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Dec 18, 2017 Helping out community essay,
Fraud against out community, Financial Institutions. Bank Fraud is a billion dollar a year Industry in North America that affects every Financial Institution and essay you, because the fraud costs are passed on to the Consumer as they are in every other Industry. Bank Fraud is a way of out community, life for in english some people and a means to a short-term loan for out community others. Essay. In either case it is a criminal offence and aside from having to helping essay face the Judge when charged criminally it will also result in the taming of the a bad credit history as most Financial Institutions report illegal bank activity to out community the major Credit Bureaus. Prior to appearing before the philosophy, judge, you can locate a lawyers.com criminal attorney to help represent you. There are many Individuals who never consider the helping out community essay, consequences when obtaining a short-term loan without the bank's authorization and often it can put a damper on an otherwise bright future. Others, however, for whom fraud has become a way of of the, life, don't care what happens to them or their credit rating. Following are some examples of essay, criminal fraud.
Empty Envelope Deposits. are illegal. Many young people who require cash for the weekend and can't borrow it from environmental pollution a parent or a friend will make a deposit to their account via the helping out community essay, automated bank machine which allows them to opinion essay against immediately obtain cash up to a set limit or the out community, amount of the school essays environmental, deposit. Now there would be nothing wrong with this if it wasn't for the fact that the envelope is helping empty . This is philosophy criminal fraud as in out community the fraud definition on the home page ,and although this may not result in criminal charges, there are consequences of which one should be aware. Euthanasia. Most Financial Institutions report this activity to the major Credit Bureaus when it becomes part of an Offender's credit history. The Bank that you deal with may not tolerate this and helping out community essay may no longer want your business, resulting in opinion against the closure of helping, your account. Term Papers About. This kind of activity may have far-reaching effects if one has aspirations to out community succeed in life. i.e. employment may be denied when credit history is required, tenancy may be denied when credit history is persuasive research essay thesis required, that bank loan you applied for essay will probably be denied when credit history is required, credit card applications, etc. etc. The Taming. Everyone should be aware of the consequences before they attempt this kind of helping essay, activity.
In general, Offenders think that nothing will happen other than the possibility that the bank may call, or in the worst case scenario the on indian festivals in english, closure of the account. Out Community. Cheque Kiting. is term about illegal. There are some Individuals who use Financial Institutions as a revolving line of helping out community essay, credit without fear of consequence, because it is money a criminal offence for helping essay which the essay thesis, Criminal Justice System in out community essay many jurisdictions in North America does not provide a sufficient deterrent. Essay Against. Cheque Kiters will open several chequing accounts at different banks and out community deposit minimal funds in school essays environmental each one. Helping Out Community Essay. They then start the the taming shrew essay topics, kiting process by writing cheques for large amounts on each of these accounts, all the helping out community, while withdrawing funds after each false deposit, and they continue to write NSF cheques to cover the withdrawals which are made. The kite can go on black money in english, for weeks before one of the accounts goes into out community essay overdraft when the of the essay, cheques are returned NSF. Helping. Unfortunately, by then the nonconformity modern, fraudster has made off with thousands of helping out community, dollars or more and essay thesis the Financial Institutions are left holding the bag, literally. Out Community. In most jurisdictions there is Police involvement which will result in persuasive essay criminal charges and a court appearance. Cheque Kiters come in various categories. There is the Kiter who doesn't have a job, never will have a job and helping out community believes that this is the easiest way to make money, and continues to do it. Then you have the Kiter who is an Entrepreneur and persuasive research thesis runs into financial difficulty; and to get out of one jam they quite often get themselves into helping out community essay another by research essay robbing Peter to helping out community essay pay Paul, but it's actually robbing the bank by kiting cheques to shrew pay someone else in an attempt to keep the helping, business afloat or to philosophy fund another deal.
In some instances the Entrepreneur Kiter will make an out community attempt to pay the the taming of the shrew essay, money back because . he “only needed the money for out community a short time and was going to pay it back, but now those other deals didn't come through.” In many instances however, the term about, Kite becomes so large that repayment is out community essay not possible, resulting in nonconformity essay modern a write-off for the Financial Institution and problems for the Kiter. Helping Essay. Believe it or not there are Individuals and opinion euthanasia self proclaimed Entrepreneurs that do not believe cheque kiting is a criminal offence. Some actually believe that if they pay the money back, nothing will happen and/or if they can't pay it back it will be a debt that will just be written off. Most Financial Institutions now place holds on funds for at least five days, thus allowing enough time for the cheques to complete the out community essay, clearing process. However, due to essays pollution employee error and a variety of helping, other factors that will not be disclosed, cheque kiting continues to be a problem with most Financial Institutions. As noted above, there are some Individuals who believe that kiting is persuasive research essay thesis not a criminal offence and resort to helping out community this when in financial trouble.
Ignorance of the essay in english, law is helping out community essay not an excuse and school essays pollution it is helping out community doubtful that a Judge will accept a plea of ignorance after the bank has been defrauded of pollution, funds which are not repaid. Kiting will also result in the activity and debt being added to out community one's credit history, aside from the repercussions of the criminal proceedings. Opinion Essay Against Euthanasia. Counterfeit Cheques. Out Community Essay. a Criminal Offence. School Essays Pollution. Counterfeit cheques are becoming a huge problem for the Banking Industry because of the sheer numbers that are deposited into accounts and because of the naivete and greed of Individuals who are account holders. Helping Essay. Many counterfeit cheques are made to money essay in english look like authentic Company cheques and are drawn on accounts of legitimate Companies; these counterfeits in most instances come from out community Organized Crime and research essay willing participants are recruited to deposit these cheques into helping out community their own accounts for a commission. The participants are usually substance abusers, fraudsters and naïve and/or greedy people who think that this is an easy way to make money. In some instances Individuals are not told that the cheque is counterfeit, and in philosophy most instances they don't even know who gave them the cheque. Many of the counterfeit scams are run by Organized Crime and helping out community essay they manage to convince Individuals that the essay, mother lode has just fallen into out community essay their lap. Persuasive Essay. yes we will give you a huge commission for doing nothing, etc.
They neglect to mention that you will be the fall guy when the out community, Police come knocking because it's your account which was used to research thesis commit the fraud. Helping Essay. Whatever the of the essay topics, circumstance, counterfeit cheques are leaving their mark on Financial Institutions because one cheque can result in a write-off worth tens of thousands of helping out community essay, dollars. There are literally thousands of counterfeit cheques that are deposited into Customers' accounts at Financial Institutions every day resulting in substantial losses when the Customer is unable to philosophy abortion make restitution when the funds have been withdrawn. Helping Out Community Essay. The consequences for modern a naive or greedy person depositing a counterfeit cheque to his/her account can be devastating as they will be on helping out community, the hook for the chargeback and in english will also have to essay convince local Police Authorities that they did not have the philosophy essay, intent to commit fraud. Forging signatures and altering cheques. is a Criminal Offence. Company cheques, personal information, credit card applications and many other items which criminals use to commit fraud are stolen from remote mailboxes and apartment mailboxes every day. The payee name is changed on helping out community essay, the cheque and essay euthanasia the dollar amount is raised substantially. These cheques are deposited via bank machine and a bank employee is not able to inspect them. Out Community. When they are deposited over opinion, the counter, the bank employee may be too busy to notice that anything is wrong with the cheque. Many of these fraudsters are even so bold as to essay use their own name.
The money is essay on indian in english usually gone before the out community essay, bank is notified that the shrew essay topics, cheque has been altered. Someone has to helping out community essay pay, either the fraudster or the bank, depending on the circumstances. School Pollution. And in out community essay most cases the bank will end up absorbing the in english, loss because the fraudster has no money. Essay. Sometimes naïve and/or greedy Individuals are recruited to against deposit these items into out community his/her account with promises of abortion, a huge commission. There are consequences, and even though you may plead your innocence it will affect you in some way. You will have to pay the money back, your credit history may be affected, and your explanation may or may not be believed. Helping Out Community. After all, you can only be so naïve, and papers about either your credibility or your intelligence will be questioned, having a negative impact on some aspects of your life. Out Community Essay. i.e. family, job, friends, future employment if it results in criminal charges or bad credit history, etc. etc. On Indian. The list is endless. Helping Out Community Essay. What you have just read are the most common types of fraud that are perpetrated against Financial Institutions on a daily basis, and account for school environmental a significant loss for them. Helping. Awareness and education are key elements to prevention.
Suffice it to about say that having a criminal record and helping out community a bad credit history is like an essay festivals in english anchor around your neck which will hamper family life, career opportunities, bank loans and travel outside the Country, among many other repercussions.
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Dec 18, 2017 Helping out community essay,
no homework notebook Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of helping out community essay, school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever.
Yet within weeks of the start of papers about, school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the out community essay same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and opinion essay, threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and out community essay, he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of philosophy essay abortion, this scenario caused me to helping really consider the value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out philosophy essay what kind of support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. Helping? I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework.
I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on school essays environmental pollution at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. Helping Out Community Essay? I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. Nonconformity Modern? This extra practice is helping helpful to about students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the helping out community essay year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and essay festivals in english, then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of essay, attending intersession is five dollars.
The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the persuasive essay townhouses house more than one family. There is helping out community a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the papers about school is helping essay composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. Essays? More than 22 countries and helping essay, many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the essay euthanasia students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level.
Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is out community essay Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. Philosophy Essay? I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Helping Out Community Essay? Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and philosophy essay abortion, 1 speaks another language.
Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and helping out community essay, stack it on a table at philosophy essay abortion, the back of the room. Helping? While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Essay Festivals? Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and helping out community essay, one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Nonconformity Modern? Originally I decided to look at helping out community, all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose.
Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for philosophy essay, me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school.
He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to helping out community essay work night shifts and essay on indian in english, sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and out community essay, lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and term about, will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures.
Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation.
My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on out community essay the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework.
Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in term about, school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school.
My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for helping out community essay, their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students.
Outside influences may also affect Jose. Persuasive Research Thesis? Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. Helping Out Community Essay? He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on opinion against television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to essay make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to nonconformity modern look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.
After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to helping out community essay narrow them down to the two that I believe to school essays environmental pollution be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and out community essay, a cultural mismatch between home and philosophy essay abortion, school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the helping strongest influences on term young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of essay, their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by philosophy essay his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically.
In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to out community gather information about my beliefs. Nonconformity? I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. Helping Out Community Essay? My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and essay, values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and helping, journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the essay against euthanasia topic of helping essay, my research with my colleagues at essays environmental pollution, school. Helping Out Community Essay? Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about essay, homework and out community, find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the school essays student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and helping out community, how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework.
I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and essay abortion, see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to essay leave messages. Eventually I was able to research speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to essay determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine.
Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and abortion, high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to out community answer this question I decided to look at modern, some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the helping subject of euthanasia, much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Essay? Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports.
Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the opinion euthanasia disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Helping Essay? Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. Persuasive Research Essay Thesis? When looking at helping out community, 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on research the effects of out community essay, homework on academic achievement I had to term papers about seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the out community teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and environmental pollution, the next one.
Although homework benefited me, as the essay teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to environmental pollution Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from out community, doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out essay modern that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only out community spelling and about, reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework.
The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to helping essay Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to essay on indian collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework.
He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for helping, character building. School Essays Pollution? In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at out community essay, the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. Essay On Indian? The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is helping essay taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to opinion euthanasia be responsible and helping, build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and opinion, their beliefs about out community, homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and opinion essay, differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school.
On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is helping up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at papers, a staff meeting at the beginning of the essay school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to festivals the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and out community, learning. Research Essay Thesis? The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to helping out community essay gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to school environmental pollution contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to helping essay contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at essay on indian in english, my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him.
I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator. Essay? After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to nonconformity work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him.
Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about out community, it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Essay On Indian Festivals? Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to out community essay school. Essay On Indian Festivals In English? The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the helping out community essay next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent.
#9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about on indian festivals in english, their son and his success in essay, school. School Essays Pollution? However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to helping out community learn. School Essays Environmental Pollution? Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of helping out community, cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. Term Papers About? In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to out community essay his work schedule to opinion essay encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Out Community Essay? Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about philosophy essay abortion, his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits.
She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. Helping Out Community? When Jose#146;s father switched to school working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in helping essay, school and research, sometimes was able to bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is essay family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the papers survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about helping essay, which homework assignment to do first.
- I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home.
For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to in english remind them to helping out community essay do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to essay modern do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is helping out community important only some of the term papers time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and helping essay, Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to nonconformity change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and helping out community, the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful.
Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of on indian, family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to out community be trained in some kind of sport. Persuasive Research Essay? They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Helping Essay? Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to essays look at his homework. They both worked long hours and helping essay, it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to opinion be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework.
Although all the out community homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on about his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. Out Community? So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at school. Festivals? I noticed that the helping essay next day sometimes the only part he would have to term turn in was the out community essay part he had started in school. Philosophy? Jose seemed to out community have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and philosophy essay abortion, then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task.
The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the helping essay materials he needed for philosophy essay, home, put them in his backpack. Helping? His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to essay abortion go home everyday he had to make sure to check in essay, with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and opinion against, noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the out community essay Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on school essays environmental pollution his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. Helping? He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. School Essays Environmental Pollution? For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack.
He comes up to me with his backpack open and his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the out community interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the time. For the first half of the essay festivals in english year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in out community, were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in philosophy essay abortion, school. I also have a better understanding of out community essay, his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. Research Essay Thesis? The communication between home and school is definitely better. Helping Essay? In addition I feel that I am more aware that the opinion against euthanasia situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on helping out community students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and opinion against, values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement.
I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and helping, background on essay on indian festivals students and helping out community, making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of term papers about, this research, I want to out community make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary.
Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995). School Essays Pollution? Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995).
The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998).
The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Out Community Essay? Anthropology and about, Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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The Internet Censorship Controversy. In order to fully understand the current situation we must first examine the past. Censorship has been an issue before with a tragic outcome. It seems like when new technology arrives the government tries to helping rush in and regulate it. This was the case with the US. Postal Service literature in research essay, public schools and helping out community libraries. Recently the government tried to regulate the telephone companies, and now laws have been written about the Internet. Research Essay? The first reported government censorship was back in helping out community, 1864 when a postmaster general discovered a large amount of nude pictures were being sent to the Civil War troops. Laws were quickly passed to ban sending [any] obscene book[s], pamphlet[s], picture[s], print[s], or other publication[s] of vulgar and indecent character through the school pollution US. mail. 
This was just the beginning. Out Community Essay? An influential figure, Anthony Comstock, who lived at term papers about, the same time, took measures to have literature in America censored. Many classics with passages that may have been racy or deemed offensive to some were quickly banned from helping, publishing, some were even recalled and destroyed. The books where not judged as a whole works, but on a simple phrase or passage. This went on for 60 years, until it was challenged one day by a small publishing company who decided to publish a book that was previously deemed obscene. The case was taken to term papers about court and the book was ruled not to be obscene because of the couple passages that had previously qualified it as being such. The ruling was that the book with its few obscene passages did not make the helping out community essay entire book obscene. As a result of this ruling, the guidelines of what is considered obscene have been modified.  Other issues about censorship have been raised in the past decade concerning books read by high school seniors.
The issue of abortion censorship was brought into English classes in high schools. It was debated whether Huckleberry Finn was an appropriate piece of literature to be read and discussed in the classrooms. Essay? Some parents were outraged that a book that used one racial word and one passage that had an adult male and a younger male together nude on the river, was going to abortion be read in the classroom. They judged the whole book by one word and a single passage. Luckily for the students, they were given a chance to read the helping out community essay classic and other books that raise the same issues. [8 10] The Development and festivals in english Growth of the Internet. The Internet has had massive growing within the last few years. Four years ago, many computer literate individuals were not exposed to helping out community the Internet nor aware of the existence of the term. Today, the Internet is mentioned almost daily within many newspapers.
More than ten million Americans have a computer at home and most of these owners have access to the Net. It has become so effortless to sit down at a computer and just click from one page to another for hours. Modern? This leisure activity, more commonly referred to as Internet surfing, can be amusing no matter what the helping out community essay age of the individual. There are many children that have access to a computer either at home or in their schools and they know how to use it to surf the net. However, college students have more exposure than most age groups for several reasons. First and research essay thesis foremost, most universities issue an helping essay e-mail address to every student that is registered for classes. Furthermore, numerous universities include the fee for the Internet service within their tuition rates and thus full time students have guaranteed access. In addition, many professors urge students to use the Net (i.e. to get information for reports) to keep students updated with the technology that is available to them. Nevertheless, the use of the Internet is expanding rapidly. It is indisputable that there will be more growth within the future. With all this traffic on the Internet, there must be an thesis adequate variety of material available for helping out community, all of these surfers. 
Background To the Censorship Debate. Prosecutors in Tennessee won convictions, now on appeal, for material they obtained from a computer bulletin board in philosophy abortion, Milpitas, Calif., based on Memphis standards of what is obscene. Pornography is a major market that is out community rocketing itself into today's society, however, it is not the only controversial topic that has found a place cyberspace. Both public and private interest groups have shown great concern for the content of material available via the Internet. They are driven by school essays, deeply rooted religious and ethical beliefs. They feel that the out community Internet is a medium that is being abused to environmental allow extremists, unethical, and immoral individuals to corrupt society. 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the helping out community essay press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.  As can be seen from nonconformity, above, The First Amendment includes the Freedom of helping out community Speech. The censorship and abortion pornography along with other controversial topics are all intertwined within the essay First Amendment. On Indian? The Founding Fathers acted with premeditation and forethought when in adopting the Bill of Rights they placed the freedom of information at the top of the first ten amendments to the Constitution. However, every generation since 1790--in fact, virtually every decade--has redefined and helping out community essay reinterpreted the First Amendment. Yet freedom of term speech is out community essay not absolute; laws exist regarding libel, obscenity, national security, access to nonconformity government information, and out community essay regulation of electronic mass communications.  Today the United States faces the significant challenge of restoring the traditions of free speech and diversity of information. Nonconformity Essay? Free speech involves the use of the helping essay Internet to express the mass quantities of ideas across the nation and across the globe. To many people, new information and communications technologies are the link between the problems of yesterday and the possibilities of tomorrow.
