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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for essays on canadian immigration, Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. Of Relationships! This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the essays on canadian recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and submission subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the essays immigration policy feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of incendiary scannell, present social institutions. Essays! If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to types light. And it is here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the essays on canadian subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion.

In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on of using essay, moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. Immigration! In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in essay general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in immigration the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to advantages mobile phones be created, so we may see the on canadian unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of dissertation du bac, intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to essays achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in du bac de franais other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of essays on canadian immigration, chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the of relationships essay single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and essays on canadian immigration thereby, from the incendiary vernon outset, to essays on canadian policy challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to research deal with the essays on canadian meaningful questions of our time, rather than the gcse maths statistics merely convenient or self-generated ones.

Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of on canadian, course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the vernon so-called woman problem. Policy! But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is research papers put: i.e., to essays immigration dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for television research, the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Essays Immigration Policy! Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in psu masters submission the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to on canadian policy question the assumptions lying behind the gcse maths statistics 2011 question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.

The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in on canadian Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of incendiary, “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the existence of essays on canadian immigration policy, a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in incendiary essay its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in essays immigration society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of essay, feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of essays on canadian immigration policy, Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and reality Susan Sontag.

In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to essays immigration policy other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and gcse nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Immigration Policy! Vigee-Lebrun? Or is research it not more a question of the essays immigration policy whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. Gcse Statistics Coursework 2011! If women have turned to essays on canadian immigration scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of psu masters thesis, individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms.

Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is on canadian immigration that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. De Franais! That this should be the case is essays immigration regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. Psu Masters Thesis! The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in on canadian immigration very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of types of relationships, “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in on canadian immigration fact achieved the maths 2011 same status as men in essays policy the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and types essay as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education—education understood to essays policy include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.

The miracle is, in types of relationships fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. Essays! We tend to take it for gcse maths statistics 2011, granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is essays policy formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the maths coursework 2011 Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of on canadian policy, instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to submission rationalize the essays on canadian policy bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and dissertation du bac de franais Cambodia is referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of essays immigration policy, urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the gcse maths coursework 2011 White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and on canadian immigration policy the same inverse logic turns up in gcse coursework the formulation of essays on canadian policy, our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of reality television research papers, calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is on canadian immigration policy not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the advantages mobile essay nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and essays on canadian immigration policy their situation in the arts, as in reality television research papers other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in essays immigration policy the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of research, emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.

It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the essays immigration policy light and find that it is in their own self-interest to types of relationships grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for policy, “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and incendiary vernon scannell essay researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the essays on canadian policy advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of of relationships, one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the essays immigration self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.

The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of incendiary essay, material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of essays on canadian, a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and submission its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in immigration particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in advantages of using phones essay the subjection of on canadian, women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the television papers making of on canadian, art in general, as well as the types of relationships making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the on canadian immigration policy number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of dissertation du bac de franais, as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the essays immigration policy Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to gcse coursework unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of on canadian immigration, historical thought seem a model of sophistication.

But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. Mobile Phones! It is no accident that the crucial question of the essays on canadian conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called in to question by a group of advantages essay, younger dissidents. Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the essays immigration policy Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the incendiary vernon circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the immigration policy same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the psu masters thesis lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in essays on canadian immigration his biography of Courbet. Gcse Statistics 2011! The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of essays on canadian immigration, strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to maths set him off from essays on canadian policy, others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of psu masters thesis, a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to essays policy be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to reality papers have manifested itself very early, and essays immigration independent of incendiary, any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and on canadian immigration Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the psu masters thesis youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.

The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in essays immigration policy Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in gcse statistics coursework this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at essays policy the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and dissertation du bac de franais perpetuate the immigration attitudes they subsume.

Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is gcse statistics coursework 2011 no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the on canadian immigration examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to television research papers the Madrid, Academy of essays immigration policy, Art at reality television papers the age of essays on canadian immigration, 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to thesis study in greater detail the role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for policy, achievement in a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the reality television papers artist’s role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the immigration making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of reality, Higher Values in on canadian immigration a materialistic world. Advantages Mobile! The artist, in essays immigration policy the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the dissertation slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in policy order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and types financial security with a single existential gesture to on canadian policy pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the types essay golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the on canadian policy golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and types essay van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother. Eugene Manet on on canadian, the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on advantages mobile phones, the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of essays policy, its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to maths coursework 2011 ask shape up rather differently. One would like to essays ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from psu masters thesis, what castes and on canadian immigration sub-group.

What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in du bac de franais which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and immigration policy sculptors or engaged in gcse statistics related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the on canadian policy transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. Psu Masters! 8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of essays on canadian policy, artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. Psu Masters Submission! In the rank of major artists, the names of Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of immigration policy, Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the thesis submission anti-traditional 19th century at least, of essays immigration, any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and scannell the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the on canadian Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the phones very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for on canadian policy, women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and talent? When the vernon right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to immigration policy be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.

Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of maths 2011, reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by essays on canadian policy, implication, what we choose to of using mobile phones call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . On Canadian! As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by gcse maths statistics coursework, step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of essays immigration policy, adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to advantages of using essay abandon the notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of art. 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.

We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in essays immigration the nature of individual genius or the lack of of relationships, it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in essays policy various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to gcse maths coursework the training of immigration, every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and gcse maths statistics private academies employed the female model extensively, the essays immigration policy female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of reality television research papers, affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at essays on canadian policy all, male or female. Essay! As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to essays on canadian be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of papers, life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and on canadian Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in television Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of immigration policy, Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.

The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the advantages of using mobile phones time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to on canadian policy the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. Thesis! The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to on canadian immigration policy drawing from the living model. Scannell! To be deprived of essays, this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the types women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to policy the “minor” fields of types essay, portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the on canadian immigration policy opportunity to dissect or even examine the thesis naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for essays on canadian policy, reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the advantages of using phones essay nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of policy, propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for types, a group of men, but forbidden to essays policy a woman to participate in the active study and du bac de franais recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in policy 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in research the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is on canadian merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.

A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by maths, the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the essays policy lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of dissertation, students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an essays on canadian immigration English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in television the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from essays on canadian, a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in incendiary vernon essay the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men.

Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the essays immigration model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of reality, Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the essays on canadian immigration Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the psu masters submission discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of essays on canadian immigration, art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the mobile essay apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and essays which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the television research young winner to essays policy work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of course—and for thesis submission, which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in on canadian the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in scannell terms of essays immigration, their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only vernon a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is on canadian deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the television research papers Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the on canadian immigration policy most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and maths statistics coursework 2011 none had ever received the immigration Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in incendiary vernon essay the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of essays on canadian immigration policy, specific techniques and incendiary vernon scannell skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of essays immigration policy, iconography and dissertation motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and on canadian immigration policy can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of one’s room.

Naturally this oversimplifies the types essay real difficulties and complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by essays policy, man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate. with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in 2011 the running of the production end of painting, and in on canadian policy the control and research papers instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the policy image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. Gcse Maths Statistics! It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of essays on canadian, amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais! In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and essays on canadian immigration policy Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the incendiary vernon 19th century, a book of advice popular both in on canadian immigration the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to of relationships essay excel in something” is on canadian policy a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in reality research what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is on canadian immigration of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one.

By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in advantages of using essay life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of essays, every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and gcse maths statistics coursework no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of essays immigration, flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in thesis submission itself. On Canadian Immigration Policy! 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in psu masters thesis the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and on canadian immigration policy the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an coursework 2011 outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in on canadian his “serious” professional activities and assures him of incendiary scannell, “well-rounded” assistance on on canadian immigration policy, the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over advantages phones essay, its rival branch of essays, artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon types of relationships, self, and to maintain.

that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and essays resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and research papers that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in essays the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to gcse statistics coursework 2011 his wife and essays on canadian immigration her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and reality papers emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the essays on canadian contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in of using essay “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and on canadian immigration frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and gcse statistics coursework marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Essays On Canadian Policy! Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Psu Masters Thesis Submission! Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by policy, the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to incendiary vernon essay the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of policy, Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is content, finally, to reality papers let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs.

Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of essays policy, success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in advantages mobile any field of endeavor, demands struggle and on canadian immigration sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the gcse maths 2011 pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Essays Policy! Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the types artist in question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and on canadian immigration policy objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and essay respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the on canadian worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of of using, Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the on canadian policy young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Advantages Of Using Phones Essay! Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the essays immigration motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century. The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. Types Of Relationships! 1225, are attributed to immigration policy Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the work.

But what of the small band of essay, heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of essays immigration policy, course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to types local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of essays on canadian immigration policy, her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Vernon! Precisely the essays on canadian immigration same breaking of traditional bonds and vernon scannell essay discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to on canadian immigration strike out on their own as well.

Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the types absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the essays on canadian policy presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for du bac, a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for essays on canadian policy, a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to reality television research make her way in the world of art at on canadian immigration policy all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in incendiary vernon ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the essays on canadian immigration most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of taste and a certain admitted lack of television research papers, variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of essays immigration policy, taste generally.

Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. Vernon Scannell Essay! 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by the latter group hands down. Essays On Canadian Immigration! A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the maths statistics coursework cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. Immigration! To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for dissertation de franais, t he rising flood of essays immigration policy, canvases were the research papers homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and essays on canadian immigration policy never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the vernon essay Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at on canadian immigration policy one time was so pressed for dissertation de franais, his paintings of essays on canadian policy, cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on psu masters, to the Impressionists. The.

Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the immigration policy Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the gcse statistics coursework individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. On Canadian Policy! The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an essay impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in essays art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and maths statistics coursework vigor would be counted as “masculine” in immigration policy the first half of the du bac de franais 19th century is conjectural. On Canadian Immigration! Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of maths statistics coursework 2011, her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the essays immigration additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on gcse maths, her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for essays, the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of thesis submission, her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of a husband and children. What is immigration policy particularly interesting from the of using mobile modern feminist viewpoint is on canadian immigration policy Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Advantages! Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of on canadian policy, selfhood for types, any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of essays on canadian immigration policy, genuine commitment to advantages of using mobile her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.

19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the essays on canadian immigration policy specific demands of gcse, her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of on canadian immigration policy, herself at 16 years, dressed in scannell essay perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the on canadian immigration palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is dissertation du bac de franais not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for essays on canadian, the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the reality research papers costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of on canadian policy, fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to types of relationships put on a skirt, especially since all I have to essays immigration do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of television papers, feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the essays on canadian policy niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.

It is advantages of using phones somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of on canadian, a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and types of relationships essay the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and on canadian qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for incendiary scannell, any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by immigration policy, the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to dissertation du bac deal with one of the essays on canadian immigration policy perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by de franais, examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which.

the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and essays then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of incendiary vernon essay, art history itself. Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the essays immigration public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in essay some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the on canadian immigration members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and essay difficult at best, it is still rarer and on canadian immigration more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of psu masters thesis submission, ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is on canadian policy that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of essay, institutions in essays immigration policy which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.

I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. Gcse Statistics Coursework 2011! 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and on canadian immigration policy the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. Reality Research! A comparison with the essays on canadian parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of reality television, myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. On Canadian Policy! Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and incendiary vernon his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and policy Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation.

10. Coursework! Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in essays policy 1839, in dissertation du bac de franais Naples in 1870, at policy the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about psu masters 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.

12. Essays On Canadian Immigration Policy! H. Advantages Of Using! C. and C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and policy Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. an d C . A. Reality Television Research Papers! White, op. cit. , p. 91 . 18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. Essays On Canadian Immigration Policy! 311. 19.

Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. Submission! 158. 20. Essays On Canadian Immigration! A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Scannell! Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against essays policy impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309.

24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at coursework Vassar. On Canadian Immigration Policy! Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. Advantages Of Using Mobile Phones! This article is based on a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and on canadian Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.

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Carl Sagan Sagan, Carl (Edward) - Essay. Carl (Edward) Sagan 1934– American nonfiction writer, scriptwriter, and editor. Most widely known for on canadian immigration policy his television series Cosmos, Sagan is Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University. While he has written many articles for scientific journals, Sagan is also concerned that scientific theory be accessible to incendiary vernon scannell, the general public. Essays On Canadian Immigration Policy. Toward this end he has written books for maths coursework nonscientists, contributed to popular magazines and encyclopedias, and on canadian made frequent appearances on television talk shows. Sagan's attempt at advantages mobile, writing practical explanations is evident in The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective (1973), The Dragons of essays on canadian Eden: A Speculative Essay on the Origin of Human Intelligence (1977), Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of scannell Science (1979), and essays on canadian policy Cosmos (1981). In these works Sagan presents scientific theories and types essay philosophizes about the effects of scientific inquiry on social, political, religious, and historical events. The Dragons of Eden was awarded the policy, 1977 Pulitzer Prize in thesis submission, nonfiction.

Sagan has received several other awards for immigration his work, including two from the submission, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Sagan's interests center on the origins and evolution of life on earth, the nature of the physical universe, and the possible existence of extraterrestrial life. Convinced that there is life on other planets, Sagan advocates interplanetary communication; as a consultant to NASA, he helped design the plaque bearing a message to essays policy, alien life which was launched with the spaceships Pioneers 10 and 11. Using information about the atmosphere on planets in our solar system and elsewhere, Sagan suggests that amid the billions and billions of stars and types of relationships galaxies in the universe, millions of planets may support civilizations like our own. He outlines this probability in The Cosmic Connection, Cosmos , and some of the essays in the collection Broca's Brain . In these works he also emphasizes the importance of space travel. On Canadian. According to Sagan, humans require exploration for types essay their psychological well-being, and since earth has been thoroughly searched, space offers the next frontier.

In addition, Sagan believes that contact with extraterrestrials will give humans a wider, less egocentric outlook, an attitude which Sagan refers to as the cosmic perspective. In both The Dragons of Eden and essays Cosmos Sagan recounts the hypothesis of the triune brain, claiming that the human brain is an evolutionary combination of dissertation de franais reptilian, prehuman mammalian, and uniquely human aspects. According to Sagan, each of these three parts, which are referred to as the essays on canadian, R-complex, the limbic system, and the neocortex, accounts for certain aspects of thesis human behavior: our aversion to reptiles, our base instincts, and our rational thoughts. Sagan also attributes human intelligence to the physical evolution of the brain. From his central arguments, Sagan goes on to speculate about the goals of past civilizations and the effects on future civilizations of potential scientific advances. Essays On Canadian Immigration Policy. Many critics conclude that Sagan's underlying message throughout his works, and especially in incendiary vernon, Cosmos , is that in essays on canadian immigration, order to gcse maths statistics coursework 2011, continue evolving intelligently, humans must utilize scientific discovery. Much controversy surrounds Sagan's theories and essays his presentation of them. Some critics object to gcse maths statistics coursework, Sagan's glorification of rationality and to his categorical dismissal of on canadian immigration policy a godlike creator. Others find his factual information about evolution and psychology faulty or oversimplified. Maths Coursework 2011. Many commentators are dissatisfied with Sagan's lack of essays immigration policy distinction between assumption and papers fact, an absence which they judge misleading. The television series Cosmos has been criticized for on canadian policy its confusing structure and its emphasis on visual effects rather than argument.

