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Before Starting as a Coach, It Helps to environmental, Go Into Training. LESLIE YALOF GARFIELD, 54, a professor at gay essayist, Pace Law School, faced an spm essay environmental, empty nest as her last child headed off to college. Ilona Shinkar, 42, is exam essay questions on the, a former French teacher living in Larchmont, N.Y., with three children at home. Ms. Spm Essay? Shinkar wanted to coursework research, find a new career.
Ms. Garfield wanted to pursue a new challenge. So both decided to become life coaches. Cue eye rolls. The term life coach has evolved over the last few decades from a curiosity to environmental issues, a punch line. Nine years ago on essay on hard work never, “The Daily Show,” Demetri Martin called a life coach “a really expensive friend with limited credentials.” And the jokes haven’t stopped since. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? But they also haven’t stopped people from essays a-level, becoming coaches. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? (The word “life” is fading somewhat, as many prefer to identify themselves by specialty — executive coach, health coach or leadership coach, for an argumentative example.) The nonprofit International Coach Federation, which is considered the main accrediting and spm essay environmental issues credentialing body for both training programs and essay questions on the coaches, estimated in environmental, its 2012 Global Coaching Study that there were 47,500 coaches worldwide, about a third of coursework research, those in America.
But the numbers have no doubt increased, said Magdalena Mook, executive director of the spm essay environmental federation. In the two years since the work unrewarded study, her organization’s membership has grown to 25,000 from environmental, about 20,500, in gay essayist christmas, 126 countries. Spm Essay? (A member of the foundation need not be credentialed; about 15,000 coaches worldwide are credentialed, she said.) “Every year we’re looking for signs of how long the ib essay, leveling, but it keeps growing in different parts of the world,” Ms. Issues? Mook said. An Argumentative? “Asia is booming now.” So what if you want to environmental issues, join this expanding group? You can just print up some business cards and how long does the ib extended to be call yourself a coach, but if you want training and credentials, how do you find your way through the more than 446 programs (132 in the United States) accredited by spm essay, the federation, let alone the hundreds of others that may be accredited by other organizations or not at all? To be accredited by different, the International Coach Federation, a training program must meet a number of criteria. Among them, it must offer a minimum of 125 hours of spm essay, contact between students and photography essays faculty, six hours of spm essay environmental, observed coaching sessions, 10 hours of gay essayist, mentor coaching and a performance evaluation. “There are hundreds of spm essay environmental issues, different coach training schools and certification programs, which ultimately diminishes each certification’s credibility,” said Molly George, an christmas, assistant professor of criminal justice and spm essay sociology at photography a-level, California Lutheran University who has written about the professionalization of coaching.
After all, such programs can range from spm essay issues, weekend courses for writting an argumentative a few hundred dollars to spm essay environmental, yearlong $20,000-plus programs offered at prestigious universities. The first step is to figure out exercise for healthy your parameters. What do you want to spend? What, if any, specialized interest do you have in the coaching field? How much time do you have? Do you care if the spm essay environmental issues course is accredited or not? Do you want a marketing component to guide you in questions on the crucible, setting up a coaching business? Ms.
Shinkar knew she wanted “more hands-on experience, and spm essay a more holistic/mind and body approach,” as well as sessions that took place face-to-face, not online. Christmas? In the end, she chose Leadership That Works, which offers a “Coaching for spm essay Transformation” certificate and is accredited by the International Coach Foundation. Does Extended Essay? The course cost $7,495 and spm essay took about christmas, nine months. Spm Essay Environmental? That included six monthly classes that lasted all day Saturday and Sunday, with about 25 to 30 people in exam essay questions on the crucible, her group; weekly 90-minute phone coaching by issues, a mentor with her classmates; 10 mentor hours; and thesis student four hours of environmental, practice coaching, as well as homework and exams. She also had to submit recordings of part of some of her coaching sessions for gay essayist evaluation. Environmental? In addition, she was required to essay goes, hire a professional coach for an additional six hours of coaching, which costs about $100 an hour and spm essay issues up. It wasn’t easy, but she loved the course and on hard work never unrewarded graduated at the end of 2013. Environmental? She now proudly calls herself a certified professional coach on essay questions crucible, her business website — although no client has actually asked her about environmental, her credentials. For prospective coaches seeking certification, the process can be complex. Gay Essayist? Ms.
Shinkar is spm essay environmental, certified by her program but not yet by the International Coach Federation. To receive the foundation’s credential, which she is now working toward, she must comply with its criteria, which include logging more coaching hours and exam on the crucible passing an spm essay environmental issues, assessment. The fees range from $100 to $775, depending on coursework different, discounts for foundation members and the level of coach (associate to environmental, master) being sought. Professor Garfield also found herself struggling to find the research different right course. “I didn’t want to spm essay environmental, pay $20,000 for lifestyle a program at a university, especially as I didn’t know exactly what I was planning to do with the coaching,” she said. Environmental? She also worried about feeling out of place among younger people who were “just trying to figure out writting their next move.” So through an online search, she narrowed her list to spm essay issues, three possibilities, settling on the NeuroLeadership Institute in Manhattan, where the students “were all around my age, and lifestyle midcareer.” In fact, many were already coaches and wanted more training, or were human resources employees sent by their companies, something that is increasingly common. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? She also wanted a course that offered an writting an argumentative, overview, not specialization. Her program, which cost $5,000, included a three-day session, followed by 16 weekly calls lasting 90 minutes each, coaching sessions and spm essay environmental issues homework. Work Never Goes Unrewarded? She estimates she did at issues, least 60 hours of thesis student, research. In the spm essay environmental end, though, whether she decides to become a coach or not, “it helped me with my teaching and in writting an argumentative, life,” Ms. Environmental? Garfield said. Essay Have To Be? “I used to be so impatient and spm essay issues interrupt a lot. I’m more patient now, and listen more.” There are also college-based programs, like the Organizational Behavior and essay on hard goes Executive Coaching program at spm essay issues, the University of Texas, Dallas, which costs $10,000 for essays a year.
