sea, and him the moon. Is it reason then, d'ye think, I should thirst when all else drink? ANACRUSIS : The addition of an need help writing extra unstressed syllable or two at the start of a line of verse--but these additions are not considered part of the regular metrical count. Deutsch points out an why did australia war essay example of anacrusis in of writing the last line of this stanza by Blake, where the article the is an unstressed addition: Innocence doth like a rose. Bloom on join war essay every maiden's cheek; Honour twines around her brows,

The jewel health adorns her neck. On Relevance Stress! (qtd. in Deutsche 14) ANADIPLOSIS (Greek doubling): Repeating the last word of australia the vietnam war essay, a clause at the beginning of the next clause. As Nietzsche said, Talent is an adornment; an adornment is foreign on edmund burke also a concealment. Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! Ann Landers once claimed, The poor wish to be rich, the rich wish to be happy, the need writing analytical single wish to be married, and the married wish to why did war essay, be dead. Extended anadiplosis is called gradatio . Essay Of Hobbies Stress And Tension Life! For instance, in The Caine Mutiny the captain declares: Aboard my ship, excellent performance is standard. Standard performance is sub-standard.

Sub-standard performance is not allowed. Join War Essay! Biblically speaking, St. Importance Of Writing Skills! Paul claims, We glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope, and hope maketh man not ashamed. Samuel Johnson writes, Labour and join the vietnam war essay, care are rewarded with success, success produces confidence, confidence relaxes industry, and negligence ruins the reputation which diligence had raised ( Rambler No. 21). On a more mundane level, the character of essay on relevance stress and tension in modern life, Yoda states in Star Wars, Episode I : Fear leads to anger; anger leads to hatred; hatred leads to conflict; conflict leads to suffering . Why Did Join The Vietnam! Gradatio creates a rhythmical pattern to carry the writing graduate reader along the australia text, even as it establishes a connection between words. Writing Analytical! Anadiplosis and gradatio are examples of rhetorical schemes. ANAGNORISIS : (Greek for australia join the vietnam recognition): A term used by Aristotle in the Poetics to describe the foreign moment of tragic recognition in join the vietnam which the protagonist realizes some important fact or insight, especially a truth about himself, human nature, or his situation. Aristotle argues that the ideal moment for anagnorisis in a tragedy is the moment of help writing essay, peripeteia , the reversal of why did australia war essay, fortune. Critics often claim that the moment of tragic recognition is found within a single line of foreign affections essays on edmund, text, in which the tragic hero admits to his lack of australia join the vietnam, insight or asserts the new truth he recognizes. This passage is phosphorus and nitrogen essay often called the line of tragic recognition.

See further discussion under tragedy . ANAGOGICAL : In fourfold interpretation , the anagogical reading is the why did australia join war essay fourth type of interpretation in carbon and nitrogen which one reads a religious writing in an eschatological manner, i.e., the interpreter sees the passage as a revelation concerning the last days, the end of time, or the afterlife. ANAGRAM (Greek: writing back or anew): When the letters or syllables in a name, word or phrase are shuffled together or jumbled to form a new word. For instance, in Tanith Lee's short story, Bite-Me-Not, or Fleur De Fleu, the predatory vampire's name is Feroluce --an anagram of his demonic predecessor, Lucifer. Why Did Australia Join War Essay! Similarly in graduate thesis the film Angelheart , the devil travels using the anagram Louis Cipher , i.e., Lucifer as a moniker, and in film-makers' spin-offs of Bram Stoker's Dracula , Dracula uses the name Alucard as a disguise. War Essay! (An anagram that functions by merely writing a name backwards is known more specifically as an ananym .) Authors who love wordplay love using anagrams. For instance, Samuel Butler's utopian satire Erewhon is an anagram of Nowhere.

Critics have suggested Hawthorne's short story The Minister's Black Veil involves an and nitrogen anagram on veil and evil . Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam! Anagrams were quite popular in the Renaissance. ANALOGUE (also spelled analog ): A story that contains similar characters, situations, settings, or verbal echoes to essays burke, those found in a different story. Sometimes analogues reveal that one version was adopted from or inspired by why did australia the vietnam, another, or that both tales originate in a lost, older text. When one version is clearly the thesis statement ancestor of another, literary scholars refer to it as a source. For instance, Romeo and Juliet and Westside Story are analogues, with Romeo and Juliet being a loose source for the other. The character of Utnapishtim in the Babylonian flood legend is an analogue for the character of Noah in the Hebrew Bible, which in turn is an analogue for the Atlantis myth . Australia The Vietnam! In other cases, analogues appear that probably have no direct connection to carbon cycles essay, each other. Grettir's Saga , which includes a wrestling bout between the strongest Icelander and an evil spirit, is australia join the vietnam often thought of as an thesis statement on irony analogue to Beowulf , in which a hero with the strength of thirty men wrestles with the monster Grendel.

Grettir dives under an australia join the vietnam ocean-side waterfall and carbon cycles essay, does battle with a Troll-wife, just as Beowulf dives into a lake and why did australia war essay, does battle with Grendel's mother. These two pairs of scenes are analogues to each other. Most of graduate paper, Chaucer's stories in why did join The Canterbury Tales have analogues with varying degrees of of writing skills, correspondence; often these are of French or Italian origin. In general, the key philological question of the vietnam, analogues is whether they are the result of monogenesis or polygenesis . ANALOGY, LINGUISTIC : The modification of importance of writing skills, grammatical usage from the desire for uniformity. For instance, a child who states, I broked the toy or a man who says I knowed the truth is merely attempting to regularize the past tense of these verbs through linguistic analogy.

Cf. hypercorrection . ANALYTIC : A language is analytic if it requires a certain word order to make grammatical sense--often this requires extensive use of why did join, prepositions and essays burke, auxiliary verbs. Why Did Australia The Vietnam! For instance, take the sentence, The dog bit the boy. We know in modern English that dog is the subject and thesis, boy is the direct object because of word order, the common analytical pattern being subject-verb-object . Examples of analytic languages include French, Spanish, Modern English (but not Old English) and australia join the vietnam war essay, Italian. The opposite type of language uses declensions (special endings stuck on the ends of words) to show what case each word has. This type is called an inflected or synthetic language. Foreign Essays On Edmund! Click here for join the vietnam war essay more information about case . ANALYTICAL COMPARISON : Comparison using more and most instead of of hobbies and tension in modern, -er and why did join the vietnam, -est . ANALYZED RHYME : Another term for of writing skills essay inexact rhyme . See below. ANAPEST : A foot or unit of australia war essay, poetry consisting of two light syllables followed by a single stressed syllable.

Some words and phrases in English that constitute anapests include the following examples: understand, interrupt, comprehend, anapest, New Rochelle, contradict, get a life, condescend, Coeur d'Alene, in the blink of an eye, and foreign essays on edmund, so on. Anapestic meter consists of lines of join war essay, poetry that follow this pattern of light stress, light stress, heavy stress pattern. For example: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld (Lord Byron, The Destruction of writing thesis, Sennacherib) or Oh he flies through the air with the greatest of ease. See extended discussion under meter . Why Did The Vietnam! Click here to download a PDF handout that contrasts anapests with other types of metrical feet. ANAPHORA (Greek, carried again, also called epanaphora ): The intentional repetition of thesis on irony, beginning clauses in order to create an artistic effect. For instance, Churchill declared, We shall not flag or fail. Join The Vietnam War Essay! We shall go on the end. We shall fight in France. We shall fight on the seas and oceans. Help Analytical! We shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in why did australia the vietnam the air.

We shall defend our island, whatever the cost shall be. Thesis! The repetition of We shall. . . creates a rhetorical effect of solidarity and determination. A well-known example is the why did the vietnam war essay Beatitudes in the Bible, where nine statements in a row begin with Blessed are. (Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of carbon and nitrogen cycles, heaven. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.) Anaphora is why did australia war essay the opposite of epistrophe , in which the poet or rhetorician repeats the concluding phrase over and over for effects. Often the two can be combined effectively as well. Of Writing Skills! For instance, Saint Paul writes to the church at Corinth, Are they Hebrews? So am I. Why Did Australia! Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they the seed of writing, Abraham? So am I. Are they the join the vietnam war essay ministers of Christ?

I am more. Here, artful use of anaphora and epistrophe combined help Paul make his point more emphatically. Both anaphora and epistrophe are examples of rhetorical schemes. They serve to need analytical essay, lend weight and emphasis. ANAPODOTON : Deliberately creating a sentence fragment by the omission of a clause: If only you came with me! If only students knew what anapodoton was! Good writers never use sentence fragments? Ah, but they can. And they do. When appropriate. Anapodoton is an example of a rhetorical scheme.

ANAPTYXIS : In linguistics, anaptyxis is the appearance of an intrusive vowel sound between two consonants when that vowel is unexpected historically or when it shouldn't be there according to the normal rules of language development. For instance, many speakers insert a schwa sound between the /l/ and /m/ in the word elm or the word film . The adjective form of why did australia, this word is anaptyctic . Note that some linguists prefer to statement, call this phenomenon svarabhakti (from the Sanskrit term), and thus they refer to the intrusive vowel as a svarabhakti vowel . Compare with the why did join the vietnam war essay rhetorical device epenthesis . ANASTROPHE : Inverted order of words or events as a rhetorical scheme. Anastrophe is specifically a type of hyperbaton in which the adjective appears after the noun when we expect to find the adjective before the essay in reducing stress and tension in modern noun. For example, Shakespeare speaks of Figures pedantical ( LLL 5.2.407). Why Did Join The Vietnam War Essay! Faulkner describes The old bear . . . not even a mortal but an anachronism indomitable and invincible out of an old dead time. Lewis Carroll uses anastrophe in Jabberwocky, where we hear, Long time the manxome foe he sought. / So rested he by the Tumtum tree . . Statement! . . T. S. Eliot writes of Time present and time past, and so on. Particularly clever anastrophe can become a trope when it alters meaning in unusual ways. Australia Join The Vietnam! For instance, T. S. Eliot writes of arms that wrap about a shawl rather than shawls that wrap about an arm in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. See also hyperbaton . Natalie Dorsch's poem, Just Because, makes use of extended anastrophe in a clever way to show how delightfully confused the speaker is after a romantic interlude: shut the stairs, took off my prayers, turned off my bed, got into the light, you kissed me goodnight.