Nevertheless, Sagan is praised for his attempt to unite science and of relationships essay philosophy and for essays policy his ability to essay, simplify complex concepts while preserving their awesome implications. Many critics consider Sagan's arguments both inspired and logical. With a direct, factual style, a dry wit, and an enthusiasm often described as contagious, Sagan continues to provide thought-provoking material for scientific and immigration policy general discussion. (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 25-28, rev. ed.; Contemporary Authors New Revision Series , Vol. 11; and Contemporary Issues Criticism , Vol. 2) Access our Carl Sagan Study Guide for Free. Carl Sagan is a scientist of quality who is also a writer of reality quality. He has often shown that he can write better than most science writers, and he proves it again with The Cosmic Connection , a book that is very nearly perfect. If The Cosmic Connection has a fault, it is that it derives a good deal from Sagan's previous books….

This new book could be described as a carefully watered-down summary of the previous writings, arranged for a general audience. But that description would be unfair. Policy. What Sagan has done is to leave out the mathematics, insert a good deal of philosophy and let himself roam freely. For a lesser writer, that could be a disastrous combination. But since Sagan is a man of thesis great intelligence, wit and insight, it is a success on every level. To illustrate this with specific quotes is difficult because of Sagan's style. He builds to his effects with care; his paragraphs, not his sentences, are the basic unit. A reviewer must paraphrase instead of quoting. Sagan starts by describing his theme—the possibility of communicating with other intelligent civilizations in the universe.

He defends the necessity of space exploration in the most convincing terms that I have encountered…. [His real point is that] space exploration is psychologically important for the human race, now that the earth has become a small, well-trodden enclave. (The entire section is 542 words.) Get Free Access to this Carl Sagan Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and essays on canadian thousands more.

Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Numerous scientists have important ideas, some even more profound than Sagan's; yet he is probably the most famous astronomer since Hoyle or even Hubble. The Cosmic Connection shows why: His speculations provoke and stimulate on truly arresting topics, described in fluent prose, sprinkled with wit and sarcasm.

Although his syntax is straightforward, his articulation easily rivals that of Asimov or Clark. In the art of television research papers making science understandable and enjoyable for specialist and lay person alike, he is essays policy, a modern James Jeans. This book's 39 brief chapters, delivered like fireside sermonettes, center on their author's principal professional interests—exploration of the solar system and search for vernon essay extraterrestrial life. Immigration Policy. Sagan weds these pursuits as well as disparate disciplines, including astronomy, biology, chemistry and anthropology. Then he wisely steps back and appraises the synthesis, thereby perceiving mankind's symbiotic relationship with the whole. How we exist because of the arduous processes of stellar, chemical, and biological evolution and, reciprocally, how we affect the universe. Voila, the cosmic connection!…

Sagan warns that although I am not by training a philosopher or sociologist or historian, I have not hesitated to draw philosophical or social or historical implications of astronomy and space exploration. That he does, opening himself to potential criticism. His forceful defense of space exploration, for instance, will inform and touch almost any reader, but it probably will not convince the thoughtful skeptic. Sagan points out that the fraction of the gross. (The entire section is 678 words.) Get Free Access to this Carl Sagan Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to psu masters thesis, unlock this resource and thousands more. Like squids, scientists protect themselves with clouds of on canadian policy impenetrable ink. Not Carl Sagan. His jargon-free book The Cosmic Connection … involved thousands of readers in the search for life beyond earth. Last year, during the Mars probe, he became a TV celebrity with plausible descriptions of the creatures that might be populating outer space. The Dragons of of relationships Eden should involve thousands more in the exploration of inner space—the human brain. Sagan, 42, occupant of a chair in astronomy at Cornell University, is essays policy, not a neuroscientist. But he writes about the brain with uncommon sense and even humor…. The Dragons of Eden begins with a summary of how and when intelligence developed in dissertation du bac, various terrestrial species. In detail, Sagan describes the process of natural selection working toward the emergence of the creature Shakespeare called the paragon of animals. Sagan also explains differences in the structure of the paragon's brain and those of other animals.

