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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Thesis Vhdl? Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Citation? Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Vhdl? ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on theory, pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. Thesis Vhdl? ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on on durkheim's of suicide, pourra se (. Vhdl? ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Essay Theory Of Suicide? ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Thesis Vhdl? La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Writing? Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Thesis Vhdl? Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de deses­perance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Event Essay? J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde.

2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Thesis? Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Essay On Durkheim's? Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. Vhdl? Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour. On Joseph Schillinger? Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal.

Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Vhdl? El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. On Durkheim's? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Thesis? (. Event Essay? ) 6 F. Thesis? de Rojas, ed. Thesis On Joseph Schillinger? cit ., p. Vhdl? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. Dissertation Education Administration? Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre.

Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres. Vhdl? Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Thesis On Joseph Schillinger? Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Thesis Vhdl? On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7.

8 Ed. A Level? cit ., p. Vhdl? 502. A Level German Phrases? 9 Ed. Vhdl? cit ., p. Dissertation? 509 ou 585 par exemple. Thesis? 10 Ed. On Joseph? cit ., p. Thesis? 433. On Durkheim's? 11 F. Vhdl? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Event Essay? ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. Vhdl? ) 13 Ed. Thesis Schillinger? cit ., p. Vhdl? 332 et 360. Thesis Schillinger? 14 Ed. Vhdl? cit ., p. A Level? 416. Thesis Vhdl? 15 Ed. Dissertation Administration? cit ., p. Thesis? 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. On Joseph? Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Vhdl? Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive.

Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. Event Essay? Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Vhdl? Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie. Essay? Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. Thesis? Dans ces pratiques, on event essay, conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on thesis, y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Of Suicide? Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on thesis, ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Phrases? Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. Thesis Vhdl? De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Event Essay? Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer. Vhdl? Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15.

5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Administration? La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Thesis? Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Dissertation Administration? Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Thesis? On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens.

16 Ed. Event Essay? cit ., p. Thesis Vhdl? 290. Essay Phrases? 17 Ed. Vhdl? cit ., p. Essay Citation? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. Thesis Vhdl? ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Online Content? Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. Thesis? Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Online Content? Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. Thesis? cit ., p. Writing? 290-291.

20 Ed. Thesis Vhdl? cit ., p. Online Content? 297. Thesis Vhdl? 21 Ed. Online Content? cit., p. Thesis? 520. Writing? 22 O. Thesis Vhdl? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Online? ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. Thesis? Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Website? Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. Thesis Vhdl? ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Essay Theory Of Suicide? Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. Vhdl? Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. On Durkheim's Theory? Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation. Thesis? Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on dissertation, peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. Thesis? Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire.

Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Event Essay? De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. Thesis Vhdl? La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Essay On Durkheim's? Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de person­nages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite. Thesis Vhdl? Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxale­ment, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions.

Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Online? L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. Thesis Vhdl? Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P. Education Administration? Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. Thesis? ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Event Essay? La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique.

C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Vhdl? cit ., p. Website Essay? 221. Thesis Vhdl? 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. German? ) 27 Ed. Thesis? cit ., p. Event Essay? 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Thesis? Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto. Online Content? Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Thesis? Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. Education? Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. Vhdl? Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou.

Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. German Phrases? Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. Thesis? Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. On Durkheim's Of Suicide? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Thesis? 45-46. Event Essay? 32 lbid., p. Vhdl? 317. 12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Of Suicide? D'un cote on vhdl, trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles.

Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. A Level German Phrases? De l'autre cote on vhdl, trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on content, se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Vhdl? La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Website Citation? Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Thesis Vhdl? Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Essay? Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. Vhdl? Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. On Durkheim's? Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). Thesis? Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Dissertation? ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.

Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. Thesis? ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Essay Phrases? Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on thesis vhdl, verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Online? En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Thesis Vhdl? Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35. 14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Essay On Durkheim's? Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Thesis? Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Essay On Durkheim's? Quelques courts exemples.

Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Thesis Vhdl? Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Event Essay? ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. Vhdl? Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Dissertation Education? Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Thesis? La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse.

Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison. Event Essay? Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Thesis? Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on website citation, peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. Vhdl? Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. Essay On Durkheim's Theory Of Suicide? La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. Thesis Vhdl? On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole.

Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on german essay, pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Vhdl? Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Essay On Durkheim's Theory Of Suicide? Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Thesis Vhdl? Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Schillinger? Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent. Vhdl? Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on education administration, entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on vhdl, entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Thesis On Joseph Schillinger? B. Thesis Vhdl? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. Citation? ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Thesis? cit., p. Dissertation Administration? 331, 353, 358, etc. Thesis Vhdl? 42 Ed. Event Essay? cit ., p. Vhdl? 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. German Essay? Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41.

Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la super­position des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Thesis Vhdl? Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Dissertation Education? Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance. Thesis? Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Schillinger? Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoise­ment et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Thesis Vhdl? Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide.

20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Essay? Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Thesis? Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Schillinger? De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Vhdl? Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Essay Phrases? Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.

22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Vhdl? Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. A Level German Essay Phrases? ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Vhdl? (. Content? ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. Thesis Vhdl? C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Schillinger? cit ., p. Thesis? 421 et 538. Thesis? 48 Ed. Thesis? cit ., p. Dissertation Education? 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. Thesis Vhdl? Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Dissertation? Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise. Vhdl? Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe.

Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Citation? De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Thesis Vhdl? Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Writing Online? Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. Thesis Vhdl? En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier. Website Essay? Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. Thesis? Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Thesis On Joseph? L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Thesis Vhdl? Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Website? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Thesis? 1 (. Content? ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. Thesis Vhdl? Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre.

50 Ed. Dissertation Education Administration? cit ., p. Thesis Vhdl? 532 et 536. Education Administration? 51 Ed. Vhdl? cit., p. Essay? 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. Thesis? C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Event Essay? Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. Thesis Vhdl? Il n'empeche. Theory Of Suicide? La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime.

La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor. Thesis? Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Essay? Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. Thesis Vhdl? Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Writing Online Content? Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. Thesis? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. On Joseph? p. Thesis Vhdl? 176.

Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54. 29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Writing Online? Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Thesis Vhdl? Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. German Phrases? Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. Thesis? « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. A Level? C'est precise­ment dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort.

Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. Thesis Vhdl? Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57. Writing Online Content? Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. Thesis? Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. On Durkheim's? Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in thesis, hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. Administration? C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. Vhdl? C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-t­elle en effet de facon significative. Website Essay? Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur.

Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplace­ment vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Thesis? En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. German? « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio. Thesis Vhdl? Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on schillinger, ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. Vhdl? Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Essay? 63 , 64 J. Thesis Vhdl? Ruiz, Libro. Event Essay? p. Thesis? 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Website? Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. Thesis? Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes. German Essay Phrases? Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu.

Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Thesis? On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Schillinger? Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. Vhdl? Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Event Essay? En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entre­metteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Thesis Vhdl? En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. Essay On Durkheim's? ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques.

Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Thesis Vhdl? Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion. A Level German Essay? Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Thesis? C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Event Essay? Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. Thesis? Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Website Citation? Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on thesis vhdl, pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. Event Essay? 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on vhdl, pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Writing Online Content? Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. Thesis Vhdl? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Event Essay? 29-44.

6 F. Thesis Vhdl? de Rojas, ed. Administration? cit ., p. Thesis? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. A Level Phrases? cit ., p. Thesis? 509 ou 585 par exemple. 11 F. Website Essay? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Vhdl? 213-230, voir p. Event Essay? 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Vhdl? 47-87. 17 Ed. Event Essay? cit ., p. Thesis Vhdl? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Event Essay? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Thesis Vhdl? 125­156.

24 J.-P. Essay On Durkheim's Theory? Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. Thesis? 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. On Joseph? 18. 31 M. Vhdl? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Content? 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Thesis Vhdl? 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Online Content? Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Thesis Vhdl? 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Event Essay? B. Thesis Vhdl? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. A Level Phrases? 237, strophe 632, v. Vhdl? 1-2. 49 C. Online? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Vhdl? 137-146. 53 D. Event Essay? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Thesis Vhdl? p. On Durkheim's Theory Of Suicide? 176.

62 Ed. Thesis? cit ., p. Essay? 617 619 notamment. 64 J. Thesis? Ruiz, Libro. Of Suicide? p. Thesis? 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Writing Content? 21-29, p. Thesis? 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Dissertation Education? URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644).

Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Thesis Vhdl? Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Dissertation? Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Vhdl? Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016.

Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012. Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011.

Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007. La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003.

Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.

Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.

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akhenaten resume Real Name : Amenhotep IV. Identity/Class : Cosmically-Augmented Human (Earth-4321; see comments); Egyptian. Thesis. Occupation : Conqueror, former Ruler/Pharaoh of event essay Egypt (c.1351 - 1334 BC) Group Membership : None. Affiliations : Aten/Aton (his god); Enemies : Avengers, Council of God-Kings, Defenders, Dr. Doom, The Egyptian Gods, Fantastic Four, Kree, Shi'ar, Thanos, Adam Warlock, The X-Men; all heroes of Earth. Known Relatives : Amenhotep III (father, deceased), Tiy (mother, deceased), Nefertiti (wife, deceased), Tutankhamen (son or step-son, deceased, SEE COMMENTS), Aliases : Akhenaton, Akhetaton, Ikhnaton, Echnaton, Name translates into #8220;Aton is Pleased#8221; Place of Birth: Thebes, Egypt.

Base of Operations : Akhenaten (now modern Tell-el-Amarna), Egypt; formerly Thebes, Egypt (both during the 14 th Century BC), Extent of Education: Royal tutors. First Appearance : Incredible Hulk II#457 (October, 1997) Powers/Abilities : Akhenaten possesses incalculable powers on a Cosmic Scale possibly on a scale of the Beyonder and surpassing that of Odin, Zeus, The Collector and the Elders of the Universe. He had Class 100 level strength and the ability to control and manipulate energy on an infinite level by vhdl tapping directly into writing online content the prime universal flow of the cosmos. Eyes: Yellow (formerly Brown) History : (Historical) - Akhenaten was the last important ruler of the vhdl Eighteenth Dynasty, taking power @ 1351 BC. His wife, Nefertiti, was renowned as the most beautiful woman in Egypt for her time. He was the content first Egyptian ruler to establish a monotheistic religion on one god he called Aten (aka Aton).

To honor this new religion, he changed his name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaten (#8220;Aten is Pleased#8221;); established cities devoted to Aten in Egypt, Nubia and Syria and attempted to obliterate all traces of thesis vhdl religion to the Egyptian Gods. He moved the event essay capital city of Egypt from Thebes to vhdl the newly built city of Akhenaten. His priests tried to adhere to on joseph the religion of Ammon Ra secretly under his rule. (Incredible Hulk II#457 (fb)) - Akhenaten also believed he was the spokesman for the god Aton. The mutant Apocalypse, while living in Egypt, forced Akhenaten to believe that he was his god, Aton, as Akhenaten requested his presence before his people. (Marvel: The End#1 (fb)) - After a reign of seventeen years, Akhenaten was abducted by aliens known as the Cosmic Order who considered him an ideal example of human beings and vhdl a person with idealistic motives. The granted him the power of the Heart of the Universe, but his acclimation into accepting these powers required thousands of years. (Marvel: The End#l (fb)/ Historical)- After Akhenaten#8217;s disappearance, his throne was filled by Smenkhtare who was possibly a regent until Akhenaten#8217;s young son, Tutankhamen, could take power. Tutankhamen, the boy-king, however, was reputedly murdered by schillinger Horemhneb, Akhenaten#8217;s rival who also killed Kheperkheprure Ay, Akhenaten#8217;s vizier, who stood next to thesis vhdl inherit the throne. Horemhreb ordered all traces of Akhenaten to be wiped from existence as he restored worship of the gods of old and a level phrases ordered Akhenaten#8217;s tomb be emptied of his remains which were never found. (Marvel Universe: The End#1)- After several thousand years, Akhenaten returned to Earth to resume his rule of thesis vhdl it from thesis on joseph, Egypt. Still hating the gods of old, he warned Thor and possibly the other gods of thesis vhdl Earth that his claims to Earth predated his.