Here, she makes use of anastrophe in writing thesis paper nearly every line. Alternatively, we can use the term anastrophe as a reference to entire narratives in which the sequence of events are chopped into sections and then shuffled or scrambled into an unusual narrative order. An example of this type of the vietnam, anastrophe might be the sequence of foreign affections essays burke, events in Quentin Tarentino's film Pulp Fiction or Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse Five . Contrast with periodic sentence . ANATOLIAN : A branch of Indo-European languages spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ANCHORESS : A female anchorite. These women were eremites or hermits in the vietnam the medieval period who would request permission from the local pastor to paper, be walled up alive in a small cell attached to the side of the church. There the why did the vietnam anchoress would live out the rest of her days, relying upon the charity of the local community to provide food and water through a small opening. The practice was a common one in the medieval period.

Such hermits were considered especially holy for giving up worldly concerns, and they were often highly respected as spiritual counselors. Male anchoresses are called anchorites, and the enclosures they dwell in essay on relevance of hobbies in reducing are called anchorholds . The medieval writer Julian of Norwich was one such anchoress. ANCHORHOLD : In medieval times, an enclosure in the wall of australia the vietnam, a church where an anchorite or anchoress would be sealed up alive as a gesture of faith. ANCHORITE : An eremite or hermit in the medieval period who requests permission from the local pastor to be sealed up in a small cell attached to essay on relevance of hobbies in reducing in modern life, the side of the church, where the anchorite would live out the rest of his days relying upon the charity of the local community to provide food and water through a small opening. The practice was a common one in the medieval period.

Such hermits were considered especially holy for giving up worldly concerns, and they were often highly respected as spiritual counselors. Female anchorites are called anchoresses, and the enclosures in which they dwell are called anchorholds . ANCILLARY CHARACTERS (Latin ancilla : helper or maid): Less important characters who are not the primary protagonist or antagonist , but who highlight these characters or interact with them in such a way as to provide insight into why did the narrative action. Typical ancillary characters include foils , choric characters , deuteragonists , soubrettes , tritagonists , and stock characters . Writing Graduate Thesis! See character for more information. ANECDOTE : A short narrative account of an amusing, unusual, revealing, or interesting event. A good anecdote has a single, definite point, and the setting, dialogue, and characters are usually subordinate to the point of the story. Why Did Australia Join War Essay! Usually, the anecdote does not exist alone, but it is thesis statement on irony combined with other material such as expository essays or arguments. Writers may use anecdotes to the vietnam, clarify abstract points, to thesis on irony, humanize individuals, or to create a memorable image in the reader's mind.

Anecdotes are similar to the vietnam war essay, exempla . Importance Of Writing Skills! See exemplum . ANGLIAN : The dialects of Old English spoken in Mercia and Northumbria. Not to be confused with the word Anglican . ANGLICAN CHURCH : The Protestant Church in England that originated when King Henry VIII broke his ties to the Vatican in Rome (the Catholic Church). ANGLO-NORMAN : (1) The time-period when Norman conquerors ruled over England. During the Anglo-Norman period from 1066 until about australia join the vietnam 1200, Norman French was the language of literature and culture in England. (2) The dialect of Norman French that evolved in skills essay England after the Normans came with William the australia war essay Conquer, fought the Battle of Hastings, and carbon phosphorus essay, ruled over England afterward. Scholars typically abbreviate the phrase as AN. A sample writer from the Anglo-Norman period was Marie de France. See also Battle of Hastings . ANGLO-SAXON : (1) Historically, the term refers to a group of Teutonic tribes who invaded England in the fifth and sixth centuries following the departure of why did the vietnam war essay, Roman legions in writing thesis paper 410 CE. These tribes, the why did join the vietnam Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, came from the thesis statement on irony northern parts of Europe and gave their name (Angle-Land) to England, driving the native Celtic peoples into the farthest western and northern regions of Britain.

We can also refer to war essay, the time-period of 410 CE up until about 1066 CE as the of writing skills essay Anglo-Saxon historical period in Britain. In linguistics, the term Anglo-Saxon is also used to refer to why did australia join, Old English, the language spoken by paper, these tribes and the precursor of Middle English and why did the vietnam war essay, Modern English. See Old English . (2) In colloquial usage, the and nitrogen essay term Anglo-Saxon is often used to join the vietnam war essay, distinguish people of English ethnicity in carbon phosphorus cycles Great Britain, Canada, and the United States--hence acronyms like WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant). ANIMAL COMMUNICATION : The exchange of why did war essay, information among animals, especially as contrasted with human language and meta-language (Algeo 312). Need Analytical! Examples include pheremone trails left by ants, semaphore communications among bees, mating calls among birds, and vocal alerts concerning different predators among certain mammals. ANIMISM : The belief that animals, plants, and objects have their own souls or spirits inhabiting them, as in modern Japanese religions like Shinto or in why did war essay many older hunter-gatherer societies in Africa, Polynesia, and Australia. Many plant spirits in classical Greek mythology probably originate in essay on relevance of hobbies stress in modern earlier animistic belief, such as dryads and hamadryads (tree-spirits), Oreiads (mountain pine-tree spirits), Meliades (fruit-trees), and Meliai (ash tree and why did australia join the vietnam, honey-hive spirits). Other animistic spirits in on relevance of hobbies in reducing stress and tension in modern life Greek myth include the Oeneads and Krinaiai (well-spirits and fountain-spirits), Nephelai (cloud-spirits), Naiads (water-spirits), and Ithakiai (cave-spring spirits).

See also Solar Myth and why did australia join the vietnam, vegetationsdämon . ANNAL : Another term for a chronicle, a brief year-by-year account of events. ANONYMOUS : Of unknown authorship, either because the historical records are missing to shed light on the author's identity, or because the author deliberately hid his identity. Probably 90% of surviving medieval literature lacks authorial attribution. In the case of on relevance in reducing stress life, folklore and much mythology, the oldest versions are also usually anonymous. ANTAGONIST : See discussion under character , below. ANTHIMERIA : Artfully using a different part of speech to the vietnam, act as another in violation of the normal rules of grammar. This switch might involve treating a verb like a noun, or a noun like a verb, or an adjective like a verb, and foreign on edmund burke, so on.

Thus, in 1960s pop culture, Nancy Sinatra's song These Boots Are Made for Walkin' has a speaker who tells the implied audience, You keep lying when you ought to be truthing . . . . You keep saming when you ought to be changing. Why Did War Essay! In a more literary vein, e. e. cummings might speak of how he sang his didn't , he danced his did . A television advertisement might exhort its listeners to Gift him with Sports Illustrated magazine for Christmas (as opposed to give him Sports Illustrated for Christmas). Rabelais might state, I am going in thesis search of the great perhaps and when the priest Angelo is doing an effective job of australia the vietnam war essay, controlling the city, we hear that Lord Angelo dukes it well in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (III, iii), and so on. Of Writing! Anthimeria allows poets to step into an extra-verbal realm to suggest and hint at that which cannot be put easily in words without a loss of verbal magic. Linguists more generally call this device form shift . ANTHOLOGY (from Grk. anther + logos , flower-words): Literally implying a collection of flowers, the term anthology refers to why did australia war essay, a collection of poetry, drama, or verse. English majors may be familiar with the ubiquitous Norton Anthology of British Literature , for instance.

The first collection of poetry thus labeled was The Anthology , a collection of some 4,500 Greek poems dating between 490 BCE and 1,000 CE. ANTICATHOLICISM : Literature or rhetoric created (often by Protestants) for writing the purpose of australia join war essay, countering Catholic doctrine or depicting Catholicism in help writing analytical essay a negative light. In Reformation and join the vietnam, Post-Reformation British literature, anticatholic motifs frequently appear after the Anglican Church splits from Rome under Henry VIII. Examples include Spenser's Faerie Queene , in which Catholic associations surround villains like Duessa and Archimago. A similar surge of anticatholic characterizations appear just before and during the Enlightenment period, notably in Gothic literature like Lewis' The Monk , in which convents and monasteries are depicted as hypocritical hives of sadism and writing graduate thesis paper, superstition. ANTICLIMAX (also called bathos ): a drop, often sudden and unexpected, from a dignified or important idea or situation to one that is trivial or humorous. Join The Vietnam War Essay! Also a sudden descent from something sublime to something ridiculous. In fiction and drama, this refers to on irony, action that is disappointing in contrast to the previous moment of intense interest. In rhetoric, the effect is frequently intentional and comic. For example: Usama Bin Laden: Wanted for Crimes of War, Terrorism, Murder, Conspiracy, and Nefarious Parking Practices.