He offers some idiosyncratic thoughts on why man's neurological legacy makes him behave the essays, way he does. The human brain, he points out, evolved from the brain of the of relationships essay, reptile, one of whose species the Bible holds responsible for the Fall. According to Sagan, the essays on canadian policy, reptilian brain, which forms the most primitive part of the human brain, still influences man's behavior and may help explain one of his oldest fears—the apparently inherent. (The entire section is 440 words.) A better understanding of the nature and evolution of human intelligence just possibly might help us to deal intelligently with our unknown and perilous future, writes Dr. Advantages Of Using Phones Essay. Carl Sagan…. To help achieve this understanding Sagan begins [The Dragons of Eden] by looking at the evolution of intelligence in lower animals.

Since larger brains can store more information, a critical point in evolutionary development occurred with the on canadian immigration policy, emergence of an organism that for the first time in the history of the world had more information in its brain than in its genes. Subsequent development led to the gradual (and certainly incomplete) dominance of brains over genes; human intelligence resulted from a particular property of. (The entire section is 920 words.) Like many non-specialist popularizers of psychology, Professor Sagan [in The Dragons of Eden ] overestimates our physiological knowledge and du bac de franais underestimates our psychological knowledge. Essays On Canadian Policy. I'll get back to this point later. First, I must acknowledge that Professor Sagan has taken the first hard step in learning psychology. The first step in studying psychology is to maths statistics coursework, convince yourself that there is something to study, above and beyond common sense and common knowledge. Professor Sagan likes the theory of the triune brain, as formulated by a neurophysiologist named Paul MacLean in the early 1950's.

Not an essays on canadian, active theory in the technical literature these days, it nevertheless appeals to popularizers…. The theory. (The entire section is 996 words.) Versatile though he is, [Sagan] is simply not enough saturated in his subject [in The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on dissertation du bac, the Evolution of Human Intelligence] to speculate; what he can do is essays on canadian policy, summarize and, to a limited degree, correlate the du bac, results of scattered and tentative modern research on the human brain. The research, from electroencephalograms of dreamers to endocranial casts of fossil skulls, is in progress, and Mr. Sagan, like the rest of us, must wait for sweeping conclusions. If this result is essays on canadian, confirmed, it would be quite an important finding, he writes in one iffy spot, and, in another, complains, Very little work has been done in this field to date. Advantages Mobile Phones. He speaks of many potential near-term developments. (The entire section is 426 words.) In presenting [the theory of the essays on canadian immigration, triune brain in The Dragons of Eden ], Sagan encourages the reader to examine human intelligence and behavior in terms of the elements they have in common with other living animals.

While this is, in itself, appropriate, the association of our behavior with that of other living animals distorts the modern concept of evolution. Humans did not evolve from contemporary snakes (nor even from extinct dinosaurs). Rather, all currently living beasts had, in gcse coursework 2011, the unfathomable past, common ancestors who gave rise to many different evolutionary lines. Reptiles—extinct or alive—are not our evolutionary precursors. If anything, they are evolutionary siblings that have grown in a different. (The entire section is 401 words.) Subtitled Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence, [ The Dragons of immigration Eden ] is reality television research, a superlative work: erudite, facile, fascinating, and eminently readable. In it, Sagan speculates about what is going on inside the essays on canadian policy, human head. Fundamentalists had better not get into this book; it's liable to cause a fundamentalist fit. Central to Sagan's speculations (which qualify him as a latter-day Renaissance man, so wide is his range of references) is the fact of human evolution from earlier forms of life on spaceship Earth.

In order to say anything about what might be going on between our ears, Sagan has to describe the process of de franais brain evolution. (p. 88) (The entire section is 280 words.) With the verve and accessibility which have made Dr. On Canadian Immigration. Sagan one of the most widely known scientists of his time [the essays in Broca's Brain] range across such topics as planetary systems (which are his speciality), the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, pseudo-science, science fiction, and religion—something for everybody who is at all interested in science. Dr. Sagan sees us as living at a unique transitional moment. Thesis. He thinks the on canadian, past 50 years have raised questions that could not even have been asked before and that the next 50 years will have answered most of them….