The gulf between the computer fluent and nonfluent will become more serious as more and more information is festivals available only through computerized databases and helping essay information services.  FIGHTING WORDS: In the 1942 case of Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, the pollution Supreme Court held that so-called fighting words. Out Community? which by on indian in english, their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an helping essay immediate breach of the peace are not protected under the First Amendment and can be punished. The Court based its decision on the concept that such utterances are of slight social value as a step to truth. LIBEL: In the 1964 case of thesis New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, the Supreme Court held, in a ground breaking decision, that defamatory falsehoods published about public officials are not protected by the First Amendment and can be punished if the helping out community essay offended official can prove that his/her accuser published the falsehoods with actual malice -- that is, with knowledge that the statement was false or with reckless disregard of essays pollution whether it was false or not. While the Court's decision addressed a particular type of common law libel, other kinds of helping libelous statements are also punishable. COMMERCIAL SPEECH: In the 1976 case of Virginia Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council , the Supreme Court struck down a state ban on prescription drug advertising on First Amendment grounds. However, commercial speech -- which includes advertising, financial and credit reports, and school essays environmental pollution the like -- still has far less First Amendment protection than other speech.
Generally, it can be banned if it is, on essay, the whole, misleading or takes undue advantage of its audience. OBSCENITY: Obscene material has historically been excluded from First Amendment protection which has led to the official banning of such classics as James Joyce's Ulysses and D.H. Term About? Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, as well as the criminal prosecution of countless publishers, book distributors, storekeepers, film distributors and artists.  Cases In Which the First Amendment Did Not Protect. There are in addition to case law, several laws that contradict the freedom of speech.
Libel, slander, defamation of character, hate speech, and helping essay sexual harassment are common examples. Essay Abortion? Pornography laws and the freedom of expression also fall in the category of out community essay speech. This is not to say that any of these laws are necessary or to argue the moral value of philosophy abortion these laws but to establish that laws already exist against the first amendment. Out Community Essay? So we agree that, although it is plainly stated in opinion, the Constitution, there are several laws restricting speech in essay, the U.S. Essay Festivals?  Now, the question remains about how the Internet affects the protection of speech. The Internet is a medium of communication like television, periodicals, and radio.
The Internet has the added complication of serving people from all over the world on one medium. So whose laws apply? Pornography is illegal in the Middle East, so can an American posting images on the Internet that someone in Saudi Arabia downloads be held liable? If a person in Japan posts a message that someone in the US finds offensive or demeaning, can the American sue according to US law, or does the case fall under Japanese jurisdiction? Or, if this type of offense is not illegal according to Japanese law, is there any basis at all for judicial intervention? So, if there was to be a universal Freedom of Speech law, it would have to encompass all participating countries' interpretations of Freedom of Speech, as well as define what is and what is not allowed under such a law. Is such a compromise possible? [2 10]
These and other questions are still to be answered by society as the Internet develops throughout the out community essay globe. More issues are evolving as different events occur because of the wide spread and inevitable use and abuse of the Internet.  Unfortunately, the Supreme Court's long-standing unwillingness to strike down all obscenity laws as unconstitutional infringements on philosophy abortion, freedom of expression has allowed censorship to flourish at various times in our history because of public officials' tendency to apply the Court's narrow limits in out community essay, over board ways. This remains a problem with all of the limited exceptions to the First Amendment.  The Supreme Court decided that there was a class of material called obscenity which is not covered by school environmental pollution, the First Amendment. Out Community? It was odd that there was a category which was not clearly defined. This means that an image or document may be illegal due to obscenity in euthanasia, one community and may be perfectly legal and protected by the First Amendment in another community. This would seem to indicate that what the Supreme Court calls obscenity is nothing more than the thinly veiled prejudice of the governing bodies in those communities.  With the out community essay passing of essay this act, it would be obvious that news groups such as alt.binaries.erotica would immediately be removed. However, to this date these sites and others still exist. There are still many brave soles that post their material, even though the Communication Decency Act is helping out community being fully enforced.
The controversy still continues today. For more information on the Communication Decency Act click here. The Carnegie Mellon University Situation. Rimm's study has been cited as being exhaustive, when now it is looked at as a fraudulent exaggeration of the current state. The study was said to examine over 900,000 images, 83.5 percent of term which were pornographic. An article written about the Rimm report and subsequent hysteria said that the article is fraudulent and based on the description of out community slightly more than 4,000 images.  The main argument against opinion essay, the action taken by CMU to restrict access to the news groups that had sexually explicit content was that the discussion of sexual matters of any sort is Constitutionally protected speech under the First Amendment to the Constitution. This argument has no effect on the alt.binaries news groups that were among the groups to be removed from access. Helping Out Community Essay? 
Carnegie Mellon reacted to Rimm's study in accordance to Pennsylvania state censorship laws which prohibit the distribution of sexually explicit materials to minors. The law states that No person shall knowingly disseminate.. explicit sexual materials to a minor. When the news of the University's decision reached the student body, a rally was organized to address the students' concerns and ideas on the subject. The students claimed that it was not that they wanted to be able to have access to pornography but that it was their right to make their own decisions guaranteed by the First Amendment. Vic Walczk, the Pittsburgh ACLU executive director who was a speaker at persuasive research essay, that rally, stated that For well-established reasons of free speech, this type of censorship is not only wrong, but very dangerous. The Internet is analogous to a library and libraries are protected from helping out community essay, obscenity prosecutions under Pennsylvania law. The Pennsylvania state censorship laws exempt any library of opinion essay against euthanasia any school, college, or university from helping essay, this law. However, the statement that the Internet and particularly Usenet news groups are analogous to a library appears to be weak.
This statement is only supported by the later statement which says, by providing wide access to the Internet, the University is, in effect, functioning as an electronic librarian.  For more material on this topic refer to pollution the following sites: One side argues that it is difficult to helping out community supervise their children at about, all times. Due to this fact, there must be some other way to censor the out community essay material that is available on the Net. The Internet should not be a place where children can have easy access to sexually explicate material. After all, movies have ratings and now a television chip is being developed to censor what can be viewed on television by children. Therefore, the Internet should also have a way for censoring the pornography.  Others argue that parents are responsible for the activity of their children and therefore should also be held responsible when their children are misusing a computer. This would eliminate any need for government involvement in the issue.
The Internet should be a place where any material can be posted with easy access. It should be able to be used by anyone with a connection to the Net. Persuasive Research Essay? Some support the argument with the fact that most pornography sites have a cover page that warns all individuals who accidentally stumble upon the location. Children stumble upon these sites but many cannot download them. They must be knowledgable in order to out community essay download the files and persuasive essay use a viewer for the pornography.  Alternatives to Governmental Censorship. Several individuals and organizations have suggested methods whereby information providers rate themselves, or are rated by other organizations, just as U.S. films are rated now. The best known plan is PICS, announced in October 1995 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3). Helping? In this proposal, any organization could assign ratings and parents could use them to filter incoming Web pages. Internet Filtering Systems, Inc. In English? (IFSI) creates a product claiming to promote the PICS system. Filtering based on origin.
Certain news groups such as the essay alt.binaries.pictures.erotica set are dedicated to sexual material. By blocking these well-known sites you can keep your children from philosophy essay, seeing the vast majority of sexual discussion. Surf Watch is an example of an existing product that contains a set of sites where access is denied; you can add your own list of sites to it. Filtering based on helping, keywords and key phrases. Another approach is to make a list of obscene words and about phrases or ones that herald the coming of content you find objectionable. Then you force the out community system to stop downloading material when these are found. The technology can be applied to both public postings and private email. Net Nanny is an existing product that uses this approach. Subscription to an approved service. You can buy online access from an organization that monitors all content for you. Prodigy was originally set up to operate this way but it loosened its policy after complaints (and many people also claimed that it never succeeded in blocking objectionable messages).
Religious or commercial organizations can offer lists of approved sites, and you can limit your access to essay euthanasia those. Prosecution of child pornographers. Laws already exist against helping out community, child pornography and have been used on electronic networks. Term? No new laws are needed that single out electronic media regarding this particular issue. Helping?  Guidance and discussion.
This is ultimately the least coercive and most positive approach. Just as you caution children in how to act when they go out in public, you can talk to them about what's online and help them protect themselves. It is also felt that morals and ethics should be taught in the home because children are exposed to all sorts of essay on indian festivals in english material. [13 15] As with the Internet, much debate and many problems have to resolved concerning the topic of adult bulletin boards. Consider the tale of the Robert and essay Carleen Thomas.
The couple were system operators (sysops) of their private members-only Bulletin Board System (BBS) in California. On Indian Festivals? The BBS provided for its members sexually explicit pictures and chat groups. One day a web-surfer from Memphis Tennessee happened to cross the Thomases's BBS and found the material offensive. Helping Essay? The Tennessee man reported to the U.S. Nonconformity Essay? Postal service his findings.
After an out community essay investigation the festivals in english Thomases were indicted, tried in a Memphis federal court and convicted on the charge of distributing obscene materials in interstate commerce. As you can see there are difficulties in the way the community standards are interpreted. Although in their home state of California the helping materials that they offered to essay their users were not considered obscene, they were in Tennessee. It has always been that the individual's right to own obscenity in their own home is out community protected as long as they: 1) do not sell it, 2) display it publicly, 3) or show it to children.  The Thomases have appealed the case and have offered in their defense that if the same Memphis man had come to California and purchased the same type of essay against sexual explicit material and transported it back to Tennessee that he would not have broken any laws. They feel that on the same grounds the Memphis man traveled virtually through the Internet to their BBS.
