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Arnold Friend in “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?” By: Monika • Essay • 1,165 Words • December 14, 2009 • 1,606 Views. Essay title: Arnold Friend in write education “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?” There are many notorious characters in conformity thesis literature, all with their own menacing qualities and write a comprehensive essay on environmental depraved actions. None, however, have struck such a devastatingly creepy chord as Arnold Friend of Joyce Carol Oates “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Seducer of conformity thesis young girls and embodiment of Lucifer, Arnold Friend is write a comprehensive, anything but a friend. Arnold Friend is presented through both actions and appearances, and these combine to diminish his likeability, while adding to his devilish persona. Although Arnold Friend’s traits are never stated outright, they are presented through his speech and interaction with other characters, which ultimately creates a more impacting effect and lasting impression. Essay Titles For A? Arnold Friend is the devil in human form. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? However, as his physical description progresses, he becomes more unreal and more caricature-like with every trait. Essays Jim? Everything Connie, the protagonist and object of Arnold Friend’s desire, sees is like something else she knows, familiar and recognizable. These traits, however, do not create a homologous character; instead it is an awkward collection of write essay on environmental incongruities.

If a trait does not appear borrowed, it appears fake or imitating. His hair is parts of essay body, “shaggy [and] shabby . Write? . Essay Titles For A? . Essay Education? that looked crazy as a wig,” and Connie’s assertion is essay titles for a carol, strengthened when he put his sunglasses on write a comprehensive essay education his head “as if he were indeed wearing a wig.” Already Arnold Friend seems assembled, completely divergent from unimas format human characteristics. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Connie describes the way he is makes a great, dressed, as well as his body type, as similar to every other boy out a comprehensive on environmental there. Essays On Lord Jim? With every physical detail, Arnold Friend seems more and more like the devil taking on the appearance of a comprehensive essay a typical teenage boy in order to prevent scaring young girls away. “His face was a familiar face,” and romeo and juliet “[h]is whole face was a mask . A Comprehensive Education? . Essay Titles For A? . tanned down to his throat but then running out write a comprehensive essay on environmental as if he had plastered make-up on as graphics coursework his face and write a comprehensive had forgotten about his throat,” add to master thesis format the notion that Arnold Fiend was put together, not born, and write gives Connie another reason to distrust him. Coursework? Even his nose is menacing, appearing ready to “gobble” Connie up. On Environmental Education? His appearance is makes a great paper, abundant with strengths, characterizing him without words as a powerful force. On Environmental? He is muscular and tanned, appealing to Connie, but there are also flaws that appear as weaknesses, and yet do not take away from his ominous presence. He is no taller than Connie, and on lord jim he has trouble standing.

Both of write essay on environmental these characteristics stem from one easily attainable assertion: That Arnold Friend is the essay letter devil. A common depiction of write on environmental education Satan is research paper, that of write essay on environmental education him having short legs with cleft hooves, and that appears to be Arnold Friend’s problem. He rarely moves; he is romeo, always leaning on something so as to write a comprehensive essay hold him up or keep his balance. Titles For A Christmas Carol? When he does move he is write a comprehensive essay, described as wobbling or unstable. This abnormality adds to his mysteriousness and questionability. Besides his physical appearance, Arnold Friend is developed and presented through actions and words also.

Arnold Friend does not ever seem like a believable character that one would meet in master format the real world, even for write essay on environmental, a second. Although he seems confident a majority of the scholarship time, his slip ups in demeanor and write a comprehensive on environmental education actions that do not appeal to makes research paper normal people assure the reader that his identity is write education, assumed, and that he is actually the devil. Titles Carol? His actions are meant to on environmental education coax Connie but instead create an essays on lord, uneasy tension and fail to tempt her outside. On Environmental Education? First, he wags his finger at her two different times, which is no more scolding than it is intimidating in the sense that it is essay titles for a carol, creepy like no other. Arnold Friend has a hostility that is so wrapped up in sweet-talk and pleas that it is almost never evident. An action that appears to have no inherent meaning, but when paralleling everything he does as satanic, it becomes clear. A Comprehensive Essay? When Arnold Friend asks, “Didn’t you see me put my sign in parts of essay body the air when you walked by?” and write essay draws an christmas, X in on environmental education the air, it is evident Connie has signed a deal with the devil. Coursework? But his speech is a comprehensive essay, more typical of a fiend. (2009, 12). Arnold Friend in “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?”. Essay Letter? EssaysForStudent.com . Write Education? Retrieved 12, 2009, from https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Arnold-Friend-in-where-Are-You-Going-Where/25560.html.

Arnold Friend in “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?” EssaysForStudent.com . 12 2009. Unimas Format? 2009. 12 2009 https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Arnold-Friend-in-where-Are-You-Going-Where/25560.html. A Comprehensive? Arnold Friend in romeo “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?”. Write Essay? EssaysForStudent.com . EssaysForStudent.com, 12 2009. Web. Scholarship? 12 2009. Write Essay? https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Arnold-Friend-in-where-Are-You-Going-Where/25560.html. Arnold Friend in scholarship essay “where Are You Going, Where Hare You Been?”.

EssaysForStudent.com. 12, 2009. Write On Environmental Education? Accessed 12, 2009. Conformity? https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Arnold-Friend-in-where-Are-You-Going-Where/25560.html. Write Essay? I had the essay opportunity to on environmental interview an E.M.T. Letter? The E.M.T. I chose to write essay on environmental interview was my friend Matt from the parts Highland lakes squad. I chose. My best friend ’s wedding is a movie about a woman named Julianne who is a food critic, by a promise made years earlier. She had. Losing someone who cannot be replaced by anyone else is a comprehensive essay education, harder than losing millions of dollars.

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1 - L’indetermination des anticipations rationnelles. Lorsqu’on quitte le cadre du modele Arrow-Debreu d’equilibre general et ses hypotheses restrictives pour s’interesser a des economies monetaires ou sequentielles, la maniere dont les acteurs economiques interpretent leur environnement et se projettent dans l’avenir s’impose aux theoriciens comme une question decisive qui ne peut plus etre eludee. Write Essay Education? Cette prise en compte des anticipations n’est pas sans danger pour le paradigme fondamentaliste dans la mesure ou elle confronte le discours economique a un objet nouveau, la cognition individuelle. Romeo Fault Essay? On doit alors se demander si les outils economiques traditionnels sont capables d’en proposer une analyse pertinente et complete ou s’il faut transformer en profondeur le discours fondamentaliste pour l’ouvrir a de nouveaux principes. Essay On Environmental Education? La rationalite instrumentale reste-t-elle pertinente ou faut-il admettre l’existence d’une rationalite specifique, qu’on dira « cognitive » ? Pour faire face a ces defis de grande ampleur, la pensee fondamentaliste a elabore une puissante reponse tournant autour des notions d’efficience informationnelle des prix et d’« anticipation rationnelle ». Letter? L’idee directrice consiste a montrer que, certes, l’acteur economique reagit a partir d’une representation de l’economie, mais que cette representation est unique, en l’occurrence le « vrai modele », et que, sur la base de ce modele, la connaissance des prix suffit a determiner parfaitement l’action individuelle. On Environmental Education? On trouve une illustration exemplaire de ces theses chez Hayek [1945] qui met l’accent sur la capacite des prix a agreger toute l’information utile et a permettre, en consequence, de coordonner les actions separees des multiples acteurs economiques. Conformity? Cette analyse accredite l’idee d’un ordre spontane qui, a partir des interets prives, produit des grandeurs sociales, en l’occurrence les prix d’equilibre, sans qu’il y ait besoin de postuler un espace commun de representation autre que celui des prix. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? On parlera d’une logique « bottom-up » ou les valeurs d’equilibre resultent de l’agregation mecanique des evaluations privees. Hayek prend comme exemple la maniere dont une economie confrontee soudainement a une rarete accrue de l’etain, evolue et s’adapte. Scholarship? L’ajustement efficient a la situation nouvelle ne mobilise aucun representation globale du phenomene, mais une serie d’adaptations locales en fonction des interets prives et des spheres de competence des uns et des autres. Education? En cela, le processus considere est d’une nature fondamentalement decentralisee, a l’oppose de ce que serait une reponse planifiee.

Le modele ainsi construit donne a voir un ensemble de voisinages individuels interconnectes grace au prix et conduisant a une adaptation globale de l’economie bien qu’aucun agent ne possede un savoir global du processus. Thesis? Hayek ecrit : « Cet ensemble joue comme un seul marche non pas parce que chacun de ses membres etudie l’ensemble de l’economie [2] [2] Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue. A Comprehensive? , mais parce que les champs de vision individuels se recouvrent suffisamment, de telle sorte qu’a travers de nombreux intermediaires, l’information en cause est communiquee a tous ». Romeo? La seule observation des prix permet a chacun de prendre la bonne decision. A Comprehensive On Environmental? Aussi les prix autorisent-ils une fantastique economie de savoir et d’intelligence. Romeo Fault Essay? C’est de cette qualite qu’ils tirent leur qualite regulatrice essentielle. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? Les prix permettent ce miracle d’agreger des connaissances strictement locales en un prix global, conduisant, qui plus est, a une gestion efficace des ressources. Cette vision de l’adaptation marchande par le jeu de prix informationnellement efficients bute sur une difficulte centrale qui semble avoir totalement echappee a Hayek dans le cadre de son article de 1945 : la difference entre prix relatif et prix monetaire.

Lorsque les individus observent une augmentation du prix de l’etain, ils doivent se demander si cette augmentation observee est ou n’est pas la consequence d’une augmentation generale des prix. Conformity? Selon la reponse qu’ils apportent a cette question, ils agiront differemment. Write On Environmental Education? Pour cette raison, dans une economie monetaire, les prix cessent d’etre, au sens strict, informationnellement efficients [3] [3] Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee. Unimas Master? : a eux seuls, ils ne permettent plus de prendre la bonne decision. A Comprehensive On Environmental? Celle-ci va dependre de la maniere dont les acteurs economiques se representent le comportement de la banque centrale. Of Essay Body? Ce faisant, est reconnu ce fait fondamental que les prix ne suffisent pas a la determination de l’action efficace et que celle-ci requiert, de la part des agents, un travail d’interpretation quant a la maniere dont l’economie fonctionne.

Comme on a comprehensive education le sait, ce constat a joue un role central dans l’emergence de la nouvelle macroeconomie. Essay? En effet, il revient au courant des anticipations rationnelles d’avoir pleinement compris que l’on ne pouvait pas faire d’analyse serieuse sans considerer la maniere dont les agents se representent la politique gouvernementale et le fonctionnement de l’economie. Write Essay On Environmental? Il s’agit la d’une transformation considerable en ce qu’elle reconnait pleinement l’importance de l’activite cognitive individuelle, qu’on ne peut plus cantonner a la seule observation des prix. And Juliet Fault Essay? Le theoricien des anticipations rationnelles ne se situe plus dans le cadre de mediations objectivees, conduisant a une rationalite de type parametrique, indifferente aux autres, comme dans le modele Arrow-Debreu. Education? Tout au contraire, il reconnait pleinement le role central de « l’interdependance strategique qui fait que la forme de comportement d’une personne depend des formes de comportement de ceux qui forment son environnement » (Sargent [1986], p. Scholarship Essay? x). Write On Environmental? Par la meme, l’analyse que chaque protagoniste fait des autres devient un element important de la dynamique d’interaction et du modele qui la decrit.

Dans un premier temps, cette revolution conceptuelle n’a pas ete pleinement percue dans la mesure ou les nouveaux classiques raisonnaient dans un cadre fondamentaliste, ce qui les conduisait a penser qu’il n’existait qu’un seul modele de l’economie. Unimas Thesis? Aussi la question du modele de l’economie se trouvait etre resolue en meme temps qu’elle avait ete posee : le modele a prendre en compte etait le « vrai modele » de l’economie, a savoir celui propose par les nouveaux classiques. A Comprehensive? Dans cette perspective, « les anticipations rationnelles apparaissent comme une (simple) application du principe de comportement rationnel a l’acquisition et au traitement de l’information et a la formation des anticipations » (Maddock et Carter [1998], p. Unimas Master? 68). Write Essay Education? Autrement dit, la theorie des anticipations rationnelles se presente comme une theorie economique qui prend en compte l’activite cognitive individuelle, mais qui soutient que les seuls criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont suffisants pour en fournir une intelligibilite complete. Letter? Selon cette perspective, il n’y aurait nul besoin de faire appel a un concept autonome de rationalite cognitive. Tres vite, cette position s’est trouvee critiquee par ceux qui, prenant au serieux l’idee d’une interpretation par les agents de leur environnement economique, ont souligne combien le postulat de l’unicite du modele utilise et son identification au propre modele des nouveaux classiques etaient absurdes. Write A Comprehensive? C’est le cas de David Laidler [1986] analysant une etude empirique que Robert Barro a consacree a l’influence de la monnaie sur le chomage, la production et les prix aux USA durant la periode 1945-76. What Makes A Great Research Paper? Il note que « les agents sont traites par Barro comme croyant au modele des nouveaux classiques et l’utilisant pour former leurs anticipations. A Comprehensive? Cependant, si, sur la periode 1945-76, les agents avaient reellement cru aux idees des nouveaux classiques, alors il n’y aurait pas eu besoin d’une revolution des nouveaux classiques » dans les annees quatre vingt. Thesis? Il ajoute qu’au milieu des annees soixante dix, les acteurs de l’economie privee comme ceux en charge de la politique economique croyaient fermement aux principes de l’economie keynesienne, en particulier a l’existence d’un arbitrage possible entre inflation et chomage.

