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rrc umts resume This application is a continuation application of and claims the benefits of engagement U.S. application Ser. No. 12/487,655, filed 2009 Jun. 19, which claims the benefits of U.S. Provisional Application No.

61/074,989, filed 2008 Jun. Research Report! 23, and is included herein by reference. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to a wireless communication system, and more particularly, to a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system and a related device.

2. Description of the Prior Art. A long-term evolution (LTE) system, initiated by the third generation partnership project (3GPP), is dissertation now being regarded as a new radio interface and write research, a radio network architecture that provides a high data rate, low latency, packet optimization, and improved system capacity and coverage. Employee Engagement! In the LTE system, an tourism development essay, evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN) includes a plurality of evolved Node-Bs (eNBs) and communicates with a plurality of engagement mobile stations, also referred as user equipments (UEs). Please refer to FIG. 1 . FIG.

1 is a diagram showing the architecture of the radio interface protocol of a LTE system according to the prior art. As shown in FIG. 1 , the are mobile coursework radio interface protocol of the LTE system includes three layers: the Physical Layer (L1), the Data Link Layer (L2), and the Network Layer (L3), wherein a control plane of L3 is a Radio Resource Control (RRC) layer, and L2 is further divided into a Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer, a Radio Link Control (RLC) layer and a Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an RRC re-establishment procedure of the LTE system according to dissertation employee engagement the prior art. As can be seen from FIG. Tourism In Rotorua! 2 , if an RRC connection is disconnected due to engagement radio link failure, an RRC re-establishment procedure needs to be initiated to re-establish the how to write research RRC connection. In the employee beginning, the UE 110 sends an important, RRC Connection Re-establishment request message to employee the E-UTRAN 120 . Upon reception of the RRC Connection re-establishment request message, the important E-UTRAN 120 responds by sending an dissertation employee, RRC Connection Re-establishment message to important moral the UE 110 . When receiving the dissertation employee RRC Connection Re-establishment message, the UE resumes a signal radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) and configures a lower layer to re-activate security (including integrity protection and ciphering) using the previously configured algorithm immediately. Are Mobile Dangerous! In other words, integrity protection and ciphering shall be applied to all subsequent messages received and sent by the UE 110 . After that, the dissertation engagement UE 110 sends an RRC Connection re-establishment complete message to notify the E-UTRAN 120 that the RRC connection is connected again.

To resume all radio bearers other than the SRB 1 , the E-UTRAN 120 shall initiate an RRC Connection reconfiguration procedure after the tourism in rotorua RRC connection is re-established, wherein the RRC Connection reconfiguration procedure is to modify the employee engagement RRC connection. However, it is not clearly specified how to resume SRBs and data radio bearers (DRBs) after the RRC Connection re-establishment procedure and coursework, the subsequent RRC connection reconfiguration in some scenarios. Dissertation Employee Engagement! For example, if the UE 110 is important values handed over from a first eNodeB to a second eNodeB, the compressor's context in a transmitting PDCP entity has been updated while the decompressor's context in a receiving PDCP entity has not been updated. Therefore, header decompressions in the receiving PDCP entity cannot decompress the PDCP SDUs correctly after resumption. Engagement! Hence, a mechanism for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment needs to be improved. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION.

It is one of the objectives of the present invention to provide a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system and related devices to a scientific solve the abovementioned problems. According to an exemplary embodiment of the dissertation present invention, a communication device of a wireless communication system for synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations with another communication device is provided. The communication device comprises means for performing an RRC Reconfiguration procedure to are mobile coursework resume all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an employee, RRC connection is re-established, and means for transmitting PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) with a reset header compression protocol or receiving PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) with a reset header de-compression protocol after a designated data radio bearer (DRB) is resumed. According to how to write research another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an communication device for synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations with a user equipment (UE) is provided. The communication device comprises: means for engagement, initiating an RRC Reconfiguration procedure to resume all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an RRC connection is re-established; means for re-transmitting a designated group of PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) to the UE when a data radio bearer (DRB) mapped on tourism, Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode (RLC AM) is resumed; means for generating a new base-key (KeNB) corresponding to a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection re-establishment procedure, and generating a new ciphering key from the dissertation employee engagement new KeNB; and means for utilizing the new ciphering key to dissertation on capital cipher the re-transmitted PDCP SDUs.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a communication device for synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations with an dissertation, Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) is disclosed. The communication device comprises: means for resuming all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an RRC connection is re-established; means for receiving a designated group of PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) transmitted from the E-UTRAN when a data radio bearer (DRB) mapped on Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode (RLC AM) is resumed; means for generating a new base-key (KeNB) corresponding to dangerous a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection re-establishment procedure, and generating a new ciphering key from the new KeNB; and means for utilizing the new ciphering key to decipher the re-transmitted PDCP SDUs. According to another exemplary embodiment of the dissertation present invention, a method for synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations in a wireless communication system is disclosed. The method comprises: performing an RRC Reconfiguration procedure to for chemistry resume all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an RRC connection is re-established; and transmitting PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) with a reset header compression protocol or receiving PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) with a reset header de-compression protocol after a designated data radio bearer (DRB) is resumed. According to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a method of synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations with a user equipment (UE) is disclosed.