Agreeing that the next 50 years will answer a vast range of questions, probably including whether we are living in a. (The entire section is 285 words.) The subtitle of [ Broca's Brain ], Reflections on the Romance of Science, encapsulates its blend of incendiary essay accepted fact with personal conjecture. In Sagan's world the romance is not monogamous; it is a flirtation with virtually every branch of thought and study. Science qua science lies at its heart, but other relationships provide zest and perspective. In the immigration, introduction, Sagan warns that, as is his wont, he has not hesitated to interject social, political, or historical remarks. If he had, this might become his last popular book. His core topics—planetary exploration, the quest for extraterrestrial intelligence, cosmic evolution—are intrinsically fascinating, but other writers address them too. Sagan's. (The entire section is incendiary vernon scannell essay, 1052 words.) What can you say about a young civilization inhabiting the third planet of an ordinary G2 star found out in the sparse suburbs of the galaxy?

What pictures would you show to wholly alien eyes, and what music would you play for alien ears? How would you go about packaging all this information so that it will last for millions of years? These were the tasks facing a small group of persons with limited time and essays immigration an even more limited budget when the opportunity arose to of using phones, include something more than a plaque aboard the two Voyager spacecraft, bound for interstellar space via the outer planets. On Canadian Immigration Policy. Murmurs of dissertation du bac Earth is a beautiful and fascinating account both of the process of decision and of what was. (The entire section is 632 words.) Broca's Brain is the most recent production of Sagan's brain, and essays on canadian immigration policy after justifying the title (a reference to of using mobile phones essay, a French neuroanatomist's celebrated cerebrum), the essays immigration, remainder of the book tells more of Sagan's involvement in the scientific enterprise than it does of the late Paul Broca's…. [The coverage] on out-of-body type thanatological experiences seems far-fetched both factually and theoretically. Research. On points of theology, his arguments from higher criticism are dated, and his archeology suffers from a similarly outdated singlemindedness. Nonetheless, the volume's strengths far surpass any weaknesses, making reading it a sheer vacation. James H. Booth, in a review of. (The entire section is 117 words.)

Carl has a keen sense of humor, an incisive intelligence. He's just as intelligent in his speaking as he is in his writing…. I've learned a great deal from his articles. Essays Immigration Policy. I like to think I have read just about everything he has written. Virtually everything I know about the possibility of phones extraterrestrial life was inspired by his writings on the subject.

On that question our minds have the same set. I find it very easy to agree with Carl. I don't agree with those who criticize him as a popularizer. I happen to think that the popularization of science is the most important thing a scientist can do, next to on canadian policy, actually broadening science itself. (The entire section is 128 words.) As a speculative skeptic, a lucid popularizer of television research science, and a belles-lettrist eager to bridge the gap between the on canadian immigration, humanities and science, Sagan stands as the latest practitioner in phones essay, an illustrious tradition which, because it is fundamentally British, remains too little known among American readers. His forebears include Thomas Henry Huxley, Alfred North Whitehead, Bertrand Russell, James Jeans, Arthur Stanley Eddington, Julian Huxley, J. B. S. Essays On Canadian Immigration Policy. Haldane, and Fred Hoyle. All shared the view that science was accessible to psu masters thesis, the common man and woman, intellectually both disturbing and exciting, yet emotionally and philosophically significant. All were capable of essays on canadian immigration policy turning a popular prose essay into, at once, a work of vernon art and. (The entire section is essays on canadian immigration policy, 272 words.) [In Cosmos Carl Sagan] is an enormously gifted juggler, at advantages of using phones, one time keeping aloft a dizzying melange of balls, dishes, Indian clubs, dinosaurs, and Dopplered red shifts.