Dans ces conditions, « la coherence logique imposait aux nouveaux classiques de modeliser l’histoire de la periode en question en supposant que les agents utilisaient un modele keynesien pour former leurs anticipations ». Write A Comprehensive Education? Autrement dit, des lors qu’on s’interesse a la maniere dont les agents considerent leur environnement et l’analyse, on of essay sort de la rationalite instrumentale pure car il faut alors tenir compte du contexte historique et, tout particulierement, de l’etat des savoirs au moment considere. Write Essay On Environmental? Bien que l’argument de Laidler nous semble parfaitement convaincant, la critique decisive a l’encontre de l’hypothese d’un modele unique est venue d’ailleurs, a savoir des modeles d’anticipations rationnelles eux-memes lorsqu’ils ont montre la possibilite d’autorealisation d’une multiplicite d’anticipations. Scholarship Letter? Pour en comprendre la logique, il faut revenir a l’idee premiere qui fonde la notion meme d’anticipation rationnelle, a savoir une approche strictement instrumentale de la cognition. En effet, l’application de la seule rationalite instrumentale aux representations individuelles conduit a une analyse qui ne retient comme seul critere d’evaluation que le critere consequentialiste de la performance, a savoir la qualite des previsions qu’ont permises ces representations. A Comprehensive Education? Par definition, tout autre consideration est exclue, comme la recherche du « juste » ou du « vrai » (Boudon, ce numero). Unimas Master Format? Soulignons que le terme de « representation » est ici utilise dans un sens large qui inclut trois types de contenu : (1) une variable unique, par exemple lorsque les individus anticipent un rendement (Weil [1989]) ou un prix futur ; (2) un veritable modele de l’economie au sens ou sont prises en compte des relations entre variables, par exemple le modele de taches solaires (Chiappori [1994]) ; (3) le comportement d’un autre agent, par exemple dans les conjectures a la Cournot ou a la Bertrand. A Comprehensive? Aussi la representation est-elle rationnelle quand le resultat ex post observe valide la croyance initiale : (1) le rendement ou le prix est egal au rendement ou au prix anticipe ; (2) les liens observes sont conformes a ceux que postulait le modele hypothetique ; (3) l’agent a agi conformement a la conjecture. And Juliet Fault? Sans que toujours cela soit dit explicitement, le fait qu’on suppose le plus souvent une situation ou tous les agents partagent la meme representation est compris egalement comme etant une consequence de la rationalite. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental? Le resultat etonnant des modeles avec anticipations rationnelles consiste en ce que de tres nombreuses representations peuvent s’autorealiser. Romeo? Aussi, obtient-on un tres grand nombre d’equilibres possibles. A Comprehensive Education? C’est la un resultat troublant pour l’approche fondamentaliste puisqu’il signifie que les croyances ont un impact reel, conformement aux theses developpees par le sociologue americain Robert Merton [1953] qui ecrivait que « les croyances collectives engendraient leur propre realisation » (p.

144). As Graphics Coursework? Autrement dit, les contraintes de rarete ne suffisent pas a modeler de maniere univoque l’economie. A Comprehensive Essay? Celle-ci depend egalement de la maniere dont les agents l’interpretent. Romeo Essay? Non seulement l’idee d’un modele unique doit etre abandonnee, mais en fait de tres nombreux modeles sont possibles, bien plus que ce qu’on pouvait imaginer a priori . On Environmental Education? Comme l’ecrit Chiappori ([1994], p. Romeo Fault? 75) : « l’hypothese de rationalite des anticipations est parfaitement compatible avec l’indetermination de l’equilibre ». Ce role essentiel joue par les representations a priori des agents conduit les modeles avec anticipations rationnelles, loin des idees initiales defendues par les nouveaux classiques, a retrouver des resultats keynesiens (Bryant [1983]). Write On Environmental Education? Le modele de Philippe Weil [1989] est exemplaire de cet apparent paradoxe. As Graphics? Dans un modele a deux periodes, introduisant l’hypothese selon laquelle le rendement de l’epargne depend positivement du montant global d’epargne investi, il demontre qu’existe une multiplicite d’equilibres avec anticipations rationnelles. A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Confronte a ce resultat qui permet d’expliquer aussi bien des equilibres hauts que des equilibres bas selon que les acteurs economiques forment des anticipations optimistes ou pessimistes quant au rendement attendu du capital, Weil est amene a faire appel aux « esprits animaux » keynesiens, ce qui donne son titre a l’article, pour « determiner » l’equilibre qui sera effectivement obtenu. A Great Research Paper? Comme dans le texte keynesien, les attitudes psychologiques des individus redeviennent une variable independante dont depend tout le systeme. A Comprehensive? Weil ecrit : « les equilibres sont indexes par l’optimisme ou le pessimisme des consommateurs » (p. Parts? 889).

Cette indetermination massive des anticipations rationnelles est, selon nous, l’expression la plus forte de l’inadequation de la rationalite instrumentale pour penser les representations individuelles et collectives. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Si l’on veut sortir le discours economique de cette situation de crise ou tout est possible ou presque [4] [4] Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite. What Research Paper? , il nous faut aller vers une meilleure comprehension de l’activite cognitive. Write On Environmental? Cela devient une tache essentielle pour l’economiste. As Graphics? Telle est la finalite du « tournant cognitif ». A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Spontanement, c’est du cote de la psychologie qu’ont cherche le plus souvent les economistes. Body? C’est le cas de Keynes ou du courant contemporain dit de la « finance comportementaliste » (Thaler [1993]). On Environmental? Pour notre part, nous avons privilegie l’analyse de l’activite cognitive collective. 2 - Pour une theorie de la cognition sociale. Pour commencer, il convient de definir precisement ce qu’on entend par « croyance collective ». Master Thesis? La theorie economique nous en propose deux definitions, a savoir la « croyance partagee » et la « croyance commune ». Write? Pour clarifier ce point central, introduisons la notation suivante C i Q qui se lit : « l’individu i croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Scholarship? On dit alors que Q est de croyance partagee pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a C i Q pour tous les individus i appartenant au groupe G. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? On dit que Q est de croyance commune pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a l’ensemble suivant de propositions : C i Q ; C j C i Q ; C k C j C i , Q… jusqu’a l’infini des croyances croisees, pour tous les i, pour tous les j, pour tous les k du groupe, … La notion de croyance commune est bien plus restrictive que celle de croyance partagee puisqu’elle implique, non seulement que tout le monde croit a Q, comme dans la croyance partagee, mais egalement que tout le monde croit que tout le monde y croit et cela jusqu’a un ordre infini de croyances croisees. Comme on scholarship essay le voit, ces deux notions de croyance collective renvoient strictement a des croyances individuelles. Write Essay On Environmental Education? Elles ne sont collectives qu’au sens ou tous les individus, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, les ont fait leur. Romeo Essay? Aussi, ces notions se differencient-elles d’une autre notion qui peut s’ecrire sous la forme C G Q : « le groupe G croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». A Comprehensive Education? Dans ce cas, on romeo and juliet attribue des croyances a une entite abstraite, a savoir le groupe lui-meme.

Cette notation est prima facie absurde puisque a proprement parler, le groupe en tant que tel n’a pas de croyance, n’etant pas un etre humain. A Comprehensive? Pourtant, l’analyse empirique nous revele que, dans de nombreux contextes de coordination, les individus sont amenes a utiliser ce type d’objet cognitif enigmatique, par exemple lorsqu’ils disent : « le marche croit que cette devise est sous-evaluee [5] [5] En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions. Unimas Master Thesis Format? ». Education? Comment expliquer ce fait etrange ? Repondre a cette question est l’objet de la presente section. Scholarship Letter? Plus largement, nous montrerons que les croyances sociales jouent un role central dans les situations de coordination. On Environmental Education? Commencons par expliciter quelle signification l’individu i donne a la proposition C G Q. 2.1 - Definition de la croyance sociale. A priori , on as graphics peut en concevoir deux. Write On Environmental Education? Selon la premiere interpretation, notee (i1), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie s’il croit qu’une grande partie [6] [6] Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande. Conformity? du groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie. A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? On est ici proche de la notion de croyance partagee, mais uniquement aux yeux de l’individu i. As Graphics Coursework? Au sens (i1), la « croyance du groupe » n’est qu’une maniere de parler pour dire qu’un grand nombre d’individus du groupe croit a une certaine proposition.

Selon la seconde interpretation, notee (i2), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit a Q pour autant qu’il croit qu’une grande partie du groupe croit egalement que le groupe croit a Q. Education? Cette definition est essentiellement autoreferentielle de telle sorte qu’a la limite, elle laisse indeterminee ce que « croit » veut dire dans l’expression « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Conformity? Elle suppose simplement que tous les individus du groupe attribuent aux autres individus la capacite d’accepter ou de refuser la proposition selon laquelle « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». A Comprehensive? Il s’ensuit que la proposition Q est l’objet d’une croyance du groupe pour un individu s’il croit qu’un grand nombre d’individus acceptent cette proposition comme reponse a la question : « qu’est-ce que croit le groupe ? ». Of Essay? Ou encore, on a comprehensive essay education a C i C G Q si et seulement si C i C j C G Q pour presque tous les individus j du groupe. Thesis? Il s’ensuit que C G Q est proche de la notion de croyance commune aux yeux de l’individu i. La difference entre ces deux interpretations est tres importante. Write On Environmental Education? Selon la premiere interpretation, aux yeux de i, c’est la proposition Q elle-meme qui est mise en avant comme croyance partagee ; dans le second cas, aux yeux de i, c’est la « croyance » C G Q, et non pas Q, qui est mise en avant comme croyance commune. Romeo Fault? Dans ce dernier cas, la nature precise de ce que veut dire qu’un groupe « croit a quelque chose » reste indeterminee alors que pour (i1), la croyance du groupe se definit aisement comme la croyance d’un grand nombre d’individus de ce groupe. A Comprehensive Essay? Si l’on reprend notre exemple d’un individu i qui croit que le marche croit que telle devise est sous-evaluee, ces deux hypotheses correspondent aux deux interpretations suivantes : (i1) l’individu considere croit que presque tous les autres intervenants sur le marche, pris un a un, croient a la sous-evaluation de la devise ; (i2) l’individu croit que presque tous les intervenants, pris un a un, croient que « le marche croit que la devise est sous-evaluee ». Les deux interpretations (i1) et (i2) nous sont apparues a priori egalement interessantes en ce que toutes deux mettent en scene un travail cognitif particulier qui vise a saisir le groupe dans sa generalite, en lui attribuant une croyance. What Makes A Great Research Paper? C’est la, selon nous, une propriete fondamentale. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Il nous semble que c’est tres precisement par le biais de cette capacite cognitive a attribuer des croyances au groupe en tant que tel que le collectif acquiert de facto une existence effective : au travers des croyances sociales qu’il suscite, il se montre apte a modeler les conduites individuelles et, de ce fait, s’affirme comme une force autonome dont il faut rendre compte. Makes A Great Research Paper? Autrement dit, conformement a une perspective d’analyse developpee par Mary Douglas [1989] a la suite d’Emile Durkheim, le cognitif est pour nous un lieu privilegie d’expression du social (Orlean [1996]). Write A Comprehensive Essay Education? On verra au fil des exemples que c’est l’interpretation (i2) qui doit etre retenue comme la bonne maniere de definir ce qu’est une « croyance sociale », en particulier au regard de l’idee d’autonomie par rapport aux croyances individuelles.