He annihilated all those alien races with previous designs on Earth such as the Kree and the Shi#8217;Ar. He also destroyed earth#8217;s champions known as the X-Men because he considered them a worthy antagonist to his rule. Ordering the dissertation administration rulers of thesis earth to accept him as their new ruler, he promised an era of prosperity and rewards to all who accepted him including cures for AIDS and cancer. Event Essay. Expecting resistance, he then offered the Avengers and the Fantastic Four the chance to be his royal bodyguards, but before they could counter, the Thing tried to thesis vhdl attack him and he killed all of them with one thought. He then hung their bodies throughout Manhattan as a warning to all who opposed him. Eternity then met with Infinity, Master Order and Lord Chaos as Akhenaten#8217;s actions caused an imbalance in the cosmic flow of the universe. Thanos and the Silver Surfer meanwhile joined forces to explore the source of Akhenaten#8217;s power.

(Marvel Universe: The End#2) Akhenaten also seized all individuals who presided from outside the timestream among with several time travelers to essay prevent them from altering his past. He also seized the spirit of Horemheb from the afterlife to make him suffer for thesis, his sins of the past before completely destroying him. Frustrated with the death of his son, Hercules, with the a level Avengers, Zeus contacted Thor for a meeting of the Council of Godheads to discuss the actions of thesis Akhenaten against humanity: Atar (Vedic/Persian), Horus (Egyptian), Hunab Ku (Mayan), Izanagi (Japanese), Ndriananahary (African), Shou-Hsing (Chinese), Thor (Asgardian), Vishnu (Hindu), Zeus (Olympian). They also discussed summoning Those of the Forgotten Realm . Horus, who was most familiar with Akhenaten used the website Eye of thesis vhdl Ra to spy on the powerful being, but Akhenaten detected them and attacked, destroying all present, except Thor and Zeus, who managed to flee to safety. (Marvel Universe: The End#3-4)- Akhenaten abolished all weapons of earth and created an Imperial Police force out of the super-powered villains of on joseph schillinger Earth to weed out and destroy society#8217;s undesirable elements, particularly the thesis vhdl last remaining heroes of essay theory earth. Dr. Doom, meanwhile, having studied the thesis hieroglyphs from Akhenaten#8217;s temple from afar learned how he received his cosmic power and the exact time it occurred and then traveled back in essay theory of suicide time to thesis 1334 to stop him and usurp his power. Akhenaten, meanwhile, expected this and confronted him in the past as he chided Doom for foolishly thinking he would leave his past unprotected. After dealing with Doom, Akhenaten stood by and watched as his past proceeded undisturbed. Thanos and the Defenders meanwhile reached the ship of the Cosmic Order and encountered the aliens that maintained it and writing content protected the vhdl Heart of the Universe within it.

The aliens remained oblivious to their presence up until the Hulk discovered a robot he believed was attacking him and destroyed it. Their presence revealed, the Defenders fought to shut down the administration source of Akhenaten#8217;s power. Thanos then dived into the Heart of the Universe believing his armor could contain, filter and absorb the energies as they had done so expertly in the past. Gaining the vhdl virtually unlimited power of the Heart, Thanos inadvertently destroyed the dissertation education ship and took a brief moment to assimilate and thesis vhdl adjust to these energies. He then unconsciously sent himself back in time to 1334 and rescued Dr. Doom from the cosmically powered Akhenaten, so that Doom could kill the human Akhenaten.

As a result, he altered time so that Akhenaten never gained his power, effectively undoing his actions and of suicide restoring those he had destroyed in the future. However, to thesis those who could understand or even remember what had happened, these actions were seen as the replacement of one threat with another, perhaps even worse. Thanos, meanwhile, still had to contend with the cosmically powered Akhenaten from the previous timeline. Meeting each other beyond time and space, they fought each other for supremacy of the cosmos and infinity as they proved to be more than a match for each other. Thanos, however, admitted how much he was impressed by Akhenaten and education sent him back to contend with Dr. Vhdl. Doom to decide his fate.

Doom, however, destroyed the ship of the essay on durkheim's theory Cosmic Order to remove their influence from the time stream, and Akhenaten perished aboard that ship. Thanos then sent Akhenaten to thesis vhdl his final reward in a level german essay phrases the afterlife in the form of vhdl a harmless butterfly. Comments : Adapted by Peter David, David Brewer, Cam Smith and Andrew Pepoy. Thanos would not be allowed to on durkheim's theory hold the power cosmic. Vhdl. Even with his new self-awareness and new inner peace, his ego would force him to absorb everything in the universe after getting attacked by online content the gods and heroes of earth.

After Adam Warlock forced him to realize the futility of his actions, Thanos gave up all to restore all that he had destroyed. Considering the mechanics of time travel and alternate realities, there should be another Thanos in the reorganized present with no memory of ever taking on Akhenaten, plus, in the reality which Akhenaten took over, there would exist a timeline where super-powered villains still exist as his Imperial police but without Akhenaten to guide them. Thesis. --Or. we can accept that the actual physics of time travel remain unknown and ASSume that they can vary in different circumstances. I would take this as an online content, actual case of altering the past and thus re-writing the history of Akhenaten. Thesis Vhdl. Because he was outside of the event essay timestream in his encounter with Thanos, he could have continued to exist until his defeat by Thanos. Still, if that were true, there would be an thesis vhdl, alternate reality in which Akhenaten was not wiped out of existence. Again, it's all just theory anyhoo. In Egyptology, Tutankhamen was believed to be the dissertation education son-in-law, not the son of thesis Akhenaten, but this new relationship may be part of on joseph new archaeological evidence which now outdates all previous established data. Or perhaps, Tutankhamen was the son of Akhenaten in the MU. Much of the vhdl historical research for writing online content, the real Akhenaten here comes from Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Volume One, A American Indian Languages, Copyright 1982. A list of thesis pharaohs back to Pre-Dynastic Egypt (c.

3150 BC) can be found located here. Akhenaten's historical reign in the real world is listed as 1375? BC-1358 BC. I seem to hear more and more of this story can't be continuity b/c 'Red Lotus' wasn't a member of the X-Men' or 'so-and-so never wore that costume' or some other minor reason. People seem to try to essay on durkheim's theory of suicide find ways to exclude stories from being continuity, when I actually think the vhdl opposite. Look at essay, it this way. Way back when, Stan Lee discussed writing comic books based on the official stories as they were told by a member of the Fantastic Four or whoever. So, every story is second hand, based on a couple characters' memories. and no one's memories are perfect (there was a good Spectacular Spider-Man issue (II#121) that showed how Peter Parker, Jonah, and MJ remembered a recent adventure as dramatically different). Vhdl. Also, there is both bias of the storyteller and writer, and artistic license.

As a Marvel Zombie, the job then becomes what must be explained in order to make this story fit in. A prime example would be the Kangaroo entry I wrote for the Spider-Man Encyclopedia, based on the profile on this site. Kangaroo. On Durkheim's Theory. Anyway, the End continues from Infinity Abyss, and thesis continues into the current Thanos series, and should be considered continuity. Period. Dissertation Education Administration. The End. Akhenaten and Aknaton (see Clarifications) were both detailed by Jim Starlin, about thesis vhdl, two decades apart. Their appearance--or at schillinger, least the thesis Egyptian motif--is very similar. Another character from Dreadstar's reality to make an appearance, or have a similar counterpart in the more mainstream MU is Quarry, who was clearly based on Izak.

In that case, both characters were written and drawn by education Peter David and Angel Medina, respectively. Maybe once I get another couple thousand profiles done from the mainstream MU I'll start hitting some from Dreadstar. Vhdl. In OHotMU 2006 A-Z#1 it was revealed that Akhenaton is from Earth-4321. Event Essay. This doesn't mean that at thesis vhdl, least some of the website citation events of Earth-4321 happened on Earth-616 as well, but the extent of this duplication remains unrevealed. Thanks to Erik Kampmann for following information: I do not know if you are referring to the comics when referring to certain information regarding Akhenaten, but Akhetaton was not an alias of Akhenaten, it is, in fact, the name of the city he founded at Amarna. Its name means the Horizon of the thesis Aten. Also, it was Tutankhaten who restored the worship of the god Amun, not Horemheb. After Tutankhaten restored the old religion, he changed his name to Tutankhamen and his wife, Ankhesenpa'aten (Akhenaten's daughter, perhaps Tutankhamen's half-sister?) changed her name to Ankhesenpa'amun.

And Smenkhare could have been any number of people, the name appears at the same time that Nefertiti's name disappears, which means it is possible Nefertiti became a co-king with Akhenaten and changed her name to Smenkhare. After Akhenaten's death, Nefertiti?/Smenkhare married Ankhesenpa'aten (who would have been Nefertiti's own daughter). But it is unclear who Smenkhare was, only that this person married Ankhesenpa'aten. The Aten was not so much a god as it was a thing. The Aten is the solar disc and the worship of the Aten is the worship of the warm, life-giving power of the sun's rays.

It is not really a mono-theistic religion, more of essay a type of nature-worship. And Akhenaten didn't believe that only he was the spokesman for the Aten, it was the vhdl royal family, chiefly Akhenaten and Nefertiti, who were not so much the spokesmen, but more like the writing content Jesus/God relationship that Christianity exhibits. And Tutankhamun is thesis vhdl, believed to website essay possibly be the actual son of vhdl Akhenaten but through a second wife named Kiya. I believe this alternate timeline does exist, since Marvel said that Thanos: The End took place on essay theory Earth-4321. This seems like a strange case where Earth-616 is the timeline that was split off, with the original timeline continuing on off-camera. (A similar situation occured in the story where Kulan Gath took over the world: the heroes managed to go back in time and stop Gath from returning, resulting in vhdl the Gath-free Earth-616 timeline, but the timeline where Gath took over still continued to exist, and was shown again much later on.) As for german, another Thanos being out there with no memory of fighting Akhenaten, I think that God-Thanos could've just merged with his usual 616 self after changing everything back to normal, which would be why 616 Thanos remembers the events of The End. Thesis. Profile by: Will Uchtman.

CLARIFICATIONS : Akhenaten is not to be confused with: Aknaton of Earth-8116, last survivor of the Osiriran race, @ Epic Illustrated#1: Metamorphosis Odyssey. Marvel Universe: The End#1, pg 34, top right; pg 3, right panel; pg 35, middle left. Incredible Hulk II#457 (October, 1997) - Peter David (writer), David Brewer (pencils), Cam Smith Andrew Pepoy (inks), Bobbie Chase (editor) Marvel Universe: The End#1-4 (May-June, 2003) - bi-weekly - Jim Starlin (writer/pencils), Al Milgrom (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor) All other characters mentioned or pictured are ™ and 1941-2099 Marvel Characters, Inc. Phrases. All Rights Reserved.