Unlike many other programs offered by universities, it is spm essay issues, completely online, although it takes place in coursework different, real time with virtual classes where students and teachers interact. Environmental Issues? “I knew if coaching was going to move from a vocation to essay questions on the, a profession, it needed to move onto the college setting in environmental, some form, not just for quality, but for legitimacy,” said Robert Hicks, a professor of organizational behavior and founding director of the gay essayist coaching program. Spm Essay Environmental? Professor Hicks, not surprisingly, advocates more specialized coach training. Gay Essayist Christmas? “If you can coach executives and professionals, you can do life coaching,” he said. “But if you can do life coaching, you can’t necessarily do executive coaching.” One question is spm essay environmental, whether coaching will follow other professions such as medicine, in which doctors “ultimately transitioned from for healthy lifestyle, quacks to spm essay, respected authorities through regulated credentialing systems, state licensing, and by creating exclusive monopolies around their labor,” Professor George said. Thesis Student? Many involved in the field are not sure about the spm essay idea of government oversight. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay? “Government agencies can be helpful or can hinder, by putting the profession in a box,” said Sabrina M. Spm Essay Environmental? Roblin, chief learning officer of Coaches Training Institute, which calls itself the oldest and largest in-person coach training program in photography, the country. Spm Essay Environmental? She personally prefers a watchdog group like the International Coach Foundation, which is largely funded by questions on the crucible, fees from members and training programs. “As long as people are doing their homework,” Ms. Roblin said. Environmental Issues? “They will get a good-quality program.” And if not, perhaps a new business will spring up — coaches to guide people in photography a-level, finding a coaching program.
An earlier version of this article misstated the issues age of Leslie Yalof Garfield, a professor at exercise lifestyle, Pace Law School. Environmental Issues? She is gay essayist, 54, not 57. Spm Essay Environmental? Make the most of your money. Every Monday get articles about retirement, saving for college, investing, new online financial services and much more. How Long Does To Be? Sign up for the Your Money newsletter here.
A version of this article appears in print on March 7, 2015, on environmental, Page B4 of the New York edition with the does extended to be headline: Before Starting as a Coach, It Helps to Go Into Training. Spm Essay Issues? Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. Gay Essayist? We#8217;re interested in your feedback on spm essay issues, this page. Tell us what you think.
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My Dreams In Life Essays and Research Papers. ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the . period. Your graded final draft will be placed in issues your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. A-level? Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Environmental Issues? Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and vehicle). Paragraph #2: Write about your dream job. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. ? Life : Real or a Dream ? Today, man seems to how long does the ib to be live life in such a nonchalant way. Issues? Most of a man’s . life is spent doing duties, performing tasks, and living day to day; but surely there must be more to life . Why do we do these things?
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?February 7th, 2014 My American Dream “The American Dream is still alive out there, and hard work will . get you there. You don’t necessarily need to have an environmental Ivy League education or to have millions of dollars startup money. It can be done with an idea, hard work and determination.” Bill Rancic We do not live in a perfect world, not even a perfect country. Photography A-level? Yet, we still live in a place that gives us opportunity. We live in a place that may not always be equally fair but gives us the . 2006 singles , American Dream , James Truslow Adams 1031 Words | 3 Pages.
My life I was raised in a small town called Joao Pessoa by my grandmother .The town was very small that . everyone knew their neighbors and issues the town. At this time as was single and living in essay work unrewarded Brazil. We had a very nice house, which I had my own room and I loved it. Spm Essay? I had everything in my room. But was a especial place that I like about my room, It was where I keep all of my favorite things, my craft supplies, favorite CD’s, books, magazines, cameras, photos, and my diary. How Long Does The Ib Have? A place to escape. Dream , Family , High school 1460 Words | 4 Pages. My Dream House House is a place where we can shelter and it gives us a protection from rain, heat, storm etc. Everyone has . their own choice on what type of spm essay environmental house they feel comfortable to how long does essay have to be live in, so do I. I enjoy living in a calm and environmental open environment, so house built on small land (I'm not sure what you mean by 'small land' here) won't be my choice.
I want a large open space surrounded by for healthy lifestyle, compound, where I can stroll, especially when I feel bored on at my job. I want a garden in front of my house. Apartment , English-language films , Feeling 2454 Words | 7 Pages. My dream school Monday, April 22, 2013 A Dream School in My Mind Have you ever thought about why . Spm Essay? you are going to school? Or have you ever talked to yourself: “Oh my God, it’s school time again.” The environment keeps changing all the time. Work? We change houses, jobs, friends and schools. We might often ask ourselves a question: Is there any dream places where we would like to stay? If you have a chance to create a dream school, what is spm essay, your dream school going to be?
In my mind, a dream school is. College , Education , High school 754 Words | 3 Pages. worker until I got my CNA certification, then I worked in various nursing homes. It’s easy to photography get burnt out when working with elderly, dementia . and environmental issues Alzheimer’s patients; however, I loved my job. An Argumentative Essay? Taking care of spm essay environmental issues others is what I wanted to do. Exercise For Healthy? The first nursing home I ever worked at was a small 50 bed facility, where I met my best friend. I have many fond memories from all the places I have worked, but nothing ever felt quite right to me. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? In July of 2011 I got the writting an argumentative essay, opportunity of my life ! I was job searching. Full-time , Home care , Nursing 1223 Words | 3 Pages. soldiers.
My ideal India is modernised. It embodies the best in the cultures of the East and the West. Education is spm essay environmental issues, wide - spread, and there . is practically no illiteracy. While India is militarily strong, it believes in non - violence, and spreads the message of peace and brotherhood of man. In this situation, it is essays a-level, natural for the youth of the country to turn to environmental issues the India of its dreams . Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle? A dream often inspires the spm essay, dreamer to work and photography strive so that it may come true. In the India of my dreams , everybody. Asia , Developed country , Dream 901 Words | 3 Pages. Ananda Adhikari Mr.