Cette affirmation resultera d’une analyse des jeux de pure coordination [7] [7] Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii. As Graphics? , configuration particulierement appropriee pour qui cherche a reflechir aux situations ayant une multiplicite d’equilibres (Orlean [1994]). Write A Comprehensive? On commencera par demontrer que ce qu’on appelle « les saillances a la Schelling » constituent un premier exemple de croyance sociale au sens (i2). 2.2 - Un exemple de croyance sociale : les saillances a la Schelling. Thomas Schelling [1960] a consacre une grande partie de son livre a l’analyse des jeux de pure coordination a deux joueurs. Of Essay? Si chaque joueur doit choisir sa strategie dans l’ensemble , le gain obtenu par l’un et l’autre des deux joueurs vaut 1 s’ils choisissent tous deux la meme strategie et 0 dans le cas contraire. A Comprehensive? Chaque joueur cherche donc a copier son partenaire de facon a maximiser son gain. Makes Research Paper? Schelling a note que les individus se coordonnent de maniere beaucoup plus efficace que ce que prevoit la theorie standard. Write Essay On Environmental? En effet, selon celle-ci, s’il existe n strategies possibles, la probabilite de se coordonner est egale a 1/n puisque chaque strategie est parfaitement indistinguable. Romeo And Juliet? Or, dans toutes les experimentations qu’il realise, Schelling note que les joueurs se coordonnent de maniere bien plus efficace que 1/n. A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Il en est ainsi pour une raison tres simple : parce que les joueurs utilisent le libelle des choix qui leur sont proposes.

De cette facon, ils sont capables de reconnaitre des equilibres dits « saillants ». Coursework? On est ainsi confronte a une double etrangete. Write Essay On Environmental Education? D’une part, dans les situations classiquement considerees par les theoriciens des jeux, la maniere dont les strategies sont nommees est sans aucune pertinence. Makes A Great Research Paper? Cela ne fait pas partie de ce qu’on pourrait appeler la description « fondamentaliste » du jeu. Essay Education? Celle-ci est generalement constituee de la matrice des gains et de l’hypothese de rationalite des deux joueurs, au sens de la connaissance commune. As Graphics Coursework? C’est sur cette seule base que le chercheur s’efforce de caracteriser les equilibres. A Comprehensive Education? Au regard de la rationalite fondamentaliste, le libelle des strategies n’a pas a etre utilise. Scholarship? Pour designer cette forme de rationalite qui prend appui sur les contextes au-dela de ce que justifierait l’analyse fondamentaliste, nous proposons le terme de « rationalite situee » (Orlean [1994]).

D’autre part, les individus se montrent effectivement capables, a partir des libelles, de, selectionner certains equilibres. Write? Examinons cette forme de rationalite doublement enigmatique, a partir des travaux empiriques que Mehta et alii [1994] lui ont consacres. Ces auteurs considerent le jeu de pure coordination particulier consistant a choisir un nombre naturel n ? 1. Conformity? De maniere plus precise, un groupe G d’individus est constitue au sein duquel sont effectues des appariements aleatoires de telle sorte qu’un individu ne sait rien d’autre sur son partenaire que le fait qu’il soit le resultat d’un tirage au sort dans le groupe G. Essay On Environmental? De facon a mieux pouvoir interpreter les resultats obtenus, Mehta et alii ont eu l’idee de commencer par selectionner un premier groupe, note P, auquel il est simplement demander de choisir un entier naturel superieur ou egal a 1, en l’absence de toute situation de coordination. As Graphics Coursework? De cette facon, les auteurs obtiennent des informations sur la distribution des « opinions personnelles » au sein de la population testee. Essay On Environmental? Dans le deuxieme groupe, note C, le jeu de coordination est joue selon les regles precisees precedemment. Letter? Quels sont les resultats ? Dans le groupe P de controle, viennent en tete les reponses 7 (11,4%), puis 2 (10,2%), puis 10 (5,7%) et 1 (4,5%). Education? Par contre, dans le groupe C, c’est le nombre 1 qui recoit le plus de suffrages, et cela tres nettement : 1 est choisi dans 40% des cas. Conformity? Il est suivi par le nombre 7 dans 14,4%. Write Education? Pour les auteurs consideres, le choix du nombre 1 constitue un exemple de ce qu’ils appellent une « saillance a la Schelling », a savoir la capacite a determiner un equilibre singulier, proeminent, susceptible de retenir un grand nombre de suffrages. Of Essay? Ils notent que le choix du nombre 1 par le groupe C resulte d’une elaboration cognitive tres specifique et enigmatique en ce qu’elle ne s’interesse pas aux preferences « personnelles » des joueurs en matiere de nombre, ce qui conduirait a selectionner des chiffres comme 7 ou 2, mais cherche a determiner directement ce qui est capable de faire l’unanimite du groupe lorsque chacun analyse le probleme sous le meme angle.

Cela apparait nettement dans le fait que « 1 », le choix final, n’arrive qu’en quatrieme position des choix primaires pour le groupe P de controle. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Ce n’est pas en tant que nombre apprecie des joueurs qu’il est retenu. Makes Research? Le raisonnement est tout autre. Write Essay On Environmental? Si les individus retiennent la regle « choisir le premier nombre », c’est en vertu de la propriete suivante : lorsque cette regle est suivie par tous les joueurs, elle permet de designer sans ambiguite une reponse unique et conduit a une coordination reussie. Parts? C’est tres precisement ce que Schelling avait mis en lumiere. Essay On Environmental Education? Il parlait a ce propos d’un « principe focal », a savoir un principe qui, utilise par tous, permet de determiner une strategie unique. Unimas Master Format? C’est le cas du principe « retenir le premier nombre », et non du principe « choisir un chiffre qu’on aime ». Write A Comprehensive? Dans la situation de coordination que connait le groupe C, les individus reflechissent, non pas a partir de leurs croyances individuelles, ni en se demandant ce que sont les croyances personnelles des autres, ce qui aurait conduit au choix du nombre 7, mais, en se placant a un niveau plus general d’abstraction, de facon a determiner un principe capable de faire emerger, aux yeux de tous, un equilibre unique. Format? L’activite cognitive est tournee vers le groupe en tant qu’entite separee. Essay On Environmental? Elle tente de produire un repere commun sur une base non-cooperative.

On trouve ici un premier exemple de « croyance sociale » au sens (i2). Unimas Master? Rappelons que, par definition, Q est une croyance sociale au sens (i2) pour un individu i s’il pense qu’elle est une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les individus du groupe. Write Essay On Environmental Education? Telle est la nature meme de l’activite cognitive qui conduit certains a retenir le nombre 1 : les joueurs du groupe C choisissent « 1 » parce qu’ils y voient le choix capable de retenir le choix des autres lorsque tous les autres pensent le probleme sous le meme angle. Parts Of Essay Body? L’activite cognitive qu’elle mobilise est integralement tournee vers le groupe en tant que tel , et non pas vers les preferences individuelles des joueurs. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Dans cette derniere hypothese, on as graphics coursework obtiendrait ce qu’on a appele une croyance sociale au sens (i1), qui conduit au nombre 7 lorsque tous les joueurs sont bien informes des opinions personnelles des membres du groupe telles que nous les revele le groupe P de controle. Write A Comprehensive Essay Education? La force de la definition (i2) tient au fait qu’elle fait totalement abstraction de la variabilite des preferences intrinseques des individus pour s’attacher a definir une croyance propre au groupe C en tant que groupe . Makes A Great Research Paper? C’est une force car, dans un grand nombre de situations, la croyance sociale au sens (i1) est tres incertaine du fait meme de la variabilite des gouts individuels, donc inoperante.

Lorsque l’individu i s’interroge sur la croyance partagee des autres, un grand nombre de reponses plausibles lui viennent a l’esprit. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Dans l’interpretation (i2), ce fait ne joue en rien parce que, par definition, chacun cherche a determiner ce qui est capable d’etre une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les autres. Thesis Format? Cependant, dans ces cas particuliers ou un choix s’affirme comme evidemment majoritaire, la definition (i1) de la croyance sociale permet effectivement une bonne coordination. A Comprehensive Education? On dira qu’on a affaire a un « stereotype ». Conformity? Cependant, notons que la preference stereotypique est egalement une croyance sociale au sens (i2) de telle sorte que ce cas particulier n’infirme pas la generalite de l’hypothese selon laquelle il convient de retenir la definition (i2) pour penser les « saillances a la Schelling ». 2.3 - Rationalite situee et role des contextes. Dans sa reflexion, Schelling insiste sur le role que jouent les contextes dans l’elaboration des principes focaux. Write Essay On Environmental Education? L’exemple precedent ne permet guere d’aller tres loin dans cette voie dans la mesure ou le contexte s’y limite alors strictement aux seuls libelles des choix puisque le groupe C n’est en rien specifie. A Great Research? L’exemple suivant que l’on doit a David Kreps ([1990], p. A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? 120) permet d’aller un peu plus loin en montrant que l’equilibre selectionne depend etroitement de la maniere dont les joueurs analysent l’identite des participants au jeu. Research Paper? Selon la maniere dont varie la definition du groupe C, la croyance sociale se modifie. Kreps considere le jeu de coordination [8] [8] Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different. Essay On Environmental Education? consistant a partager les 10 lettres A, B, C, D, H, L, M, N, P, S en deux sous-ensembles ne devant pas se recouper, ou le moins possible, etant donne que l’equipe [1] doit choisir necessairement la lettre B et l’equipe adverse, notee [2], la lettre S. What Paper? Parmi les 256 partitions des 8 lettres restantes qui forment autant d’equilibres possibles de ce jeu, l’equilibre de point focal est selon Kreps, lorsque rien n’est dit de specifique sur le groupe des joueurs [9] [9] En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait. Write Education? , celui qui donne a l’equipe [1] les 5 premieres lettres, soit A, B, C, D et H et pour l’equipe [2], les cinq dernieres, soit L, M, N, P et S. Conformity Thesis? Il s’agit la d’une nouvelle illustration de la saillance a la Schelling. Essay Education? Kreps ajoute cependant : « Notons que la regle appliquee ici est entierement dependante du contexte ». Parts Body? Pour le voir, il considere le meme jeu dans laquelle l’equipe [1] est constitue d’etudiants de Harvard et l’equipe [2] est constituee d’etudiants de Stanford et ou ce fait est porte a la connaissance des protagonistes.

10 villes leur sont proposees : Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphie et San Francisco. A Comprehensive Essay Education? L’equipe [1] doit necessairement choisir Boston et l’equipe [2] San Francisco. Scholarship? Du point de vue de la rationalite fondamentaliste, les deux situations de jeu sont strictement equivalentes. A Comprehensive Education? Pourtant, dans a peu pres 75 % des situations nous dit Kreps (p. Unimas? 121), les etudiants d’Harvard choisissent Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York et Philadelphie alors que ceux de Stanford retiennent le complement, soit Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles et San Francisco. Write Essay On Environmental? Le point focal est ici un partage geographique des USA selon ce qui est a l’est ou a l’ouest du Mississipi. Makes Research? Il est different de l’equilibre focal precedent dans lequel les joueurs ne sont pas capables de partitionner le groupe G des joueurs en groupes d’appartenance geographique distincte. On voit ici pleinement l’effet du contexte dans la determination de la croyance sociale. Write Essay On Environmental? Celle-ci depend etroitement du groupe considere, de ce qu’on sait de lui, et non pas seulement du contenu intrinseque de la question prise en elle-meme. A Great Research? Ainsi, si cette liste de villes etait donnee a des joueurs non americains, ignorant tout de la geographie des USA, mais connaissant l’alphabet latin, ils reviendraient a la premiere solution car ils ne pourraient faire l’hypothese que chaque joueur connait la geographie americaine.

Dans ces conditions, la prise en compte de la premiere lettre peut emerger comme « principe focal ». Write A Comprehensive Essay Education? Plus paradoxalement, il peut en etre egalement ainsi si, meme si les joueurs sont americains, lorsqu’ils ignorent qu’ils le sont. Scholarship Essay Letter? Dans ce cas, chaque joueur ne peut plus faire l’hypothese que le partage geographique prenant pour base le Mississipi est une croyance sociale du groupe. Essay On Environmental? On voit ici que la maniere dont les protagonistes concoivent « l’identite collective du groupe » apparait comme une donnee essentielle du probleme, determinant la formation des croyances sociales au sens (i2). Body? Tout ce qui appartient au passe commun du groupe, qu’il s’agisse de precedents historiques ou de valeurs culturelles, est utilise. A Comprehensive On Environmental? L’exemple considere par Kreps nous donne a voir l’effet d’un contexte culturel, mais le meme resultat pourrait etre obtenu avec un « precedent » historique. Un bon exemple du role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des croyances sociales nous est donne par les marches financiers. Letter? Plus precisement, par les travaux que Shiller [1991] a consacres a la journee du 19 octobre 1987, journee ou la bourse de New York a connu sa plus grande baisse jamais enregistree, soit une chute vertigineuse de 508 points, representant une baisse de 22,6 %. A Comprehensive? Comment expliquer une baisse de telle ampleur ? Les analystes s’accordent pour penser qu’aucune information fondamentale ne permet de le faire. Scholarship Essay Letter? Il faut alors chercher ailleurs : dans la dynamique intersubjective et autoreferentielle dont les marches boursiers sont le siege. Write On Environmental Education? Shiller a eu l’idee d’envoyer un questionnaire aux investisseurs individuels et institutionnels pour connaitre leurs motivations.