Unfortunately, in the past the helping out community essay Courts have thrown out arguments involving such a defense.  A good example that relates to anonymity on the Internet is the usage of the essay phone and caller identification (ID). Before caller ID, phone calls were always anonymous. There was no way to know who was calling you until the caller mentioned their name. Helping Essay? Caller ID identifies each caller with the phone number they are calling from which limits the amount of anonymity. The Internet is a lot like a caller ID because each person on the Internet has a user name which is displayed. Now there are services that allow for users to become anonymous which are like a phone without the environmental caller ID.  There are some advantages to anonymity.
For example, users can post messages without being identified. Therefore, they do not have to worry that their statement can somehow affect their life. Certain people are in very sensitive situations that prohibit them from revealing their true identity. A long list of situations requiring anonymity are at this site on the Internet: http://www.oberlin.edu/ A disadvantage to anonymity is that users will take advantage of the freedom. Everyday, Internet users are bombarded by messages from all over the world.
Most of the messages are harassing and helping essay obtrusive. Some users will post these message under the essay anonymous user name. An example of this happening in the real world is slanderous graffiti. However, messages on the Internet are broadcast to everyone in the world while graffiti is localized. It is the people who are taking advantage of this freedom of speech and causing the Internet to become a virtual world filled with hate. If these people continue, they may cause certain organizations and governments to prohibit certain forms of speech. In essence, the abusive senders of helping out community essay messages will cause the term about Internet to become regulated, something that everyone fears.  While we as U.S. citizens may enjoy protection from the actions of other governments, it is helping difficult to know what would happen to citizens of other governments committing the same actions.
There are ways to avoid the question. With the availability of both anonymous remailers and essay PGP software, computer users in foreign countries with more restrictive laws regarding free speech could be able to express themselves more freely, at least in the online world. This possibility could lead to helping out community greater freedom for those in less open societies.  The idea that the Internet could be a liberating force is an exciting one. While the U.S. government has attempted to essay against euthanasia curtail and prevent the exportation of cryptographic technology such as Pretty Good Privacy by helping essay, Phil Zimmerman, given the dynamics of the Internet, and the rapidity with which data may be transferred online, it is almost certain the programs like PGP are in wide distribution globally. Rather than attempting to prevent foreigners from acquiring programs that encrypt data (disregarding for persuasive essay, the sake of argument the very real and valid assertion that hostile governments could gain our encryption technology and use it for their own ends), perhaps the U.S. government should encourage the distribution of such programs. If such programs were available, the encouragement to democracy and helping dissidents would be immense.
Dissidents living in oppressively governed countries could discuss issues of relevance to them openly on a news group. Simply by essay modern, using existing cryptography software (i.e. PGP), such people would be safe from the prying eyes of helping their government. Dissidents using such encryption would be secure from the governmental agencies that would hope to scan all electronic message traffic passing through gateways. Anonymous remailers could also assist those who would hope to opinion essay post dangerous messages in news groups. In fact, this use can be seen in many USENET news group postings. 
A New York state judge ruled that Prodigy, which routinely screens postings for obscene or potentially libelous content, does in out community, fact exert a form of editorial control over content on its system and could be sued as a publisher. Prodigy is appealing the state court's decision. [2 4]. After taking a close look at essay on indian festivals in english, the case mentioned above, it is obvious that it is unreasonable to expect a service to physically read every message for content. This is exactly what would be required. It would be virtually impossible to electronically scan every message for libelous content. Also, as can be seen from a recent Virginia Tech case, the point of origin of the message may effect a person's right to post that message. At Virginia Tech, a student sent an offensive e-mail to a gay online service. The university took action against this student because he used a vt.edu suffix for his return address.
This was considered by the university to be the same as using university letterhead. In a recent local PBS special, the helping director of communication services for Virginia Tech stated that for the most part, Virginia Tech considers network access to students to persuasive essay be a pay service, but that when users post messages with a return address of vt.edu, they are acting in some respects as a representative of Virginia Tech. The director went on to state, the university has the helping out community right to essay thesis take action against those who make statements while acting as an electronic spokesman for the college. This would imply in helping, some sense, that Virginia Tech is saying that it will attempt to control the content of messages which originate from its service. Again, the difficulty which Prodigy faced comes into play.   Freedom of Speech by Amy Lee.  Freedom to CyberTalk by Alex Lerner.  Freedom of Speech on the Internet by Chris Ekman.  Freedom of Speech and the Internet by David Mackie.
 Thoughts on essay on indian festivals in english, Net.Censorship by Eli Burke.  Censorship and the Internet by Herb Miller.  Censorship of the Internet by Jeff Englebrecht.  Censorship and the Internet by James Ogura.  Censorship: Who is essay right? by Leslie Clatterbuck.
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1 timothy essay The authorship of the so-called “pastoral epistles” (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus) is more questionable than any other letters in the corpus Paulinum . A brief examination of the arguments on both sides, therefore, needs to be given. Rather than repeat the evidence for each book—since most scholars either accept or reject all of helping out community essay, them as a group—the data concerning authorship will be presented only for school environmental, 1 Timothy. Although sometimes disputed, 1 “the external evidence for the Pauline authorship of the PE [pastoral epistles] is as good as for any other of his letters except Romans and 1 Corinthians.” 2 Irenaeus is the first explicitly to cite them as Pauline, though there are virtually definite quotations from them in Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Heracleon, and perhaps 1 Clement. Even though they are missing from helping out community essay, Marcion’s Canon, “Tertullian says Marcion rejected them, which is no wonder, since the content of 1 Timothy 4:1-5 is completely antithetical to Marcionism.” 3. Interestingly, in term papers, P 46 (the oldest MS of the Pauline corpus, dated c. 200 CE), although only the essay pastorals are missing, there were originally five leaves at the end of the codex. It has been estimated that the pastorals would have taken ten leaves.
Since codices were bound before being written in, it is possible that the scribe simply found himself in the embarrassing situation of having run out of room for the three pastoral epistles (which the scribe, with good reason, treated as a unit, hence leaving all of them out). On Indian! And even if the scribe were unaware of the pastorals’ existence, this could be accounted for on two bases: (1) these letters were the only Pauline letters sent to apostolic delegates (and would thus probably have minimal circulation); and/or (2) there is the possibility that P 46 should be dated in out community essay, the 70s CE, rather than 130 years later, as one recent scholar has argued. School! 4 Nevertheless, “by the end of the second century they [the pastoral epistles] are firmly fixed in every Christian canon in every part of the empire and are never doubted by anyone until the nineteenth century.” 5. The internal evidence is where the real issue of helping out community essay, authenticity lay. Basically, there are three problems for authenticity: (1) historical, (2) theological, and (3) linguistic. a. The Historical Problem . The first problem is the fact that the historical evidences suggested within the pastoral epistles do not seem to fit in with any of the data supplied by Acts.
The pastorals indicate the philosophy essay following: (1) Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus, while Paul moved on to Macedonia (1 Tim 1:3); (2) Paul likewise left Titus in Crete, after having spent some time with Titus on the island evangelizing the natives (Titus 1:5); (3) he is once again a prisoner in Rome when he writes 2 Timothy (2 Tim 1:8, 16-17; 4:16). In response to the historical difficulty, there remain but two options for essay, those who favor authenticity: either these letters should somehow fit into the Acts’ chronology, or else they were written after Acts. (1) J. A. T. Robinson attempted to place such events within the chronological framework of Acts, 6 though his views have gained few adherents. Philosophy! (2) The view that they were written by Paul after Acts was published was first mentioned by Eusebius and has had a steady stream of followers since. There is a double difficulty with this view, however. First, it presupposes a second Roman imprisonment. Of course, since we only have Acts as a primary record of any of Paul’s imprisonments (apart from his own letters), this cannot be ruled out. Second, “it is argued that Paul had intended to travel west from Rome, not east (Rom 15:23-29), that Luke could hardly have been silent about such an event, and that in any case it would have been highly unlikely for Paul to be either released from a Roman detention or, if released, re-arrested.” 7. However, there is good evidence that Paul was indeed released from his first Roman imprisonment, as he seems to indicate would be the case in his last canonical letter written while in prison (cf. Phil 1:18-19, 24-26; 2:24).
And there is out community essay evidence that he changed his mind about going west (cf. the same references and Philem 22). 8 Further, as we have argued at some length, Luke ended his tome precisely at the point where he did because Paul was about to go on trial and because part of the philosophy purpose of Acts was as a trial brief for Paul. In light of helping essay, such evidence, as Fee has cogently argued, “the proponents of the above difficulties simply do not take the historical data seriously enough. . Essay Abortion! . . Helping Out Community Essay! Furthermore, it seems highly unlikely that a pseudepigrapher, writing thirty to forty years later, would have tried to palm off such traditions as Paul’s evangelizing Crete, the near capitulation to heresy of the Ephesian church, or a release and second imprisonment of abortion, Paul if in helping essay, fact they had never happened.” 9. b. The Theological Problems . There are basically two theological problems in the pastorals: one related to soteriology, one related to ecclesiology. 10 There are other theological problems, to be sure (such as eschatological and ethical), but these are the most important. Overall, “The [theological] problem lies not so much with their [the pastoral epistles’] being non -Pauline in theology—indeed Pauline elements are recognized everywhere—as it does with so much in them that seems un -Pauline, that is, unlike his characteristic way of on indian festivals in english, thinking and speaking as reflected in the earlier letters.” 11. (1) Soteriology . Although the author is concerned with the doctrine of salvation—indeed, this seems to essay, be the driving force behind the writing of persuasive, these letters (cf. especially 1 Tim 1:11)—the way in which the helping out community author speaks of this doctrine is decidedly un-Pauline. Essentially, there is on indian festivals in english a creedalism, an objective air to out community essay, the pastorals with regard to soteriology that is largely lacking in the homolegomena . The emphasis is persuasive thesis more one of “belief that” than “trust in” (cf. Helping Out Community! 1 Tim 3:9; 6:20; Titus 1:13; 2:1; 2 Tim 1:14; 4:7; etc. where terms such as “the faith,” “sound teaching,” and “the deposit” are used). In response to this problem it should be noted that. The basic reason for this kind of “objective” reference to the gospel, however, lies in the nature of these letters in contrast with the others.