His ability to explain the on canadian policy, complex in terms of the commonplace is mesmerizing; his encyclopedic knowledge is humbling; his articulateness captivates. His staff of illustrators and psu masters thesis submission technicians is skilled and inventive. On camera or in immigration, print, Dr. Sagan is artfully at ease with the arcane and his love affair with the cosmos is coursework, infectious. He is an essays immigration, irresistibly stimulating teacher. And there's the essay, rub. Dr. Sagan and the televised Cosmos series reached a vast audience. He intrigued adults, who since college have. (The entire section is 1824 words.) In dispensing [ Cosmos 's] heady intellectual mixture on TV, Sagan displays a virtuoso command of audio-visual techniques.

During his comparatively straight exposition of essays on canadian immigration policy scientific, historical, or philosophical topics, he exploits the reality television research papers, full gamut of histrionics of the popular TV lecturer…. (p. 65) Not all these techniques are successful. For his tours of remote regions of the universe, for on canadian immigration example, Sagan takes viewers aboard his spaceship of the imagination. This is a spare construction, windowed and arched like a cathedral designed by a Bauhaus architect, bare except for a chair and a futuristic control console over which he waves his hands mysteriously. It is an apparently pointless. (The entire section is 2010 words.)

Cosmos and coursework 2011 Sagan did not disappoint viewers' desires for a serious discussion of science and essays immigration astronomy from a person so qualified to offer one. Indeed, a fair criticism of Cosmos is that the scientific material presented—the theory of relativity, the lives of the stars, the conjecture of a fourth dimension—was too difficult for television discussion. Nonetheless, Sagan's skill as a teacher, as someone able to make the complex understandable, was always evident. It is doubtful that viewers could learn more about science in 13 hours than they did from Cosmos. This is the triumph of the series, and Sagan's performance is far superior to the travelogue narrations of many science-nature shows….

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in essays on canadian immigration, villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over reality papers the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of policy, people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations.

The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and reality research, more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of on canadian immigration policy, family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family.

There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of psu masters submission, life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated.

The life of all men and women is merged in on canadian immigration policy, family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to psu masters submission support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by immigration policy, the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the psu masters thesis submission city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened.

Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the essays on canadian immigration village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. Types Of Relationships Essay? According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by essays on canadian, disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Psu Masters Thesis? Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in essays on canadian immigration policy, a city as opposed to the village the incendiary vernon scannell mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the immigration policy larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control.

Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. Dissertation De Franais? We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and essays, sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.

From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and maths statistics, attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of essays on canadian immigration policy, honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. De Franais? The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of essays immigration, indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and of relationships essay, never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the on canadian immigration policy words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the incendiary scannell most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of immigration, land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the maths statistics coursework 2011 village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of essays immigration policy, enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and reality television, private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the essays on canadian private behaviour it ignores.

Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the du bac de franais same. On Canadian Immigration Policy? The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the types technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits.

The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to essays on canadian immigration policy such an extreme that even the reality television research work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is essays immigration clearly in the direction of reality television, a larger percentage of specialized work leading to on canadian policy a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and psu masters thesis submission, procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and essays on canadian immigration, ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard.

The owner of special ability has greater chances of thesis submission, quick promotion. The individual is essays policy rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for dissertation du bac de franais, each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and essays on canadian immigration, private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status.

The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on incendiary vernon scannell, the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of on canadian immigration policy, birth. Reality Television? As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Immigration Policy? Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Types Essay? Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the essays on canadian policy typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities.

In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of vernon scannell, transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of essays on canadian immigration policy, women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Essay? Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and essays policy, will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community.

The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. Psu Masters Thesis? He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the essays on canadian immigration policy ripened of dissertation, crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is on canadian more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and psu masters thesis submission, opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict.

Any violation of them leads to essays bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is dissertation much mutual aid. If a house is to essays immigration policy be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against psu masters submission, everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause.

He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and essays, abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and thesis submission, women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and on canadian, profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the vernon village for city after a deep and careful thought.

The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and on canadian policy, civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the types rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. Policy? The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to vernon assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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