Les resultats qu’il a obtenus mettent en avant le role qu’a joue la crise de 1929 dans ces evenements, en tant que modele de reference servant aux investisseurs a decrypter les evenements et a s’y adapter. Parts Body? Il note, en effet, que la crise de 1929 etait fortement presente aux esprits des investisseurs au moment ou se declenche le krach d’octobre 1987. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? 35 % des investisseurs individuels et 53 % des institutionnels ont repondu oui a la question « Vous souvenez-vous d’avoir pense ou parle des evenements de 1929 durant les quelques jours qui ont precede le 19 octobre 1987 ? ». Parts Of Essay? Pour Shiller, la crise de 1929 s’est imposee a tous les esprits comme la saillance pertinente, autrement dit comme le modele permettant de comprendre comment se deroule une crise boursiere. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Rappelons que les mercredi 14, jeudi 15 et vendredi 16 octobre de la semaine qui a precede le krach, le marche des actions a deja connu trois baisses importantes. Scholarship Letter? Aussi, durant le week-end et au matin du lundi, les investisseurs sont-ils nerveux. Write On Environmental? La tres forte baisse de 200 points qui survient le lundi 19 octobre des l’ouverture des bourses plonge les operateurs dans la perplexite devant ces evenements d’un caractere tout a fait inhabituel. As Graphics Coursework? Comment vont reagir le marche et les autres operateurs ? Dans de telles circonstances, que faut-il attendre du marche ? Les investisseurs ont interprete les evenements de 1987 a la lumiere de ceux survenus en 1929. Write On Environmental? Bien evidemment, la comparaison n’avait pas de quoi les rassurer. Coursework? Elle a provoque des anticipations fortement baissieres et a alimente puissamment le climat de panique qu’a connu la bourse durant les journees du 19 et 20 octobre 1987. A Comprehensive Education? Pour Shiller, on as graphics coursework ne peut comprendre la surreaction du marche sans integrer a l’analyse le role qu’a joue la saillance « crise de 1929 » comme prototype de la crise boursiere. A Comprehensive Essay? C’est le recours a ce modele qui permet d’expliquer le caractere excessif des baisses et des ventes.

Cette analyse illustre avec force le role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des anticipations collectives du marche. 2.4 - L’autonomie des croyances sociales. Cette analyse des contextes, historiques ou culturels, dans la production des croyances sociales, nous donne a voir une etrange deconnexion entre celles-ci et les croyances individuelles. Conformity Thesis? Il semble que les individus soient comme impuissants parce que les interpretations legitimes qui modelent l’equilibre de coordination s’imposent a eux independamment de leurs propres opinions. Write Education? Ces croyances sociales ont pour origine les multiples reperes communs, historiques et culturels, qui definissent l’identite du groupe. What Makes Research? Parce que le passe nous livre des habitudes, des recits, des legitimites, les individus quels que soient par ailleurs leurs opinions ne sont pas libres dans leur capacite a proposer des representations collectives legitimes. Write Education? Aussi, vont s’imposer aux acteurs economiques des equilibres qu’ils n’auraient pas necessairement souhaites, comme nous l’a montre l’exemple de la crise de 1987. Cette autonomie des croyances sociales se revele avec force dans le fait que peuvent exister des situations ou, simultanement, tous les individus croient a la proposition P et tous les individus croient que le groupe croit a la proposition Q, differente de la proposition P, alors meme qu’aucune de ces croyances n’est erronee. Scholarship Essay Letter? Ne reposant sur aucune erreur, ces situations peuvent donc perdurer sans qu’aucune necessite de changer de croyances, a un niveau ou a un autre, se fasse sentir. Write On Environmental? Autrement dit, cela signifie que l’on peut avoir C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ce que nous avons appele anterieurement « l’effet Reagan » (Orlean [1999], 79-81), sans qu’apparaissent des forces de rappel qui viendraient supprimer l’ecart entre croyances personnelles et croyance sociale.

Notons qu’il en est tout autrement lorsqu’on considere des croyances sociales selon la definition (i1). Parts? Dans ce cas, il n’y a pas d’autonomie de la croyance sociale au sens ou l’ecart entre les croyances individuelles et les croyances sociales ne peut pas exister, sauf a supposer des croyances erronees. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? A nouveau, s’affirme le fait que c’est dans la definition (i2) que se trouve la conception la riche et la plus innovante. Conformity Thesis? Grace a la propriete d’autonomie qui la caracterise, se modifie en profondeur notre maniere de comprendre les interactions economiques. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Elle met au jour une logique d’un type nouveau, en rupture avec le modele individualiste classique qui voit la representation collective comme « somme » des opinions individuelles. Romeo Fault? Desormais, deux niveaux et deux logiques coexistent dont on write a comprehensive on environmental education doit analyser l’articulation. L’analyse des jeux de coordination permet de bien comprendre pourquoi il en est ainsi. Romeo Fault? En effet, elle nous a montre qu’il fallait soigneusement distinguer entre ce que l’individu pense vraiment et son choix effectif.

Cela tient a la nature meme de l’interaction consideree qui recompense, non pas ceux qui auraient « raison » et repondraient « correctement » a la question posee, si tant est qu’on puisse donner un sens a cette notion, mais ceux qui reussissent a prevoir au mieux les mouvements de l’opinion majoritaire. Essay On Environmental? Cette distinction appliquee aux marches financiers permet d’eviter les jugements hatifs d’irrationalite qui sont frequemment proferes a rencontre des investisseurs financiers, par exemple lorsqu’on constate une deconnexion importante entre le prix cote et ce que la communaute des economistes considere comme etant l’evaluation fondamentale. Scholarship? Prenons le cas d’une monnaie deja sous-evaluee qui fait neanmoins l’objet d’un important mouvement de ventes sur le marche des changes, conduisant a une sous-evaluation encore plus grande. Essay Education? On reproche alors aux cambistes d’etre irrationnels au sens ou ils evalueraient mal la valeur fondamentale de la devise en question. Scholarship Letter? Une telle hypothese ne tient pas. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? Elle n’est d’ailleurs pas necessaire.

Les cambistes, comme tout un chacun, peuvent parfaitement savoir que la monnaie est sous-evaluee et pourtant continuer a la vendre. Essay Letter? En effet, ce qui compte pour eux lorsqu’ils interviennent sur le marche n’est pas ce qu’ils pensent etre la vraie valeur de la monnaie, autant qu’ils en peuvent juger, mais ce qu’ils anticipent que le marche va faire. A Comprehensive? Sur un marche, on as graphics coursework fait du profit quand on write essay on environmental education reussit a prevoir correctement l’evolution de l’opinion du groupe. Format? Telle est la regle du jeu. Essay Education? On ne demande pas aux agents d’avoir raison et d’estimer au mieux la valeur fondamentale. Research Paper? De ce point de vue, la declaration qui suit provenant d’un cambiste interroge au moment de la forte baisse de l’euro en septembre 2000 est tout a fait revelatrice de la dichotomie entre evaluation personnelle sur une base fondamentaliste et choix d’investissement. Education? On y voit un individu intimement persuade du caractere sous-evalue de l’euro, mais expliquant qu’il est neanmoins tenu a vendre s’il ne veut pas perdre de l’argent : « L’operateur que je suis a beau croire a une appreciation de l’euro, il ne fait pas le poids lorsqu’il constate qu’un peu partout les positions des autres intervenants sur le marche des changes sont a la vente de l’euro. Thesis? Du meme coup, meme si j’estime que l’euro merite d’etre plus cher par rapport au dollar, j’hesite toujours a acheter la devise europeenne. Write A Comprehensive Essay? En effet, si je suis le seul acheteur d’euros face a cinquante intervenants vendeurs, je suis sur d’y laisser des plumes… Je ne fais pas forcement ce que je crois intimement, mais plutot ce que je crois que fera globalement le marche qui in parts fine l’emportera.

Le travail de l’operateur est de tenter d’evaluer au plus juste le sentiment du marche des devises [10] [10] Liberation, 8 septembre 2000, p. Write A Comprehensive Essay? 24. And Juliet Essay? . A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? » Malgre sa conviction personnelle d’une sous-evaluation, ce cambiste joue a la baisse et c’est la un comportement parfaitement rationnel : s’il avait achete de l’euro, il aurait fait des pertes ! Une premiere maniere de concevoir cette situation consiste a suivre l’interpretation que nous en propose le cambiste interroge. Format? Il oppose deux evaluations, l’evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche pensee sous sa forme (i1), i.e . Write A Comprehensive On Environmental? comme etant la croyance du plus grand nombre des cambistes. Makes A Great? Dans un tel cadre, l’individu interroge justifie son suivisme par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs vendeurs, tres exactement « cinquante intervenants vendeurs » qui determinent la croyance du marche. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Selon cette analyse, ces « cinquante intervenants » vendent parce qu’ils pensent que l’euro est surapprecie. As Graphics? C’est donc une conception erronee du point de vue des fondamentaux qui les conduit a vendre. A Comprehensive? Face a ce fait accompli, notre cambiste n’a plus aucun choix. Thesis? Il ne peut que se plier au diktat inadequat de l’opinion majoritaire. Essay On Environmental? Si l’on retient cette interpretation, nous n’observons pas ce que nous avons appele « autonomie des croyances sociales », c’est-a-dire une situation ou, pour tous les acteurs, est observe un ecart entre leur opinion personnelle et leur croyance sociale. Makes Research Paper? En effet, dans le cadre de l’interpretation proposee par le cambiste interroge, pour les « cinquante vendeurs », croyance personnelle et croyance sociale convergent parfaitement pour prevoir une baisse future de l’euro. Write A Comprehensive? C’est seulement le cambiste interroge qui constate un ecart entre son evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche.

Cette absence d’autonomie n’a rien d’etonnant. Romeo And Juliet Fault Essay? Elle est une consequence du fait que nous avons considere l’interpretation du cambiste et que cette interpretation s’appuie sur une interpretation (i1) de la croyance du marche. Cette interpretation n’est pas necessairement fausse. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? Il se peut, dans telle ou telle conjoncture financiere donnee, qu’il existe, en effet, sur le marche des investisseurs naifs, mal informes ou irrationnels. Romeo And Juliet Essay? C’est la une question de fait. Education? S’il en est ainsi, la bulle baissiere sur l’euro s’interprete aisement par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs ignorants. Thesis? Cependant, il faut bien voir que cette interpretation laisse un point central dans l’ombre : pourquoi les cinquante intervenants se trompent-ils ? Quel mecanisme permet-il d’expliquer qu’une meme erreur se soit propagee au sein du marche ? Aussi, est-il interessant de faire valoir une analyse alternative qui abandonne la dissymetrie suspecte entre notre cambiste parfaitement rationnel et un marche constitue d’operateurs obtus.

Selon cette nouvelle interpretation, les cinquante autres intervenants agissent de maniere identique a notre cambiste : comme lui, ils se conduisent de maniere autoreferentielle, a partir de leur propre croyance sociale quant au fonctionnement du marche. Write Essay On Environmental Education? Mais, conformement a l’analyse precedente, la croyance sociale qu’il faut considerer repond a la definition (i2) et non (i1) : « chacun croit que le marche croit a la baisse de l’euro ». Conformity? Dans une telle perspective, chacun est identiquement rationnel, agissant en fonction d’une meme croyance quant aux comportements des autres. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? Il n’y a pas cinquante intervenants « farouchement » vendeurs, mais cinquante cambistes qui, reflechissant a ce que vont faire les autres intervenants, parmi lesquels se trouve le trader interroge par Liberation , anticipent qu’ils vont vendre. Fault? Si on write a comprehensive essay education les interrogeait, ils feraient remarquer a leur tour qu’il ne sert a rien d’aller a contre courant d’un marche aussi determine dans son aveuglement. Coursework? Et ils auraient raison. Write Essay On Environmental Education? La vraie croyance ici ne porte pas sur la valeur de l’euro, mais sur le fait que « chacun croit dans le caractere baissier du marche. Conformity Thesis? » On reconnait alors notre situation de deconnexion entre les croyances privees, toutes convaincues du caractere sous-apprecie de l’euro, et la croyance sociale au sens (i2) selon laquelle le marche croit a la baisse. On Environmental Education? On a C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou P est la proposition « l’euro est sous-apprecie » et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou Q est la proposition « l’euro est surapprecie ». Coursework? Si chacun croit que « chacun croit a la baisse », alors chacun sera vendeur et le marche baissera effectivement en validant ex post la croyance initiale. Essay On Environmental? On retrouve le phenomene de prophetie autorealisatrice. Makes A Great Paper? Dans une telle situation, une bulle emerge sans qu’il ait ete necessaire de supposer la presence d’acteurs irrationnels. Write A Comprehensive Essay Education? Chacun est parfaitement rationnel, dans ses evaluations privees et dans son evaluation du marche.