The other letters (excepting Philemon, of course) were written to philosophy abortion, churches, to be read aloud and apparently to function as authority as though Paul himself were there. Therefore, it was necessary for him to reiterate the truth that was to correct or stand over against helping essay their waywardness. In this case, however, the letters are written to those who themselves both know fully the content of Paul’s gospel and are personally to take the place of authority in these churches that his letter had earlier done. This latter phenomenon is totally overlooked in scholarship. It is almost as if the real objection were that Paul should write such letters at all. 12. (2) Ecclesiology . More significant than the soteriological issue is the ecclesiological one. Essay! The reason that the pastorals have been questioned on out community essay such grounds is that they seem to reflect a period in opinion against, church history which is later than Paul’s lifetime. In particular, they seem to reflect the helping out community early second century (cf. Ignatius’ writings) in which a single bishop had elders and deacons. Essay Against! Furthermore, the strong emphasis in the pastorals on the leaders’ qualifications, regulations concerning church life, etc., seem decidedly un-Pauline. Not only this, but the function of the helping out community essay church leadership is especially to pass on a fixed tradition of the school essays truth, an emphasis lacking in the earlier Pauline epistles.
Against this supposition is the fact that elsewhere Paul does display an interest in church order (cf. Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12; Rom 12:8; cf. Acts 14:23), though he is evidently not concerned about it nearly as much as he is in the pastorals. But there is a twofold reason for his concern here: (1) In all three letters, Paul is writing to an apostolic delegate—in effect, an intermediary between himself and the leadership of the church. Thus what he normally communicated in person as to church order (as he evidently must have in light of such casual references as Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12, etc.), he now must put in writing. (2) In each one of the letters there are extenuating circumstances which would bring about an emphasis on church order and creedalism: (a) in out community, 1 Timothy, the church had been infected by heretical and immoral leaders; hence, moral qualifications especially needed to be established; (b) in Titus, the essay euthanasia church was newly planted; hence, some guidelines for selecting leaders needed to out community essay, be given; (c) in 2 Timothy, Paul’s death is imminent; hence, an emphasis on a fixed tradition was in order. Finally, there really is no good evidence that the pastorals reflect a single bishopric. If these letters are authentic, then Timothy and Titus are apostolic delegates , not bishops themselves. And 1 Tim 3:2 cannot be pressed into service for the mono-episcopate view, because the article (“ the bishop”) is most likely generic. 13. c. Persuasive Essay! The Linguistic Problems . The last and easily most significant difficulty is linguistic in nature: “For most scholars it is the objection based on language which has tended to tip the balance against helping out community essay the Pauline authorship of the pastorals.” 14 This, admittedly, has caused me the most problems with accepting the pastorals as well. In general, the essay festivals in english basic problem is out community that “the homogeneity of the Pastorals with one another and philosophy essay their dishomogeneity with the other Paulines must be regarded as an established fact.” 15 This can be seen in three ways. (1) New Vocabulary . There is quite a bit of new vocabulary found in the pastorals—according to one scholar, over one hundred and seventy words (170) found in the pastorals are not found in other Pauline letters—nor even in the rest of the out community NT 16. (2) Lack of Key Theological Terms . But there is nonconformity essay modern also a dearth in typical Pauline terms—terms in helping, which his key theological ideas are normally expressed. For example, ?????????? “appears only in the sense of ‘uprightness’ and is a virtue to be pursued (1 Tim.
6:11; 2 Tim. 2:22), not a gift of right-standing with God.” 17. (3) Stylistic Differences . Finally, even in opinion against euthanasia, non-content “function” words such as conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns, the helping essay vocabulary is term papers radically different from Paul’s other letters. Altogether, there are one hundred and out community essay twelve (112) such function words which occur in Paul’s earlier letters which are not found in the pastorals. This is coupled with a different use of the article, infinitive, etc., than what is papers seen in Paul’s other epistles. Out Community! Such a stylistic difference cannot be brushed aside on essay the basis of a different occasion, for grammatical minutiae are intrinsic to the way an author thinks , regardless of what he is thinking about. The are part of the warp and woof of his presentation and cannot be dismissed on the basis of audience or content shifts. Conservative scholarship has usually responded in one of three ways to out community, this linguistic evidence. First, the statistics are seen as inconclusive since “the pastoral epistles do not contain enough text to furnish a satisfactory sample.” 18.
Second, “the main weakness of nonconformity modern, all attempts to helping out community, calculate style statistically is that they cannot take sufficient account of research, differences of subject-matter, circumstances or addressees, all of which may be responsible for the introduction of new words.” 19. It will be seen that these first two points really only deal with the issue of vocabulary (both new vocabulary and lack of helping out community, key theological terms), but they do not address the issue of grammatical minutiae. 20 If this were all that conservative scholarship had in response, my own doubts about Pauline authorship would still remain. But there is another piece of the pie to consider. Third, there is the distinct possibility that Paul used an amanuensis to whom he gave great freedom in opinion against, the writing of helping out community essay, these letters. 21 Longenecker (among several others) has shown that the nonliterary papyri display several different kinds of opinion, amanuenses at work—sometimes they wrote by dictation, other times, with greater freedom. His application to the Pauline epistles is illuminating: Just how closely the apostle supervised his various amanuenses in essay, each particular instance is, of course, impossible to say. The nonliterary Greek papyri suggest that the responsibilities of an ancient secretary could be quite varied, ranging all the way from essay against, taking dictation verbatim to “fleshing out” with appropriate language a general outline of thought.
Paul’s own practice probably varied with the special circumstances of the case and out community with the particular companion whom he employed at the time. More time might be left to essay, the discretion of Silas and Timothy (cf. 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) or to Timothy alone (cf. 2 Cor. 1:1; Col. 1:1; Philem.
1; Phil. 1:1) than to Sosthenes (cf. 1 Cor. 1:1) or Tertius (cf. Rom. 16:22)—and perhaps much more to Luke, who alone was with Paul during his final imprisonment (cf. 2 Tim. Helping Essay! 4:11) . 22. There are two other factors to consider in this issue of an amanuensis: (1) the occasion for the writing of these letters (including the fact that Paul is in prison when he wrote 2 Timothy—with his freedoms apparently greatly restricted over his first Roman imprisonment 23 ), and (2) the fact that these are Paul’s last writings. On this second point it should be observed that the most disputed letters in the Pauline corpus are those which were written toward the end of his life . Apart from 2 Thessalonians (which is sometimes disputed), all of the disputed letters, if authentic, would be dated in in english, the 60s. Out Community Essay! The significance of this may be that as time progressed, and as Paul dictated more and persuasive research more letters (most of them now lost), his long-time companions could be trusted more and more to work from an helping out community essay annotated outline, rather than copy down a verbally dictated letter.
If so, then any arguments from vocabulary or stylistic considerations which do not take sufficient account of an festivals amanuensis at work are immediately suspect. 24 Still, the final product would be Paul’s responsibility, and since he customarily appended a personal note at helping out community the end of philosophy essay, each of his letters (cf. 2 Thess 3:17), there is ample evidence that he read over the letter carefully before it was sent. 25. Essay! The case for an amanuensis with the nonconformity essay modern pastorals takes an interesting turn in that in 2 Tim 4:11 the writer flatly states, “Luke alone is with me.” This, coupled with “the large number of correspondences in vocabulary with Luke-Acts makes the hypothesis of Luke as this amanuensis an attractive one.” 26. We have seen so far that the helping out community three basic problems for Pauline authorship seem to essays environmental pollution, be adequately answered. Helping Essay! But the tables can be turned as well.
That is, there are major problems with the pseudepigraphical views. Our discussion here will necessarily be brief, but at least four points can be made. First, the historical reconstruction behind a forgery is difficult to imagine. Normally, critical scholarship has assumed that the occasion for writing these epistles was the need for church order at the beginning of the second century. Although just such an occasion is possible for 1 Timothy and Titus, it thoroughly fails to handle 2 Timothy, as advocates of this view admit: “2 Tim poses a special problem, for a motive underlying its composition is not readily apparent…” 27. Second, if these letters are a forgery, why are there three of school essays, them ? As Fee has pointed out, “If one can make a good case for [the occasion of] 1 Timothy [outside the lifetime of Paul], it is equally difficult to understand why then the out community author also wrote Titus, and above all why, given the alleged reasons for opinion essay euthanasia, 1 Timothy, [he wrote] 2 Timothy—it simply does not fit those reasons…” 28. Third, when one compares the Christology of Ignatius with the helping Christology of the pastoral epistles, it is evident that Ignatius’ view is more advanced.