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essay on realism art HOWARD DAVID JOHNSON'S COMPLETE ESSAYS ON HISTORY, MYTH, REALISTIC ART. Personal Opinion Essays on HISTORY, MYTH, MORALITY, ART yesterday and today by the artist. ( These essays are never meant to offend, but to spur thought and democratic debate in a spirit of thesis vhdl, fun. ) Those who are enamored of practice without science are like a pilot who goes into essay on durkheim's theory a ship without rudder or compass and thesis never has any certainty where he is going. Practice should always be based upon a sound knowledge of theory, of citation, which perspective is the guide and gateway, and without it nothing can be done well in any kind of thesis, painting. Click on the topic that interests you or stay here to read them all . Art and Technology: From the on joseph, Camera to the Computer.

A brief overview of the shifting cultural attitudes toward Realistic Art in the last 150 years. Essay #8 by Howard David Johnson. The first decade of the 21 st Century has seen a grass-roots counter-revolution in the art world which has overthrown the stranglehold elitist proponents of Abstract expressionism gained on thesis academia, the media and the art world at large in the early 20 th Century. Realistic Art was declared obsolete and irrelevant at event essay, the beginning of the 20 th Century due to the easy chronicling of persons, places, and events by the Camera - in spite of this new technology empowering the greatest era in Realistic Art history. The “Modern Day Artist” refused to die and began to explore realms of the heart and mind the camera could not record.

The proponents of Abstract Expressionism gained control of elite art collector’s markets followed by academic institutions and the media leading to thesis vhdl, the abandonment of centuries of dissertation, classical teaching methods and traditions in our universities. Even the best realistic art was later denounced and ridiculed as the dismissive and often even hostile Art establishment created elitist scorn for Realistic Art in general. Thesis. This created a disconnect with the general population who could not relate to the tenets of Abstract Expressionism. The advent of the internet broke the absolute domination of the opinions of the Abstract School on media and academia and opened the german phrases, floodgates of artistic expression and free opinions. Free at last from institutionalized condemnation, more and thesis vhdl more artists began to choose realistic treatments and a tidal wave of fabulous new realistic art has been created in every conceivable visual art media for museums, galleries, books, movies, and video games.

As the a level german essay, camera became commercially available in the early 19 th Century it became clear that the visual artist was no longer an indispensable member of society. Just about anyone could point and shoot this device at vhdl, persons, places, and things and get very fast and very realistic results. Resentment from thousands of years of artists’ social and political influence fueled the notion that visual artists should be declared obsolete. The adoption of the camera as an artist’s tool and the advent of an era of on joseph schillinger, glorious and unprecedented realism in painting did not stop the thesis vhdl, movement to crush the on joseph, political and social influence of the artist. Great realistic artists like Pablo Picasso and thesis vhdl others like Vincent Van Gogh courageously answered this challenge by exploring concepts that could not be photographed with brilliant and essay on durkheim's visionary works. It was from these honest and ingenious notions that the schools and sub-schools of thesis vhdl, Abstract Art developed. The freshness and innovation of this movement took the art world and academia by storm. The excitement of defining the thesis on joseph, tenets and the delight of bewildering the masses gave rise to an elite class of critics who could control the vhdl, lucrative art collector’s market with obfuscation and intellectual snobbery. This wealthy art collector’s market gave credence to Abstract Expressionism’s “high art” status and the advice of well placed critics became extremely valuable and they formed an alliance with like-minded academics. As time passed, this trendy movement whose concepts were so hard to argue with gained control of the establishment and elitism took root. It was not long before traditional painting methods were not taught in universities any more as realistic art was no longer considered “Real Art” and tenets like; “Art must be ugly”, Art must be new” Art must be obscure”, and “The best Art is event essay, offensive” took hold in schools and printed media.

Not satisfied with control over the most lucrative galleries, collector’s markets and academia, these elitists moved from thesis dismissive to openly hostile attitudes toward those who still loved and created realistic art. The merciless and unprovoked rebukes of great realistic artists like Norman Rockwell, N.C. A Level German Phrases. Wyeth and so many others are well documented in 20 th century histories. That’s not “Real Art” and why do you waste your talent on “Mere Illustration” were some of the nicer comments. Illustrators in the 20 th century wore these rebukes like badges of honor, like black eyes gained from standing up to schoolyard bullies, knowing in their hearts what they were doing was worthwhile and thesis the narrow minded views of their critics were not the only valid opinions. By the end of the 20 th century, the long apprenticeship tradition was broken and classical realistic art methods were lost forever. The Shock Art movement in the 1990’s carried the tenets to new extremes as “ART” became a dirty word. U.S.

Government Endowments for the Arts were discontinued. Abstract Art had become the norm with its obfuscated themes and content was then itself considered irrelevant and academically worthless. Art programs were then removed from countless public school curriculums to make time for standardized test preparation. There is no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture. At the turn of the 21 st Century the Abstract Expressionists had been in control for generations with a thought control blockade in books, newspapers, radio, television and schools. Anyone who disagreed with them was told they were too stupid to understand “Real Art” and vhdl theirs was the only voice to be heard. What had begun so beautifully and essay of suicide sincerely was hijacked and violated until it became a byword for vulgarity. Then came the internet and the realistic artists, long silenced began to express their views. Thesis Vhdl. It was like the dissertation, boy who cried: “The Emperor has no clothes!” This revelation spread like wildfire through the cultural consciousness.

Suddenly, it was no longer a disgrace to hold something other than those narrow views. Galleries on the internet showcased generations of thesis vhdl, repressed artists realistic works in a tidal wave art history calls: “the Realistic Revolt”. Of course, Abstract Art still flourishes today especially on college campuses, but the website essay citation, narrow views of its most fanatical proponents are no longer cruelly dominant. The Realistic Revolt has brought the return of respectability to illustration and realistic landscape and thesis portraiture. When I see the event essay, works of today’s vast multitude of realistic artists coming from a thousand different directions at thesis, once, tears come to my eyes, for I have worn the title “illustrator” as a badge of honor for decades and am deeply moved to have lived to see new developments in art and technology drive the visual arts to levels of quality beyond my wildest dreams. Theory Of Suicide. I predict 3D and digital media will grow more and more realistic until photos seem noticeably inferior. The internet has not only thesis opened the floodgates for artistic expression, but employment and untold artists are earning a living shattering the “Starving Artist” stereotype so engrained in our cultural consciousness.

The beginning of the 20 th century saw technology threatening the survival of the professional artist and the end of it saw the unbridled tenets of Abstract Expressionism like “Art must be offensive” threatening the online, very existence of art as a part of our culture, the modern day artist has once again refused to die and has embraced technology to vhdl, create a rebirth of realism that Art critics, collectors, academics and essay theory of suicide everyday folk can all embrace and celebrate in ways I once feared had been lost to us forever. Howard David Johnson (2012) Painting, in art, the vhdl, action of laying color on a surface, or the representation of on joseph schillinger, objects by this means. Considered one of the fine arts Painting. noun. Thesis Vhdl. 1.) The act or employment of laying on colors or paints. 2.) The art of forming figures or objects in colors on website essay citation canvas or any other surface, or the thesis, art of representing to the eye by means of figures and colors any object; the work of an illustrator or painter. 3.) A picture; a likeness or resemblance in shape or colors. Writing Online Content. 4.) Colors laid on. 5.) Delineation that raises a vivid image in the mind; as in thesis vhdl word painting.

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. THE MORE THINGS CHANGE, THE MORE THEY STAY THE SAME. A Brief essay dealing with attitudes toward Traditional Realistic Paintings, Pastels, Colored Pencils and today's Digital Art Media. Did you know the Greek word Photography means Painting with Light? Today with the advent of computers it truly lives up to essay of suicide, it's name. Vhdl. Due to developments in Art and on durkheim's theory of suicide Technology, combined with a general lack of public education, I contend that a broader definition of painting is needed than that which is found in vhdl common usage. In addition to online, his mastery of traditional realistic art media, Howard David Johnson now combines drawing, painting, photography, and digital media with more than thirty years of experience in these fields to thesis, create his Realistic Art Numrique in 21st century paintings and pictures.

Announcing Art Numrique -an exciting merger of traditional visual art and website essay citation cutting edge technology. a new art form for the twenty- first century. Art Numrique is not limited to realistic art but also offers limitless horizons for vhdl, everything from german essay phrases cartoons to vhdl, abstractions. It is the most dramatic development in the visual arts since the Renaissance. In the words of administration, Al Jolson in the movie world's first talking picture You ain't seen nothin' yet! Snobbism in the arts is nothing new. Some people will tell you that oils are the only valid medium for thesis vhdl, realistic paintings. Website Essay Citation. That Colored Pencil, Digital, and other Realistic Painting and Drawing Media are not valid for real art. Young artists, Don't let them bother you.

Their forerunners used to condemn Pastels before they gained acceptance and called them crayons when Johann Alexander Thiele (1685-1752) invented them. Mercilessly disrespectful art critics of the time could not stop the thesis vhdl, Experimentalists no matter how viciously they attacked and derided them. Crayon-painting as it was called in event essay England was practiced early on by persecuted pioneers in Switzerland and many other nations. What a debt we owe to thesis, these master artists who refused to knuckle under to the pressure of thesis schillinger, those short-sighted critics during those historic and experimental times. It took until 1870 with the founding of the Societe` Des Pastellistes in vhdl France that respect came at last to education administration, these heroic immortal visual artists. In England the liberation of the Pastellists from slight regard and undeserved disrespect came with the first exhibition of The Pastel Society at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1880.

Pastel Painters like Mary Cassat and others from America and vhdl other nations forever silenced the snobs with their masterworks and gained recognition at long last for Thiele's invention as a valid art medium. I am persuaded that history will repeat itself. Like Pastels, I believe these wonderful new colored pencils and german phrases even Digital Realistic Art Media will one day receive the recognition they deserve as powerful mediums of artistic expression just as pastel paintings did. Vhdl. What is education, your definition of art? Have you thought about it?

Consider dancing. it can be a little skip in the step or rise to the level of the incomparable Russian Ballet. Thesis Vhdl. Did you know that just the materials alone for a single oil painting cost up to essay phrases, a thousand dollars these days? Even paying the thesis vhdl, artist less than minimum wage no one but the super rich can afford them anymore. Something's got to on durkheim's, give. Thesis. Realistic paintings in oil have been highly prized for centuries and the appeal and following of on joseph, realistic art is undiminished to this day. Oil paintings featuring Abstract Art and thesis vhdl Realistic Art are generally the dissertation administration, most treasured form of all the visual art media and thesis vhdl with good reason. But snobbish art critics favoring abstract art have declared that realistic paintings, or illustrations are not art for a century. With so many representationalist paintings by so many immortal master artists hanging in the Louvre, the Hermitage, and the British Museum and online others I think the disrespect for realistic illustrators that dominated the 20th century is vhdl, academically ridiculous as well as vain and intolerant, insisting theirs is the only valid opinion. What is your definition of Art? I believe almost any form of human expression can be raised to the level of high art especially visual art and content Realistic illustration. By my own definition of art, which is: anything that makes you feel or think most abstract paintings are not real art to me personally , because abstract paintings usually neither make me feel or think, usually focusing obsessively on technique and thesis vhdl avoiding any coherent content.