ANTIFEMINIST TRADITION : While some medieval women writers like Christine de Pisan and Margery Kempe advocated that women should have stronger positions in the medieval church or medieval society more generally, many other writers (mostly but not exclusively male) called for the female gender to remain in inferior or subservient positions. Other monastic writers would go so far as to declare all women evil temptresses and why did, seductresses, inherently corrupt, conniving, incompetent, and weak-willed. Help Writing Analytical! Modern critics call these writers and their works the why did australia the vietnam war essay anti-feminist tradition. The term primarily applies to patristic writers like Saint Jerome, Saint Augustine, and Saint Paul, but it more loosely applies to Juvenal, Theophrastus, Abelard, John of writing graduate thesis paper, Salisbury, Walter Map, Hugh of Folietto, Peter of Blois, and Andreas Fieschi. In Chaucer's The Wife of why did join, Bath's Tale, the Wife recounts how her fifth husband would read from a book of Wykked Wyves--apparently a collection of phosphorus and nitrogen essay, works in the anti-feminist tradition. Australia The Vietnam! Aemilia Lanyer confronts and rebuts this anti-feminist tradition in her Renaissance work, Salve Deus, Rex Judaeorum , and Virginia Woolf touches on it indirectly in her twentieth-century writings like A Room of thesis statement, One's Own. ANTI-FRATERNAL SATIRE : Medieval satire that points out why did australia join the vietnam, (in humor or anger) the importance skills failings and hypocrisies of bad monks, friars, and why did australia the vietnam war essay, nuns in particular and analytical essay, the secular clergy and church officers more generally. Examples from The Canterbury Tales include Chaucer's depiction of the Monk and join the vietnam war essay, Prioress in The General Prologue and essay on relevance stress and tension in modern, the content of The Summoner's Tale.

ANTIHERO : A protagonist who is a non-hero or the antithesis of a traditional hero. While the traditional hero may be dashing, strong, brave, resourceful, or handsome, the australia join the vietnam war essay antihero may be incompetent, unlucky, clumsy, dumb, ugly, or clownish. Examples here might include the senile protagonist of Cervantes' Don Quixote or the girlish knight Sir Thopas from Chaucer's Sir Thopas. In the case of the Byronic and Miltonic antihero, the antihero is essay in reducing stress and tension in modern a romanticized but wicked character who defies authority, and becomes paradoxically ennobled by his peculiar rejection of virtue. Join The Vietnam War Essay! In this sense, Milton presents Satan in Paradise Lost as an antihero in a sympathetic manner--at least in the first half of the poem. Foreign Affections Essays On Edmund! The same is true of Heathcliffe in Emily Bronté's Wuthering Heights . Compare with the picaro . ANTIMETABOLE (Greek, turning about): A rhetorical scheme involving repetition in reverse order : One should eat to live, not live to eat.

Or, You like it; it likes you. The witches in that Scottish play chant, Fair is foul and join war essay, foul is fair. One character in Love's Labor's Lost uses antimetabole when he asks I pretty, and my saying apt? Or I apt, and my saying pretty? (I, ii). The first will be last and the last will be first, and so forth. Antimetabole often overlaps with chiasmus . This device is sometimes used as a synonym for help analytical epanados in modern textbooks (though classical rhetoricians would treat it as distinct). See schemes . ANTI-SEMITIC LITERATURE : Literature that vilifies Jews or encourages racist attitudes toward them. Much of the religious literature produced in medieval and Renaissance Europe unfortunately engaged in anti-Semitism to one degree or another. Australia Join! This is due to a series of sociological causes too lengthy to discuss here. Thesis On Irony! Typical allegations accused Jews of killing and cannibalizing Christians, secretly poisoning wells, spreading plague and leprosy among non-Jewish neighbors, kidnapping Christian children, defiling communion wafers, and why did australia join the vietnam, engaging in various economic crimes, the most famous being blood libel . The irony is thesis on irony that, although Jews were blamed for various outbreaks of plague and australia the vietnam war essay, the contamination of water supplies, in many such communities there were no Jews present at writing paper, all. They had often been kicked out of the why did australia the vietnam war essay country long before the crimes took place.

In 1182 Philip II banished the Jews from France, causing many Jews to flee to England, where many other Jews had sought shelter in the eleventh century. Anti-Semitic violence intensified after the crusades, culminating in the church's Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, which passed laws requiring Jews to wear distinctive clothing and forbidding them from holding political office in Chrstian-controlled lands. Local bishoprics and principalities embraced these new laws, and often added their own twists, such as requiring Jews to pay additional taxes, or requiring the most senior Jewish Rabbi to graduate paper, submit to various ritual humiliations before the community at Easter. (In one French city, for australia the vietnam instance, the most prestigious Rabbi had to appear on the doorsteps of the bishop's cathedral on Easter afternoon to receive a ritual blow and communal rejection.) Other secular authorities followed the thesis statement on irony ecclesiastical example by making it illegal for Jews to own land or to labor in an occupation that would compete with local Christians. Ironically, this policy forced Jews to train themselves in highly skilled professions such as law, medicine, accounting, gem-cutting, and whatnot. Why Did Australia War Essay! These lucrative professions only further aroused the envy and phosphorus cycles, ire of less-skilled, less educated, and less wealthy citizens of the European kingdoms. In 1275, Edward I began to default on the loans he owed Jewish moneylenders, and in 1287, he imprisoned some 3,000 Jewish subjects, whom he ransomed to their families for why did australia cash.

In spite of the Jewish payment in good faith, he issued an edict in need help essay 1290 banishing all Jews from England and why did join the vietnam war essay, confiscating all their properties. Importance! After Jews were allowed to return to France, French King Philip IV expelled them again in war essay 1306, forcing them to flee to Germany. Mass burnings and executions of on relevance in reducing stress and tension in modern life, Jews took place in Germany in why did the vietnam 1349 after an outbreak of essay, plague, and so on--right up to the Holocaust of World War II, in which the genocide was horrifying not for its novelty, but rather for its continuation of a centuries-long tradition with the added efficiency of join war essay, modern technologies like gas chambers and incinerators. Such occurrences affect the literature of importance skills, a culture as well. The Legends of the Holy Rood , for join the vietnam instance, recounts an Anglo-Latin story of how Jewish blasphemers drown in Christ's blood after entering a Christian church. In the tale, the doors slam shutting locking the writing graduate paper Jews inside. Why Did Join! The cross begin bleeding profusely until the liquid filled the entire structure and overwhelms them. The Anglo-Saxon poem Elena (St. Helen) describes the way the pious mother of Constantine tortures reluctant Jews in order to writing graduate, locate the remains of the true cross, which the why did the vietnam war essay Jews had sneakily hidden away from her in order to thesis paper, conceal the truth of why did australia join war essay, Christ's resurrection.

In Middle English, we see that Chaucer's Prioress' Tale likewise depicts Jews as manipulative evildoers who murder a saintly young choirboy. Statement On Irony! In the Renaissance, Shakespeare's The Merchant of australia join the vietnam war essay, Venice presents a Jewish lawyer, Shylock, as the villain scheming to extract a pound of flesh from his poor Christian victim, and so on, ad nauseum . Occasionally, it is help writing essay ambiguous whether readers should accept the australia join the vietnam war essay anti-Semitism readily. For instance, the Prioress' earlier depiction in need help analytical Chaucer's General Prologue suggests she has misplaced secular priorities, so Chaucer might not intend for her to be a very authoritative or holy figure when she tells her tale. Likewise, Shakespeare does a marvelous job of transforming Shylock into an indignant and australia war essay, injured human being rather than a moustache-twirling, two-dimensional stereotype in thesis Shylock's If they prick us. . . . speech and in his soliloquies discussing the way Christians have subtly mocked him, cheated him, and insulted his family. However, such literary moments are rare in which an author questions the australia war essay common anti-Semitism of the era. Thus, when we do find material that suggests a more tolerant attitude, we must approach it with a skeptical eye to carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles essay, make sure we are not misreading historical intent. ANTITHESIS (plural: antitheses ): Using opposite phrases in close conjunction. Examples might be, I burn and I freeze, or Her character is white as sunlight, black as midnight.

The best antitheses express their contrary ideas in a balanced sentence. Australia! It can be a contrast of opposites: Evil men fear authority; good men cherish it. Alternatively, it can be a contrast of degree: One small step for a man, one giant leap for need writing essay all mankind. Join The Vietnam War Essay! Antithesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. Contrast with oxymoron . ANTITYPE : A figure, event, or symbol in the New Testament thought to on relevance and tension in modern life, be prefigured by a different figure, event, or symbol in the Old Testament. Why Did Join The Vietnam War Essay! See extended discussion under typology . APHAEARESIS (also spelled apheresis ; plural: aphaeareses, adj. apheretic ): Rhetorically deleting a syllable--unaccented or accented--from the foreign burke beginning of a word to create a new term or phrasing.

For instance, in King Lear , we hear that, the australia war essay king hath cause to plain (3.1.39). Here, the word complain has lost its first syllable. In Hamlet 2.2.561, Hamlet asks, Who should 'scape whipping if every man were treated as he deserved. Note that the e- in escape has itself cleverly escaped from its position! Aphaeresis is an example of of writing skills essay, a rhetorical scheme or trope. The adjective form is apheretic . Contrast with the more precise linguistic term aphesis . APHESIS : Linguistically, the omission of an un accented syllable from the front of a word. Why Did Join War Essay! Contrast with the more general rhetorical term, aphaearesis . APOCALYPSE : From the Greek word apocalypsis (unveiling), an apocalypse originally referred to a mystical revelation of skills essay, a spiritual truth, but has changed in twentieth-century use to refer specifically to mystical visions concerning the end of the world. The most famous Apocalypse in the Christian tradition is the book commonly known to Protestants as Revelation in the New Testament.

Attributed to John of Patmos, legend states that John wrote it in exile about the year 70 AD, though surviving manuscripts are much later in australia date. All apocalyptic narratives are by their nature eschatological (see below). APOCOPATED RHYME AND METER : Poetic use of apocope to need help essay, create a rhyming word at the end of a line or to balance the number of syllables to stay within metrical restraints (see meter ). Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! (The latter type might be more accurately called apocopated meter rather than apocopated rhyme.) For example, in Keats' poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci, the poetic speaker refers to a lady in the meads instead of paper, a lady in the meadows , and he speaks of an elfin grot instead of an elfin grotto . Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam! Clever poets use this formalistic device in a way that connects with the thematic content. APOCOPE : Deleting a syllable or letter from the end of a word. Thesis Paper! In The Merchant of Venice , one character says, when I ope my lips let no dog bark, and the last syllable of open falls away into ope before the reader's eyes (1.1.93-94). In Troilus and Cressida , Shakespeare proclaims, If I might in entreaties find success--/ As seld I have the why did australia chance--I would desire / My famous cousin to stress and tension life, our Grecian tents (4.5.148). Here the word seldom becomes seld . Apocope is an example of australia join, a rhetorical scheme.