In Titus 2:13 the author speaks of ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? (“of our great God and term about Savior Jesus Christ”). This construction fits what is known as the Granville Sharp rule which simply indicates that both “God” and “Savior” refer to out community, one person. Hence, Titus (and the author of the pastorals) embraces a high Christology. In making such an essays explicit identification of Christ with God, it certainly belongs to out community essay, the later books of the New Testament. However, none of the books of the NT are as blunt as are the early apostolic fathers . For example, Ignatius, writing in essay abortion, c. Helping Out Community Essay! 110 CE, reversed the order, tightening the apposition between “Christ” and nonconformity essay modern “God”: “our Savior and helping out community essay God, Jesus Christ” was a not infrequent phrase in his writings. On a trajectory of christological development (if it developed linearly), one would have to philosophy, place the pastorals some time before Ignatius or even Clement (c. 96 CE). Although this does not prove Pauline authorship, it does seem to indicate a terminus ad quem for the writing of these epistles. And if the date of the pastorals must be before, say, the 90s CE, then the occasion assigned to these letters by out community, those rejecting authenticity has to be completely reworked.
Fourth, in essay on indian, 1 Tim 1:15 the author claims to essay, be “the chief of sinners.” This is an interesting self-deprecating note which is fully consonant with Pauline authorship. In 1 Cor 15:9 (a letter written c. 54 CE), Paul states, “I am the least of the apostles.” Then, in Eph 3:8 (written c. 59-61 CE) the persuasive essay author says that he is “less than the least of the saints.” This makes an advance over the apostle’s similar statement in 1 Corinthians. When one compares 1 Tim 1:15 to these other two texts, the helping out community essay case for authenticity of about, both Ephesians and 1 Timothy is heightened, for in 1 Timothy the author now widens the circle of which he is at the bottom: “chief of all sinners.” This is a threefold cord: (1) not only is development seen in Paul’s self-awareness as a sinner (from 1 Corinthians to Ephesians to 1 Timothy), (2) but the way in which he states his self-deprecatory remark is different each time; (3) finally, forgers always went in helping out community, the opposite direction, elevating the men whose names they took. Essay! This is helping out community a subtle, yet very powerful, piece of internal evidence on behalf of authenticity, for not only does Paul not merely mimic his earlier self-assessment (as a forger might be prone to do), but he evidences development in his own Christian walk. Modern! A careful reading of the later pseudepigraphical literature never reveals any forger following the out community same track . In other words, if this is the work of a later writer, he is the only one of the scores of apostolic would-be copyists to have done this. Almost universally, later pseudepigraphists (as well as early patristic writers) elevate the essay on indian festivals apostles, placing them on untouchable pedestals. Unless parallels to Eph 3:8 and 1 Tim 1:15 could be produced in the later writings, the most objective reading of this verse is helping as an authentic statement of the apostle to the Gentiles. 29.
In sum, although the philosophy abortion evidence against helping essay the authenticity of the essays environmental pollution pastorals is as strong as any evidence against helping out community essay the authenticity of any NT book (save 2 Peter), it still cannot overthrow the traditional view. The traditional view, however, must be modified by abortion, the substantial linguistic evidence against authenticity: an amanuensis (possibly Luke) had great freedom in writing these letters for the apostle Paul. The date of helping, 1 Timothy must be sometime after Paul’s release from his first Roman imprisonment (c. 61 CE) and, in all probability, shortly before his re-arrest and final imprisonment. Further, some time must be allowed for him to return to Asia Minor, evangelize with Titus on Crete, and perhaps winter in Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).
Since, in our view, Paul dies in the summer of 64, 1 Timothy should probably be dated no earlier than 63 CE. 1. Timothy, one of Paul’s longtime companions, who joined the apostle on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:2), had been with Paul toward the end of the apostle’s first Roman imprisonment (cf. Phil 2:19-24). 2. When Paul was released, he took Timothy and philosophy essay abortion Titus with him back to helping out community, Asia Minor, after they left Titus on Crete. 3. They went by way of Ephesus en route to Macedonia. There, they encountered false teachers who had virtually taken over papers the church—just as Paul had predicted they would (cf. Acts 20:29-30).
Two of them, Hymenaeus and Alexander, were excommunicated by Paul (1 Tim 1:19-20). 4. Paul had to press on to Macedonia (cf. Phil 2:24), but the essay situation at Ephesus needed help. He left Timothy in charge of the church, giving him instructions to deal with the heretics who had become leaders in essay modern, the church (cf. 1 Tim 1:3-4). 5. Helping Out Community Essay! In light of this, 1 Tim 1:3 seems to contain the purpose of this epistle: “As I urged you when I went into Macedonia, stay there in essay, Ephesus so that you may command certain men not to teach false doctrines any longer…” As Fee has recently argued, “In contrast to that approach [which sees 1 Timothy primarily as a manual on essay church order], this commentary assumes that everything in the letter has to do with 1:3 . . . , and that this expresses both the abortion occasion and the purpose of 1 Timothy.” 30 At this tentative stage in our thinking about this epistle, we are prepared to accept his thesis, though there is substantial difference in how we see this worked out in helping essay, the exegesis of the epistle. Festivals! 31. The theme of out community, 1 Timothy is closely tied to its purpose (cf. 1:3, 18-19; 6:11-12, 20). In brief, it may be summed up as “godly leadership in the face of internal opposition.” Or, in Paul’s words, “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the essay against euthanasia faith” (6:11-12).
After a brief salutation to Timothy (1:1-2), Paul immediately gets into helping essay, the body of school, his epistle (1:3–6:21). This letter contains three major sections: negative instructions in relation to the false teachers who had infiltrated the church at helping essay Ephesus (1:3-20), positive instructions to the church at Ephesus (2:1–6:10), and personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-20). Although the nonconformity modern last two sections have the church life and its leadership in the foreground, the problem of the false teachers is always in the background (explicitly in 4:1-5; 5:20-25; 6:3-10, 20-21; implicitly permeating the rest of the epistle). The first major section is helping out community a reminder of why Timothy was left behind in Ephesus, viz., to stop the false teachers (1:3-20). These men were preoccupied with the OT Law, yet they had no idea of “what they are saying or the things they insist on so confidently” (1:7, NET). Paul explains what the school essays environmental pollution proper use of the Law is: it is for helping, sinners, to lead them to repentance (1:8-11).
The implication is that these false teachers were forcing the philosophy Law on helping out community essay believers (1:9). Then he follows this up with a personal illustration: the Law taught him that he was a sinner, but Christ showed him grace (1:12-17). Opinion Against Euthanasia! Paul then repeats his charge to Timothy (1:18-20), though this time the emphasis is on Timothy’s perseverance and godliness in the face of opposition. The charge concludes with a note about helping out community essay, Paul excommunicating two church leaders, Hymenaeus and school essays environmental Alexander (1:20). On this note, Paul now addresses the situation in the church directly.
The second major section (2:1–6:10) cannot be divorced from the purpose of helping, Timothy’s stay in Ephesus. These false teachers had wreaked havoc on the church in many areas. They had destroyed the atmosphere of public worship (cf. 2:1-7) and had stolen from the coffers of the church (6:3-10). They had especially influenced some of the women in the church—in particular the unmarried and essay young widows (5:11-15; cf. 2 Tim. 3:1-7). Helping Out Community Essay! The church was in disarray and needed correction; it also needed new leadership (cf. 3:1!). Three broad areas of concern must be addressed if the opinion church at Ephesus is to be repaired.
First, the conduct of the helping out community essay church needed to be restored (2:1–3:16). This involved two aspects: worship and nonconformity modern leadership. (1) Regarding public worship (2:1-15), the atmosphere of the church first needed changing. The doctrinal controversies promoted by the false teachers (cf. Out Community Essay! 1:3; 6:20-21) created a judgmental and critical spirit within the nonconformity congregation. The purpose of the Christian walk was lost in the shuffle. So Paul commands the church to refocus on prayer—and prayer for all people, especially those in authority (2:1-7). Out Community Essay! With this note on school environmental “authority” ringing in their ears, Paul addresses hierarchical roles within the body (2:8-15). The false teachers had especially persuaded women to helping, follow them (cf. 5:11-15: 2 Tim 3:1-7).
What is interesting to note is that “Satan” is mentioned in this epistle only in connection with the false teachers (1:20) and young widows (5:15). These false teachers who were involved in “godless chatter” (6:20) who did “not know what they [were] talking about” (1:7) had caused some of the women to “be lazy … talking about things they should not” (5:13, NET). Thus in 2:8-15 the apostle reminds especially the women of the proper hierarchical order in opinion against euthanasia, worship. It is no coincidence that he mentions Eve’s deception in the garden of Eden (2:14), causing her to teach Adam, for this is exactly what had happened at Ephesus: women were following these false teachers and helping out community were becoming teachers themselves. Thus although Satan is not explicitly mentioned in philosophy essay abortion, this context, he is very much in the back of Paul’s mind. Out Community Essay! Paul prohibits women from teaching men (2:12) because this is a reversal of the God-ordained hierarchical order (2:13).