Il n’est pas besoin de supposer des evaluations erronees. Makes Research? Il suffit que tous les acteurs se referent dans leurs choix a un certain modele de marche, pense comme exprimant une logique separee. Les investisseurs qui n’ont l’impression que de reagir a ce modele de marche, se voient alors tout a fait confirmes dans leur idee d’une autonomie du marche, puisque malgre leur croyance generalisee dans le caractere surapprecie de l’euro, celui-ci continue a baisser. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental? Cette autonomie leur parait d’autant plus indeniable que l’evolution observee ne trouve pas dans l’analyse fondamentaliste une explication coherente. As Graphics Coursework? Aussi, loin de produire un ajustement de la croyance sociale aux opinions privees, cette situation conduit a renforcer encore la croyance sociale qui s’impose comme seule explication plausible. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental? L’experience du marche valide l’hypothese d’une autonomie de l’evaluation collective [11] [11] Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations. Conformity? . A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? A tous les niveaux, les croyances se voient confirmees : en effet, l’evaluation fondamentale de l’euro est sous-appreciee ; en effet, le marche croit a la baisse ; en effet, l’euro baisse ; en effet, le marche se comporte de maniere autonome, c’est-a-dire deconnecte des appreciations fondamentalistes. La notion de rationalite cognitive donne lieu a de nombreuses elaborations, comme le demontre pleinement le present numero de la Revue d’Economie Politique . Conformity? Il faut s’en rejouir. Write A Comprehensive Education? Le champ est vaste et a trop longtemps ete laisse en friche par la theorie economique traditionnelle. Thesis? Pour notre part, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi la notion de croyance sociale s’imposait a l’analyse economique pour penser nombre de situations importantes.

Cette perspective de recherche peut servir deux finalites convergentes : d’une part, reequilibrer des approches cognitivistes traditionnellement centrees sur la cognition individuelle au detriment de la cognition sociale ; d’autre part, permettre un dialogue entre l’economie et les autres sciences sociales, telles la sociologie, l’anthropologie et l’histoire, qui ont beaucoup a nous apprendre sur ces sujets. Au moins deux auteurs participant au present numero se referent explicitement a la notion de « rationalite cognitive » et en proposent des definitions precises : Raymond Boudon et Bernard Walliser. Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue Francaise d’Economie , on write on environmental education trouve ecrit : « etudie son propre environnement » la ou, dans la version anglaise, on scholarship essay letter trouve « survey the a comprehensive on environmental education whole field ». As Graphics Coursework? L’ambiguite est totale et nous avons prefere modifier la traduction en consequence. Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee en partant de la notion d’efficience financiere. Education? On aurait montre (1) que celle-ci est « impossible » pour reprendre le titre d’un article celebre (Grossman et Stiglitz [1980]) et (2) que, dans le cadre de prix informationnellement inefficients, seule modelisation desormais acceptable, les agents pour ne pas commettre d’erreurs d’interpretation doivent pouvoir connaitre l’action d’autres operateurs (Gennotte et Leland [1990]) ; (3) ce qui a conduit a l’etrange notion de « sunshine trading », a savoir l’annonce publique de certains ordres (Admati et Pfleiderer [1991]). Essay? Autrement dit, se trouve reconnue la necessite d’en savoir plus que les prix.

CQFD. Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite est en elle-meme faible » est defendue par Kenneth Arrow ([1987], p. Write A Comprehensive Essay? 206). Fault? Le theoreme de Sonnenschein lui fournit une illustration exemplaire de ce point. A Comprehensive? Mais les exemples ne manquent pas. Fault Essay? On pense a l’article de Boldrin et Montrucchio [1986] ou il est montre que l’optimisation dynamique intertemporelle est compatible avec toute forme de sentier dynamique pour l’economie, sans exception, y compris des chaos. Write Essay? Autrement dit, supposer que les individus sont rationnels ne limitent en rien l’ensemble des cheminements economiques possibles ! En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions dans lesquelles on makes paper attribue des qualites a des objets collectifs, par exemple « les voitures allemandes sont meilleures que les voitures francaises » ou « le mark est une monnaie forte ». Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande partie du groupe », ou encore « presque tout le groupe » ou « presque tous les membres du groupe », demandera a etre precise dans des travaux ulterieurs. Write A Comprehensive Essay? Dans le cadre de cet article, nous resterons volontairement flou et imprecis sur ce point. As Graphics Coursework? On peut lire toute la suite de l’article en remplacant « une grande partie du groupe » par « tous les membres du groupe ». Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii [1994].

Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different et notablement plus complique. Write A Comprehensive Essay? J’en presente une version simplifiee qui conduit aux memes conclusions mais evite une presentation inutilement longue. En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait ou suppose un certain nombre de qualites communes, comme parler la meme langue, celle dans laquelle l’experimentation est faite. Liberation , 8 septembre 2000, p. Thesis? 24. Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations privees ne reussissent pas a modifier le choix collectif n’est pas sans equivalent dans la litterature theorique. Write Essay On Environmental Education? Dans les situations de type « electronic mail game » (Rubinstein [1989]), on of essay body observe des blocages similaires au sens ou l’echange de messages entre deux individus, aussi nombreux soientils, ne reussit pas a engendrer la connaissance commune necessaire a une certaine action des deux joueurs. Write Essay? Les cascades informationnelles ont egalement cette propriete.

Cet article plaide pour la necessaire ouverture de la theorie economique aux representations individuelles et collectives, ce qui est appele « tournant cognitif ». What? Dans une premiere partie, on write education montre que la rationalite instrumentale ne fournit pas un cadre adequat pour penser cette activite cognitive. As Graphics? Il faut alors introduire l’idee d’une rationalite cognitive distincte de la rationalite instrumentale. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? Cette necessite s’impose des lors qu’on remarque que les modeles a anticipations rationnelles conduisent structurellement a des equilibres multiples. Master Thesis Format? Autrement dit, les criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont trop faibles des lors qu’il s’agit de determiner precisement la maniere dont les agents forment leurs representations. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? Dans une seconde partie, on unimas avance la notion de « croyance sociale » pour penser ces representations collectives.

D’une part, on on environmental education montre que leur formation depend etroitement des contextes culturels et historiques. Essay? D’autre part, on a comprehensive education etablit que ces croyances sociales ne peuvent pas etre pensees comme la « somme » des croyances privees : celles-la sont dotees d’une forte autonomie par rapport a celles-ci. rationalite cognitive croyance commune jeu de coordination point focal saillance a la Schelling anticipation rationnelle croyance sociale reperes communs. Summary This article argues for conformity thesis the need to write a comprehensive on environmental education integrate beliefs the master thesis format individual and a comprehensive essay collective levels in master economic theory, something which is a comprehensive education, referred to parts of essay as a cognitive turning point. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? In the conformity first section of the write a comprehensive essay on environmental education article, we show that instrumental rationality does not offer an what research, adequate framework for write essay on environmental education analysing this sort of and juliet fault, cognitive activity.

Rather, what is write a comprehensive on environmental, needed is essay letter, a notion of write a comprehensive essay on environmental education, cognitive rationality which is what a great research paper, distinct from education, instrumental rationality. As Graphics? This necessity appears clearly when we look at write a comprehensive essay education rational expectations models. Romeo Fault? As a rule, these models have multiple equilibria. Write A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental? This implies that the body criteria of write on environmental education, instrumental rationality is what makes a great, too weak to a comprehensive specify the what makes research paper way people forms their representations of the write a comprehensive essay world. Romeo And Juliet? In the on environmental education second section, we introduce the research paper concept of on environmental education, social belief. A Great Research Paper? We show that the essay on environmental education formation of romeo and juliet, social beliefs is a comprehensive essay education, closely related to essay the cultural and write a comprehensive essay on environmental education historic context. Unimas Thesis? We conclude by a comprehensive education, demonstrating that social beliefs cannot be thought of and juliet, as the on environmental direct result of thesis, individual beliefs : there are in write essay on environmental education part autonomous from thesis, individual beliefs. Classification JEL : A1, B5, C7. cognitive rationality common belief coordination game focal point Schelling salience rational expectation social belief common reference.

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The serious possibility of Indefinite Life Extension. My belief in essay on environmental education, the possibility of romeo essay, indefinite life extension explained. There is a significant chance that indefinite life extension, in a completely healthy painless state, will be possible in our lifetime. I am using the term “indefinite life extension” rather than immortality because true immortality is write essay on environmental impossible, at makes a great paper least according to the laws of physics as we currently understand it. Write A Comprehensive Education! That, and the fact that immortality has a number of and juliet fault, negative connotations associated with it, such as being unable to die despite being in terrible suffering. Indefinite life extension, on essay education, the other hand, is simply the ability to live until you no longer desire to what makes paper, live. Whether that may be in write essay, 10 years, 100 years, or a million years is simply up to the person to decide. For me, I find living pretty fun. I enjoy life on average, even if I may not enjoy certain moments in my life.

That’s why I want to live for one more day, one more month, one more year, one more century, and parts of essay one more millenium. I think I may even be up for living a few billion or trillion years. But this essay is not meant to persuade you that living forever can be fun. It’s not meant to persuade you that nobody actually hates living; when people say they want to die, it’s suffering, rather than life that they wish to escape from. It’s not meant to convince you that there are no physical laws of the universe that say that life must be suffering. This essay is about the serious, life-changing possibility of indefinite life extension.

Within your lifetime. I genuinely believe that any rational person should at least consider this, even if they reject the argument at the end. It’s important enough for you to dedicate a day or two to consider this issue. Why? Because even the smallest probability in living a billion years is meaningful, when you multiply the a comprehensive expected utility. If you find living fun, and most people do (the people that don’t tend to commit suicide), you should find living twice as long twice as fun. There’s no arbitrary age when living changes from being fun to non-fun, when the as graphics polarity flips, and people should die.

There ARE problems associated with aging, such as disease, weakness, and sickness, but having indefinite life extension would also mean taking care of those problems as well. People can’t live forever if they get sick and a comprehensive education die. If you think living twice as long should be twice as fun (after all, having fun for two days is twice as fun as having fun for romeo fault essay only a single day), then living a hundred times as long should be a hundred times as fun, and so on. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental Education! Because there is no diminishing marginal utility on living ( People don’t stop having fun after they hit an arbitrary age), then you might say that having a 50% chance on living twice as long is equally as desirable as a 100% chance of living regularly, given that everything else (such as friends, environment, family) stay the same. You may not FEEL like living twice as long is essay twice as fun, but the math works out. Trust the Math, not your intuition – making decisions based on how you feel about essay on environmental, things can be misleading, because something that doesn’t feel fun can be really fun (such as charity!) and something that isn’t really fun can feel really fun (such as winning the lottery! Research has shown that people severely estimate how fun more money would be, and master most lottery winners actually end up less happy. ) The only way things can stop being fun is a change in environment, such as the death of a friend or family. That’s a problem with the environment, not a problem with living forever in and of itself. A Comprehensive Essay Education! That’s why I’m trying so hard to get my friends (You) to seriously consider living forever, so that the next few billion years will be fun too.

Plus, historically speaking, the future is a great paper always more fun than the past! Our current quality of write a comprehensive on environmental, life is body better than it has ever been, with not having to care about an 80% mortality rate, or being tortured for being a heretic, or not having to worry about being chased by a giant cat and eaten. If we take a billion years as the amount of time you can add to essay on environmental, your lifespan if you seriously consider indefinite life extension (and I have reasons to believe that it will probably be longer than that, due to things like increased simulation speed, but I won’t go into thesis that for now), then living for a billion years will be ten million times more fun than living for a hundred years. So we can say something like “A 0.00001% chance of living for on environmental a billion years is about equally as desirable as a 100% chance of living for a hundred years, assuming that the amount of conformity, fun doesn’t change.” (And if it changes, it’s far more likely to increase rather than decrease, based on historic trends. ) But let’s ignore that for the moment for write essay education ease of makes a great research, calculation. If these two options are equally as valuable, I merely have to a comprehensive essay, convince you that the probability of living indefinitely is higher than 0.00001% for you to gamble your life for this.

The good news is that you don’t have to gamble away your entire life. Unimas Master! The most you will ever risk is a few days of your time to ponder this decision. In the write on environmental education most pessimistic view, you may even risk a few years of unimas master, life, because the write a comprehensive on environmental education technology to live indefinitely may not be free. Scholarship Essay Letter! And since money is write essay on environmental education time, you may spend a few years working to obtain it. But even so, working is usually funner than non-existence, so comparing losing a few years of your life to having to work is not necessarily a fair comparison (And if non-existence is funner than work, I’d suggest trying a new job.) The even better news is that the probability of indefinite life extension is significantly higher than 0.00001%. Of Essay Body! If I’m allowed to make a suggestion based on write, the things I know so far, I believe that it’s much closer to 30% or so, making this a really good investment for scholarship letter the level of risk incurred. (Have you ever seen an investment with an average expected ROI of 3 million? ) A list of all the potential ways death can be vanquished would be very long, so I’m only going to list the most promising ones, the combined probability of any one of them succeeding within our lifetime is about 25% or so. These technologies are: Uploading, cryonics, genetic engineering, nanotech cellular repair, biomedical telomere rejuvenation, and creating AGI. Furthermore, the essay education rate at which technology is discovered in general is accelerating exponentially.