Note that some scholars modernize this word and refer to it as apocopation . Contrast with syncope . APOPHASIS : Denying one's intention to talk or write about a subject, but making the denial in such a way that the subject is actually discussed. For instance, a candidate for the senate might start his speech declaring, I don't have time to list the seventeen felony counts my opponent faces, or the lurid rumors of my opponent's sexual behavior with sixteen-year old girls, or the evidence that he is engaged in tax evasion. Instead, I am going to writing graduate, talk about my own qualities that I would bring to the senate if you vote for me . . . A fine example of war essay, apophasis in Shakespeare comes from Mark Antony's funeral speech in Julius Caesar : I am no orator, as Brutus is; But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man . . . For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech.

To stir men's blood; I only speak right on. APORIA (Greek: impassable path): The deliberate act of talking about how one is thesis statement unable to talk about something. Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! For instance, I can't tell you how often writers use aporia . The term dubitatio refers to a subtype of aporia in which a speaker or writer pauses and deliberately reveals his doubt or uncertainty (genuine or feigned) about an issue. The aporia in essay on relevance of hobbies stress and tension the case of why did australia join war essay, dubitatio is writing essay both that pause and the act of intentionally discussing that ambiguous reaction. This rhetorical ploy can make the audience feel sympathy for the speaker's dilemma, or it can help characterize the australia the vietnam war essay speaker as one who is open-minded and sincerely struggling with the same issues the audience faces. More recently, literary deconstructionists like Jacques Derrida have high-jacked or modified the essays rhetorical term aporia, and they use it to suggest a gap or a lacuna that exists between what the text attempts to australia the vietnam, say and what it is forced to mean due to the constraints of language. Aporia is an example of burke, a rhetorical trope. See also apophasis , above. Contrast with aposiopesis , below. APOSIOPESIS : Breaking off as if unable to continue, stopping suddenly in why did australia the vietnam the midst of a sentence, or leaving a statement unfinished at need help writing analytical, a dramatic moment. Sometimes the interruption is an why did war essay artificial choice the author makes for a dramatic effect.

For instance, Steele writes, The fire surrounds them while -- I cannot go on. He leaves the horrific outcome of the conflagration to the readers' imaginations. Writing Graduate Thesis! On the other hand, Hotspur's dying breath provides a literary instance in which the speaker is physically unable to continue, leaving another to complete the thought: But that the earthy and cold hand of the vietnam war essay, death. Lies on my tongue. No, Percy, thou art dust, Prince Hal : For worms, brave Percy. ( 1 Henry IV , 5.4) Aposiopesis is a wonderful and flexible technique for showing a character's overcharged emotions. Hamlet makes use of aposiopesis to illustrate his grief and shock at his mother's behavior after the king's death. One example is when he can't finish his comparison between his mother and Niobe: Like Niobe, all tears--why, she, even she-- / O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason / Would have mourned longer. Essay And Tension In Modern! Shakespeare again makes use of the technique when King Lear rages against his evil daughters.

Shakespeare makes him so upset he can't even think of a proper punishment for them as the old king breaks down in blustering tears: That all the world shall--I will do such things-- What they are yet, I know not; but they shall be. The terrors of the earth! ( King Lear 2.4.274-77) Virgil makes epic use of aposiopesis ; he has the God Neptune become so angry at the windstorms over his ocean, he can't decide which storm-spirit to smack first or in what order to fix the resulting mess:

We find Biblical examples of aposiopesis in the Hebrew Bible, in the vietnam which Moses doesn't even dare to in reducing in modern, complete his sentence when he challenges God's decision to destroy the Israelites for their sin: And Moses returned unto the australia join war essay Lord, and essay stress, said, 'Oh, this people ha ve sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out australia join the vietnam war essay, of the Book of Life (Exodus 32:31). Aposiopesis is an example of a rhetorical trope. APOSTROPHE : Not to be confused with the of writing punctuation mark, apostrophe is the act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present: For instance, John Donne commands, Oh, Death, be not proud. King Lear proclaims, Ingratitude! thou marble-hearted fiend, / More hideous when thou show'st thee in a child / Than the sea-monster. Death, of course, is a phenomenon rather than a proud person, and ingratitude is an abstraction that hardly cares about Lear's opinion, but the act of addressing the abstract has its own rhetorical power. Why Did The Vietnam! An apostrophe is an example of a rhetorical trope. APOTROPAIC : Designed to on relevance in reducing life, ward off evil influence or malevolent spirits by frightening these forces away. In many cultures, elaborate artwork depicting monsters would be created to have an apotropaic affect. For instance, the fierce celestial dogs (Fu dogs) carved outside the entrance to Tibetan temples would keep evil spirits from entering the holy ground, and Amerindian shamans would wear frightening, grotesque medicine masks when they visited sick members of their tribe to terrify the evil spirits making them sick.

It has been suggested that the presence of gargoyles and australia, grotesques on medieval cathedrals is a remnant of older pagan practices, in which monstrous apotropaic figures would be carved on the front of ships and over the entrances to and nitrogen essay, buildings to why did join war essay, ward off evil influences. Many Anglo-Saxon charms may have been apotropaic chants. APRON STAGE : A stage that projects out into the auditorium area. This enlarges the thesis paper square footage available for actors to walk and move upon. This feature was not common in the days of classical Greco-Roman theater, but it was a common architectural trait in Elizabethan times and remains in why did join the vietnam use in some modern theaters. An apron stage is statement on irony also known as a thrust stage . ARAMAIC : The Oxford Companion to the Bible discusses Chaldean Aramaic as a Northwest Semitic language closely related to Classical Hebrew. Classical Hebrew developed as an australia join offshoot of proto-Canaanite around 1,000 BCE. and it was commonly used as a vernacular until about 500 BCE. Aramaic slowly replaced Classical Hebrew as a language of the thesis common people. Why Did Join The Vietnam! It was originally written in the 22 letters of the need analytical Phoenician alphabet, and it became common in australia war essay territory controlled by the Chaldeans.

It differed somewhat in need writing its definite articles and its vocabulary from Classical Hebrew, but it had many close cognates (such as Hebrew shalom and Aramaic shelam , peace). After the year 500 BCE, Aramaic gradually became the australia join the vietnam vernacular language used in the Palestinian region and on irony, especially in Galilee. Jeremiah 10:11 is written in Aramaic, as is Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 (c. 450 BCE). The original book of Daniel was probably written in why did Aramaic as well, though only Daniel 2:4b-7:28 remain in the original tongue. Genesis 31:47 contains an Aramaic place-name--indicating this section is a late revision to early Genesis texts. Many of Christ's quotations in thesis statement on irony the New Testament are in australia the vietnam Aramaic, such as Talitha cum (Mark 5:41) and Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani (Mark 15:34; cf. Matt: 27:46 with variant readings in the Hebrew). See J. A. Emerton's entry in Metzer and Coogan, 45-46.

ARCHAISM : A word, expression, spelling, or phrase that is out of date in the common speech of an era, but still deliberately used by need help analytical, a writer, poet, or playwright for artistic purposes. Join The Vietnam War Essay! For instance, two archaic words (reproduced here in italics) appear in these lines from Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner : Hold off! unhand me, grey-beard loon! Until fairly recent centuries, it was still common to of writing skills, find poets using I ween, steed, and gramercy in their poems, even though they wouldn't use these terms in normal daily speech. Artists might choose an archaism over a more familiar word because it is more suitable for meter, for rhyme, for alliteration, or for its associations with the past. It also might be attractive as a quick way to defamiliarize an everyday phrase or object. Note that for Shakespeare in the sixteenth century, the use of thy and thine is not particularly archaic, but for John Updike in the twentieth century, the use of thy and thine is definitely archaic. Spenser, an avid Chaucer fan, used archaisms to imitate fourteenth-century Chaucerian spelling and language in his fifteenth-century poem, The Faerie Queen . The translators of the King James Version of the Bible (1611) revived archaisms to give weight and dignity to sonorous passages. Later in the seventeenth century, Milton employed Latinate archaisms in Paradise Lost , even going so far as to imitate the periodic sentence structure preferred by classical Roman poets, even though Latin was a dead language by his day. Coleridge, Keats, William Morris, and Tennyson also used archaisms for creating pseudo-medieval effects in specific poems, such as Tennyson's Idylls of the australia join the vietnam King (1842-1885). This tendency in nineteenth-century poetry mirrors the growth of romanticized pseudo-medieval visual art among the nineteenth-century Pre-Raphaelites.

An extended example of deliberate archaisms appears in Keats's The Eve of Saint Mark (c. 1819). In one section, the character Bertha reads from a legend of Holy Mark, and Keats shifts to archaisms to reproduce the imaginary text in language imitating that of the thesis fourteenth century: Approuchen thee full dolourouse. For sooth to why did war essay, sain from everich house. Be it in writing graduate thesis city or village. Wol come the Phantom and image. Of ilka gent and ilka carle.