I usually draw a complete blank mentally and a level essay emotionally when I look at them. In 1979 the Houston Metropolitan Museum of thesis, Art displayed a triptych of 3 giant paintings they paid fifty thousand dollars for- three blank white canvasses entitled untitled. Then there was The incredible new artistic Genius with an education administration I.Q. of 62 . Coco the chimpanzee with his gala New York art exhibition. an vhdl elaborate prank played on the Snobbish American Art critics about essay on durkheim's theory a generation ago by research scientists in thesis the field of primatology. Imagine how upset they were when he created one of his ingenious masterpieces right before their eyes. ( My Source for this is the Time Life Science Library volume entitled The Primates. ) Art education has been almost completely removed from American Schools as a result of generations of this kind of fabulous nonsense contributing to America's cultural illiteracy crisis. Now, the works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Michaelangelo, and other notables are being removed from school libraries. After generations of this, most American college graduates today cannot name even one living visual artist, abstract or realistic. There is no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture.

But how do all these new Art media fit in with formal definitions of Art? Art ( noun ) [ Middle English, from Old French, from Latin ars (stem art-). Essay. ] 1. Human effort to imitate, supplement, alter, or counteract the work of nature. 2. The conscious production or arrangement of thesis, sounds, colors, forms, movements, or other elements in a manner that affects the sense of beauty; specifically, the production of the beautiful in a graphic or plastic medium. 3. The product of these activities; human works of beauty, collectively. 4. High quality of conception or execution, as found in works of beauty; aesthetic value. 5. Any field or category of art, such as painting, music, ballet, or literature. 6. A non-scientific branch of learning; one of the liberal arts. 7. a. A system of principles and methods employed in the performances of a set of activities: the art of building. A Level. b. A trade or craft that applies such a system of principles and methods: pursuing the baker's art.

8. A specific skill in thesis adept performance, conceived as requiring the exercise of intuitive faculties that cannot be learned solely by study: the art of thesis on joseph schillinger, writing letters. 9. a. Usually plural. Artful devices; stratagems; tricks. Vhdl. b. A Level Phrases. Artfulness; contrivance; cunning. Thesis. 10. In printing: Illustrative material as distinguished from text. The American Heritage College Dictionary of the English Language. Special note: 21st century professional art critics are not repeating these mistakes of history and are blessing and encouraging artists working in all styles and mediums, even including digital media. To them I say: Bravo! If only essay our world leaders could learn from the mistakes of the vhdl, past as you have. Realistic Art : The Rebirth of Realism in the 21st Century.

More thoughts on realistic art yesterday and today by the artist. Art History has entered a new era with the writing online content, birth of Art Numrique, or digital art media in thesis the 21st century. German Essay Phrases. Artists never stop exploring with mediums. Thesis. Artists have been developing techniques, experimenting with different tools since at least twenty- five thousand years ago, when the first artist picked up a charred stick and scratched a picture out on the wall of his cave. You'd think everything would have been tried by now, but it hasn't. Exploring new mediums this very day is just as exciting, just as full of freshness and newness as it ever was. The rebirth of realism was fueled by the advent of the digital era. Now, for website citation, the first time in almost two centuries, an artist or illustrator could earn a decent living again with his realistic art.

This is historic. Realistic art is not going to go away, especially now that photography has truly merged with traditional realistic visual art. Photography comes from the Greek words meaning painting with light. Now with the advent of digital media the capability of realistic art has become almost limitless, truly, painting with light. The merger of vhdl, all the world's art forms to realize the potential of event essay, motion pictures has come now to thesis vhdl, still realistic art media. This website for example, combines music, prose, poetry, photography and traditional realistic art media to create an event essay experience beyond merely looking at realistic paintings. The twenty- first century is already seeing a new renaissance in the arts because of the world wide web. There has never been anything like it. Vhdl. Abstract art, computer art, photographic art, and realistic art are continuing to be separate schools of content, art but are also blending to create exciting new horizons.

Although Digital art does offer completely new horizons to the artist in the 21st century it does not mean the end of our time honored art traditions. Instead, it offers additional ways to thesis vhdl, keep these traditions and schools of thought fresh and alive. More Personal Opinion Essays - on History, Myth, and Art by the artist. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to illustrate Legends of History and thesis schillinger Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and the Profane. In as much as I have endeavored to vhdl, sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. A brief essay by a level german essay phrases, H. D. Johnson. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to illustrate Legends of History and Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and the Profane.

In as much as I have endeavored to sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. As I am ever mentioning, the advances of science are constantly giving us a clearer view of the past even causing Mythology to become History as in the case of the Trojan Wars, the legendary Helen of Troy, and thesis the Trojan Horse. The archaeological excavations of german, Troy may prove the existence of the city of Troy and thesis the Trojan War. Writing Online Content. They in no way make The Iliad a history book however, because of the un-provable spiritual and religious occurrences in the narrative. This sorting out of myth and legend from thesis history is online content, no less difficult today because of their intertwining influences on one another. Consider as a more recent example of this problem, 20th century American President Theodore Roosevelt. He lives in history because of his heroic charge up San Juan hill with his legendary roughriders. Thesis Vhdl. When this story was printed in William Randolph Hearst's newspapers it catapulted him to fame and ushered him into the White House as a glorious American War Hero.

Everyone has seen the paintings and statues of Teddy Roosevelt and his roughriders dressed in khaki, mounted on horseback and on joseph charging fearlessly forward waving their swords. In reality, it was a group of Heroic African American Buffalo Soldiers who took San Juan Hill in spite of their heavy casualties. They did not wear khaki. They were not mounted on horseback, but were foot soldiers in the same dark blue uniforms of the U.S. cavalry as worn during the Indian Wars. Roosevelt's group actually took a nearby Hill against light resistance but Hearst said that would not sell newspapers so he created an American Myth. So as we see, here is something taught to thesis vhdl, children in schools as history is just not true at all, but yet, this myth shaped the dissertation education administration, true history of the world in the 20th century and beyond. If Teddy Roosevelt had not been elected president, neither would his nephew, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who provided very real and thesis crucial leadership during the Great Depression and the Second World War. Neither would Theodore Roosevelt have built the Panama Canal or established the conservation of our natural resources. So here we see Modern Myth not only influencing, but creating History. In reality, I perceive Theodore Roosevelt was a much greater president than history gives him credit for. Writing. Although it is true his kindness created the Teddy Bear, He really was also fit and thesis trim, vigorous and active, and a very tough president in event essay his foreign policies.

He was instrumental in America's emergence as a world power. Vhdl. It is also true that he came from the upper upper class - old money in New York with a background of great wealth and limitless luxury and chose to be an content outdoorsman, a cowboy, and soldier. When he was given office, he embraced the concept of thesis vhdl, being a good Shepherd , of citation, seeking justice for all Americans - for this he was called a traitor to his class. Actually, he is the savior of thesis, his class. In my estimation, it is President Theodore Roosevelt who is most responsible for the end of the then imminent threat of communist revolution or takeover in America. Throughout the early 20th century Socialist Revolutions were sweeping across the globe. Conditions for the workers in America were appalling. Event Essay. Child Labor, dangerous working conditions, ungodly long hours, degradation, and shockingly low pay.

When Karl Marx wrote his Communist Manifesto he never dreamed of an affluent MIDDLE class. A middle class that is comfortable and vhdl savoring, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is not going to rise up in murderous anger and Storm the Bastille. What Global Communism could not contend with was America's happy and prosperous middle class. Theodore Roosevelt practically invented America's affluent middle class and eliminated the threat of Communist revolution in America. Although he was well loved, he was also hated and caught tremendous heat from the on durkheim's, wealthy elite for sharing a small portion of their wealth with the common man. He saved them from a Second American Revolution by customizing capitalism to a kinder, gentler form than the horrors of the late 19th century.

Like General Winfield Scott, who won The American Civil War before it started, he defeated his foes with an idea. Vhdl. If the Robber Barons had had their way, their greed could well have caused America to fall to communism. Dissertation. Today, we have a new generation of robber barons but no Teddy to stand up for the little guys. I feel the true history about American President Theodore Roosevelt is more amazing than the myth, but they are interwoven and inseparable, without the one, we would not have the other. Vhdl. He was both a glorious and theory of suicide a tragic figure. As a leader and as a man I believe he is badly underestimated. It was only when his beloved son, nicknamed Quinnykins died fighting in World War One that he finally saw through all the myths and glamour to see the awful truth about war face on. He never got over his guilt for glorifying war to his son. We could all learn a lot from thesis vhdl his experiences. War costs money. trillions of administration, dollars.

War takes human lives. millions of them! War makes children old, breaks parent's hearts, kills morale. War destroys cities, art treasures, civilization! The first world war alone cost thirty million lives and 4 trillion dollars when adjusted to the buying power of modern U.S. dollars. With the money at the time we could have built a three bedroom two bath house furnished with fine hardwood furniture on five acres of quality land for every family in thesis vhdl The United States, Canada, Australia, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany and Russia. There would have been enough left to build and dissertation stock a first class library and a proper university in every town of 20,000 people or more. Out of the balance we could pay the salaries for life of thesis, 125,000 teachers and 125,000 nurses. Event Essay. The remaining balance could have bought 1919 Belgium and France and everything in them. I see History as an endless waltz. Three beats over thesis vhdl, and over.

War, Peace, and Revolution. Three beats over and over in an endless cycle of death, destruction, and regeneration. An Endless Waltz. and those who do not learn the on joseph, lessons of history are doomed to dance this deadly waltz and pay this Frightful price for War. As modern technology such as jet aircraft and thermonuclear missles make the thesis vhdl, world smaller more dangerous everyday, tolerating each other's racial, social, religious differences living together in peace has now become key to the continued survival of mankind through the 21st century. H. D. Johnson worked as a scientific research consultant for the University of Texas at San Antonio through the 1970's under the guidance of top Texas Scientists illustrating reconstructions of Paleontology and Anthropology, oddly enough, he then worked under the guidance of the world's foremost Biblical Scholars for the Center for Judeo-Christian Studies. The two dramatically different experiences back to back caused him to wonder.

W ith respect to its great contributions to society, I think it is a level, important to make a case that science is really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of thesis, study or a resource base of useful information. Many everyday people do not understand it at all and thesis schillinger accept ALL its teachings on faith. Science is supposed to be a tool and a path of vhdl, study for event essay, the benefit of mankind and vhdl it is. I love Science and greatly appreciate it's benefits. I feel strongly that many scientists are heroes and deserve honorable mention and some truly deserve places of great honor in the hallowed halls of history. Breakthroughs in medical science are saving lives everyday in ways undreamed of just to name only event essay one of so many valuable fields. Unfortunately some scientists have also been criminals or have brought things into the world we all know about that we would have been better off without such as thermonuclear weapons and pollution. Vhdl. I believe it has also become things it should never have become.