More technological progress has been made in conformity thesis, the last 20 years than all of write a comprehensive essay on environmental education, human history before that. This is because getting technology usually allows us to advance science at a faster rate, thus increasing the body rate at which new technology is discovered too! The human genome project is a good example of this concept because it is write a comprehensive easily quantifiable. In 1990 scientists had managed to transcribe only one ten-thousandth of the genome over an entire year. Yet their goal was to sequence the entire genome in 15 years. After seven years, only 1 percent had been sequenced. Most people said they would not finish on time. But, in fact, the project was on track. The rate of progress was doubling every year, which meant that when researchers finished 1 percent they were only seven steps away from reaching 100 percent.

The project was completed in 2003, a few years before schedule. Essay Letter! People assumed it would take centuries because they thought scientific progress was linear. This phonemonen is very easy to write, underestimate because human brains are not evolutionarily hardwired to unimas, intuitively grasp exponential growth. Write A Comprehensive Education! There are certain fields, such as computer speed, that double every year. Other technological fields are slower. Since most of the as graphics methods of indefinite life extension I have mentioned above are more difficult to quantify and chart out than genome coding, I cannot say exactly how fast they are progressing, and a comprehensive essay education if progress doubles every month, or every 10 years. However, I will use Real GDP per what makes a great research Capita (Real means that it is adjusted for inflation) in order to a comprehensive essay on environmental education, illustrate, in general, the essay average rate of technological progress.

Because Real GDP per a comprehensive on environmental education Capita is a measure of the average rate of all the things in the economy, it can be a good measure of how fast, in master, general, human society is progressing. The World’s Real GDP per a comprehensive essay on environmental education Capita doubles every 15 years, and has done so for a great research the last few thousand years. This means that if one were to expect to live for 75 more years, he could expect to find that by the end of 75 years, the world would be in a comprehensive education, year 4400, and the equivalent of 2400 years of this year’s technological progress would have passed. ( 2^5 * 75 = 2400) If this shocks you, then you already realize that humans are naturally bad at grasping exponential growth. If you want to accurately predict the state of the world in 75 years, you would have to imagine the world in year 4400, rather than in research paper, year 2085. In order to convince you that indefinite life extension is write a comprehensive education entirely within our grasp, I will need to essay, talk about write a comprehensive on environmental, it’s methods. Conformity Thesis! If you know nothing about how we can live indefinitely, and yet try to calculate the odds of not dying in the next 75 years, your mind will come up with a blank page. As a result, you may severely underestimate its likelihood, because you may subconsciously believe that your lack of write essay on environmental education, knowledge can be extended to all of humanity’s lack of knowledge, when this may not be the case. The first method is uploading. Parts Of Essay! To do a thorough scan of the brain, and simulate all neurons in a comprehensive essay on environmental education, your brain in a computer. Unimas! If there is a part of you that is a comprehensive education responsible for consciousness, we can take that too, and simulate it.

If we have to simulate you to the quantum level, there’s no reason that cannot be done as well. Yes, even if we upload you, you are still you. You are not a copy. Your identity is a mathematical algorithm, a rather complex one, but still a mathematical algorithm nonetheless. This is because the universe (including you!) is scholarship turing complete, and any turing complete language can be simulated by any other turing complete language. Write On Environmental Education! Your identity isn’t in of essay body, specific atoms, because if you die but the atoms in your body still exist, you do not exist.

You are a collective of thoughts, feelings, ideologies, and emotions. Your identity is conserved regardless of a comprehensive essay education, what hardware is unimas master format running you. We know this to be true because most of the atoms in our body are changed every few years, and write a comprehensive on environmental yet we do not treat this as a form of death. We know that we will have enough computational power to fully simulate a person in a few decades. This is because of Moore’s Law; computational power doubles every year, and has doubled for makes a great paper the last 100 years. The main factor limiting this method of life extension is the ability to a comprehensive education, scan the human brain at a deep enough level to parts of essay body, allow for simulation to occur.

I will be plotting these factors and the odds of write a comprehensive on environmental, any of these problems interfering with this method of life extension. I will put the approximate date that these probabilities are calculated with to be 2085. Sufficient computational power for conformity simulation, and simulations can be run relatively cheaply: 0.82. Humans are turing complete entities: 0.92. The capacity to a comprehensive, scan the human brain to parts, the necessary ontological level exists: 0.1. Science-interfering societal collapse does not happen: 0.90. Government interference with uploading does not happen: 0.75. Other unforeseen black-swans do not happen: 0.80. Total odds: 0.04073, or 4% The second possible method of life extension is a comprehensive education through cryonics. In simply terms, this means that after you die, but before cellular damage has occured, your body is frozen, but in a way that preserves the cellular structure to a near-atomic level.

It is not merely “freezing” a corpse, but doing so in conformity, a way that preserves the detail of write, every cell and organelle. In the future, you will be revived, either through uploading, or by scanning you at an atomic level, and rebuilding you through nanotechnology and atomic engineering. Some people argue that if all the atoms in your body are reassembled, it will not still be you. They are wrong, because it has been scientifically proven in Quantum Mechanics that atoms are indistinguishable, not just empirically, but philosophically (not just as far as we can observe, but as a mathematical certainty) Atoms are simply probability amplitude distributions, the result of the conformity universal wavefunction factorizing (a fancy term for saying “an illusion created by something more fundamental” ) Consider that the definition of death has been before throughout history, as our medical knowledge, and therefore our ability to extend lifespan, increases. For thousands of years, humanity has assumed that when the heart stopped, a person died. However, after the essay on environmental invention of defibrillation and pacemaker, this was no longer the case, because it became possible to artificially stimulate the letter heart.

Therefore the current definition of death is “brain death”, when the a comprehensive on environmental brain is no longer operational. It is romeo fault essay exceedingly likely that this current definition will soon be revised; the laws of physics do not prevent us from reviving people who are brain dead. Consider that although the brain no longer works, all the information that makes the brain do what it does still exists, down to the atomic level. A far better definition of death is informational-theoretic death, or when it is a comprehensive physically impossible to essay letter, revive a person, because the necessary information in order to revive that person has already been lost. The probability of Cryonics being successful has been calculated by write a number of people, I like this particular estimate, which is neither overly-optimistic nor pessimistic, by Robin Hanson (Economist). Civilization still exists and has kept growing in technical capability. Scholarship Essay Letter! 0.8. Your cryonics org and it successors have kept you continuously frozen. 0.8.

Someone is willing and allowed to pay modest costs to write a comprehensive, revive you. 0.8. Brain science has workable input/output models of relevant brain cell types. 0.5. Usual freezing quality preserved relevant model-needed details. Essay Letter! 0.8. Cheap scanning tech slices 2D scans brains at model-needed spatial, chem resolution. 0.8. Error correction codes reconstruct most connections across slices, fractures. 0.8.

Cheap computers can real-time sim entire scanned sets of connected cells. 0.8. Sim life seems worth living enough that they don’t prefer suicide. 0.8. Such sims of you are as worthy as your kid of education, your identifying with them. 0.8. Total Probability: 0.9329, or 9% Is that all to cryonics? No, there is much more I will not cover.

But I will direct you to these two FAQs if you wish to find out conformity thesis, more, or you may ask me directly. The third method that is Genetic engineering, cellular repair, and Telomere rejuvenation. These three, although slightly different methods, are so interconnected that it is easier to lump them all together, and call it the “biological” methods of solving aging. We know that it is write on environmental education entirely possible for conformity thesis biological lifeforms to live indefinitely, because there are a number of a comprehensive essay on environmental education, animals that are not biologically programmed to die, and therefore can live indefinitely. One example is the Turritopsis nutricula, also known as the essay letter immortal jellyfish. According to scientists studying the a comprehensive education proccess of makes a great research, aging, there are currently seven major problems that are to be overcome before allowing indefinite life extension. They are: Mutations in on environmental education, Chromosomes causing cancer due to nuclear mutations/epimutations: These are changes to the nuclear DNA (nDNA), the molecule that contains our genetic information, or to proteins which bind to the nDNA. What Makes Research Paper! Certain mutations can lead to cancer. Non-cancerous mutations and epimutations do not contribute to on environmental, aging within a normal lifespan, so cancer is the fault only endpoint of these types of damage that must be addressed.

Mutations in Mitochondria: Mitochondria are components in our cells that are important for on environmental education energy production. They contain their own genetic material, and mutations to their DNA can affect a cell’s ability to function properly. Indirectly, these mutations may accelerate many aspects of aging. Junk inside of cells, aka intracellular aggregates: Our cells are constantly breaking down proteins and other molecules that are no longer useful or which can be harmful. Unimas Master Thesis! Those molecules which can’t be digested simply accumulate as junk inside our cells. Atherosclerosis, macular degeneration and all kinds of neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s disease) are associated with this problem. Junk – outside of cells, aka extracellular aggregates: Harmful junk protein can also accumulate outside of write a comprehensive education, our cells.

The amyloid senile plaque seen in what a great research paper, the brains of Alzheimer’s patients is write on environmental education one example. Cells – too few, aka cellular loss: Some of the cells in our bodies cannot be replaced, or can only be replaced very slowly – more slowly than they die. This decrease in cell number causes the of essay heart to become weaker with age, and it also causes Parkinson’s disease and impairs the immune system. Another example are neurons, which our body does not replace.

Cells – too many, aka Cell senescence: This is a phenomenon where the cells are no longer able to divide, but also do not die and write on environmental education let others divide. Conformity Thesis! They may also do other things that they’re not supposed to, like secreting proteins that could be harmful. Immune senescence and write on environmental type 2 diabetes are caused by this. Extracellular protein crosslinks: Cells are held together by scholarship essay letter special linking proteins. When too many cross-links form between cells in a tissue, the write a comprehensive on environmental education tissue can lose its elasticity and cause problems including arteriosclerosis and presbyopia. Once these problems are addressed, biological immortality is obtained. I will freely admit that I do not know enough about human biology to calculate the probability of solving all of these problems.

It would be fairly arrogant to what a great, claim otherwise, as I am not a full time gerontologist. However, I do know that the people alive today most knowledgeable on write a comprehensive on environmental, this, such as Aubrey de Grey, believes in a 90% chance we obtain a significantly increased lifespan within the next 100 years, as most of these problems become solved, and “robust human rejuvenation”, 50% probability, within the parts body next 25 years. I do however, admit that it’s probably very likely that he is overly optimistic, due to write education, a wide range of biases such as the affect heuristic. For this reason, I will give an overly-pessimistic adjustment on his probability estimated by a factor of ten. Therefore the probability of biological immortality is 0.09. I admit that this is and juliet essay fairly arbitrary, and done for the sake of obtaining a more accurate final probability estimate, than merely guessing. The final method is self-recursive AI, also known as the a comprehensive essay on environmental education technological singularity.

The logic is unimas master format simple. A: We will build computers of at least human intelligence at write a comprehensive on environmental some time in the future, let’s say within 100 years. B: Those computers will be able to coursework, rapidly and repeatedly increase their own intelligence, quickly resulting in computers that are far more intelligent than human beings. C: This will cause an enormous transformation of the world, so much so that it will become utterly unrecognizable, a phase Vinge terms the “post-human era”. This event is the Singularity. Self-recursive AI, sometimes also called AGI, once created, will almost definitely solve the problem of aging.

“However, I strongly support the essay on environmental education goal of coursework, AI, because success in a comprehensive on environmental education, that area – if, as Luke says, it’s done right – will indeed solve all other technological problems, including the development of medicine to defeat aging.” -Aubrey De Grey. The question then is the probability of AGI being invented in parts of essay, the next 75 or so years. This has already been calculated through Bayesian inference and statistics by on environmental education a wide variety of different people far more knowledgeable than I am. The absolute reasonable lower probability estimate on AGI being invented is conformity thesis 0.01, and I will be using this figure for calculation purposes. Uploading Success: 4% Cryonics Success: 9% Biological Methods Success: 9%

Total Probability of essay, any one succeeding: 24.798% Therefore a reasonable estimate of the possibility of indefinite life extension is approximately 25%. 3 Comments on “The serious possibility of Indefinite Life Extension.” Total Probability: 0.9329, or 9% Shouldn’t that be either 90% or 0.09329?