32. (2) Regarding church leadership (3:1-13), Paul places an emphasis on the ethical qualifications of overseers (a.k.a. bishops, elders) (3:1-7) and deacons (3:8-13), with a special appeal for some of the festivals in english men to desire the office of out community, overseer (3:1). Euthanasia! This must be seen against essay the backdrop of the excommunication of two leaders (1:18-20). The church had been rocked and needed new guides. Against this background qualifications such as “able to nonconformity essay modern, teach” (3:2; cf. 1:7), “not quarrelsome” (3:3; cf. Helping Out Community! 1:4; 6:20-21), “not a lover of money” (3:3; cf. 6:3-10); “good reputation with outsiders” (3:7; cf. 5:20-25); and the references to the snare and judgment of the term devil (3:6, 7; cf. 1:20; 5:15) make perfectly good sense. Paul then summarizes this segment on the conduct of the helping out community church (3:14-15), followed by a hymn to Christ (3:16), reminding Timothy that proper conduct cannot be divorced from the worship of Christ. Second, Timothy is charged with guarding “the truths of the faith” in modern, the light of apostasy (4:1-16).
The apostates had crept into the church, just as the Spirit had predicted they would (4:1; cf. Helping Out Community! Acts 20:29-30). Such apostates embraced an amalgamation of Jewish legalism and Greek asceticism, forbidding both marriage and restricting diets (4:2-5). Because of such men, Timothy is philosophy abortion charged to warn the helping essay church to stay away from them (4:6-7). Further, to prove that legalism-asceticism is not the route to research essay, godliness, Paul urges Timothy to “train yourself to be godly” (4:7) and to set forth the true gospel of Jesus Christ (4:13) before the congregation. He summarizes the twin theme of helping, 4:6-16 (and, indeed, of the whole book) by nonconformity essay modern, concluding: “Watch your life and helping out community essay doctrine closely. Persevere in them…” (4:16). Third, Timothy needed to learn pastoral skills in addressing certain groups (5:1–6:10). The instructions given here are related especially both to Timothy’s youthfulness and to his inexperience in pastoral duties and priorities.
As a young man, he needed guidance in how to address the various age and gender groups of the church (5:1-2). Because of the greed of the false teachers (cf. 6:3-10 and passim ) the term papers about church coffers were probably quite low. Thus Paul gives various instructions which focus on out community financial distribution to various groups on the church. Timothy needed to essay thesis, place a priority on the widows (5:3-16), especially regarding the church’s provisions for helping out community, them (5:5, 9), though certain qualifications had to pollution, be met: in particular, young, able-bodied women and those whose children could take care of them should not be helped out by the church (5:4, 7, 11-16). Next in line should be the elders (5:17-25). Helping! Those who have remained faithful to the gospel should receive a “double honor” (5:17-18).
That such honor should include financial remuneration is seen in two biblical illustrations (5:18). Persuasive Thesis! But those who have sinned (provided it is proved by at least two witnesses) earn a rebuke instead of “honor” (5:19-20). Prospective elders need to be screened quite carefully (5:21-25) because, most likely, many of them would be motivated by greed (cf. Helping Out Community Essay! 6:3-10). Slaves are mentioned last (6:1-2). But rather than the church supplying their needs, they are to serve their masters well (since, by implication, their needs would be met by essay in english, their masters). Paul then turns to helping out community essay, the root of the problem of the financial distress in the church (6:3-10), viz., some of the elders “think that godliness is a means to philosophy abortion, financial gain” (6:5).
Greed was what motivated the false teachers and had caused not only them but others to wander from the faith (6:10). The epistle concludes with more personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-21). He is to “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the faith” (6:11-12), a theme repeated throughout this epistle. But before Paul can finish the letter he turns to those who are wealthy and godly in the church (6:17-19). His warnings about the greed of the false teachers (6:3-10) might be taken incorrectly by essay, some of the rich who had been quite faithful to the gospel (cf. Essay Festivals! 6:10). Paul corrects this impression by pointing out that wealth in itself is not evil (it is the essay love of money that is evil [6:10]), though those who are wealthy ought to be rich in good deeds, too (6:18), and essay thus lay up treasures for themselves in heaven (6:19). The epistle closes with a reminder to out community essay, Timothy to guard the gospel in the lives of the Ephesians, for this has been entrusted to him (6:20-21). I. Salutation (1:1-2) II. Negative Instructions: Stop the False Teachers (1:3-20) A. Warning against False Teachers (1:3-11) 1. The Charge to Timothy Stated (1:3) 2. Their Wrong Use of the Law (1:4-7) 3. The Right Use of the Law (1:8-11) B. Paul’s Experience of Grace (1:12-17) C. The Charge to Timothy Repeated (1:18-20) III.
Positive Instructions: Repair the Church (2:1–6:10) A. Term About! Restoring the Conduct of the Church (2:1–3:16) 1. Instructions on helping essay Public Worship (2:1-15) a. Concerning Prayer (2:1-7) b. Concerning the essay thesis Role of Men and Women (2:8-15) 1) Men: Pray in a Holy Manner (2:8) 2) Women: Quiet Conduct (2:9-15) 2. Instructions on Church Leadership (3:1-13) a. Qualifications of Overseers (3:1-7) b. Qualifications of Deacons (3:8-13) 3. Summary (3:14-16) a. Conduct of the Church (3:14-15) b. Hymn to Christ (3:16) B. Essay! Guarding the Truth in the Church (4:1-16) 1. Papers About! In the Face of Apostasy (4:1-5) 2. Timothy’s Personal Responsibilities (4:6-16) C. Dealing with Groups in the Church (5:1–6:10) 1. Men and Women, Young and essay Old (5:1-2) a. Older Widows (5:3-10) b. Younger Widows (5:11-16) a. The Reward of Elders (5:17-18) b. The Reputation of opinion essay against, Elders (5:19-20) 1) The Reputation of helping essay, Elders Protected (5:19) 2) The Sins of Elders Publicly Rebuked (5:20) c. The Recognition of Prospective Elders (5:21-25) 5. False Teachers (6:3-10) IV. Personal Instructions: Pursue Godliness (6:11-21) A. Fight the essay on indian festivals Good Fight (6:11-16) B. A Final Word to essay, the Wealthy (6:17-19) C. Guard What has been Entrusted (6:20-21) 1 Cf. M. Dibelius and M. Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles (Hermeneia), who argue that “the testimony of the early Church . . . is not very strong” (1). 2 G. D. Papers! Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus (in New International Biblical Commentary), 23. 4 See discussion of Young Kyu Kim’s article in Biblica in our introduction to helping essay, 2 Peter.
This has now been refuted however by Bruce Griffin. 6 Redating the New Testament , 79-85. 7 Fee, 1 and school environmental pollution 2 Timothy, Titus , 4. 8 It should be noted that Paul was prone to essay, change his mind about his travel plans (cf. 2 Cor 1:12–2:4). 10 Technically, the ecclesiological problem is also a historical one, for it entails seeing the ecclesiological situation of the pastorals as occurring at a date later than Paul’s lifetime. But as the school essays environmental pollution essential problem of ecclesiology is related to out community essay, the author’s directives (thus propositional in nature), we felt it better to include it under our discussion of theological problems. 13 See D. B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the new Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996) 229. Cf. Essay! also idem , “Who Should Run the Church? A Case for the Plurality of Elders,” available at www.bible.org in the Pro f’s Soapbox. Helping Out Community! 15 Fee, ibid., 24, citing J. N. D. Kelly.
16 Julius Holtzmann, cited by research thesis, Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 3. Helping! 18 Guthrie, 633. Cf. also B. M. Metzger’s excellent (and brief) critique of using word-statistics to research essay thesis, solve problems of authorship (“A Reconsideration of Certain Arguments Against the Pauline Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles,” ExpT 70 (1958) 91-94. 20 Guthrie initially admits this difficulty (“many writers who are prepared to concede the possibility of changes in Paul’s vocabulary are reluctant to out community, do so for Paul’s style” ), but he immediately downplays its thrust, not fully grasping its weight. 21 The following material is essay taken in toto from our introduction to Ephesians, but is out community essay duplicated here for the benefit of the reader. 22 “Amanuenses,” 294. Earlier in the essay Longenecker established the probability (via parallels with the papyri) of Paul using an amanuensis for virtually every letter except perhaps Philemon. 23 Cf. 2 Tim. 1:16; 2:9; 4:13 (where the request for the cloak is due, most likely, to his being in a cold dungeon).
24 By way of analogy, when I joined the faculty of Dallas Seminary in 1988, the NT secretary (Pamela Bingham) would need me to write out every word for essay against euthanasia, letters that she would later type up. Now, after several years, I can use abbreviations, summaries, even verbal directions at times. The difference is due to out community, the fact that the papers same secretary has been in the department the entire time and is now more used to helping out community essay, my style. There are times when she writes words and phrases which I would never write myself, but which communicate what I wish to say. Nonconformity! When I sign my name, I take responsibility for what was written, but this does not imply that everything must have been stated exactly in the way I would normally state things, just that the helping content is what I intend to communicate. It seems that this kind of thing must surely have happened with Paul over the years; hence, it is no mere coincidence that his later writings have a different style without differences in substance. Festivals In English! 25 An interesting sidelight to this is seen in textual criticism. Bruce Metzger is helping out community essay representative of some scholars, for example, when he suggests that Tertius heard Paul incorrectly when the apostle dictated Rom 5:1: Tertius wrote down the subjunctive ?????? when Paul meant the indicative ?????? . Opinion Euthanasia! Metzger’s reasons for this view are related to the textual history of this verse.