I shall briefly try to explain what I have seen that has made me feel that science is really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of study. The major criticism of science with regards to The Bible has been that it requires a leap of faith to believe that GOD created the event essay, world, yet Science also has several leaps of faith of it's own. The Big Bang theory cannot be proven as world renowned cosmologist Steven Hawking has stated and, if it cannot be proven - believing in it - in thesis vhdl Hawking's own words requires a Leap of event essay, Faith . Until a theory is proven in a lab or in the field, it is Philosophy, not Physics. EVOLUTION IS NOT A LAW OF SCIENCE. Darwin's Theory of Evolution was proposed in 1859 and almost a hundred and thesis vhdl fifty years later it has still never achieved the status of a Law of Science . This is because of the Missing Link. There is no proof of essay, a link between man and ape, hence the term The missing link. This blind faith in Evolution has been taught with religious dogmatism in the public schools for generations and is still merely a theory . The Theory of Evolution, not the Law of Evolution is a mere UNPROVEN hypothesis, which the dictionary defines as a mere assumption or guess or a proposition, or a group of proposals, offered as an thesis explanation for the occurrence of education administration, some specified group of phenomena. Yet this mere assumption or guess is vhdl, taught to children in public schools and young adults in colleges as if it HAD been proven beyond any doubt.

It was once a Law of Science that the atom was the irreducible particle of matter. At Alamogordo, New Mexico in 1945 the atom was split and the atomic bomb explosion in the desert blasted that Law of Science out of existence. Now, if a Law of online, Science is so unreliable, I ask you, why is a mere theory like Evolution regarded so highly? Simple. It is about political control, not about truth. In 1912 A.D. a respectable geologist named Arthur S. Woodward and a lawyer named Charles Dawson offered their new “fossil discovery” to the London Geological Society . The “artifacts” included a thick portion of a human skull, a fragment of an ape-like jaw, some animal remains and some primitive stone tools. Vhdl. These items found in southern England in a place called Piltdown were estimated to be 500,000 years old. For 40 years the remains were accepted by a level german phrases, the academic community as an important part of our evolutionary development. Piltdown Man was declared genuine and thesis vhdl called the “missing link” between apes and man by important scientists of the time. Because of this newfound “proof” men of God were openly ridiculed as ignorant and improperly educated.

Piltdown man was debunked four decades later by chemical tests proving the jaw and skull were not the thesis schillinger, same age, nor very old. It was a DELIBERATE fake. Vhdl. The bones had been chemically treated and thoroughly stained to make them appear prehistoric. Recognizable anatomical features were broken off and filed down. Why did this fraud by schillinger, lawyer Charles Dawson fool the experts? For many reasons, but it was never seriously questioned because the scientists of the time were delighted by the way it validated their evolutionist beliefs.

For more details of the debunking read: ”The Piltdown Forgery” by thesis, J.S. Weiner, the classic account of the most famous and successful hoax in science. The new and revised 2002 edition is event essay, commonly available. Vhdl. Today, the term “Piltdown” is essay citation, a term of ridicule, used to label fraudulent research, but the impact on the lives of billions of trusting people has had powerful political implications to this day. The prover proves what the vhdl, thinker thinks and prejudice and political power seem more important than the truth or the consistent practice of the scientific method. If truth were important to dissertation education, them, they would use the scientific method when criticizing The Bible but they do not.

The scientific method requires going to the source. Yet for these famous disparagements they use the King James version instead of the vhdl, original Hebrew. Translated in 1611 by non-Christian King James of England for political reasons the K.J.V. is thesis schillinger, one of the Colossal monuments of English Prose. The King James Translation is not at all accurate enough to use as the sole source for the defense of the Biblical Text. Consider this example: One of the greatest conflicts between Science and the Bible is the teaching that the world was created in thesis vhdl six solar days of 24 hours each. The word yom in on joseph the source, the original Hebrew text, which was translated as Solar Day had 56 other choices. Thesis. Modern English has more than 60,000 words.

Biblical Hebrew had 3,000. The average English vocabulary has 6,000. My favorite choice of the 56 other options: an unimaginably long but complete period of time harmonizes with science perfectly. Another choice is: time itself. So as we can see, going to the source and using the Scientific Method brings very different results than not going to event essay, the source. Getting past this, the order in which life appeared was identical to the theory of evolution's claims in the Book of Genesis, leaving us to discuss the stars, the next main source of conflict between Science and the Bible. The Hebrew text says a swaddling band around the thesis vhdl, Earth dissolved, revealing the event essay, stars. Thesis. The Prover proves what the thinker thinks. Here's a fun thought - What if GOD is in a level essay phrases control of evolution? What if it's his hobby? What if there is really no conflict between Science and Religion?

The scientists cannot disprove the vhdl, existence of GOD any more than they can prove the thesis on joseph, Big Bang happened. Albert Einstein saw no conflict between science and religion. Like Galileo, Newton and other immortal greats of science before him, Einstein believed in GOD. Therefore, I present to you this idea: Modern Scientific beliefs are based upon vhdl, a leap of faith in the big bang theory. German Essay. It has become a belief system based on faith and therefore another form of religion. Scientists, like priests can explain their beliefs but the thesis, everyday people accept it all on faith. Scientists and doctors are the priests of this new religion, getting angry and crying heresy when anyone respectfully disagrees with them.

I once had one of essay, my supervisors in the UT anthropology department explain to me for three hours on a research expedition in mathematical terms how something could have ALWAYS existed, needing no beginning point. When we agreed that the math was good he then made a COLOSSAL leap of faith, saying This proves the Universe has always existed and there is thesis vhdl, no GOD. Thesis. In one second I countered; I could just as easily jump to thesis, the conclusion that this proves the existence of an eternal GOD. Writing Online. It is this jumping to conclusions or as Steven Hawking put it; making leaps of faith. Vhdl. that infuses philosophy with their physics. Then there is the infusion of politics; a perfect example is. The Myth of Carbon 14 dating: Educated people know that carbon 14 dating is totally irrelevant to the theory of evolution.

Scientists never state that carbon 14 dating offers proof for the theory of evolution. Ignorant evolutionists, however, believe carbon 14 dating proves the theory of evolution, and stubbornly make that claim based on dissertation education faith in what they were told in our learning institutions. They were DELIBERATELY lied t o to gain POLITICAL POWER. I will explain; Carbon 14 dating is ONLY reliable for five thousand years as even its creator himself admitted in 1972. Thesis Vhdl. Carbon 14 or Radiocarbon Dating was first devised in a level essay phrases 1949 by Dr. Willard Libby. It is based on the rate of thesis vhdl, decay of carbon 14 or its half-life of 5730 years. Online. This method offers reliable dates up to 5,000 years ago, but its results require correction since Dr.

Libby's belief that the levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere were identical through the ages has long since been disproved. Thesis Vhdl. Volcanoes and floods for example skew the essay on durkheim's theory of suicide, results to the point where guesswork or leaps of faith are required even in dating organic material from thesis vhdl historic times. Dr. Libby once expressed his shock when he found that radio carbon dates for human artifacts extended back only 5000 years and on joseph schillinger older dates were found to be unreliable. [W.F.Libby, `Radiocarbon Dating', (Chicago, 1952), pp. 4-9] [CRSQ, 1972, 9:3, p. 157] By this time tens of thousands of thesis, C-14 dates had been published from tests in laboratories around the world. The textbooks and of suicide curriculums have yet to thesis vhdl, be revised. Instead, a MYTH is being taught in our schools. There are exciting new methods but wild guesses about the amount of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere do not PROVE anything. Believers in GOD are called foolish and ignorant on the political strength of this deliberate lie that Carbon 14 dating proves evolution. The gross disrespect and on durkheim's intolerance I have seen of thesis vhdl, certain members of the scientific and online content academic communities and their disciples toward anyone who disagrees with them is just as arrogant and abusive as racial, sexual, religious, or any other kind of prejudice. Here's a great example: Around 1910 in educated circles it was considered a mark of ignorance to thesis vhdl, believe the Biblical record.

There was little scientific evidence available then to support the Bible's claims and academic circles decided that was the end of the matter and citation as the thesis, decades moved on, the dissertation education administration, scientific and academic communities stubbornly ignored tidal waves of new SCIENTIFIC evidence. Vhdl. One excellent example is in what the Bible says about Abraham. In the early 20th century experts in the field of archaeology insisted that no civilization even existed in UR of the Chaldeans when the Bible records that Abraham lived there. A Level German Essay. On the basis that no evidence was currently available they declared Abraham a mythical character. 20th century evidence however has proven beyond any question the existence of an advanced civilization in UR of the Chaldeans during the 21st and 20th centuries B.C.-That was Abraham's day! Abraham's historicity is also confirmed by ancient inscriptions that bear the names of almost very town mentioned in Ch. 12-14 of Genesis and one even has his father's name. Archeological discoveries also show these towns were in existence until about 2,000 B.C.- but not later!

No longer can the Bible's critics get away with accusing us of being naive or foolish today when we believe what the vhdl, Bible says about Abraham like they used to in the german essay phrases, 20th century. This is critical to the belief systems of the world's great monotheistic religions Islam, Judaism and Christianity who all claim ascendancy from Abraham. Why isn't this commonly taught in schools? Many scientific professionals openly abuse the authority of their positions to push their personal beliefs and ignore the confirmed scientific data to hold on to political power. Other Biblical confirmations from vhdl modern Archaeology include: Date and manner of Jericho's fall, The exodus from Egypt, Major characters from the book of Daniel and many others. The SCIENTIFIC proof is all there waiting for you if you take the time to look it up.

Certain scientists and academics like to on joseph, act like they know everything about the origins of the Earth. They don't. Thesis. Many of our long taught ideas about planetary science have recently been proven completely wrong. Did you know that The Gas Giants on the outside of our solar system and the surface of the Planet Venus are DRASTICALLY different than what I was authoritatively taught about them as a boy in school? If they can't even tell us reliably how the solar system is today how can we rely on their ideas about website its distant unobservable origins?

Yet even in the face of constantly changing SCIENTIFIC evidence most scientists are prone to UTTER DOGMATISM about their belief system. Science is supposed to be the sum of the best knowledge we have at the time - incomplete but always learning, always growing- but sometimes making serious mistakes. Vhdl. Why admit things were COMPLETELY wrong about planetary science within the solar system but NEVER MENTION the discovery of the unreliability of Carbon 14 dating or the discovery of schillinger, archaeological evidence of Abraham being a historical figure? Simple. There is no danger to the foundation of the belief system of this new religion or it's social and political power base. Mankind's only hope for continued survival on this planet is to learn to thesis, tolerate each others differences and dissertation live in peace with one another and in harmony with the thesis, environment. Essay Theory. We're all in the same boat.

I do not believe that scientists should be exempt from thesis vhdl this challenge to schillinger, be tolerant, since they created the very things that could well destroy us, such as thermonuclear weapons pollution. We all have a lot of work to do if we are to survive. I write this in defense of my faith and of the faiths of others which have been disparaged by these attacks on the sacred writings of the world's great religions. If we're going to thesis vhdl, have a better world we're going to need both better leaders and better citizens. I personally believe that any belief in essay citation a higher power that must be answered to makes us better citizens than if we believed that we are the ultimate life form in thesis the Universe. Sensuality, Violence, Morality, and their relationships with the Arts in 21st century American Society.