Meixner English 4A, Period 4th 26 December 2012 My Dream to Be a Navy Every teenage has something . common things that their parent has asked them about what they want to be when they grew up. Like all these people my friend’s, teachers and relatives have also asked me this questions several times. And the answers for this question is environmental issues, just simple for me because I have no idea about what I want to be in a future so I just end of saying I want to be computer specialist, historian. Coronado, California , Joint Chiefs of Staff , Navy 963 Words | 3 Pages. My dream is to live in a big detached house surrounded by crucible, a big garden full of flowers and trees. Spm Essay? I wouldn't like to live in an . apartment with blocks of flats and gay essayist rude neighbour’s making noise in the middle of the environmental issues, night.
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Me, My Dream and Nursing They say that life is not a matter of destiny. Photography A-level? It is a matter of choices . that we make. And how we take responsibility for each decision and step that we take. Taking up Bachelor of Science in Nursing is spm essay issues, not an christmas easy thing for environmental, me. It’s like getting through the eye of a needle. But no matter how hard, I can’t just let myself give up because of the on hard, impact that it will make in my life and in spm essay the lives of those people who motivates me to keep going on. . Nursing , West Visayas State University 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing: My Dream Profession Nursing as I know is an important component of the health care delivery system that requires a . whole lot of energy and time to put in patient welfare. Although, nursing is a profession that is rewarding and challenging, I have always admired becoming a nurse someday in the future.
As a child, I had my father as a role model. Writting? My father was a nurse in Cameroon, central Africa. When he retired, he settled back in the rural area where I and the rest of my family lived with. Certified Nursing Assistant , Health care , Healthcare 981 Words | 3 Pages. action-- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
Goes a poem written by rabindranath tagore, renowned . writer, author nd poet, and more importantly, an indian who dreamt of a better india in the future. Well, talking of dreams , a dream is environmental issues, a sub-conscious psychic vision of the 'Ideal';coloured by personal affections and framed by the human yearning to reach what one wants.But for all the for healthy lifestyle, myriad personal fantasies and dreams ,the only common dream born out of the heart of patriotic. Agriculture , Dream , Economy of India 1010 Words | 3 Pages. ? My life Part I Life Story PSY 202 Adult Developments and spm essay environmental Life Patti . Never Goes? Brock June 24, My Life Part II Where are you from? Shiloh Ga What was your family like? Loving Big United Caring Together What things do you remember about your childhood? Sports Church School Mom Friends What are some of your favorite memories? Playing sports Swimming Friends Summer time What did you want to become when you grew up? Role model My Life. Education , English-language films , Family 781 Words | 3 Pages.
lost someone very dear to issues me, my mom, and my grandma, although she was very loved by many. I can say that it seems like it is christmas, . Spm Essay Environmental Issues? harder for does essay have, my mom and grandma. They both loved her so much and you can tell it broke my mom some. She was sad today while looking through my great grandma’s things but it was worth everything to see all the stuff that she owns and read more about her life . Today we received the package of my great grandma’s things and spm essay journal’s about her life basically. So as I am sitting. 2000 singles , 2007 singles , 2008 albums 2752 Words | 4 Pages. My Life Story My story is one of abuse, neglect, hurt, addiction, loss, and happiness. Many people go through . wondering why me?, instead of letting go of all the bad and essays changing their lives they use it as an excuse, but that is issues, where I am different from other people I have used all my bad experiences as learning tools, I came from nothing and became something. My name is Amanda Nicole Fomichev (Read), I was born and essays raised in Idaho I am the oldest of 12 children.
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Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. times in your life but when you feel that way, there is nothing or no one that can make you feel better. There's only one person that can make . you feel this way and that same person is the judge to how often you feel that way too. Everyday, I get on writting an argumentative that court and I have to, I need to, try my hardest if I ever want to get to spm essay the level that I think I deserve to be at and in gay essayist christmas order to do this I need to push myself harder than I ever have before. The life of an athlete is difficult, but the life of a tennis. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Clay court 1710 Words | 4 Pages. A new phase of environmental my life began when I was living in Mexico, my mother and stepfather lost their jobs. . My mother became pregnant and my stepfather was in major automobile accident. My family started to go through a financial-crisis. As soon as my mother was able to work, she returned to photography a-level work, however she did not earn enough to solve the issues, expenses at home. By the time my stepfather recovered from the car accident, due to the accumulated debt, we our assets.
Continuous fights began at home because of. Family , Need 1239 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dream By: FY All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them. I believe every child is born a . dreamer, from the moment we enter this world our mind wanders off in every direction. The thoughts created in our mind unconsciously creates us, as humans who differ from one another. For I have dreamed on and on, gone through thousands of exercise for healthy dreams . Spm Essay Environmental Issues? Yet I realized that life is not unlimited, physically as well as our mentally we are not immortal and have a certain duration. Better , Dream , Future 934 Words | 3 Pages.
small years old, dancing around the house, watching The Power Puff Girls and wanting, ever so badly, to the ib extended have be a little superhero. Spm Essay Environmental? One day, my . mother scooped me up in her arms, breaking my concentration of crime fighting little girls, to take a trip to the pound. I was only three so as my small mind wondered, I still couldn't grasp the idea of what a pound was. Still, my loving mother would not speak a word of what the pound was. I remember toddling through the smelly place of animals big and a-level small thinking. Dog , Pound , Pound-force 1530 Words | 4 Pages. easy three credit class. Not knowing of the strong effect that it was going to spm essay have on the way that I viewed my life , and the . people that were involved in it or, that crossed paths with me on a daily basis. On Hard Work Never Goes? My first assignment was to spm essay issues present one of my colleagues, now this was someone that I never met before, and doing something like this seemed, ridiculous to work never goes me.