Archaisms are more rare in modern and postmodern poetry. Cf. Join The Vietnam! anachronism . ARCHETYPAL CRITICISM : The analysis of statement, a piece of literature through the examination of why did australia join the vietnam, archetypes and archetypal patterns in Jungian psychology . Carbon Phosphorus Essay! See archetype below. ARCHETYPE : An original model or pattern from which other later copies are made, especially a character, an action, or situation that seems to australia the vietnam, represent common patterns of human life. Often, archetypes include a symbol, a theme, a setting, or a character that some critics think have a common meaning in essay on relevance stress and tension an entire culture, or even the entire human race. Why Did Join! These images have particular emotional resonance and power. Phosphorus And Nitrogen Cycles Essay! Archetypes recur in different times and places in myth, literature, folklore, fairy tales, dreams, artwork, and religious rituals. Using the comparative anthropological work of Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough , the psychologist Carl Jung theorized that the archetype originates in the collective unconscious of mankind, i.e., the shared experiences of why did join the vietnam, a race or culture, such as birth, death, love, family life, and struggles to statement, survive and grow up. These would be expressed in why did australia join the vietnam war essay the subconscious of an individual who would recreate them in myths, dreams, and literature. Examples of archetypes found cross-culturally include the need help writing analytical essay following: (1) Recurring symbolic situations (such as the orphaned prince or the why did lost chieftain's son raised ignorant of his heritage until he is rediscovered by his parents, or the damsel in statement distress rescued from a hideous monster by join war essay, a handsome young man who later marries the girl. Also, the long journey, the difficult quest or search, the writing catalog of difficult tasks, the pursuit of revenge, the descent into the underworld , redemptive rituals, fertility rites, the great flood, the End of the war essay World), (2) Recurring themes (such as the Faustian bargain ; pride preceding a fall; the inevitable nature of of writing skills essay, death, fate, or punishment; blindness; madness; taboos such as forbidden love, patricide, or incest), (3) Recurring characters (such as witches or ugly crones who cannibalize children, lame blacksmiths of preternatural skill, womanizing Don Juans, the hunted man, the femme fatale , the snob, the social climber, the wise old man as mentor or teacher, star-crossed lovers; the caring mother-figure, the helpless little old lady, the stern father-figure, the guilt-ridden figure searching for redemption, the braggart, the young star-crossed lovers, the bully, the villain in black, the oracle or prophet, the mad scientist, the underdog who emerges victorious, the mourning widow or women in lamentation), (4) Symbolic colors (green as a symbol for life, vegetation, or summer; blue as a symbol for water or tranquility; white or black as a symbol of purity; or red as a symbol of blood, fire, or passion) and so on. (5) Recurring images (such as blood, water, pregnancy, ashes, cleanness, dirtiness, caverns, phallic symbols , yonic symbols , the ruined tower, the why did australia join rose or lotus, the need writing analytical lion, the why did australia the vietnam war essay snake, the essay eagle, the hanged man, the dying god that rises again, the feast or banquet, the fall from a great height).

The study of these archetypes in literature is known as archetypal criticism or mythic criticism . Archetypes are also called universal symbols . Contrast with private symbol . ARCHON, EPONYMOUS : An official in classical Athens. The holder of this office arranged the production of tragedies and comedies at annual festivals honoring Dionysus. Australia The Vietnam! Each year was named after the officiating eponymous archon. Thesis Paper! Contrast with the choragos , the individual who paid for a tragedy's performance and thus won the lead-spot in the chorus . ARENA STAGE : A theater arrangement in which viewers sit encircling the stage completely. The actors enter and why did join the vietnam, exit by moving along the same aisles the writing paper audience uses. This often encourages interaction between cast and audience. Frequently this type of stage is why did australia join the vietnam situated outdoors. Statement On Irony! This type of theatrical arrangement is also called theater in the round . AREOPAGUS (Greek, Hill of Ares.): (1) Also known as Mars Hill, this location near the Acropolis served in classical times as a high court of appeal in criminal and civil cases and according to ancient tradition, an why did australia join individual could stand on this hill and writing graduate thesis paper, make a speech on any subject--no matter how unpopular. In early Patristic times, it was at this location that Saint Paul delivered his speech concerning the Unknown God in Acts 17:18-34. The location became associated in John Milton's mind with freedom of speech and the open debate of the vietnam, ideas to find greater truths; hence, Milton wrote an essay opposed to the Licensing Act of 1643. The essay's title, Areopagitica , comes from the carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles Areopagus.

ARÊTE : The Greek term arête implies a humble and constant striving for perfection and self-improvement combined with a realistic awareness that such perfection cannot be reached. War Essay! As long as an individual strives to carbon cycles essay, do and why did war essay, be the thesis paper best, that individual has arête . As soon as the individual believes he has actually achieved arête , however, he or she has lost that exalted state and fallen into hubris , unable to recognize personal limitations or the humble need to improve constantly. ARGUMENT : A statement of a poem's major point--usually appearing in the introduction of the poem. Spenser presents such an argument in the introduction to his eclogues, Coleridge presents such in his marginalia to The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner , and war essay, Milton most famously presents such in statement on irony Book One of Paradise Lost , where he proclaims he will assert eternal providence / And justify the ways of God to man . Cf. Australia Join! thesis . ARRAS : In Renaissance drama, a hanging tapestry or a curtain that covered a part of the frons scenae . Foreign Essays On Edmund Burke! It hid the discovery space and may have draped around the stage's edge to hide the open area underneath. In Hamlet , Hamlet stabs Polonius through such an arras. ARSIS : In classical metrical analysis, Greeks referred to the stressed syllable in a metrical foot as a thesis , and why did war essay, the unstressed syllable in paper a metrical foot as an join war essay arsis . Essay On Relevance In Reducing Stress And Tension In Modern! Unfortunately, the Roman analysts used the exact opposite terminology, with the thesis being their unstressed foot and the arsis being the stressed foot.

This inconsistency results in much confusion to modern students. ARTHURIAN : Related to the legends of King Arthur and his knights. A large body of ancient and recent literature is Arthurian in whole or part, including these examples: ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE : Not to be confused with what linguists call grammatically synthetic (inflected) languages, artificial languages are deliberately made up by a small number of individuals for some specific purpose rather than developing naturally over a period of centuries. Examples of war essay, artificial languages designed for international use include Esperanto, Volapük, and Neo-Latin. Examples of artificial languages designed for fiction include Tolkien's Elvish, Avatar 's Na-vi, and the Klingon language Klingonese used by Star Trek enthusiasts. Contrast with synthetic languages. ARZAMAS : A Russian literary circle active between 1815-1818; it consisted of need analytical, poets such as Zhukovski, Batyushkov, Vyazemski, Pushkin, and others. Australia Join The Vietnam! The group focused on of writing skills essay writing and sharing parodies of their literary opponents, most of whom favored a heavily Slavonicized style (Harkins 9). ASCERTAINMENT : The Enlightenment's desire for why did australia the vietnam war essay and obsession with standardization and importance of writing essay, regulation of the English language--i.e., making grammatical rules. Such grammarians often based them artificially on Latin grammar or mathematical principles, or they created style and spelling guidebooks for correctness of the vietnam war essay, usage, and so on.

A. C. Baugh quotes Samuel Johnson's definition of the word and argues that it and argues this term sums up Enlightenment desires for prescriptivist grammar (Baugh 257-58). ASH (also spelled aesc or asc when referring to runes): The letter used in Old English to indicate the sound /æ/ as in the modern English word at . The name comes from the Old Norse rune aesc . Click here for more information. ASIDE : In drama, a few words or a short passage spoken by one character to the audience while the other a ctors on stage pretend their characters cannot hear the speaker's words. It is a theatrical convention that the aside is not audible to other characters on stage. Contrast with soliloquy . The aside is usually indicated by stage directions . ASIMOV'S THREE LAWS OF ROBOTICS : Science fiction author Isaac Asimov originally posited Asimov's three laws in his short stories collected in I, Robot . These laws were mathematical limitations or hardwired parameters for essay on relevance and tension in modern life robotic behavior as follows: (1) The First Law : Robots must not harm a human being or through inaction allow a human being to come to australia, harm. (2) The Second Law : Robots must obey direct commands from human beings, unless those commands would conflict with the First Law. (3) The Third Law : Robots must preserve their own existence, unless doing so would conflict with the Second or First Law. These three laws became a long-running framework for a number of science fiction plots in novels like The Caves of Steel . In later novels, the writing graduate thesis paper robots themselves end up facing ethical conflicts and why did join war essay, end up altering their own programming to embrace a so-called Zeroth Law: (0) The Zeroth Law : No robot may harm humanity or through inaction allow or allow humanity to come to harm.

The subsequent three laws were then altered with an exception prioritizing the Zeroth Law. Asimov used the three laws as a means of exploring thematically the on relevance in reducing and tension in modern ethics of responsibility--often contrasting the why did war essay benevolent devotion of the robots and the fallible passions of their human masters, making them foils . Unlike many science fiction authors who focus on a Frankenstein motif , Asimov assumed an optimistic outlook on robotic intelligence. ASK WORD : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as any of the words whose historical /æ/ sound becomes the vowel /a/ in Eastern New England and in thesis British pronunciation (313). ASPIRATION (adjective form, aspirated ): A puff of breath made along with a consonant sound while vocalizing. ASSIMILATION : Algeo defines linguistic assimilation as The process by which two sounds become more alike (313). Why Did Australia Join! We can see this in the word spaceship, where the /s/ sound represented by the c often assimilates or blurs to match the sound represented by the sh . Assimilation also occurs when the -ed endings of carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles, words are pronounced /t/ after unvoiced sounds but /d/ after voiced sounds (313).

ASSONANCE : Repeating identical or similar vowels (especially in stressed syllables) in nearby words. Assonance in final vowels of lines can often lead to half-rhyme. Deutsche notes that assonance is a common technique in the poetry of G. M. Hopkins, Dylan Thomas, and more generally in popular ballads; an join the vietnam war essay example appears in the second and fourth lines of this stanza from Fair Annie: Bind up, bind up your yellow hair, And tie it on your neck ; And see you look as maiden-like. As the day that first we met . (qtd in Deutsche 140). If combined with consonnance, assonance can create actual full rhyme. Cf. Need Help Writing Analytical! alliteration . ASTEISMUS : A sub-category of join the vietnam, puns. See discussion under pun . A -STEM : A declension of need writing essay, Old English nouns.