A case for the sacredness, purity, and beauty of the human form. A brief personal opinion essay by the artist. In our 21st century western society the disparity between the moral attitudes toward images and actions is amazing to essay citation, me and vhdl I will examine in on durkheim's theory this article just how unfair they really have become and how political correctness is destroying our cultural heritage. In history, the Classical or Greco-Roman school of art is distinguished by the notion that the human form is the ultimate arena for artistic expression. Unclothed figures were very common in vhdl Classical art and their culture was very comfortable with it in general. The Victorians in contrast have always stood out in thesis schillinger my mind for their extreme prudishness and vhdl puritanicalism. They invented the tablecloth to prevent men from looking at a table's legs because they feared a table leg might make men think dirty thoughts. Event Essay. In spite of this, 19th century Victorian Art did allow some unclothed figures in statues and paintings within certain bounds.

One of the principal attractions of vhdl, fairy paintings for the Mid-Victorians was that they made possible highly realistic and erotic pictures of unclad females that would have otherwise been inadmissible. In the 20th century the sensual revolution eliminated all of these traditional boundaries. I can see how the radical transformation of society by the total liberation of the content, subconscious was a bit too much for most people. In 21st century America however, the sight of vhdl, a healthy partially unclad woman is taboo even as an innocent or religious depiction in the visual arts. I find this very interesting considering they way American society is so comfortable with violence- even children viewing extreme violence and gore on television and in motion pictures. It's terrible- disembowelments, exploding heads with splattering blood and guts, cut off arms and legs are deemed just fine for prime time children's viewing. A Level. But not to vhdl, worry- the profanity has been edited out. It seems too arbitrary to me. Online. If the human body is torn apart or cut to pieces it is all right. Desecration of the human body is embraced or tolerated while appreciation or adoration even in art, is condemned. I think the human form is sacred.

The average American child sees 20,000 violent deaths on television alone by the age of 10. I find it interesting that America feels that while tolerating and even embracing extreme violence and greed that we are outraged at the sight of a beautiful young woman and the healthy uncovered female human body is a dirty, filthy thing to be ashamed of. Vhdl. I disagree. Since the source for this stigma about images of women is essay phrases, supposed to be the influence on our society's laws by the sacred writings of the Judeo-Christians, I present to you the vhdl, idea that this is not what these actually teach and they are also being treated as arbitrarily as a buffet line and will use illustrations. This attitude comes from Jesus' saying: If a man even look at a woman to lust after her, he has already committed adultery in his heart. By this same standard, just thinking about robbing the poor and the elderly is a sin, but in our society the act is event essay, considered a good business move. Don't misunderstand me, he taught that his commandment was to love one another, and basically that if you did that the ceremonial law was fulfilled. A more positive approach; if you love someone you won't murder them, falsely accuse them, etc., etc., If your heart is full of thesis vhdl, covetousness for a woman, a car or anything it is likely you will transgress this law in practice. Cheating, stealing, torture, and even murder in actual practice are taken in stride by our society, but seeing a woman's left bosom exposed is an outrage.

If the citation, Ten Commandments are the standard we're going by as they say- Children are diligently taught to thesis, dishonor their parents on every family television show. It is event essay, taboo now- yes, it is actually considered wrong to vhdl, portray a good father in American movies and event essay television with only the vhdl, rarest of exceptions. What is so terribly wrong about a portrayal of website essay, a good dad? To me, this is an outrage. Stealing the retirements of thousands of citizens who have worked hard all their lives is a good business move. What about thou shalt not murder? (Interestingly, it doesn't say#148; kill in the original Hebrew text, but murder . ) I won't dwell on war here, but In Nazi Germany, six million people- Jews, Christians, and politicals were secretly murdered in the death camps, but in modern America, more than forty million baby boys and girls have been publicly murdered by vhdl, willing citizens in abortion clinics and we call that a #147;choice. If history called that the Holocaust, how will history judge us?

Judeo-Christian morality, and that's what we're talking about thesis on joseph schillinger here as the thesis, most influential source of America's laws, ONLY justifies killing in self-defense. The child in the womb is writing online content, defenseless. Again, I find this astonishing that we as a society can tolerate or even embrace such horrific and gruesome acts and then make such a big issue out of mild nudity in a painting or statue. Our society treats sacred writings like a buffet line choosing what is politically expedient to their cause and ignoring the rest. I ONLY bring these up as an examples of the disparity between society's acceptance or tolerance of these violent and gruesome things I've mentioned to contrast them to the intolerance of the sight of thesis, a peaceful woman#146;s uncovered bosom celebrated for it's natural beauty in an innocent setting through the visual arts. Why is the sight of a naked man's chest considered to be decent and not a woman's? I think there is a disparity here too in our attitude toward images. If the sight of a woman's chest is an outrage why is a man's permissible in ANY situation?

I am told certain works of Leonardo Da Vinci are pornographic now because of a nipple but I see romance novel covers in the grocery store with photos of naked men climbing in bedroom windows to commit adultery-why are those considered acceptable? If images are wrong because there is a chance a man might think of sex, why are romance novels written glorifying vile acts of sexual betrayal for essay, NO OTHER REASON but dirty thoughts acceptable? Why are sleazy soap operas on television available to children day and night on broadcast television with sexually explicit scenes glorifying adultery acceptable? The answer is simple- its double standard. As a man, I believe that women are the brightest and loveliest of all of GOD's creations. The sight of thesis, a healthy young partially uncovered girl on television even for a split second is considered a CRISIS and we hear public outrage? Implying the human body itself is filthy; Think about it.

Since the basis of this sight of a healthy human body taboo is supposed to be of dissertation education administration, Judeo-Christian religious origin, I want to debunk this outrageous doctrine that the human body is filthy. In the Bible's first book, Genesis, it says, they were naked and were not ashamed and it teaches us that men and women were made in the image of thesis vhdl, GOD. On Joseph. To follow this line of reasoning, GOD would also have to be filthy. Vhdl. Case closed. Education Administration. I don't think what I perceive to be the thesis, crowning achievement of GOD's creation, the woman - is event essay, filthy, but is instead pure and beautiful. What I believe to thesis, be GOD's greatest creation is considered filthy, and not people's minds?

These outrageous boundaries chosen by our society are so poorly thought out that Michelangelo's statue of David is now deemed pornography and books with such immortal works of art are being removed from our public school libraries because of politically correct activists. I'm not suggesting that we remove these boundaries again like in writing content the 1970's, Heaven forbid! Only that these newest ones are ill conceived and badly placed and vhdl I would personally prefer to return to the traditional ones and avoid all these extremes. Copyright Law and the Visual Arts in the Computer Age. An introduction to the Millennial Copyright Act for Artists. A brief essay on 21st century legal boundaries, guidelines, and western art traditions by a level essay, the artist. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and drama, cinema, folk tales and thesis fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by the creators of event essay, new works. These works in thesis the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for creativity and innovation. Since the public domain is online, a treasure trove of information and resources to be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation through lawsuits will make it more and thesis vhdl more difficult for future generations to find creative inspiration. All art is ultimately some form of imitation, even if you are an website expressionist painter imitating an vhdl abstract vision in your own mind.

These new visual art creations of mine take their inspiration in dissertation education administration part from the realistic paintings of the old masters just as The Lord of the Rings comes from The Ring of the Nibelung and thesis vhdl European folklore and West Side Story came from Romeo and Juliet, which was in turn inspired by website citation, Antony and Cleopatra. Much as Rubens copied Titian, I copy Waterhouse and so on. Vhdl. Over the on joseph, last 300 years, ideas about female beauty have drastically changed and this has caused many of the most wonderful paintings of the old masters to seem 'ugly' to youthful modern audiences. For example, in thesis the days of Peter Paul Rubens, being forty to sixty pounds over-weight was considered not only attractive, but was a status symbol. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and tastes have clearly changed. I feel many classic themes need to be redone to preserve interest and appeal for future generations. This has happened many times before as artists like Aesop, The Brothers Grimm and Walt Disney have appropriated, modified, and re-defined elements of our culture to preserve it for future generations. The legality of such use today depends on event essay whether or not the source is protected by copyright law. You can draw or paint Shakespeare's fairies for example and publish them without permission but not more modern intellectual properties like characters from thesis Star Wars or Mickey Mouse who holds the oldest copyright dating from thesis schillinger 1928. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and drama, cinema, folk tales and fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by thesis, the creators of new works. These works in the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for creativity and innovation.

Even though all my Realistic Paintings are legally new works and protected under copyright law their inspiration sometimes comes in part from works in the public domain. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply. When copyrights and patents expire, innovations and creative works fall into thesis schillinger the public domain. They may then be used by anyone without permission and without the payment of thesis, a licensing fee. Website Essay. My sources have been transformed so much in the creation of these new works of art that they would not violate an existing copyright even if they were so protected. Publicly owned national parks are also considered by many to be public domain lands. Because of the thesis vhdl, recent extensions of the terms of both copyrights and patents, and the privatization of lands and other resources owned by the Federal Government, little is now entering the public domain. Look for new litigation and another time extension when Disney Corporation's Mickey Mouse copyright is due to expire in 2023. Where would Walt Disney be without the Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Anderson, or Victor Hugo? Where would Aaron Copeland have been without American folk music? Thomas Nast's Santa Claus without traditional images of Father Christmas?

Picasso without African art? These are artists who made names for themselves and even fortunes through Public Domain appropriation, one and all. Some people are actually outraged that there are some intellectual properties that corporations do not own. They feel appropriation is a level, only appropriate if a corporation does it. Corporations created by public domain appropriation, now are the thesis, most powerful force on Earth trying to put a stop to new things entering the public domain forever through lawsuits. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply.

It was set up by our founding fathers, who felt creativity needed to thesis on joseph schillinger, be rewarded on a personal level for a time, and when copyrights and patents expired, innovations and creative works would fall into the public domain. Since the public domain is a treasure trove of thesis vhdl, information and event essay resources to be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation will make it more and more difficult for future generations to find creative inspiration. This is least likely to hurt the motion picture companies who produce new works in house granting themselves permission, but the music industry which brings in artists and new songs from the outside is being hit very hard already. If a new song release resembles an old one, now there is litigation. Visual Art Tradition and etiquette suggest the most influential pieced borrowed from the public domain should be mentioned at exhibits; these original new pieces Shown in vhdl my exhibits take their inspiration in part from the paintings of Waterhouse, Alma-Tadema, Moreau, Bouguereau, Leighton, Ingres, Moore, Parrish, Rackham and others.

They showcase some of my favorite models. As a student of fine art, copying is event essay, a great way to learn and create fine art, but as a professional illustrator things are very different. Works done by thesis, artists out of personal motivation belong to the artist who created them, and thesis on joseph schillinger they can sell licenses for divers forms of thesis, publication. The law is theory, clear and simple regarding illustrations done for gainful employment. They are called work-for-hire under the vhdl, law, and a level german phrases the rights to such works envisioned by the customer and specifically commissioned and paid for belong exclusively to thesis, the customer if it is a team project like a video game or motion picture and the artist must specifically ask permission to ever legally use their own work themselves. When the artist is the sole creator of the event essay, project as in book and magazine illustration for example, the artist retains the benefits of thesis vhdl, ownership unless they specifically sign them away.

My art is divided into two distinct groups; personal work partially copying the education, old masters and professional illustration applying these lessons to create totally original works. I start more often with a specific written request. This is the exact OPPOSITE approach to creating a picture from copying something that's there. Research comes first. In the thesis, case of my illustration of the Spartan Warriors, there were no accurate sources in the public domain to copy correct Greek armor and weapons in combat poses from. Mostly I found images of effeminate men, wearing nothing but a robe over writing, the shoulder and the wrong helmets.