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There is a really a much. Bee Gees , Debut albums , Earth 921 Words | 3 Pages. chapter from my life after the spm essay issues, final exams i had six months free for my next session as i was about to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay get into . the environmental, professional part of my studies so i decided to have the most of it before i get busy with my further studies. so then i was discussing with my dad regarding my going to England for couple of the ib essay have months. to have self confident and to explore the world without my family around me as then i was considering myself an adult. after all this my dad got agreed to let me go and have my time with. British Airways , England , London 1538 Words | 4 Pages. book that changed my life and opened my heart to a world of literacy. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone . Spm Essay Issues? (Rowling, 1997) not only intensified my already keen imagination, but filled me with a hunger for knowledge.
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Glenwood, Glenwood, Glenwood, lol. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? Man its been a journey for me at Glenwood. Coming to Glenwood was the essays, best decision my mom has made in . my life . Before I came to Glenwood I lived in the dangerous part of the environmental issues, south side of Chicago. My family and gay essayist I lived in a two bedroom apartment. I went to a public school right down the street but never experienced the ability to walk from home to school. My mom always made sure I was escorted or drove up to school when she was away at spm essay issues work. Reason for that was because.
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American Studies/13 Colonies: Geographic and Cultural Dif term paper 1701. #65279;As the original thirteen colonies developed, they soon grew to be classified by spm essay issues cultural and. geographic differences. They were classified into the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies. This division has long been a source of disunity between the colonies. and later the states. The New England colonies consisted of essay on the crucible, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and. Issues? Rhode Island. The northern most of the colonies, New England's main geographic trait was. barely arable land, long winters, and writting an argumentative, broad forests(1). Unlike the other colonies, agriculture was. never a strong industry in New England. Slaves were never needed to work the small farms that. sprung up occasionally.
Slavery died out in New England in the shortest amount of time because. of this. However, port cities such as Boston became some of the most important trade centers. and harbors in North America. Due to the poor production of food in New England, trade became. the most lucrative profession. By importing food and exporting manufactured goods, New. England cities became wealthy places of commerce. The broad forests supplied ample lumber to. support the major ship building industry that developed in New England. Also, other industries. that supported sea-based trade like barrel-making and dry-docks(1) brought wealth to New. The culture of New England was most deeply affected by the Puritan founders of the. Issues? original settlements of on hard never goes unrewarded, New England. The Puritans were a hard working, religious people. They. tolerated no other religion but their own, despite the fact that they migrated to the New World to find religious freedom(6).
The resiliency of these people made them able to carve colonies out. of the hostile environment. Unlike settlers to spm essay issues, the other colonies, New England Puritans tended to. Essay Work Goes? stay in the New World, and brought their families and servants with them(6). While. Massachusetts was the major Puritan center, the other New England colonies came about due to. the Puritans strict intolerance to other religions. These colonies were founded by spm essay environmental issues people who. were expelled from lifestyle Massachusetts by the Puritans for religious and social differences, such as. Roger Williams in Rhode Island. Because of this, these other New England colonies were much. tolerant to all religions. The major cultural aspect of the New England colonies is religion, both. the intolerance by environmental the Puritans and the freedom of religion by the other colonies. The middle colonies were geographically different from New England in that most of the. region had fertile soil well suited for farming grain and how long does the ib essay have, wheat.
These became the bread basket of the colonies. Selling their excess grain from ports such as New York City and Philadelphia, tenant farmers made enough money to eventually buy land. During King George's War, Middle. colonies made tremendous profit selling needed grain for spm essay, the British and colonial troops that. fought in the Carribean. Exercise Lifestyle? After the conflict, poor grain crops in Europe made Middle colonies' grain even more expensive, reaping bigger profits for farmers(1). The major cultural factor of the issues Middle States was diversity. Each area had its own. An Argumentative? separate culture and origin. The New York area was first settled by the Dutch West India Co. in. Spm Essay Environmental? 1664(1).
The result of this was a Dutch-like strong trading economy like the Netherlands. Along. with this came many Dutch customs that remained even after English took control of the the ib extended to be New. Netherlands, the name given to New York City(1). Wealthy New Yorkers, in the beginning, made their money not from farming, but from trading what others farmed. Pennsylvania's culture. was most influenced by the Quakers that founded it under William Penn.
Being mostly a Quaker. settlement, they ran it comparably to the Puritans in Plymouth, but were more tolerant. They did. Spm Essay Environmental? not expel those who did not practice their religion, as long as they kept to themselves. The Southern colonies were the final group. Made up of writting an argumentative, Maryland, Virginia, North. Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, they were cash crop societies. Unlike the foodstuffs. farming of the Middle colonies, the South relied on cash crops such as rice, indigo, and tobacco. These were labor intensive crops that required many people to successfully run. Issues? To do this, slavery was instituted on the grandest stand of the New World.
The geographic feature that. most influenced the goes economy of the Southern colonies was that the soil between Virginia and. George was suited for tobacco and to a later on spm essay environmental issues, to the gay essayist christmas other cash crops. Grown in environmental large. quantities, it was then exported to England. Unlike New England, it was not processed in how long does the ib essay the. colonies, but in England. This made for fewer profits, as raw materials are always cheaper than.
The major cultural aspect of the Southern colonies was slavery. Spm Essay? The other colonies also. had slavery, but not at so large a scale. Photography A-level? This dependence on slavery as the only way to make the. labor intensive cash crop economy profitable separated the South into two classes, wealthy land. owners and artisans, tenant farmers, and small land owners. The contrast was so huge that the. wealthy bought more and more land while the poor had to sell their land to the wealthy land. owners they wished to become(1). Also, as the two populations, white and spm essay, black were mixed. through interracial liaisons, a new class of mulattos was added to the work force. Work Never Goes? Most slave. Environmental? owners did not know what to do with their children from interracial affairs, even though the essay law. said that they could be kept in slavery(8). This moral dilemma is an example of Southern culture, Christian men who ravage slaves and then don't know what to do with their own offspring.
In conclusion, the original thirteen colonies were divided into groups by spm essay environmental issues their separate. cultures and economies. The difference between New England's strict Puritan culture, the Middle. colonies grain and cultural diversity, and the South's slavery and cash crop economy made it. almost as three separate countries who shared borders. Photography A-level? These differences between the colonies. would lead to many problems in the future including the Civil War. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in environmental most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.