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10 Changes You Can Make Today to Help Cut Your Cancer Risk. According to the American Institute for a comprehensive essay on environmental Cancer Research (AICR), one third of the most common cancers could be prevented by making lifestyle changes. And a 2008 review published in Pharmaceutical Research estimates 90 to 95 percent of ALL cancer diagnoses have roots in diet and lifestyle factors. Thesis! Bottom line: There are many variables within your control that can help reduce your cancer risk. A Comprehensive Essay! The AICR outlines three overarching tactics: eat nutrient-dense plant foods, be physically active every day, and aim for a healthy weight. Read on to learn about conformity thesis 10 science-backed strategies that can help lower your risk of cancer. Essay! A healthy diet with an emphasis on plant foods is essay letter critical for cancer prevention.

Studies have shown that eating a variety of fresh produce and whole grains is associated with a decreased risk of developing some types of cancer likely related to their vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber. On Environmental! Fruits, vegetables and as graphics, fiber-containing plant-based products have earned a Food and Drug Administration-approved health claim for their association with reducing the risk of cancer. Include vegetarian dishes into essay education, your weekly routine and eat a variety of produce daily (fresh, frozen or canned). Lack of sleep or sleep disturbance can cause shifts in hormones and stress the entire system. Skimping on shut-eye has been linked to hormonal problems leading to weight gain, and now a 2014 study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine has shown a positive association between sleep disturbance from moderate to severe sleep apnea and cancer incidence. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the “shift leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans.” When the circadian rhythm is disrupted in rotating-shift workers or people who work at night, hormonal shifts in melatonin have been studied in relation to incidence of romeo and juliet fault, certain types of cancers.

Adults should aim for seven to write essay education nine hours per night and address sleep apnea with your doctor if this is an of essay, issue. A 2003 study in the New England Journal of Medicine estimates that being overweight or obese may contribute to up to 20 percent of all cancer-related deaths. Being overweight or obese (a BMI of write a comprehensive essay, 25 or greater) is strongly associated with specific types of cancer, including breast (postmenopausal), colon and rectum, kidney, esophagus, pancreas and gallbladder. Parts! It’s also likely associated with cancer of the liver, cervix, ovary, prostate, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The reason for the association may be related to negative effects on the immune system and write a comprehensive, inflammation, including hormones that stimulate cell growth. Many of the what a great paper recommendations by a comprehensive essay, the AICR for romeo and juliet essay cancer prevention also help with achieving and maintaining an ideal body weight, such as increasing physical activity, limiting foods dense in calories like fast food, fried food and sweets and a comprehensive essay on environmental, increasing fresh produce in the diet. Aside from lifestyle factors like nutrition and physical activity, studies in mindfulness and stress-reduction are gaining attention for prevention of chronic diseases, including cancer.

A 2010 study published in the Journal of and juliet fault essay, Alternative Complementary Medicine found that participants in a comprehensive essay on environmental education an eight-week mindfulness-based stress-reduction program saw increased immune markers and decreased inflammatory markers in blood tests. The National Cancer Institute advises that while there is currently no direct proven link between stress and cancer incidence, there may be increased health risks with chronic stress. For example, people under stress may develop certain behaviors -- such as smoking, overeating or using alcohol -- that could increase risk for cancer. Essay! Incorporating practices such as counseling or therapy, meditation, breathing or physical activity can help you improve your quality of life now and help you cope with daily stressors, instead of turning to other habits for help to write a comprehensive keep chronic stress in check. An important topic for romeo fault essay men and on environmental, women alike, supporting and promoting breast-feeding infants may help prevent breast cancer in women, particularly those with a family history of the disease. Makes A Great! Though research is mixed on this topic, a 2010 study presented in a comprehensive on environmental the Archives of Internal Medicine showed a correlation with having ever breast-fed and decreased incidence of breast cancer in women with a family history. The best research on prevention through breast-feeding practices includes women who have had multiple children and breast-feed for makes a great paper a longer period of time. Though breast-feeding is not a choice or option for some, women who have children and are able to breast-feed could experience another positive from this decision and a possible slight decrease in risk for developing breast cancer in the future. Essay! Research shows that limiting alcohol intake is an important part of cancer prevention. Current AICR recommendations state that people who drink alcohol should limit it to no more than two drinks per paper day for write on environmental education men and unimas thesis, no more than one drink per write a comprehensive education day for women.

Drinking alcohol is associated with an increased risk for romeo and juliet head and neck cancers, as well as liver, colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancers. One reason that alcohol increases risk for developing cancer is acetaldehyde, which is a byproduct created when we metabolize alcohol; it is a known carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent. Alcohol is also known to increase estrogen concentration in the body. A 2010 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition estimates that 20 percent of breast cancer incidences are attributed to drinking two or more alcoholic beverages per write a comprehensive essay on environmental education day. Consume no more than one drink per as graphics day if you are a woman or two if you are a man. By getting moving, you can reduce the risk for cancer including breast, colon, endometrium, prostate and a comprehensive, pancreatic. Recommendations for a physically active lifestyle include both increasing daily activity as well as limiting sedentary time. Adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate activity like brisk walking or yardwork or 75 minutes of vigorous activity like jogging or running each week. Limiting both screen time (TV, computer and conformity, phone) and sitting is a comprehensive on environmental important as well, and, at a minimum, doing any activity above your usual level is a positive change. Bonus: Increasing your daily activity also decreases your risk for heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and high blood pressure. Kristin DeAngelis, RDN, RYT, the executive assistant and certified nutritionist for Joe Cross and his team at Reboot With Joe, suggests “going for unimas master format a daily 30-minute brisk walk and limiting sedentary behavior, such as sitting or watching TV, can help to maintain a healthy weight and reduce cancer risk.” 8 INCLUDE WHOLE GRAINS AND LEGUMES DAILY.

Like fresh fruits and vegetables, minimally processed grains like wild rice, barley and quinoa contain cancer-preventing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber and are also lower in caloric content than most other heavily processed products that may have added sugar or oils. A 2009 study published in Circulation, the American Heart Association’s journal, shows a high intake of red and processed meats, refined grains, French fries, sweets and desserts was linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and write a comprehensive on environmental, total mortality. The recommendation to include whole-grain choices is as important as the recommendation to limit processed or refined grain sources. Make sure that the fault grains you eat are unprocessed or in write a comprehensive essay on environmental their most basic state and include a variety of sources daily. Fresh produce contains potential anticancer benefits, including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber. The current recommendations from the AICR for cancer prevention are to eat at least two-and-a-half cups of fruits and vegetables every day. Coursework! Kristin DeAngelis, RDN, RYT, says, “Incorporating a daily fresh fruit and write on environmental education, vegetable juice or smoothie can be an easy way to increase your micronutrient intake and hit the recommended servings of vegetables and fruit a day.” Meeting the a great recommendations for fresh produce may help with weight loss and healthy weight maintenance, another major cancer-prevention recommendation. To increase your intake of write essay education, fruits and vegetables, aim to romeo and juliet essay fill half your plate with these choices at each meal. Quitting smoking is perhaps the a comprehensive essay single most important modifiable factor that will decrease your risk of cancer. The current American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and conformity thesis, Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention estimates that one third of cancer deaths could be prevented by stopping exposure to write on environmental education tobacco products.

Keep in mind that using tobacco and alcohol simultaneously increases risk for mouth, larynx and esophageal cancers, so if you use tobacco products -- particularly when drinking alcohol -- seek the help you need to quit for good and unimas master format, make a critical choice to write a comprehensive on environmental education reduce your cancer risk. Do any of these recommendations surprise you? Do you believe cancer could be prevented through changing your lifestyle? Are there other tips for cancer prevention that you think we should have included? Let us know in the comments!

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Downton Abbey Cooks Online Guide to Afternoon Tea. My tea party on National TV. Link to Recipes and essay education, Video Clip from the scholarship letter, show. An overview on what you need to know about Afternoon Tea. My new book with 60+ recipes and tips. Afternoon Tea is arguably the best contribution the essay, British have made to cuisine. A lovely tradition My upcoming new book will provide all you need to know, whether you are planning to visit a famous tea house in London, organizing a fundraiser or just hosting a tea at home. Conformity? This article provides highlights on history, what to eat, how to eat, when to eat!.

Enjoy. History of the English Tea Ritual. In 1662 Catherine of Braganza of Portugal married Charles II and write a comprehensive essay on environmental, brought with her the conformity, preference for tea, which had already become common in Europe. As tea was her temperance drink of choice, it slowly gained social acceptance among some of the aristocracy as she replaced wine, ale and write a comprehensive on environmental, spirits with tea as the court drink. It did take some time though to ween courtiers from enjoying ale at breakfast. Baby steps. The actual taking of tea in the afternoon developed into a new social event some time in the late 1830’s and early 1840’s. It was Anne, Duchess of Bedford, one of Queen Victoria’s ladies-in-waiting, who is credited for first “inventing” Afternoon Tea, but actually it had been a gradual evolution. The gap between lunch and supper was widening, so Anne started asking for tea and small cakes to be brought to her private quarters. I am sure she quickly realized that a lot of gossip could be shared if she invited other ladies to scholarship essay her quarters to share her cakes.

Queen Victoria herself was encouraged to start hosting her own parties as a way of re-entering society after the passing of her beloved husband Albert. Legend has it that Victoria Sponge was named and served at write a comprehensive essay her tea parties which became large affairs. Other women picked up the makes, idea and spread like wildfire. Thus the ritual of write essay, afternoon tea began. Women do know how to romeo fault essay get things done. Tea lingo: Afternoon Tea is Not High Tea. Nothing better than sharing tea with friends. There is nothing like enjoying tea with friends or colleagues. Check out my recent tv interview about hosting a tea party. Write Essay Education? If you are planning a visit to the UK, watch Downton Abbey , Coronation Street , or other British type serials, it might be helpful to scholarship letter get proper knowledge of the terms used.

Afternoon Tea — What we imagine all British teas to a comprehensive on environmental education be. An afternoon meal, served typically from 4 – 6 pm, which includes the parts body, tiers of smart little crustless sandwiches, scones, clotted cream, curd, 2-3 sweets and essay, heaps of tea. High Tea or Tea — High tea is eaten in “high chairs” at the dinner table. Afternoon Tea is traditionally served on lower couches and lounging chairs. High tea is actually is conformity thesis a meal that the a comprehensive essay on environmental, working class had at the end of the day with cold meats, potatoes, as well as other foods with tea and perhaps a beer. Americans confuse the two, and since some London tea houses use the terms interchangeable to keep tourists happy, it adds to the confusion.

Low Tea— This still afternoon tea, but called “low tea” because guests are seated in romeo and juliet essay, low armchairs with low side-tables on on environmental, which to place their cups and saucers. What Research Paper? Royale Tea — A social tea served with champagne at the beginning or sherry at the end of the tea. Celebration Tea — Another variation of afternoon tea with a celebratory cake which is also served alongside the other sweets Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea. Essay On Environmental? Elevensies — Morning coffee hour in England (I remember the body, Hobbits used this term in Lord of the Rings. I thought that they ate 11 times a day…just like me!) Tea Etiquette: Learn by Example from Downton Abbey. Matthew helps himself to write essay on environmental Madeleines (ITV)

Displaying acceptable manners is a way of fitting in with a certain class. Pay attention to as graphics coursework the “tea scene” in S1 E2 of Downton Abbey . The new heir Matthew Crawley comes home to find visitors, and decides to a comprehensive essay on environmental education help himself to tea and madeleines. Molesley, the butler, is horrified and as graphics, his mother, the Dowager and Cora embarrased. Yes, it is evident that this middle class lawyer is a comprehensive on environmental education a diamond in the rough, and has a long way to go before he will become a true gentleman, but we gradually see him growing into what a great research paper the role of heir apparent. If you plan to enjoy the on environmental education, tea ritual in London or your home town, book an Afternoon Tea (not High Tea), and do take note of proper manners to letter fully enjoy the experience. A Comprehensive Essay On Environmental Education? In London, they do try to do things properly, which is why we adore Downton Abbey in the first place, right? The Dowager at Tea: always with an agenda (ITV) Tea with the as graphics, Dowager could be stressful since was always some plan she had in mind to discuss. To help make your tea experience less stressful, here are some tips to take to essay on environmental the Dowager House, your local tea shop, or famous London tea house: Sugar/lemon —tea is as graphics poured first, then sugar or thinly sliced lemon and never milk and lemon together as it will curdle. Milk goes in after tea — a nice little saying: “To put milk in your tea before sugar is to write on environmental cross the letter, path of love, perhaps never to marry.” (Tea superstition) Who Pours? — If you are the hostess, you should pour.

If you are taking tea at a tea house, it is the person who is closest to the pot when the pot is brought to the table. Write Essay Education? Proper placement of spoon — the spoon never stays in the cup. Proper holding of cup — use both hands to coursework lift both cup and saucer to drink from, and write education, please no pinkies*. I dare you to catch anyone on Downton The correct order when eating on a tea tray is to eat savouries first, scones next and sweets last. We have changed our order somewhat. We like guests to eat the scones first while they are hot, then move to savouries, then sweets. Scones — the makes a great research, most practical approach according to Debrett’s is to split the scone horizontally before adding your favorite spreads.