Finding history books at thesis, the library with the accurate helmets, shield designs, weapons, and online content armor was essential to get an accurate depiction of a Greek Hoplite. All the vhdl, library had were stiff museum poses of anything, but I hit the research jackpot with some very simplistic flat line drawings of great authentic Greek shield designs. All the website, elements must be found, gathered and assembled to create the thesis vhdl, dramatic action scene the client wanted. Next comes the layout. This is where the mathematics and geometric design come into the creative process. My wife, Virginia took a picture of me nearly twenty years ago on dissertation a carpentry project with the heroic Jack Kirby like pose I was looking for mixed with the texture and feel of a Frank Frazetta or Norman Rockwell painting. Naturally, in these cases I go to vhdl, great lengths to make sure that my work looks nothing whatsoever like it's various inspirations and content sources except in flavor and spirit.

Of course, the thesis vhdl, characteristic old master's painting feel to the background most of my illustrations have was requested, and the picture was to have the flavor of a Howard Pyle painting. With regards to use of mechanical aids to website essay, create art: Did you know the old masters often traced? Leonardo Da Vinci used Camera Obscura which is a lens and a mirror set at an angle with parchment over it to trace onto. Michelangelo used a similar technique. The use of Photography as a mechanical aid to oil paintings and other forms of realistic art came right away. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from Camera Obscura for thousands of thesis, years. Event Essay. Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci (1452- 1519 ) is often credited with the invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the Renaissance and mentioned it in his notebooks, but this is simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is thesis vhdl, also not true. Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of education administration, Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no evidence for this. The mathematical precision and perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of thesis, science and mathematics is enough for many scholars.

The earliest description of Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at Cairo, Egypt in a level A.D. 1098. His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century. Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know it had to have come earlier. Think that makes it too quick and easy?

You'll find once you've finally got that outline done right you're a long, long, way from being finished in thesis any medium. if these men who set the on durkheim's of suicide, standard for realistic excellence used them, why shouldn't those who come after them be permitted? Simple, because this is one of the most carefully guarded secrets of the vhdl, old masters and most people don't know very much about art history. When asked why I usually work from photos I like to re-tell Norman Rockwell's story about having to paint a chicken: He set it up on a stump in a level german phrases a barn and goes to thesis, painting. The chicken moves it's head. He moves it back.

The chicken jumps down. He puts it back. He goes to paint. Dissertation Administration. now the chicken decides to make a break for it. he chases it down clucking and screaming and puts it back. Now it knows he's going to have it for dinner and vhdl it goes completely berserk. Event Essay. The next day, he came in thesis and set the chicken back, snapped it's picture, I have built up an writing enormous library of original 35 mm source photos for use in my realistic art. For decades I have been seeking out the most beautiful models and sometimes even their boyfriends and relatives, bringing them in for sessions into my photography studio.

The law with regards to vhdl, copy rights on analog photographs was simple - if you owned the negative you owned the education administration, rights. This new instant copyright without filing law is very nice for photographers and artists working with their own photos, but not so good for thesis, free-hand drawings from the german phrases, imagination and other non-photographic based forms of thesis, drawing and painting like cartoons. This is the main reason I use my own photographs. Using a strategy employed by J. W. Waterhouse, my wistful and graceful female models cannot be underestimated in writing their contribution to the stunning beauty and thesis the potential for essay citation, lasting appeal of my work. I am always make sure to vhdl, both overpay them for their time and also the rights. I always get a written contract with the dissertation education administration, exception of vhdl, my dearest friends and writing online closest family who are always making cameo appearances. The models get amenities and services including portraits, portfolio photo sessions, photographic reprints and thesis vhdl enlargements, leather presentation cases, webmaster services, original art, and reprints of their appearances in my drawings and paintings as well as above scale cash payments at the time of the online content, shoot. With regards to vhdl, using copyrighted material as a reference- When you have to paint a wombat you can't fake it- you need a picture! The law understands this and automatically grants provision - within reasonable limits; when using copyrighted sources the dissertation education, source image must be so transformed in overall appearance in the translation as not to be what the thesis vhdl, law calls confusingly similar. If it's newer than 1928 you can bet it's probably copyrighted - they had to theory, renew exactly 26 years later in thesis vhdl those days or it would pass into the public domain, so it might not be copyrighted if it wasn't a big moneymaker.

Always be sure to check in these cases. If it's newer than 1999 under the millennial copyright act the law says it is automatically copyrighted without even filing. However, this new law is very tricky in it's wording because you must have already have filed with the copyright office in advance if you ever need to take legal action. Website Citation. They say it is copyrighted, but you cannot sue if it is not registered with the United States Library of Congress Office of Copyright. Because of this instant copyright without filing clause, there is a serious danger of vhdl, artists being made legally helpless and left open to being cheated out of their work. From an artist's standpoint, this is a huge improvement over the original 14 year copyright term.

When properly interpreted and education acted upon, by filing works with the United States Library of Congress Office of Copyright, these laws are GREAT for thesis vhdl, contemporary artists and their estates, who will hold rights for seventy years after the artist's death. The Constitutional Provision Respecting Copyright. The Congress shall have power. To promote the progress of essay theory of suicide, Science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. United States Constitution Article I Section 8. ( This essay is not meant to take the place of expert legal council, but to introduce people to the basic concepts. ) On Art and Technology: When Seeing is Not Believing. An essay dealing with mechanical aids to visual art from Camera Obscura to Computers. When the camera was finally made commercially available in thesis vhdl the 1830's it exploded on the world scene and sent shockwaves through the art world as history had never seen before. Visual artists all over the world were suddenly put out of work and resentment and outrage followed. Suddenly much more realistic portraits could be had at a tiny fraction of the cost of a painting and delivered almost instantly. Thesis Schillinger. The art world would never be the thesis, same. When motion picture cameras were new, seeing was believing and human consciousness changed forever in event essay the 20th century.

Sometimes even Terror and Panic came from the initial shock! In 1905 cinema patrons defecated and urinated in their seats as they broke each other's arms and legs desperately fleeing for thesis vhdl, their lives from a crowded theater to escape a train charging straight for them! . train footage filmed safely from a bridge with a camera lowered down on a rope. A modern cinema patron would not even feel uncomfortable. The Photograph and its manipulations have changed human consciousness and history. and will continue to do so in the future. The Camera has changed everything. The Camera of Today owes it's origin to the Camera Obscura, a light- tight box with a lens and a screen that receives an image. This device has been used by artists since ancient times to trace the projected image of citation, whatever they set before it on thesis vhdl a screen. Intrigued by the idea of producing a permanent light-formed image instead of reproducing it by hand, a long line of inventors studied the problem and successively made contributions to the solution. Photography was neither discovered nor invented by any one man. Online. It was the outcome of the thesis vhdl, early observations of the alchemists and chemists on event essay the action of light, a subject that belongs strictly to the domain of photochemistry. Thesis. Although the blackening of silver salts was known in 1565, it was not until 1727, when Johann Heinrich Shulze of Germany used a mixture of silver nitrate and chalk under stenciled letters, that it was definitely recognized that this darkening action was caused by light and not by heat.

In the writing online, years that followed experiments with silver nitrate on leather and wood were successful. In 1817 J. Nicephore Niepce first tried photography with silver nitrate and thesis paper. In 1826, L.J.M. Daguerre, a painter who had experimented with silver salts approached him and formed a partnership. Daguerre discovered accidentally that that the effect produced by exposing an iodized silver plate in a camera would result in essay on durkheim's an image if the plate were fumed with mercury vapor. The Daguerreotype process was a complete success. These chemical processes would be improved again and again until the advent of the digital camera we know today. The attitude that Photography was not art and was a purely mechanical process requiring no talent whatsoever was put forth with great force and hostility in an attempt to get people to thesis vhdl, refrain from choosing it for their portraits instead of paintings.

This is a typical reaction to new technology, when Pastels were first invented they were dismissed as a child#146;s plaything rather than a viable art medium. Content. These attacks on new technology are not limited to the arts of course. When the Wright brothers were making history at Kitty hawk with the thesis vhdl, first manned airplane their detractors said: If man were meant to writing content, fly, he'd have been born with wings. This kind of negativity is just human nature to some kinds of people. Photography came into thesis being through an essay citation artistic, not a scientific urge. Daguerre was an thesis artist, a scene painter whose illusionistic diorama was a landmark in Paris long before his name was connected with photography. Critics were merciless as usual, with scathing condemnations of the media. However, in the hands of a sensitive artist, photography quickly showed it's artistic possibilities. David Octavious Hill, a Scottish Painter invented the camera set up and the pose as we know them today in the 1840's and was the first of a new breed of master photographic artists. Photography was here to stay. Diverse forms of retouching techniques followed both by accident and by design and took the medium to new levels of artistic excellence.

Now, more than a century and a half later only an uneducated or blindly hateful person would say Photography is not an event essay art form. Of course we've all seen our share of awful pictures with the heads cut off taken by amateur photographers but we've also seen the vhdl, work of studio masters like the great portrait photographers from essay on durkheim's theory Hollywood in the 1930's and forties. Anyone who has tried to create such a sophisticated studio photograph realizes quickly that this is a very difficult art form to master even if a trained orangutan can take a bad snapshot with an instant camera made for children. The use of Photography as a mechanical aid to traditional oil paintings and other forms of realistic art came right away. Thesis. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from Camera Obscura for thousands of years.

Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci ( 1452-1519 ) is on joseph schillinger, often credited with the invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the thesis, Renaissance and mentioned it in his notebooks, but this is simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is also not true. Origins: Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of website, Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of thesis vhdl, it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no material evidence to substantiate such a point of view. The mathematical precision and perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of science and mathematics is testimony enough for many scholars. Event Essay. The earliest clear description of Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at Cairo, Egypt in A.D. 1098. His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century by an unknown translator.

Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know from this it had to have been masterminded before A.D. 1098. In the early 1600's the telescope came into use and Camera Obscura spared viewers the harmful effects of gazing directly into the sun. I regret, but that we must acknowledge the thesis, fact that almost every art medium throughout the ages has been corrupted. In the education administration, 2nd century, the Roman emperor Hadrian had the head of his lunatic predecessor Nero removed from a statue and vhdl replaced by schillinger, that of thesis, his favorite. Thesis Schillinger. Much later in 1539, Holbein painted a glamorous and flattering portrait of Anne of Cleves for vhdl, Henry VIII. When the future queen arrived in England, King Henry met the surprisingly less than dazzling and essay on durkheim's theory of suicide glamorous Anne. His disappointment made history. Vhdl. Our modern society certainly can't claim t he honor nor take the blame of being the first to manipulate art forms.

By the 21st century instead of the traditional assistants and online apprentices, artists employed overhead transparency projectors, opaque projectors, artographs, light tables, slide projectors, color photocopying. and suddenly, computers and vhdl image editing software, which brings us to some very compelling controversies regarding these modern imaging technologies and their impact on various media and event essay further changes to thesis vhdl, human consciousness. For example: The integrity of Photography as evidence in our courts of law stood for many decades until it was shattered by the digital manipulation of photographs and new standards needed to be introduced. Websites sold peeks at photos of celebrities' heads pasted onto photos of wild women in scandalous poses for all the world to writing online content, see- but advertised as real celebrity pix. Scandal rocked television and other news media when digitally altered photographs were being passed off as reliable evidence of important news stories. On a positive note, no one was threatened by how this technology enabled motion pictures to do epic things they could only dream of before. They were supposed to be make-believe images appearing real! A golden era in special effects cinema ensued. Then, this powerful digital imaging technology, like the camera, fell into the hands of the thesis vhdl, common man through computer programs like Adobe Photoshop.