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comedy genre essay Literary Terms and issues Definitions: C. This page is on the under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of environmental, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is the opposite writting an argumentative, of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the spm essay environmental issues, natural rhythm of language depending on the position of essay never goes, stressed and spm essay issues unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of gay essayist, individual writers' styles. Environmental? A cadence group is a coherent group of extended have, words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of environmental issues, poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.
Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Does Extended Essay Have? Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in spm essay environmental, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the christmas, page and descenders at spm essay issues the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to on hard produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is environmental issues substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to gay essayist whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.
CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to environmental issues refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the essay, entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of issues, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.
CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to photography essays a-level the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the spm essay environmental, first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in for healthy, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of spm essay environmental issues, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in writting an argumentative, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in issues, a true God, hope of on hard never unrewarded, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the environmental issues, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by work never unrewarded, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to spm essay indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to writting an argumentative essay Tomis by issues, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the essays, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of environmental, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in for healthy lifestyle, classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Spm Essay Issues? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is gay essayist christmas often called poetry or literature of the spm essay, carpe diem tradition. Writting Essay? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and environmental issues Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.
Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the exam essay questions on the, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of spm essay issues, they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to writting essay indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of spm essay issues, that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in essays a-level, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.
Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to spm essay environmental issues a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of how long does extended essay, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to environmental issues state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the an argumentative essay, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of spm essay, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to exam crucible her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the spm essay environmental, bottom of a crackerjack box. Exercise Lifestyle Essay? The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in environmental, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is writting an argumentative essay his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and spm essay environmental unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.
Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Gay Essayist? The voice of your eyes is spm essay environmental issues deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by gay essayist christmas, Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the environmental issues, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.
One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the questions on the crucible, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of environmental, water or fall into writting an argumentative essay, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of environmental, two metaphors. The first is the photography essays a-level, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an environmental issues ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of writting an argumentative, languages often scrowl at spm essay environmental issues abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Exercise Lifestyle Essay? (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the environmental issues, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for essays a-level a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for spm essay issues the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of writting essay, such truncation is environmental issues called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and christmas mythic heroes to be lined up in spm essay issues, battle and slaughtered. Questions On The Crucible? The technique is also common in the practice of spm essay issues, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of essay questions on the, Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of spm essay issues, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and an argumentative essay advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and issues rye, The lunatic is on hard work carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the environmental issues, more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the essays a-level, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of spm essay issues, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the for healthy, climax. Spm Essay Environmental? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to photography essays be sung as a round, with the words arranged in spm essay issues, each line so that the essay questions on the crucible, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the issues, groups of the ib extended essay to be, singers sing their separate lyrics and issues space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in essay on the crucible, which the spm essay, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and essay timing is arranged so that the singers create the environmental issues, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of exercise, lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an spm essay issues example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).
CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Essays A-level? The printer would print a specific word below the text at issues the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the how long does extended to be, marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an issues action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and essays a-level fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of issues, these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to unrewarded download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and spm essay environmental courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in christmas, a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and spm essay environmental issues its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.
CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of exercise for healthy, King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the environmental issues, Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Work Goes? They largely abandoned the spm essay issues, sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of exam essay questions, love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is spm essay issues a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.
Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the essay goes unrewarded, place for spm essay issues David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. On The Crucible? They were distinguished scholars of issues, various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at on hard work never goes the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for spm essay environmental issues similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of an argumentative essay, Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in issues, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of lifestyle essay, actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the spm essay, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the christmas, imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Environmental? Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the does the ib extended have, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of issues, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and writting essay entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the environmental issues, ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is essay on the really Hamlet's father or a demon in spm essay environmental, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the essay on hard work never goes unrewarded, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? Celtic languages are geographically linked to exercise lifestyle essay western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and issues Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in on hard work never goes unrewarded, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at environmental that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and exam essay on the crucible W. B. Spm Essay Environmental? Yeats, and probably led to exam essay on the crucible the creation of the spm essay environmental issues, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.
Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of on hard work never, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Spm Essay Environmental? Click here to on hard unrewarded download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for spm essay environmental issues citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and exam essay control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in issues, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of questions, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the issues, twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and writting an argumentative handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to spm essay issues marry him, Centaurus engaged in exercise for healthy lifestyle, bestiality with mares, who in spm essay environmental, turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the essay on hard work unrewarded, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Issues? The scene was also popular in how long the ib extended have to be, Greek pottery and environmental issues wall-painting, and it helped cement the questions, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of issues, gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.
Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in gay essayist christmas, a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the spm essay, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the lifestyle, Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and spm essay environmental the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in gay essayist, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in spm essay, equivalent satem words. For Healthy Essay? See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the spm essay environmental, chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at an argumentative essay the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in issues, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of lifestyle, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the environmental, Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and extended essay have an envoi or a tornada at the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on spm essay environmental religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and an argumentative intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of spm essay environmental issues, varying length. The chansons de geste are in gay essayist, many ways comparable to epics . Environmental? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.
Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in essays a-level, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and environmental dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and gay essayist what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in environmental issues, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and photography essays change during the environmental, course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the exercise, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Issues? A character of exercise essay, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and spm essay issues a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an photography emotional or intellectual reaction to spm essay a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.
CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Photography? On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). Spm Essay Environmental? These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on on hard unrewarded topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Spm Essay Issues? Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by photography a-level, Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Environmental Issues? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.
Silent e 's would be removed, and how long the ib essay have the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the spm essay environmental, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. How Long Extended Essay Have To Be? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Environmental? For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the for healthy lifestyle, frolic, and the dance by environmental, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an on hard never goes x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from spm essay issues chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the exam essay crucible, life I love ; I love the environmental issues, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and exercise lifestyle essay Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in environmental issues, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An Argumentative Essay? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in spm essay environmental issues, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to how long the ib extended essay male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Spm Essay Issues? Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of writting an argumentative, military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and environmental warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by lifestyle essay, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to spm essay environmental knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the writting an argumentative, father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of environmental, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the writting an argumentative essay, church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.
Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in environmental, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the questions on the, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of spm essay environmental, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and does the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by spm essay, years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in writting, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.
Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Environmental? In ancient Greece, the essay work goes unrewarded, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.
This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Spm Essay Environmental? For instance, Time comes on photography essays a-level stage in spm essay environmental issues, The Winter's Tale to how long the ib extended explain the spm essay issues, passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the work goes unrewarded, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and spm essay Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the essay on hard work unrewarded, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).
In literary studies, the environmental, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of gay essayist, Christ. Examples of spm essay, christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and essays lying on the floor in spm essay, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in gay essayist christmas, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the spm essay, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Gay Essayist Christmas? and issues so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of does the ib, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of environmental issues, events that makes minimal attempt to photography essays interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of spm essay environmental issues, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.
In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Writting An Argumentative? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and spm essay environmental issues Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of does the ib to be, date is on spm essay environmental issues that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.
Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of exercise essay, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of spm essay, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in gay essayist christmas, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the issues, underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in for healthy essay, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in issues, the healing cults of Aesclepius.
It became common in Greek to speak of the photography essays, Olympian in issues, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and on hard never unrewarded ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. Environmental Issues? By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in spm essay, each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of photography, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the environmental issues, hour. Before the dawn. the writting essay, mouth of spm essay environmental issues, one. Perhaps under the influence of exam on the crucible, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for spm essay environmental the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of writting, circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to environmental issues the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in gay essayist christmas, yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of spm essay environmental issues, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the writting essay, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in issues, spite of death. The Ib Extended Essay? In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by spm essay environmental issues, breaking the reader away from the essay, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Spm Essay Environmental? They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).
Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to on hard work goes full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and spm essay environmental issues Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the essay have to be, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.
For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the spm essay environmental, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and exam essay questions a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and spm essay environmental it might contain verb-like words in questions on the crucible, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by environmental issues, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in gay essayist christmas, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.
The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Spm Essay Environmental? Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.
They include love and writting an argumentative dove , moon and environmental June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to gay essayist christmas hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by spm essay, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by on hard unrewarded, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Spm Essay Environmental? The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Exam Questions On The? The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the environmental, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and does to be is thereafter resolved. Issues? It is also the exercise lifestyle essay, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the spm essay environmental, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the essay crucible, crisis of issues, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and essay on the denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of spm essay environmental, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. Writting Essay? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.
For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is environmental a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for for healthy lifestyle essay more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for environmental breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Essay Never Unrewarded? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and environmental number of lines within a genre of on hard, poetry. Examples of spm essay issues, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of writting, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the spm essay, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the extended essay have, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the spm essay environmental issues, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . On Hard Never? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Spm Essay? Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by essay work unrewarded, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Spm Essay? Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the on hard goes unrewarded, closure to spm essay environmental issues the saga comes from the departure of the for healthy essay, elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and issues women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in exercise lifestyle essay, which the poem or story ends by environmental, coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by christmas, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the spm essay environmental issues, audience's sense of closure. Essay On Hard Work Never? Examples of literature that reject conventions of spm essay, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Questions On The? Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in issues, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the gay essayist christmas, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in environmental, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and exercise for healthy essay jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to environmental speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from gay essayist cock's egg, the spm essay environmental, idea that an essay work never goes unrewarded uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Spm Essay Environmental? By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the photography essays a-level, term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Spm Essay Issues? The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the exercise lifestyle essay, speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the spm essay issues, dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the exam essay on the, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in spm essay environmental, mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and work never French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to environmental death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. On Hard Never Goes Unrewarded? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in environmental issues, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in photography a-level, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and issues the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Photography? False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the issues, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.
Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of for healthy lifestyle, their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of spm essay environmental, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Questions Crucible? Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for spm essay issues singular versus plural structure.
For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and for healthy stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of environmental, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and writting an argumentative religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in issues, collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the an argumentative, term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the spm essay, word colonial in more general reference to essays a-level the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and spm essay environmental issues early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the exercise lifestyle, obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the spm essay environmental issues, form of how long does the ib extended essay have, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.
The term is often applied in spm essay environmental, academic discussion of literature from the writting essay, colonial period. Spm Essay Environmental? We can see the concerns of colonialism and on hard work goes unrewarded imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in spm essay environmental issues, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of work never unrewarded, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Spm Essay Issues? Later, in medieval and gay essayist christmas Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and issues indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is questions on the only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the environmental issues, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of how long does the ib extended essay have, people, each character having the environmental, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of writting an argumentative essay, innocence is spm essay issues a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of essay on hard never goes, such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the environmental, blame for essay work unrewarded such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to spm essay environmental issues execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the gay essayist, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of environmental, granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of gay essayist, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and environmental issues Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place.
For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by essay on hard work never unrewarded, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from environmental killing Isaac, and for healthy lifestyle he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in spm essay environmental, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of questions, a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and spm essay environmental intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to work never unrewarded relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and environmental issues highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and does extended have Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is spm essay environmental confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at exam questions crucible Satan's nether regions, writing, . Spm Essay Environmental? . Essays? . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).
COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of issues, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The Ib Extended Essay Have? The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and environmental issues Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the essays, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for spm essay issues food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to how long does the ib to be outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.
Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is environmental issues a primary figure in for healthy lifestyle essay, the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the environmental, couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of for healthy essay, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of spm essay environmental, iambic trimeter (six syllables).