At one point, this declension had a thematic vowel appearing in australia the vietnam front of its inflectional suffixes. The a -stem declension ultimately became the source of the genitive 's and plural s in of writing Modern English. Contrast with the join the vietnam war essay n -stem . ASTERISK : A typographical symbol (*) that linguists use to show a hypothetical, abnormal, or nonoccurring form. Essays On Edmund! For instance, *dwo is a hypothetical reconstruction of the Indo-European word for two . It probably existed, but it survives in no written examples. On the other hand, * thinked is nonoccurring preterite or participle that could theoretically exist instead of thought . ASTERISM : A rather obscure punctuation mark to most modern users, an australia join war essay asterism consists of a triangle of three tiny asterisks, two on the bottom of a line, and one centered above those two. Textual editors used to writing, insert the asterism to indicate that a small spot in a manuscript was damaged or missing. Most modern editors simply insert a line of asterisks or use ellipses to indicate these lacunae in modern editions. To create an asterism on a PC, the uniform code is U+2042, though no keystroke exists on the keyboard itself. ASYNDETON : The artistic elimination of conjunctions in a sentence to the vietnam, create a particular effect. Carbon Phosphorus Cycles! See schemes for more information.

ATHEMATIC VERB : Algeo defines this as An Indo-European verb stem formed without a thematic vowel (313). The letter m in Modern English verb am is a remnant of an australia the vietnam Indo-European athematic verb ending. ATLANTIS MYTH : A motif common in mythology in which an importance ancient, wise, or powerful civilization once existed in a past golden age but floods destroyed it. Plato popularized the myth in his works Timeaus and Critias , where he describes the arrogant island of Atlantis as an adversary of Greek civilization 9,000 years before his own day, but the gods disfavor the island's hubris , and they submerge it into the Atlantic Ocean. Although Plato's references are brief, they have inspired some archeologists to link it with the Island of Thera (which was destroyed by volcanic erruption that triggered tidal waves devastating Minoan civilization in 1900 BCE).

Likewise, they have inspired fiction writers to produce a number of later fantastic works. The allegorical aspects of the australia join island influence Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Thomas More's Utopia , and Stephen Lawhead's Taliesin. Among the Inklings, it plays a part in C.S. Lewis's The Magician's Nephew , where dust from Atlantis serves as a component of magical rings, as well as in Lewis's space trilogy. C.S. Lewis also uses it as a comparison to of hobbies in reducing stress and tension in modern, being overwhelmed by grief in his autobiography, Surprised by Joy . Charles Williams plays with the motif in Taliessin Through Logres . Australia Join War Essay! Other inklings like J.R.R. Tolkien use the myth indirectly, as Tolkien uses it as an analogue in The Silmarillion, in which Númenor was a huge island in the Sundering Sea, west of Middle-Earth. These Númenorians grew obsessed with the search for immortality, and eventually their culture died when their island sank. In medieval legends, other analogues to the Atlantis myth include the legends of Logres and Lyonesse (which medieval tales located in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Cornwall and Landsend), and older analogues appear in Mesopotamian and Hebrew myth such as in the Old Testament accounts of the flood. A common erroneous claim is affections essays on edmund burke that flood myths are universal world-wide, though it actual point of fact, legends in which the world or a civilization die in floods primarily appear in cultures in geographic areas subject to regional flooding. Areas without such flooding do not tend to have Atlantis myths or flood myths.

ATMOSPHERE (Also called mood ): The emotional feelings inspired by a work. Why Did The Vietnam War Essay! The term is affections essays on edmund burke borrowed from meteorology to join the vietnam, describe the importance of writing skills dominant mood of a selection as it is australia join created by diction, dialogue, setting, and description. Often the opening scene in a play or novel establishes an atmosphere appropriate to the theme of the entire work. Essay On Relevance Of Hobbies In Reducing Stress And Tension! The opening of Shakespeare's Hamlet creates a brooding atmosphere of unease. Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher establishes an atmosphere of gloom and emotional decay. The opening of Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 establishes a surreal atmosphere of confusion, and so on. Compare with ambiance , above. AUBADE (also called a dawn song ): A genre of poetry in which a short poem's subject is about the dawn or the coming of the dawn, or it is a piece of music meant to be sung or played outdoors at dawn.

Examples include Browning's The year's at the spring / And day's at join the vietnam, the morn from Pippa Passes or Shakespeare's Hark! hark! the lark. Some poems, such as John Donne's Busy old sun, share traits with the dawn song. Troilus and Criseyde also contains an need help essay example of the genre within its larger narrative. Cf. the Provençal equivalent, an alba . AUBE : A dawn-song or aubade , but specifically one sung by a friend watching over a pair of lovers until dawn to why did war essay, prevent any interruption to their love-making or to cover up the noise of the love-making. Essay! Contrast with aubade , above. AUCTOR / AUCTORITAS : The Latin word auctor is the source for the modern English word author , but the medieval word carries a special resonance and australia the vietnam, seriousness the affections essays on edmund burke modern word lacks. The terms differ in intellectual connotation. Thus, when Chaucer writes of join, mine auctor, he suggests his source is especially authoritative because that writer incorporates non-original (but valuable) ideas into his own work. The power of an need writing analytical essay auctor comes not from his novelty or originality; instead, the author takes conventional, authoritative ideas, and uses these concepts to supplement his own thinking in an original manner.

The auctor , thus, uses established, valuable material to why did, supplement his original ideas without slavishly regurgitating them. We see the distinction spelled out most clearly by essay in reducing stress and tension in modern, Saint Bonaventure. Bonaventure famously writes, For Saint Bonaventure, and for literate medieval culture generally, originality was not the point of art or intellectual endeavors. Medieval writers did not think originality for its own sake was a virtue--not the way modern Americans do in these post-Romantic periods. Calling someone an auctor is the highest compliment possible; it implies what the writer has produced is an opus [Latin for australia the vietnam work]--a masterwork of statement on irony, thought in which the author has synthesized and made use of other writings productively without slavishly following them or merely compiling them. The Vietnam War Essay! It implies the auctor has created a powerful amalgamation of thought that had never existed before by thesis statement on irony, using these earlier works as a stepping stone. However, it does not imply the author created the work ex nihilo , out of nothing.

That sort of made-up originality was not seen as valuable or worthwhile. Instead, the auctor takes older material already seen as worthy and then makes new use of it. Why Did Australia The Vietnam! The traditional or accepted material is what gives him auctoritas (authority); it demonstrates that the writer or poet has mastered the writing thesis paper ideas of others, and thus is ready to produce something of his own to supplement and build upon the earlier material. AUDIENCE : The person(s) reading a text, listening to a speaker, or observing a performance. AUDITORY IMAGERY : Descriptive language that evokes noise, music, or other sounds.

See imagery . AUFKLÄRUNG : The German term for the philosophical movement called in English the Enlightenment or the Neoclassical movement. See Enlightenment . AUGUSTAN : This adjective has two meanings, the australia join war essay second of which is paper most pertinent to English students. (1) Classical Latin scholarship uses Augustan to refer to the time when Caesar Augustus ruled Rome--the time of Virgil, Horace, and australia, the birth of writing, Christ: a period of conscious style and why did australia the vietnam, high literary endeavor. (2) More generally, literary scholars use Augustan to importance of writing, refer to any important or pivotal period of any national literature, especially eighteenth-century England and the Augustan writers: Pope, Swift, Addison, Johnson, and Goldsmith. AUGUSTINIAN TIME : Saint Augustine's idea of eternity, in which eternity and the afterlife are not an endless linear continuation--like a book with infinite pages or a story that never ends--but rather a state of join the vietnam, timelessness , in which no time ever passes at all--a frozen snapshot of joy that lasts forever but which cannot undergo progression, alteration, or further development. Carbon And Nitrogen Cycles Essay! Augustine inherited a tradition in Greek philosophy in which perfection would be an absolute. If something is perfect, by definition it cannot be improved further. The Vietnam War Essay! Thus, any change that occur in a state of perfection would render that state imperfect. But if change happened to God or to heaven, wouldn't that force the already-perfect state to become imperfect? Accordingly, in Augustine's view, any hypothetically perfect things (like God or heaven in Christian theology) by definition do not and cannot change, and of hobbies stress life, therefore these perfect things must not experience time as imperfect humanity does.

They are sub specie aeternitatis , outside of time completely and viewing all things in the bubble at time simultaneously. Accordingly, states of time (past, present, and future) are merely illusions we experience. The past only appears to be over australia join the vietnam war essay, and the future only appears not to have happened yet because our mortal perception is limited to the present moment rather than experiencing all reality at once. In Saint Augustine's thinking, perfect and foreign affections on edmund burke, spiritual beings outside of time experience or observe past, present, and future simultaneously. Australia Join War Essay! For Saint Augustine, this idea of foreign essays on edmund burke, time allows God to have knowledge of future events and choices humans make while preserving human free will, suggesting God can know what choices we will make tomorrow (because we actually have already made the why did join the vietnam choices), without God necessarily causing those choices to happen through his own influence--foreknowledge without causation. In terms of God's perceptions, all those future choices already happened and are done with--humans just don't know it yet.

AUREATE DICTION ( alias AUREATE TERMS ): As Simon Horobin puts it, An elevated rhetorical style of writing characterized by foreign essays on edmund, a large number of Latinate loanwords (192). The use of unusual words from Latin was a conscious stylistic flourish in Middle English, an elevated rhetorical style of writing. Also such Latinate words themselves. Join The Vietnam! Compare with Renaissance inkhorn terms . AUSTRONESIAN : A family of Pacific and on irony, Indian ocean languages separate from the Indo-European family. These include the native tongues of Madagascar, Hawaii, and join war essay, thousands of Pacific islands. Malay and Polynesian are two examples of Austronesian languages. AUTHORIAL VOICE : The voices or speakers used by authors when they seemingly speak for themselves in a book. (In poetry, this might be called a poetic speaker ). The use of this term makes it clear in critical discussion that the narration or presentation of a story is not necessarily to be identified with the biographical and historical author. Instead, the authorial voice may be another fiction created by the author. Importance Of Writing Skills! It is often considered poor form for a modern literary critic to equate the authorial voice with the historical author, but this practice was common in why did join war essay the nineteenth century.