A new culture of skepticism had abandoned the age old adage; seeing is on durkheim's, believing Photography has never told the whole truth, just parts of it. Photography is vhdl, also an art form and therefore rightfully susceptible to creative alterations. In addition, the content, advancement of thesis vhdl, digital manipulation technology cannot be undone or halted. I believe that we must recognize that this digital technology exists on a gigantic-scale, and will never go away. Dissertation Education Administration. Therefore, I suggest that digitally altered photos are distinct from traditional photography, and should be treated as such. Contrasting views: anti-manipulation advocates#146; fear a negative impact of thesis, digital manipulation in a court of law, and pro-manipulation advocates say that we must wake up to website citation, the fact that for vhdl, for decades pictures have not been reliable evidence in court and that any good lawyer will attempt to discredit photographic evidence. In response to claims that photos should always tell the truth, the pro-manipulation camp would say that photos have never told the unvarnished truth. Writing. A camera shows, and has always only shown, a fraction of reality, and thesis vhdl even then what we see is taken out of context or even fabricated. Photography from its onset has been subjected to modifications.

In 1839, the Frenchman Louis-Jacques Daguerre patented the a level essay, daguerreotype, or what could be called the first picture. Simply explained, the daguerreotype combined the usage of the camera obscura and silver iodide to produce a permanent image on a copper plate. A very exciting innovation, Daguerre boasted of it, With this technique, without any knowledge of chemistry or physics, one will be able to make in vhdl a few minutes the most detailed views (Photography). Almost immediately, the daguerreotype, especially daguerreotype portraits, became immensely popular. Its popularity, of dissertation education administration, course, can be attributed to its novelty, but also because people believed the daguerreotype produced a more real image than a painting. Thesis. The general attitude toward the daguerreotype was that it could create images more realistically because there was no artist to interpret and modify it in his own style. Opponents of Digital Manipulation insist Photography should always represent the truth, asserting Photography's first and foremost function is to portray reality. Many assume that photographs have never been manipulated, and dissertation education administration that this recent outbreak in digital technology damages the integrity of photography.

Without delay, anti-manipulation proponents demanded an end to all dishonest photography, as it severely misleads the public. Also, they view digital manipulation as a purely mechanical process, with no talent or skill involved. Furthermore, anti-manipulation proponents fear manipulated photos might acquit murderers or rapists in courts of law. The thought that photography had replaced painting abounded. As if photography needed to absolve itself from its #145;original sin#146;--of having brought about the death of painting, a movement known as pictorialism thrived around 1890-1914, the Art Nouveau period. Proponents of thesis vhdl, pictorialism primarily set out to gain the recognition of photography as an art rather than just a mechanical process. The pictorialists fashioned bizarre and oddly focused images in order to prove photography was indeed a creative art. It was here that such concepts as shading and enhancing during development appeared. Because of these new shadings and essay citation angles, it can be said that Art Nouveau saw the vhdl, dawn of Photo manipulation.

So the manipulation of photography actually began early in the the 20th century. In 1982 there was outrage over the manipulation of the Great Pyramids on the cover of National Geographic but the Genie was out of the bottle. There was no going back. In the 1990#146;s Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop began to essay, be available to the general public. Now, even someone with little or no talent could produce delightful works. Vhdl. On the other hand, sensitive artists could produce masterpieces on a scale undreamed of.

It seems clear that using this technology to willfully falsify photographs for slanderous, scandalous, or persuasive ends is morally wrong, but what about essay on durkheim's theory of suicide using it to create obvious unreality that looks real or Fantastical Realism in art as in pictures of fairies or mythic creatures? What is realism? Realism in thesis Art and literature has always meant that the artist attempts to represent persons, scenes, things, and facts as they are, life as it is. The word is used in many senses- as opposed to theory of suicide, romanticism, to conventionalism, to sentimentalism, to idealism and to imaginative treatment. Vhdl. Sometimes it is a term of praise, and a level phrases sometimes it is a term of vhdl, derision. During the 19th and 20th centuries the use of the word realism often implied that the details brought out were of an unpleasant, sordid, obscene, or generally offensive character. Even the greatest illustrators of the day were ridiculed.

Realism is commonly applied to a 19th century school of writers and artists; but realism, in it's prime and proper sense, is as old as art and literature themselves, but in the hands of it's most notorious exponents, it quickly degenerated into a connotation of the thesis, more sinister features of vhdl, realism. Many 20th century contemporary realists and essay artists working in thesis vhdl the Photo Realism style were trained in an educational system openly hostile or dismissive to Classical realism and art tradition and were only taught the tenets of Abstraction and on joseph schillinger Expressionism. As a result many of vhdl, these artists are more akin to the abstract and expressionist schools than the Classical Realism of the writing, ancient Greeks, which adored beauty and nature. Contemporary Realism does not embrace the math and design of the Classical school but does not frown on beauty. Photo Realism only strives to look as much like a photograph as possible and thesis vhdl sometimes the results are shocking or disturbing. Other times they are mundane and so ordinary as to be boring.

They often deliberately decline to select subjects from the natural, beautiful, and harmonious and more especially, depict ugly things and bring out details of an unsavory sort for event essay, social and political purposes. The real mission of Photo-realism is thesis, not to record everyday life like a Norman Rockwell painting, but to expose the unconscious way we look at and accept photographs. By the 20th century realism had spread to nearly all nations- realistic elements combined with those of Impressionism, Symbolism, and other movements. Fantastic Realism on the other hand, is education administration, born of these movements and tied to them in style and technique, but prefers to explore subjects that are strange or strikingly unusual rather than scenes of everyday life or objects. It is often bizarre in form, conception and thesis vhdl appearance and even wondrous in its beauty. Sometimes macabre and grotesque, it is rarely boring like the other forms of Realism in visual art so often are. Fantastic Realism can be completely apart from reality, yet appearing to be quite real.

It is versatile in education administration that it can combine with or be a part of the Classical, Contemporary or Photo-realistic schools or stand as a style unique unto itself. I combine elements from all of these schools of Realism and thesis vhdl then take it a step further by website essay citation, also combining a wide variety of media from thesis vhdl traditional oil paintings to today's cutting edge digital media in my exhibits. Naturally, the darker side human nature shows itself again with condemnation of essay, new schools of expression, and thesis new art media and technology. Like the photographers before them, digital artists wanted the recognition of their work as an art rather than just a mechanical process. Unlike the snapshot camera or an abstract painting, a trained chimp or orangutan cannot do it: it takes the same visionary and eye to hand skills as any traditional art media to do it well. Since the times of the german phrases, ancient Greeks, Art History records a relentless quest for thesis, Realism and artistic excellence. The masters of each generation strove to citation, perfect their craft, then passed on the torch of their accumulated knowledge and skill to the next generation.

The accomplishments and thesis technological breakthroughs of one generation have often set new standards of excellence for the next. Howard David Johnson. Click on the Icons to visit the Thematic Galleries of Realistic Art: Including Mythology of Greece, Rome, Asia, The Norsemen, and event essay more. Fairy and thesis vhdl Dragon legends, The King Arthur Legends, The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Paintings of Ancient Egypt and Babylon, Ancient Mystic Religious texts, History of War from The Ancient Spartans and the Trojan Horse to World War Two, The World's Great Religions, and Art Technique and design. Art Lessons, Celtic Mythology Pencil Techniques display some full size art.

T he various galleries linked to by the writing, thumbnail icons in his web show many examples of HDJ's Realistic Art, and are grouped by theme rather than media. There are also sample illustrations from his upcoming books on Celtic Myth and Legend and World Myth Legend. Since boyhood he has passionately copied the thesis, old masters. To create his work, he usually starts with a thematic concept followed by citation, a rough realistic pencil sketch, then followed by his photography, often traveling to find suitable scenes and locations and then working in his Photography studio with live models from his sketches. He then assembles a variety of elements which are realistic and original. As a boy he dedicated his life to thesis vhdl, art in 1960. From 1965- 1999 he used xeroxes and tracings to make his preliminary photo montages.

This is patterned after the manner used by Maxfield Parrish and other 19th century notables. Beginning with a tracing, he then draws or paints from website essay these complex original Computer Photo Montages. Thesis. Many of these are on display on this web and slated for future completion in a variety of traditional realistic art media. As this happens, the finished work is substituted in the exhibit. H is favorite medium for traditional realistic art is colored pencil because of the high speed and low expense, and people began expressing difficulty in administration telling his colored pencil drawing from photographs in the early 1980's.

In the last 35 plus years he has also mastered Oils, Pastels, Acrylics, Watercolors, Inks, Scratchboard, Gouache, Photography, and thesis most recently, the highly controversial digital media . As a commercial illustrator Johnson has not only on joseph used the vhdl, computer to create art but has been involved in the development and marketing of computer imaging software for Adobe Photoshop. Event Essay. Working in a realistic style inspired by classic illustrators H D J is deeply rooted and grounded in the Greco-Roman artistic tradition, Feeling that especially with realistic art - that the human form is the ultimate arena for thesis, artistic expression. His lifelong dream came true when his Traditional Realistic Art was exhibited in the British Museum in London England in 1996. His mixed media has also been displayed in numerous other ones since such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Having achieved international acclaim as a traditional visual artist he discovered digital media in 1999.

Because of his passion for realistic art and german photography he elected to embrace it and thesis vhdl joyfully be a part of this historic era in website citation the visual arts as a 21st century realistic artist . C omputers have not diminished his love of working in traditional media. He loves to thesis, draw portraits from his own photographs as well as using them to create illustrations in various media. Click on writing 'The Messenger' above for more on H D J's other public domain sources influences he uses to create his realistic art. S ince 1972 when he began his career as a scientific illustrator for the University of Texas he has earned his living illustrating all kinds of books, magazines, CD covers, and all sorts of games, greeting cards, calendars, portraits, murals and thesis the like with his contemporary realistic art. Event Essay. H D J's Realistic Art has appeared in every major bookstore chain and fantasy gaming shop in The United States and thesis vhdl has been used in educational texts and magazines all over of suicide, the world. This site features realistic paintings pictures for the twenty-first Century including some oil paintings, as well as lots of other exciting realistic art media such as colored pencil drawings, pastel paintings, acrylic paintings, gouache paintings, water color paintings, and vhdl pencil drawings, and also featuring studio, field, aerial photography, digital painting and photo-montage and all these media mixed in an assortment of experimental combinations. Working in a wide variety of media to create his realistic art he offers his customers a host of payment and product options. He delivers the rights to these custom made copyright free realistic illustrations and old fashioned customer service when he does work-for-hire.

H e accepts select commissions to paint custom oil paintings with down payments starting at only one thousand dollars. Writing Online Content. Other media, like colored pencils or digital are of course far less expensive. He grants permission for most educational purposes simply for asking courteously. To use his existing realistic art he offers licenses for vhdl, publishing starting as low as $100.00 U S D .