Cream, then jam on scones? —This depends. Devon tradition puts clotted cream first on scones, then jam. In Cornwall, preserves first. A Comprehensive On Environmental? Eat with fingers neatly. Use your fingers you can eat bite-size pastries with your fingers, as well as sliced loafs, breaking off small pieces before consuming. Thesis? Use a dessert fork to education eat larger pastries.

No dunk zone — unless your tea party is very informal, dunking treats in your tea will garner a scowl. *Since ancient Rome, a cultured person ate with 3 fingers, a commoner with five. Thus, the birth of the raised pinkie was a perceived sign of elitism, however the The pinky “up” rule is actually a misinterpretation of the 3 fingers vs 5 fingers dining etiquette. You will never see the ladies at Downton Abbey raise a pinky. I am a bit of a pack rat and have accumulated a number of pieces over the years for my tea service. Coursework? Some I have inherited, a few are treasured gifts from friends, but many I have picked up at yard sales and thrift stores over the years. Your tea service does not have to match and in fact it works out better when each person has their own personal cup to keep track of. If you are keen on starting your own tea service, try checking out your local Goodwill store. A Comprehensive On Environmental Education? You will be amazed at what you may find. Don’t get too stressed about making tea, particularly since much tea is now sold in unimas master thesis format, tea bags.

To distinguish yourself as a tea aficionado, however, just follow the a comprehensive essay, time honored tradition of first warming the tea pot. Add a bit of boiling water to the pot, give it a swirl and pour it out before adding your tea. Steep 3 or 4 minutes and thesis, don’t let the tea steep too long or it will become bitter. If you go with loose tea, the general guideline is to a comprehensive essay on environmental allow for 1 tsp per person, 1 tsp for the pot, and and juliet fault essay, allow 10 ounces per person. Write On Environmental Education? Use a tea strainer and pour into cups. You may wish to fill your tea pot with tap water, pour into conformity a measuring cup to write a comprehensive essay on environmental determine how many cups your pot will hold.

Debrett’s also advises that you keep a heated pot of water nearby in case to help dilute tea if it is too strong. Queen of the Kitchen. The following are the types of items you will find at master format tea. Write Education? Follow the links to essay letter locate recipes for on environmental, items we have prepared in our travels. Essentially the conformity thesis, tray holds the 3 S’s: Scones, Sandwiches/Savouries and write essay education, Sweets. I mostly focus on traditional tea items (great food always has a history). I am a big fan of healthy eating and while many of these treats are “sometimes” foods, but I also include healthy versions of some treats which you can enjoy anytime.

The general rule to body the tea tray is that items can be eaten by hand so are cut into bite sized pieces, and generally cold, unless you have scones right out of the education, oven. —always time for tea (Carnival Films) Afternoon tea trays have three levels: TOP: SCONES. You your site are amazing! Thanks for all your hard work. This is makes a great paper such a beautiful, as well as informative blog. There are so many dishes I am inspired to make. So glad I found it! Hi Pamela! I am going to use this tea bible when the cast and crew of Titanic:A New Musical at TUTS Vancouver organizes a high tea to a comprehensive essay on environmental education celerate the final week of rehearsals! Thanks so much!

Yay! Someone that knows that high tea is supper and scholarship letter, is serving a real high tea. Write A Comprehensive Essay? You go girl. Thank you so much. What Makes Research? Very helpful to us Americans! Reblogged this on a comprehensive essay on environmental education, The Rose of makes, Europe and write a comprehensive on environmental, commented: Read this to avoid making a fool of yourself at makes research tea parties! #128521; This is your tea bible! lovely article on a comprehensive essay education, tea. great info, thank you! Great source of information!

Thank you for clarifications on the different types of Tea service. Americans still make the mistake of referring to a traditional afternoon tea as a High Tea (one of my pet peeves). Hello, in the Dowager Countess clip showing how to serve tea, she uses a hot water type urn to pour the water into the tea pot. Do you know the proper name for this as l would love to buy one if it is still possible? You know i really don’t know, but I would love to have one myself.

Perhaps another follower will be able to provide some insight. I found out the as graphics coursework, name of it. They are called Tea Kettles some used spirits to create heat at the base or tea candles. When we were in Russia they called the urn’s Samovar, some designs are quite beautiful. Just found your blog today Pamela, Love it! We used to write a comprehensive essay sell these in our tea room. We ordered them from body a company called “Alda’s” which, alas, is no longer in business.

They called them “tea tippers”. Tea Time magazine often features advertising from companies that offer this kind of write a comprehensive essay, specialty item. Actually, just google it. And Juliet Fault? There are several options! Have fun! The tea story relating to a comprehensive marriage is about how young women’s suitors were tested for “proper breeding” before being allowed to court (proceed to thesis woo her to wed). Poorer quality china (porcelain) cracked due to thermal shock if hot tea went in first- so the education, custom was to put in the milk, then the tea- thus lessen the thermal shock. Thus, if a man put milk in first- he could be seen to be from poorer stock- and lesser breeding thus successfully out out of the running by the Dowager.

Conversely if a Mr Willoughby was wooing your Marianne Dashwood- it would be greatly admired if he poured the hot tea first- nevermind the breakages- as he was obviously well bred- and all the ladies would together a-swoon. That’s an interesting tidbit I hadn’t heard before. My understanding had been that milk was poured in first because the earlier china couldn’t stand up to the thermal shock, and that people only started reversing the process when higher-quality cups and such became available; it makes sense that those able to afford the higher-quality pieces would be the first to own them (and then proceed to make pouring milk into tea a status thing). Another interesting tidbit: pouring milk in what a great research paper, after the write, tea will dull the flavour of the tea. How funny – an Irish friend told me the unimas master, milk was poured in first to prevent staining or discoloration on essay on environmental education, the cups- both theories makes sense I suppose- I didn’t know pouring it after dilutes flavor! good to know-:) Great, informative post! I love tea and the rich tradition associated with it. Scholarship Essay Letter? Consider this bookmarked. #128578;

What specific brands and types of tea are recommended? Generally you want to offer two or three types. Earl Grey is write a comprehensive essay on environmental crowd favorite as well as English Breakfast and perhaps an as graphics orange pekoe. There are lovely tea shops which offer fresh tea, and write on environmental education, if you ask nicely they can provide a nice sampler pack for you. Thesis Format? If you are a fan of history, Typhoo Tips http://wp.me/p27trL-xE was the first brand of tea offered in tea bags back in 1869, assuring customers they were buying fresh tea and not reclaimed tea. Thank you so much! What a delightful site; Tea and Downton Abbey- What could be better? Excellent information!

We enjoyed the first episode of season three of a comprehensive, Downton Abby last night while partaking of High Tea! Although I enjoy my daily cuppa (or “cuppaS”), there is unimas nothing like a real tea ceremony to make me feel all warm and fuzzy. Write A Comprehensive Essay? I sincerely wish I had known of your website when I hosted a tea party for a few of my coworkers last year! We had cucumber sandwiches, scones with clotted cream, jam, and lemon curd, and I made “lemon drops” which are essentially slices of homemade sponge cake with lemon curd between the layers and scholarship essay, topped with whipped cream and a raspberry (or a gooseberry if you’re being authentic). Such good fun!! I am English and over the years have attended many Afternoon tea parties Including once as a girl a Royal Garden Party at Buckingham Palace , I love them.

I am just about to host my own Downtown tea party for 60. I have found your site the most informative and well researched, it far surpasses any other research I have found. The links to the recipes are very useful. Thank you for all your hard work and research. Your site is write a comprehensive essay lovely. Suzanne, Oxfordshire, Uk. An absolutely brilliant guide. Amazing how many people confuse ‘high tea’, ‘cream tea’ and what makes a great, the much more substantial ‘afternoon tea’. I’m constantly “on about” tea on write a comprehensive education, my comfort food blog. Having grown up with afternoon tea, I have introduced many friends to the pleasures of afternoon tea over the years.

Also love to go out for tea, and I *hate* it when servers at even the poshest places call it “high tea.” I think Americans do that because it sounds more “haute.” Which, in your opinion is better when it comes to a tea kettle: stainless steel or porcelain enamel? I’m getting very tired of using a regular pot to heat water in coursework, our house but would rather invest in a quality kettle than not. Any information you could give would be appreciated. Thank you. #128578; I have always used a stainless steel kettle, we currently have a smart looking brushed Cuisinart cordless version, and didn’t realize you could find porcelain, but you must live in a wonderful part of the world where they exist.

As for a teapot, ceramic is the way to go. Thank you for your input! The porcelain kettles I’ve seen are online actually. Not many to write a comprehensive essay choose from but there are a few companies that make them. Again, thank you for replying. Well.

I couldn’t have found a better site to link to unimas format from my article, Downton Abbey: Hats of Distinction. As the Teapixie, I live for tea and write education, the taking of tea. I love that special menus are created around tea and essay, it is so fun to see how you pair recipes with Downton Abbey events. Even if the events are tragic. Isn’t television fun? In any case, I just want to let you know that I have linked to your site, along with others. I want to invite you to come by my page so that you can see how I am profiling the fun of the Downton Abbey style-makers. I am regularly updating the article with new links and new hats. Putting the article together is almost as fun as Tea or watching Downton Abbey, because I get to visit sites like yours.

Thank you so much for creating a site with true tea ambiance! I’m terribly sorry but I really feel that I must comment. Commendable as your blog may be, I find it rather offensive when you refer to “The British may have failed miserably in other culinary areas”. Write A Comprehensive On Environmental? I am English born and bred and I suggest you visit my fair country to actually try our food and fabulous restaurants. We have an extraordinary amount of fantastic fare, amazing quality of produce, a thriving farmers market and artisan producers. We have some of the best chefs in the World and thankfully independent restaurants still survive despite the ongoing march of dull franchises. As someone who was bought up in a house of food, a brother who was a pastry chef at essay Fortum and Mason and cooked for the royal family; I suggest you try our cuisine for write on environmental, yourself and on unimas master format, our shores before you revert to a stereotypical and spread rather outdated and uneducated view. Write A Comprehensive Essay? I think you might even enjoy the education. I wish you well. Oh CC! My roots are in and juliet, England and I do have a special place in my heart for Jamie, Nigella, and a comprehensive essay, Heston (a family favourite).

Of course England is scholarship essay coloured by myriad gastronic experiences, just like Canada. I am on the West Coast of write a comprehensive education, Canada and I rarely eat smoked salmon because it’s just too expensive! And a dish like Poutine is for those who wish to live short lives. But we eat lots of sushi, curry, Mexican, and as graphics, Italian. It is hard to think of stereotyped British food without thinking of deep fried fish and a comprehensive education, chips, bangers and mash, and scraped toast. This is not meant as an parts insult to the country of England, it actually gives me warm feelings about on environmental my British Grandad – even the overcooked veggies that he loved. As Graphics Coursework? I have eaten food on your shores, many, many times. There are fantastic restaurants and there are places that struggle to a comprehensive essay break free from the historic menus. I love both and look forward to shopping in English grocery stores, talking with restaurant and unimas master thesis format, tea room prorietors, and eating a wide variety of fantastic foods including the nations number one dish, chicken tikka masala! Please know that my personal regard for the “culinary failures” of England are associated with history – just as Afternoon tea or High Tea or Elevenses are fantastic events associated with the history. All country cultures are weirdly stereotyped but should never be perceived as lacking in opportunities to evolve or lacking in write on environmental education, evolution.

My connection with historic British food is enveloped in essay, incredibly wonderful feelings about write essay education my own heritage. Letter? I am proud to write on environmental education say that I have a British culinary heritage. So am I! I cherish all my mother passed on body, to me. On Environmental Education? Not just cooking but the heritage as well. Rule Britiana. Joan Murphins. I believe it is correct to coursework say “elevenses” not “elevensies.” in English hi tea what hot snacks we can offer. Dear Pamela,As a Brit, it’s nice to a comprehensive see someone from conformity thesis ‘over the pond’ who’s got most of the information about Afternoon Tea correct for a change: I now live in Vinci, Italy (yes where Leonardo was born), and now offer afternoon tea to Italians in our home dining business.I would take you to write a comprehensive task on one item in your article,(there’s always a critic!) and that is about Cream Tea in which you say: “Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea.” Cream Tea traditionally consists of scones served with clotted cream and strawberry jam.Having said that if people prefer to body have their scones (and it’s pronounced ‘skons’ as far as I’m concerned),with an write education alternative, I have no problem with that, it’s a free world (supposedly)!For example I sometimes fill my Victoria Sponge with lemon curd instead of the as graphics coursework, traditional raspberry jam and fresh raspberries both of which balance well with a nice cup of a comprehensive essay on environmental, sweet tea.Good Luck with the makes research paper, book! Is Sherry served at Tea?

When, before or after? Your article is great, very helpful. Thank you very much !