But such a postulation does not go far enough: I would agree with him that Tertius may have heard Paul wrong and may have written the subjunctive. But Paul would certainly have corrected it before the letter was sent! The reason, then, for the poor external attestation for the indicative may well be due to a misunderstanding as to who corrected the helping subjunctive. There is nonconformity other evidence for this kind of activity as well. Helping! As is well known, although 1 Cor 14:34-35 are contained in about, every known MS, these verses are found in two locations: at this place and at the end of the chapter (in the Western tradition). Although Gordon Fee and Philip Payne have recently mounted the strongest campaign for their inauthenticity, the suggestion made by E. E. Ellis and others that Paul added the words in the margin before the helping essay original document was sent makes better sense: later scribes were unsure where the words belonged, though they recognized that they were meant to on indian, be part of the book.
Further, the well-known problem of ????? / ?????? in 1 Thess 2:7 may well have come about due to the amanuensis’ hearing error (especially since the helping essay previous word ends with nu ). About! In essence, what we are arguing is this: textual criticism needs to pay more attention to the role of an helping essay amanuensis in creating some of the about problems of the essay text, especially those generated by hearing error. But since the author would certainly look over his letter before it was sent, the original text would most likely already have corrections in it. 26 Fee, ibid., 26. Essay Abortion! See especially C. F. D. Moule, “The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles: A Reappraisal,” BJRL 47 (1965) 430-52, for the evidence. 27 Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 1. 28 Fee, ibid., 25. Elsewhere Fee elaborates: “Why three letters? For example, why write Titus or 1 Timothy, given one or the other, and why from such a considerably different perspective and historical context? And why 2 Timothy at all, since it fails so badly to fit the proposed reconstruction?” (6; cf. also n. 14 on p. Helping! 28). 29 There is also a fifth argument, though it may presuppose too much. Hebrews 13:23 indicates that Timothy had just been released from school pollution, prison.
In our reconstruction, Hebrews was written shortly after the death of Paul to Jewish Christians in Asia Minor. Further, it was written from out community, Rome (13:24 is naturally read this way). Thus, Timothy, in c. Modern! 65 CE, was improsoned in Rome. Incidental corroborative evidence is found in 2 Tim 4:9-13, 21, which indicate that Paul had dispatched Timothy to helping out community essay, come to him at persuasive research Rome. With the instructions, “Do your best to get here before winter” (4:21), coupled with the helping early external evidence (especially Clement’s testimony), it is doubtful that Timothy got to Rome before Paul died (for Paul would have died within weeks of the writing of 2 Timothy, since he would not have written such a comment in the spring, and he probably died in the summer). His release from prison a few months after arrival (spring, 65 CE) would be most likely, since no real charges could have been brought against nonconformity essay modern him. Nevertheless, the incidental comments in both Hebrews and 2 Timothy are confirmatory of each other and fit nicely into our overall historical reconstruction. 31 Fee especially uses the very occasional nature of this letter to argue that the directive about women not teaching men (2:12) is due to the present crisis. Although we cannot develop it in this paper, it is our contention that Paul is making a more absolute statement. Further, the instructions about church order have been given primarily for two reasons: (1) the church is in disarray after the invasion of the heretical teachers; and (2) morally qualified leaders needed to be found to essay, take the essay festivals in english place of the defective elders and deacons.
Consequently, in our approach, Timothy’s job is to restore the church to what is normative. The crisis does not call for extreme, temporary measures, as some would have it, but for putting the church back in helping out community, order. This can be seen in various ways (see, for example, our discussion of 2:8-15 in the “Argument”, as well as the many incidental comments in 1 Timothy which seem to refer to long-established practices [e.g., 5:9]). 32 In disagreement with Fee, I see the restrictions here as absolute, for persuasive thesis, Paul links them to creation (note the “for” [ ??? ] in 2:13. “I do not permit” ( ???????? , 2:12) is almost certainly a gnomic present since generic nouns are used (see B. Out Community! M. Fanning, Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek , 208-17). Further, Fee is quite wrong that ???????? (2:12) “has the term papers about connotation of ‘to domineer’” ( 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus , 73), for such a meaning is almost completely unattested until the fourth century CE and is not widely used until the helping essay ninth century! (Fee is here following the AV’s rendering “usurp authority” almost as though it had some ancient basis. In reality, the school environmental AV translators knew Latin better than they knew Greek and the bilingual text they used to prepare the NT was essentially Erasmus’ text [Beza’s edition]. Erasmus published the first Greek NT [ Novum Instrumentum , 1516; later called Textus Receptus ] in order to defend his revised Latin translation. And since the meaning of ???????? had changed after Jerome translated the Vulgate, Erasmus used a different Latin verb to helping out community, communicate the idea of “usurp authority.”) The real point of this passage is hard to miss: The original hierarchy of creation was: God—man—woman (Satan is out of the picture). But in Ephesus this order had become reversed: Satan—woman—man (God is out of the picture). Nonconformity Modern! The creation motif does, however, seem to have one restriction: it regards the exercise of authority and teaching in spiritual things, though whether this is restricted to a church setting would be difficult to prove since there were no parachurch organizations in out community, the first century.
Furthermore, since the hierarchical order is connected to the creation order and possibly constitutional differences between men and women (the “for” in 2:13 makes such a connection), to restrict this just to the public worship of the church is to fly in the face of the context. (Incidentlly, Fee makes a quite unwarranted assumption when he sees the “for” of 2:13 as reaching back to 2:9 and referring to a woman’s modest dress. He does not explain why vv. 11-12 should be skipped over. If anything, 2:9 is not at all in view [the issue is not clothing but authority] because only after Eve was deceived did she put on any clothes at all!)
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Dec 18, 2017 Helping out community essay,
Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and helping essay, family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of nonconformity man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Out Community Essay! Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. On Indian Festivals In English! It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the essay, acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman.
Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out essays, certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges.
The rules and helping, regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of philosophy essay abortion human beings, are dealt in helping out community, the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Essay! Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Out Community! Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. Term! It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Out Community Essay! Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights.
The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of thesis one or more men to helping essay one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of against it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in out community essay, husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of school essays environmental parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with.
(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and helping essay, their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to essay against euthanasia combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the out community essay, statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. About! There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure.
Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness.
If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and helping essay, regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female.
(2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of research thesis standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and helping out community, wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined.
It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and on indian festivals, disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Out Community! Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable.
The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the opinion, kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and helping out community essay, the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the philosophy, unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of helping marriage and school environmental pollution, the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and helping out community essay, method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and against euthanasia, woman.
Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Helping! Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at modern a given period of helping out community essay time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to research one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per helping out community cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and persuasive research essay, remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to helping out community essay as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.
Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them.
2. Environmental Pollution! Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Essay! Better Socialization of Children: In the research essay thesis, monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely.
There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is helping essay, maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of philosophy essay abortion marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Out Community Essay! Equalitarian way of Living:
It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. Term Papers! The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Helping Out Community! Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population.
Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents:
Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of essays bitterness. 10. Law is in essay, favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and term, wife. It is more stable form of helping marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents.
Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. School Essays! They have to depend upon their own occupation for living.
If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and helping, woman. 5. About! Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. Helping! They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage.
When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of philosophy essay abortion prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and helping essay, values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Persuasive! Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage.
Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Out Community Essay! In other words it is opinion euthanasia, a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the essay, tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. Euthanasia! In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges.
It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another.
This way there is a decrease in helping essay, the number of males than females and term papers, polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to essay polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in opinion against, the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the helping, primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and thesis, status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of helping out community essay wives in order to prove their superiority.
A single marriage was considered a sign of essay against euthanasia poverty. So where marriage is out community, taken as sign of prestige and essay, prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for helping, their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Nonconformity Essay Modern! Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for helping out community essay, variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. Term Papers About! It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the helping out community, women during the period of papers pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage.
In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in out community essay, some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of term children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons:
Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the helping essay, head of the family. (1) Better status of on indian children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care.
(2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by helping out community essay, several wives. (4) Division of Work:
In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family:
Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of essay a wife to helping produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of papers marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. Helping Out Community! They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to philosophy essay abortion depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is helping, jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in opinion essay against, a proper manner in out community essay, such atmosphere.
3. Essay! Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of helping out community essay Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Philosophy Essay Abortion! Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases.
6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for helping out community essay, the proper growth and essay festivals in english, development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in helping out community essay, common. Essay! This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Helping! Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and.
(ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in research essay thesis, a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in out community essay, Ceylon (Srilanka at nonconformity modern present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry:
In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the helping out community, wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of essay polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is out community, found even though there is not much disparity in philosophy abortion, the number of men and out community, women.
In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of essay getting the name of father are known by mother’s name.
Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for essay, this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the against euthanasia, question of division of helping property does not arise. 7. Production and labour:
Polyandry not only avoids division of philosophy abortion property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Helping Out Community! Thus production and income increases, further there is against euthanasia, no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the out community essay, male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the essay modern, size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family.
It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is helping, kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided.
The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in on indian, the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to helping essay fulfill her basic needs.
When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of nonconformity essay modern fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman:
It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth.
In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of essay male group is considered to be the essays pollution, husband of helping out community essay every woman of opinion essay against female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group.
Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for helping essay, group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and papers, Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and out community essay, may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in persuasive, the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment.
It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on out community essay record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the persuasive thesis, brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Helping Out Community! Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate.
In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the opinion essay, sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is helping, a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife.
The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in research essay thesis, the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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