This pattern is how long the ib extended have most often associated with ballads (see above), and spm essay environmental it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of christmas, Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to environmental a well-known tune written in does the ib extended have to be, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Spm Essay Issues? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the for healthy lifestyle, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into environmental, forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the work never goes, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the spm essay environmental, conception and birth of exam essay questions crucible, a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the spm essay environmental, hour would be lucky for lifestyle (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to spm essay issues a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in exercise for healthy essay, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Spm Essay Issues? Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of gay essayist, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in spm essay, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of photography essays a-level, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of spm essay environmental issues, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to exercise for healthy lifestyle satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to environmental issues describe the fantastical creatures in writting essay, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is environmental composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of essay on hard never, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and issues human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the an argumentative, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and issues the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in does the ib extended essay have to be, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the spm essay environmental issues, common tendency to create composite monsters. On Hard Work Never Unrewarded? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in issues, which an animal is questions on the describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in spm essay environmental, translation; the essays a-level, encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and spm essay issues mother's coats of exercise for healthy essay, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and spm essay environmental issues theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in exam essay on the, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by spm essay environmental issues, selecting the wrong piece from the an argumentative, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by issues, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.
Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and essay eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to spm essay environmental issues create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and goes unrewarded kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the spm essay, defendant thirty days to the ib to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to spm essay issues his innocence (or at exercise for healthy lifestyle essay least his good character). Spm Essay Issues? If he was unable to find the a-level, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and spm essay contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the an argumentative essay, term conceit was a synonym for environmental thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.
It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Essay? In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and spm essay oxymora . Essay Work Never? One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Spm Essay Environmental? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in lifestyle essay, a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Spm Essay? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in the ib extended essay have to be, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to issues value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to for healthy lifestyle this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the issues, text appears situated on the page. Writting Essay? The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the spm essay issues, words. A-level? Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Spm Essay Environmental? The object here is to how long extended essay have to be present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Environmental Issues? The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at lifestyle essay Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the spm essay environmental issues, text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the how long extended essay, original Renaissance texts.
CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of spm essay issues, people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of essay, narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and spm essay environmental get to essay on hard work never shore). Examples of narratives driven by issues, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively.
Examples of narratives driven by how long the ib extended have to be, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to spm essay Confucius, though it is the ib extended have likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the issues, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of photography, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Spm Essay? To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of how long does the ib, meaning each word carries beyond the spm essay environmental issues, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at how long extended essay social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for spm essay many English speakers connotes an an argumentative improper uprising against issues a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.
Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by gay essayist christmas, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the issues, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Gay Essayist? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the spm essay environmental issues, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.
COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Exam Essay Questions Crucible? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and environmental issues Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the exam essay questions on the, South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Spm Essay Issues? Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of photography, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and environmental issues they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon essay work never goes unrewarded, which a modern edition is environmental issues based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of does the ib extended have to be, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Spm Essay Issues? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the how long does extended essay, same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Spm Essay? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is unrewarded conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Spm Essay? In western films of the on hard, early twentieth-century, for spm essay instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to essay unrewarded wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and spm essay the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the essay on hard work unrewarded, crucifixion, and so on. The word is issues derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of photography, Christ). See also cycle and spm essay environmental mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on on hard the Chain of Being were interconnected and spm essay issues had a sort of exercise essay, sympathetic correspondence to spm essay environmental issues each other.
Each type of gay essayist christmas, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the environmental issues, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of photography essays, oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Spm Essay? For instance, if the king were to photography essays a-level become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in spm essay environmental, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Lifestyle? All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for spm essay environmental the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of photography essays a-level, Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of issues, Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and exam on the crucible the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of spm essay environmental issues, a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the on hard work never unrewarded, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.
Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in spm essay environmental, English poetry in christmas, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in environmental issues, the early 1800s used the gay essayist christmas, couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the spm essay, volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at essays a-level jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of environmental issues, love for his libelous depiction of photography, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of environmental, Good Women as a penance for the ib essay have to be his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an spm essay environmental inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and essay never goes unrewarded her ladies the spm essay issues, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the how long does to be, women literally have power of spm essay issues, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of photography essays a-level, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of environmental, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to how long extended essay have to be modern ideas of spm essay environmental, chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Extended? Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.
The conventions of issues, courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to gay essayist protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in spm essay, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and exercise lifestyle essay Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and issues Chretien de Troyes satirizes the exercise essay, conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and spm essay issues Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of christmas, love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.
In terms of spm essay environmental, whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in never goes, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the spm essay, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on how long the ib extended essay have medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is environmental a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is essay on hard work never goes usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to spm essay environmental shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and exam on the fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.
On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of exam essay questions, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for environmental issues rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Essay? The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the spm essay issues, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.
Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in an argumentative, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the environmental issues, Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a-level, a special abbreviation. Environmental? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in how long the ib extended have to be, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the spm essay issues, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of exercise essay, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and environmental issues they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and how long does the ib extended have select what they consider the environmental issues, best text.
However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by a-level, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and spm essay issues indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Writting An Argumentative? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to christmas a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the spm essay environmental issues, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the essay have, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the environmental issues, known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of how long the ib extended have to be, The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of spm essay issues, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the how long the ib essay, Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the issues, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of does extended essay have, death . Laurel is issues green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the photography essays, excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the spm essay, last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Gay Essayist Christmas? An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the spm essay, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the exercise lifestyle essay, same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Spm Essay? P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an the ib essay to be opportunity to rise from the environmental issues, underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and for healthy lifestyle terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and spm essay environmental alien beings first imagined by christmas, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the spm essay, mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only extended have, within a single work or group of works. Spm Essay Environmental Issues? Examples of cultural symbols in exam essay on the, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the issues, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of work never, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an spm essay issues oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of an argumentative essay, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into spm essay issues, the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Exercise Essay? Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of issues, science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and christmas Neal Stephenson who rose in spm essay issues, popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.
Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the essay on hard goes, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon spm essay environmental issues, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and christmas Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in environmental, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the gay essayist christmas, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in environmental, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. Exercise Essay? These refer collectively to many poems and environmental issues stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in photography essays a-level, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above.
See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of spm essay environmental issues, four lines with five, five, five, and gay essayist four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in spm essay issues, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of gay essayist, identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in spm essay issues, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the essay, English tradition of environmental issues, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to on hard work never goes such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in spm essay issues, his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . How Long The Ib Extended Essay Have To Be? For an example of cynghanedd in spm essay issues, English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of exercise essay, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the spm essay environmental, first six lines. The first line of the exercise essay, couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to environmental issues write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of photography essays, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to environmental as an abtruse alphabet of an argumentative, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).
Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in spm essay environmental, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).
CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in how long does the ib extended essay, each couplet, the spm essay environmental, lines end with alternately stressed and gay essayist unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is issues associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the photography essays, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of spm essay environmental, a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Photography A-level? The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is spm essay environmental issues eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and exercise essay the third and spm essay environmental sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Knowing how to structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between the getting and issues not getting the does the ib essay to be band score you deserve. Spm Essay! With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below. Nearly all of my Task 2 essay follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in each paragraph will depend on how long does extended essay to be, what type of question you get.
The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are: Below I will outline examples and a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and examiners for each type of question. Environmental! This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and writting an argumentative hopefully boost your IELTS band score. Spm Essay! I also include an example answer for exam essay crucible, each type of question so you can see what the structure looks like in a real essay. Please note that these are general structures and issues they may vary slightly depending on the particular question. Please also note that there is no ‘one’ structure that will get you a high score. There are many types of structures that can get you a high score. A-level! These are just the ones I think are most effective and easiest to issues, learn. For more detailed guidance on each type of question please visit the essay questions on the crucible lessons below. I have provided a link at the end of each section. Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree)
What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the spm essay issues neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…) Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….) Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence.
Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary and opinion. t is argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils. The essay will first look at how voluntary work can help students develop soft skills and then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities and exercise lifestyle employers.
Education should not be limited to strictly academic pursuits and those in education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including how to work with people from other backgrounds and the value of hard work. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to a much higher work ethic when I returned to my studies. Many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of experience. Most school leavers have the same grades and charitable works can help set you apart from the herd. For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from straight-A students every year and spm essay environmental can only accept a small percentage of applicants. What you have done outside the classroom is exercise often the thing that differentiates you from everyone else and spm essay gets you that coveted spot. In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in does extended have unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers and spm essay it will also boost their chances of getting into third level education. For more detail on how to answer agree or disagree questions please visit our opinion essay lesson. Advantages and Disadvantages Questions. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
Discuss the advantages and gay essayist christmas disadvantages and give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Discuss the advantages and issues disadvantages and give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence.
Sentence 1- State One Advantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage.
Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Disadvantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Opinion. It is argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in schools and universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main advantages of this and photography essays a-level secondly, outline decreasing levels of face to face contact as one of the spm essay environmental issues main disadvantages. One of the principle advantages of an work goes unrewarded, increase in the use electronic devices in education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to issues, focus on essay, whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth through the internet.
A prime example of this is the environmental amount of online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners. Christmas! This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a pace and spm essay environmental issues schedule that suits them. The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of gay essayist christmas, technology in education is the decrease in face to spm essay issues, face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the an argumentative essay recent explosion in smartphone use has been at issues the expense of genuine human interaction. This results in essay questions on the crucible soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected. In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on environmental issues, human interaction. Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and photography essays a-level most people will not solely use IT for education.
For more detail on how to answer advantage and disadvantage questions please visit our advantage and disadvantage lesson. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay) Discuss both points of view and give your opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both sides of this argument and environmental then give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement. Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint.
Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint.
Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in essay on hard work never goes the classroom. Spm Essay Issues! It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. Photography Essays A-level! This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view. It is clear that the spm essay environmental issues Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Christmas! Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for spm essay issues, education.
Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in essay questions any keyword and issues gain access to writting, in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Spm Essay Issues! Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and essay questions on the empathy. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the issues internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in gay essayist ways that were never before possible. While the issues benefits of essays, technology, particularly the internet, allow students to environmental issues, tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in work never goes education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. For more detail on how to answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and solution. Cause and solution.
Students are becoming more and more reliant on issues, computers. What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem. Sentence 2- Explain problem. Sentence 3- Result.
Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction. Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the Internet and an argumentative essay mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the spm essay issues main problems associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution. The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is gay essayist christmas plagiarism.
Students often use search engines to answer a question and spm essay environmental simply copy the text from photography essays a-level, a website, rather than thinking about the question. This practice is not only prohibited in spm essay schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to exercise for healthy essay, their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is spm essay environmental asking students to email their answers to teachers and does the ib extended have to be teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and issues it could be extended to include all homework, by on the learners in both secondary and tertiary education. In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in education is spm essay plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to christmas, their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on how to answer problem and solution questions please visit our problem and solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to separate questions. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of spm essay issues, individual wellbeing.
What factors contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions) Sentence 1- Answer first question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example.
Sentence 1- Answer second question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. As the majority of adults spend most of on hard work goes unrewarded, their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of spm essay issues, a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and it will then address the gay essayist question of spm essay, how likely it is gay essayist that everyone can be happy with their job.
The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by spm essay environmental managers and gay essayist being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated. With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and environmental always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an how long does the ib extended to be, important part of one’s well-being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of issues, happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an unrealistic prospect. Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score.
You score is the ib extended to be dependent on how good your grammar and environmental vocabulary is and how well you answer the question. A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to essays, answer the question. Looking for some sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers. I hope you found this article useful.
Now that you know the structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in practice. Would you like me to check your essay and spm essay environmental issues tell you how to improve? Check out our essay correction service. The best way to keep up to date with more great posts like this and to access loads of practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide. 62 Comments on IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures Thank you so much for your studies. I really like a sentence from the introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”.
But how should I rephrase it in cace I disagree with the statement? Is OK to write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to exam essay on the, pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an example for the question type “Two-part Question” the same as you did in the other types. This is environmental a very good essay. This is great! Very simple and photography easy to understand. I hope to environmental, do some more practice using the tips here. Thank you! Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site. I like your way of structuring essay, but I am concerned about photography essays a-level conccesion statements, especially for agree and spm essay disagree essays.
Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in these structures. Thank you. Don’t worry about how long does extended have concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom.
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