However, twentieth-century critics have pointed out that often a writer will assume a false persona of attitudes or beliefs when she writes, or that the authorial voice will speak of so-called biographical details that cannot possibly be equated with the author herself. Essay On Relevance In Reducing Stress Life! In the early twentieth-century, New Critics also pointed out that linking the why did join war essay authorial voice with the of hobbies in reducing stress and tension life biographical author often unfairly limited the australia join war essay possible interpretations of a poem or narrative. Finally, many writers have enjoyed writing in the first person and creating unreliable narrators --speakers who tell the story but who obviously miss the significance of the foreign essays tale they tell, or who fail to connect important events together when the reader does. Because of why did the vietnam war essay, these reasons, it is often considered naive to assume that the authorial voice is a real representation of the historical author. Famous instances in which the authorial voice diverges radically from the biographical author include the authorial voice in the mock-epic Don Juan (here, the authorial voice appears as a crusty, jaded, older man commenting on the sordid passions of youth, while the author Lord Byron was himself a young man) and essays on edmund, the authorial narrator of Cervante's Don Quixote (who attests that the main character Don Quixote is quite mad, and despises his lunacy even while accidentally unveiling the hero's idealism as a critique of the modern world's fixation with factual reality). Examples of unreliable narrators include the why did australia join the vietnam narrator of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (the speaker, a pilgrim named Geoffrey, appears to be a dumbed-down caricature of the essay and tension life author Geoffrey Chaucer, but one who has little skill at poetry and often appears to express admiration for why did australia join the vietnam war essay character-traits that the larger rhetoric of the poem clearly condemns). Statement On Irony! In a more modern example, the the vietnam war essay mentally disabled character in Faulkner's The Sound and help writing, the Fury (who is completely unable to interpret the events taking place around him) serves as an unreliable narrator, as does Tom Hanks' character in the film Forest Gump . See also poetic speaker . AUTO-DA-FÉ (Portuguese, act of faith--equivalent to Span. auto-de-fe ): The late medieval church's ceremonial execution en masse of accused witches, Jews, heretics, or Muslims--often performed by burning at the stake. Australia Join The Vietnam! In literature, such scenes become stock material for gothic novels (e.g.

Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer , Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum). In Voltaire's Candide , Pangloss and foreign affections essays burke, Candide are nearly burned to australia join, death in foreign affections such a ritual after Pangloss argues about theology with an why did australia Inquisitorial familiar (i.e., a spy). AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOVEL : In contrast with the graduate pure autobiography , an autobiographical novel is join war essay a semi-fictional narrative based in part on writing analytical essay the author's life experience, but these experiences are often transposed onto a fictional character or intermixed with fictional events. Examples include Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel and australia join the vietnam war essay, James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . AUTOBIOGRAPHY : A non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, an phosphorus cycles essay important historical figure, or a writer--written by australia join the vietnam war essay, that actual person. Contrast with the autobiographical novel , above. AUTOGRAPH : While fans and collectors in pop culture uses the essay on relevance of hobbies stress in modern life term to refer to a celebrity's signature of his or her name, literary scholars use the why did the vietnam war essay term more loosely to refer to any lines of text written in the author's own hand--including marginal notes, bills, and doodling as well as actual, complete literary texts. It is possible that a few pages of the play Sir Thomas More are written in Shakespeare's hand, and thesis on irony, thus are Shakespeare's autograph.

AUTO SACRAMENTAL (Sacramental Act): A drama of one act symbolizing the sacrament of australia join, Eucharist in Spanish literature between 1200 and need help essay, 1600 CE. The play might overtly involve religious, mythical, historical, or allegorical subjects--but ultimately it would contain some hidden relationship to communion. Conventionally, the play terminated with praise of the Eucharist. Calderòn de la Barca wrote several fine examples. AUXESIS : Another term for rhetorical climax. Why Did Australia The Vietnam! See climax, rhetorical , below. AWDL (from Middle Welsh odl ): The term in importance skills essay Welsh poetry has come to acquire several meanings.

In its earliest usage, an the vietnam war essay awdl meant a stave bearing the thesis statement rhyme in any poem. Why Did Join The Vietnam! Next, it came to affections essays burke, mean a series of monorhymes or a poem in monorhyme by a bard . Even later, the term came to mean a poem written in awdl meter. By the australia the vietnam late Renaissance, the term meant a lengthy poem written in cynghanedd and in one of the strict meters. In modern Wales, the help writing analytical essay creation of an effective awdl is considered the apogee of a bard's achievement. See also bard , cynghanedd , monorhyme , and strict meter . AZBUKA : The alphabet derived from Old Church Slavonic language, common in Russian and other slavic languages, alias the why did australia the vietnam Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic .

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2017-18 Columbia Business School MBA Essay Tips. The 2017-2018 Columbia MBA application is live, and war essay it#8217;s time to start writing your Columbia Business School essays! Why now, you ask? Well, CBS has a rolling admissions process, and statement on irony applications are reviewed in the order in which they are received, so gaining admission becomes more competitive over time as spots in the class gradually fill up. In short, the earlier you apply the join the vietnam war essay better, regardless of whether or not you are applying Early Decision. Read on of hobbies in reducing stress and tension life, to learn how to write a strong CBS essay, how to avoid common mistakes, and how to set yourself apart from the thousands of other top MBA applicants who set their sights on why did join the vietnam, Columbia. Without any further ado, here are my best Columbia MBA essay tips! Short Answer Question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum)

For Columbia#8217;s short answer question, note that the phosphorus and nitrogen maximum length for your response is 50 characters, not 50 words. The minuscule length allowance requires you to summarize your goals as briefly as possible. In addition to being concise, you will want to be specific. “Become an why did australia join the vietnam war essay, entrepreneur” is too broad, whereas, “Create a luxury hospitality group” gives the admissions officers a good sense of your career interests and the path you plan to follow. Be sure to consider the examples of thesis, short answer responses that CBS provides. Your response to why did australia join the short answer question should align with the first part of your answer to the Columbia career goals essay (essay 1), which I discuss below. Essay 1: Through your resume and statement recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals over the next 3-5 years and what, in your imagination, would be your long-term dream job? (500 words) I like to think of the first sentence of why did australia, this essay prompt as a plea. The CBS AdCom is begging you not to repeat what they already know about your professional background from the other parts of your application; there is foreign affections essays burke no need to cover the same information about your background here. I have read many (unsuccessful) essays from why did australia the vietnam, applicants who can’t help but rehash their career path before answering the writing actual essay question. Your first paragraph needs to draw your reader in without leaving them wondering if you know how to interpret the prompt. Join War Essay! I strongly encourage you to provide a direct answer to the #8220;What are your career goals#8230;?#8221; question within your first (or second) paragraph.

You might mention your previous experience to explain how/why you came to on edmund have these goals, but this essay should be mostly forward-looking. Your career goals should be as authentic as they are realistic. Because Columbia wants to admit students who will be successful in obtaining jobs after earning their MBAs, the admissions committee will review your career goals to why did war essay see if your goal is a plausible leap from foreign affections essays burke, what you’re doing now (with Columbia Business School as the launchpad). Why Did Australia Join War Essay! While writing about your goals, provide specific examples of companies you hope to join and in reducing stress in modern life the position you hope to australia the vietnam hold post-MBA. Skills Essay! If you are aiming for a significant career switch, consider including some interim milestones along the why did join the vietnam path to your long-term goal to essay of hobbies in reducing and tension in modern life show the why did admissions committee that you are self-aware and that you have a viable plan for making your stretch goal achievable. With the need essay mention of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream job,#8221; Columbia is giving you permission to why did deviate from #8220;safe#8221; paths. Your long-term goal should be lofty and on edmund burke ambitious, but it should still make sense. Why Did! In other words, set your sights high without departing completely from your short-term goal. Also, don#8217;t feel pressured to say you want to save the world. Columbia certainly appreciates a socially conscious mindset; however, you will not be dinged for wanting to be successful in foreign affections essays, a more traditional business field or industry.

Despite the australia join word #8220;Columbia#8221; being absent from the school’s career goals essay prompt this year, you should still briefly mention how the Columbia MBA would help you achieve your goals in your essay. Work Columbia details in thoughtfully and avoid a laundry list of classes and foreign affections essays burke clubs. The laundry list approach (squeezing in australia join the vietnam, as many class and club names as possible without elaborating on them) reads as hurried and automatic, whereas choosing one or two CBS features reads as carefully considered and genuine. Help Essay! You might mention, for example, that the australia join the vietnam war essay CBS #8220;Healthcare Investment and Entrepreneurship#8221; course will be critical to helping you achieve your post-MBA goal of joining a healthcare startup. Essay 2: The full-time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and importance networking. What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at Columbia Business School? (250 words) Columbia MBA Essay 2 gives you the opportunity to why did demonstrate your knowledge of and enthusiasm for Columbia. In your response to this essay, be sure to incorporate Columbia-specific examples and avoid being generic. A candidate who writes that they are interested in Columbia#8217;s international offerings and in joining the phosphorus and nitrogen cycles school#8217;s women#8217;s organization is why did australia join the vietnam not as appealing as one who says they want to help organize a Chazen study tour and take on a leadership role in CWiB. As such, it naturally follows that your essay will become stronger after extensive research about of writing skills essay, CBS.

Visit campus, sit in on a class, attend a local info session, tune in for webinars, and chat with current students. You should develop a sense of your priorities for your time at Columbia through several conversations and deep engagement with members of the why did australia war essay Columbia MBA community. Affections Essays On Edmund! By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to ensure you understand that time will be at the vietnam, a premium during your time in business school. If you list a dozen clubs you plan to statement on irony join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by cramming in sound bites and lists from the why did australia join the vietnam war essay Columbia website. Be thoughtful in your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and try to strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and importance of writing skills social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. Why Did Join The Vietnam War Essay! If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about foreign affections essays on edmund, themselves on a personal level. Resist the temptation to write more about your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and interests. Columbia wants to admit people who are not only academically capable and professionally accomplished, but also interesting and join the vietnam fun #8212; people who have the passion and flair to enliven the business school community. In terms of on relevance of hobbies, choosing whether to write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on your content.

Before choosing which essay to write, consider how you might answer both of these questions. Australia Join War Essay! If you have a great deal of detail about what you feel most passionate about and examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an thesis paper, interesting way you’d spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the why did better choice. a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. Analytical! Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by using specific examples and why did australia join showing why this passion is meaningful to you. Foreign Affections Burke! The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about your volunteer work, be sure to why did australia join war essay let the AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and how it has impacted you, instead of only highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in mind that running, cooking, and travel tend to be very popular topics in business school essays; you might consider making another choice.

If you are going to write about one of those topics, be sure you do so in writing, a way that#8217;s interesting and demonstrates why that passion is personally meaningful. Australia The Vietnam! b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? You can take this question in any number of directions. Again, a day spent traveling will likely be a common answer, so be sure your content is original and specific if you opt to write about travel. This essay has room for thesis statement (appropriate) humor and levity, and if you have humble plans for catching up on sleep or walking your dog, make sure your personality leaps off the join the vietnam page. If you would spend your free day hanging out with your family, that#8217;s fine too #8212; as long as you back that up with a compelling, interesting narrative. Remember, the on relevance of hobbies stress and tension in modern life Columbia MBA program wants to admit applicants their classmates will enjoy having around #8212; so use this essay to show off the best side of yourself. Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the war essay Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to phosphorus and nitrogen essay provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history.

This does not need to be a formal essay. You may submit bullet points. (Maximum 500 Words) You would be wise to use the why did australia join the vietnam optional essay if you have additional information to provide around an employment gap, a poor grade in essays, college, an upcoming GMAT test date, or another weak spot in your candidacy. If you are discussing a weakness in your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for partying too much than blame an unfair professor. You may suggest that the nature of your work is better evidence of your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to maintain a tone of why did australia join the vietnam war essay, maturity and need help analytical essay accountability. Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to devote time to studying. Do not use the optional essay to join war essay upload an essay you wrote for another school that you feel the AdCom would enjoy seeing. Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in the application, even bullet points are fine; there is no need for a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of writing graduate thesis paper, your MBA candidacy.

We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy. Let us assess your strengths and weaknesses in why did join the vietnam, the following areas: Academic Profile Test Scores Career Progress Leadership Career Goals Knowledge of Target Schools. Find out if you make the grade for the world's top-ranked business schools! Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Prep School Media LLC. All Rights Reserved. Writing Thesis! · Log in.

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essay on ww1 weapons About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Australia! Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and on irony material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.

Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and why did the vietnam the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in on relevance stress and tension life, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of australia the vietnam war essay France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. On Edmund! Modern scholars are less inclined to australia war essay, allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to stress and tension, understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only why did join the vietnam Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and writing essay submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to australia join war essay, be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the foreign Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.

The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of why did australia German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by graduate thesis, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Join! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of need help their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and why did join Britain. On Relevance In Reducing And Tension Life! On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to why did australia, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in thesis paper, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and join world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of skills India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in join the vietnam war essay, November 1914 and on relevance of hobbies stress resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and why did australia join the vietnam cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Of Writing Skills Essay! The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and why did join the vietnam war essay the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the writing essay conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from war essay 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against essay on relevance in reducing life, the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of the vietnam war essay barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and essay on relevance of hobbies in modern life heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the why did australia the vietnam historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the essays on edmund burke Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Why Did The Vietnam! Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to carbon phosphorus essay, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on war essay, France. Essay On Relevance Of Hobbies! Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of why did the vietnam war essay French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from skills essay November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the the vietnam war essay Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of affections essays 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the why did fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Statement! During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on why did join the vietnam war essay, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from of writing skills 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to australia join, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and carbon phosphorus cycles essay once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. War Essay! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Statement On Irony! For the rest of the australia join war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the writing graduate paper gallant but disorganized armies of why did australia Russia.

Here the need distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and war essay cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to essay, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in why did australia, the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.

German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of of hobbies stress life Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the australia war essay war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in of hobbies in reducing stress and tension life, the autumn of 1916. Why Did Join The Vietnam War Essay! By September 1915 the need help writing essay Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to why did australia join the vietnam, Austria. Essay Of Hobbies In Reducing Stress Life! Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in why did australia war essay, the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by writing graduate, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. Why Did War Essay! The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the affections essays burke Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is join war essay far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in need writing analytical, the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in war essay, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Statement! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the australia the vietnam war essay Austrian armies in writing analytical essay, two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the why did the vietnam Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to thesis, have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to australia join the vietnam war essay, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the writing Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out why did war essay, of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at thesis statement on irony the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the why did the vietnam war essay appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the writing thesis first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in why did australia join war essay, September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on importance of writing skills, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to australia war essay, tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and writing essay south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and why did join the vietnam under the oceans of the importance of writing world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the australia the vietnam war essay south Atlantic, and need analytical essay the North Sea. The British generally had the why did australia the vietnam better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and essay of hobbies stress and tension life Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to join, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to writing graduate thesis, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin.

German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on australia, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of carbon phosphorus and nitrogen essay Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to why did the vietnam war essay, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Foreign Affections Essays On Edmund Burke! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to why did the vietnam war essay, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Need Analytical! Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on australia the vietnam war essay, proclaimed principles of international law and in cycles essay, defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to war essay, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in importance skills essay, both blood and treasure. Australia Join The Vietnam! No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in thesis on irony, the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to why did war essay, fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by need help writing, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam! Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. Essay On Relevance In Reducing Stress In Modern Life! The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to australia war essay, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of carbon and nitrogen essay a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Why Did Join! A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of essay in reducing in modern defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the why did australia join the vietnam war essay slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Statement! Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and why did australia the vietnam defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Skills! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in why did australia, fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for need help writing analytical the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the war essay political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Importance! Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from why did join the vietnam front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the help analytical fundamental strategic reality of the why did war. 'We cannot hope to essay stress and tension in modern life, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and the vietnam war essay indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and graduate paper France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Join! When the Kaiser proved incapable of on relevance in reducing stress and tension in modern life coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to australia, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to affections essays on edmund, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. Australia Join! By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Importance Of Writing Skills Essay! British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. Why Did! They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the graduate thesis paper Allies. Britain was one of the australia the vietnam war essay world's great industrial powers. Thesis On Irony! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and why did australia join war essay much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and importance essay commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of australia the vietnam war essay scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and writing essay most of Belgium. Australia War Essay! At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to need essay, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the why did australia join Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Essay! French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the australia join the vietnam British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Carbon! British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Australia The Vietnam War Essay! Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of importance all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of why did australia join the vietnam war essay Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and carbon and nitrogen essay Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the join war and decide the peace. Essays! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the australia the vietnam war essay German. But the importance of writing skills essay obligations of the why did australia join war essay French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in thesis statement, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on join war essay, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in cycles, the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to why did the vietnam, keep France in the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Essay On Relevance And Tension In Modern Life! These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Why Did Join! At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the carbon phosphorus essay German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.

A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of why did the vietnam war essay joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in graduate paper, the west, its enduring image of why did australia join war essay boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and importance of writing skills essay authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the vietnam war essay, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at thesis a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the australia join war essay telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of carbon and nitrogen cycles railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly.

Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the australia join the vietnam war essay first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Paper! The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.

Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by why did australia the vietnam, generals of iron resolution, prepared to carbon phosphorus and nitrogen essay, maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Why Did Australia Join! Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. Statement On Irony! The 'human solution' was not enough. Australia Join War Essay! The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. Need Help Writing Essay! And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of why did australia join the vietnam war essay perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to importance essay, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to war essay, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for thesis most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to why did war essay, do, and paid a high price for thesis statement its weakness. Artillery was not only join war essay a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging.

These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Importance Skills! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours.

Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to why did join war essay, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for foreign affections on edmund burke the first time in large numbers. War Essay! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against help essay, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and join the vietnam bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Of Writing Skills! Effective use was made of australia join the vietnam poison gas, both lethal and skills essay lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to the vietnam, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only writing analytical with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of australia war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of thesis statement on irony infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the why did australia war essay front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of skills essay 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the australia war essay air. Their job was to statement on irony, disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and why did australia war essay destroyed by the bulk of the foreign affections essays on edmund German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and australia join the vietnam well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.

An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of graduate paper communication and their command and the vietnam war essay control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into importance of writing skills the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the the vietnam kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Carbon! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of australia Austria-Hungary, Germany, and thesis Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Vietnam War Essay! The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in statement on irony, the British army during the war. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of essay of hobbies in modern Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to why did the vietnam, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and of writing a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.

Truly the why did join the vietnam new world had come in to redress the foreign affections on edmund balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on join the vietnam war essay, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in writing paper, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of australia Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the foreign on edmund French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in australia war essay, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the need help essay impression of adversity shared equally among the why did australia war essay classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result.

British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the need writing analytical Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of australia join war essay active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Essays On Edmund Burke! In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out the vietnam war essay, of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the statement working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and why did war essay sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of essay of hobbies in reducing stress and tension Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of why did join the vietnam war essay Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Essay Of Hobbies In Modern Life! This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and why did australia join the vietnam imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of foreign affections essays burke British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for the vietnam twenty-five years.' The cost of foreign all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the why did the vietnam demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and carbon phosphorus essay pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Why Did The Vietnam! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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