The method comprises: initiating an RRC Reconfiguration procedure to resume all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an RRC connection is re-established; re-transmitting a designated group of PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) to the UE when a data radio bearer (DRB) mapped on Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode (RLC AM) is resumed; generating a new base-key (KeNB) corresponding to a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection re-establishment procedure, and generating a new ciphering key from the new KeNB; and utilizing the employee engagement new ciphering key to cipher the re-transmitted PDCP SDUs. According to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a method synchronizing Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) operations with an Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) is disclosed. Thesis Restatement! The method comprises: resuming all radio bearers other than a signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB 1 ) when an RRC connection is re-established; receiving a designated group of PDCP Service Data Units (SDUs) transmitted from the dissertation employee E-UTRAN when a data radio bearer (DRB) mapped on Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode (RLC AM) is resumed; generating a new base-key (KeNB) corresponding to a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection re-establishment procedure, and generating a new ciphering key from the new KeNB; and utilizing the new ciphering key to decipher the re-transmitted PDCP SDUs. In summary, the write a scientific present invention provides a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system and a related device. Through adopting the mechanism disclosed in the present invention, the PDCP operations between the UE and the E-UTRAN after RRC connection re-establishment can be synchronized to dissertation employee engagement avoid the following issues, such as the missing PDCP SDU issue in on capital budgeting, RLC AM, the header decompression failure issue, the dissertation inefficient key usage issue, and on capital budgeting, the ciphering key issue. These and other objectives of the present invention will no doubt become obvious to those of ordinary skill in the art after reading the following detailed description of the engagement preferred embodiment that is illustrated in the various figures and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is tourism development a diagram showing the architecture of the radio interface protocol of an engagement, LTE system according to restatement the prior art. FIG.

2 is a diagram showing an RRC re-establishment procedure of the LTE system according to the prior art. FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing a wireless communication system according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4 is dissertation a diagram illustrating PDCP SDUs received by development, a receiving PDCP entity. FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating a method for dissertation engagement, synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in are mobile dangerous coursework, a wireless communication system according to an exemplary embodiment of the dissertation employee engagement present invention.

FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection re-establishment in are mobile phones dangerous coursework, a wireless communication system according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

8 is a flowchart illustrating a method for dissertation employee engagement, synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in for chemistry, a wireless communication system according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Dissertation Engagement! 9 is a flowchart illustrating a method for lab reports for chemistry, synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system according to employee engagement another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 10 is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in a wireless communication system according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC connection re-establishment in write, a wireless communication system according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Please refer to FIG. 3 . FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing a wireless communication system 300 according to dissertation engagement an embodiment of the present invention.

The wireless communication system 300 can be an LTE system, but this should not be a limitation of the lab reports present invention, and can be wireless communication systems of other types. The wireless communication system 300 includes, but is not limited to, a UE 310 and an E-UTRAN 350 . The UTRAN E- 350 includes a transmitting PDCP entity 360 , and the UE 310 includes a receiving PDCP entity 320 . Operations of the dissertation employee transmitting PDCP entity 360 and the receiving PDCP entity 320 will be detailed in the embodiments below. Please note that In the following embodiments, FIG. 4-FIG . 8 are examples for resumption of DRBs mapped on Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode (RLC AM), FIG. 9-FIG . In Rotorua Essay! 10 are examples for resumption of DRBs mapped on RLC UM, and FIG. 11 is an example for resumption of an SRB 1 and an SRB 2 . Please refer to FIG. 4 . FIG. 4 is dissertation engagement a diagram illustrating PDCP SDUs received by the receiving PDCP entity 320 shown in FIG. 3 . As shown in FIG.

4 , five PDCP SDUs 410 - 450 are in-sequence transmitted by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 . In this embodiment, the PDCP SDUs 410 - 450 are transmitted in RLC AM, thus the receiving PDCP entity 320 needs to send an RLC acknowledgement to thesis restatement confirm the reception of the PDCP SDUs. After a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, the PDCP SDUs 420 and 450 are successfully received while the PDCP SDUs 410 , 430 , and dissertation employee engagement, 440 are not successfully received by restatement, the receiving PDCP entity 320 due to radio link failure. Actually, the PDCP SDU 410 is successfully received but has not been confirmed yet by a lower layer of the receiving PDCP entity 320 . To recover the missing PDCP SDUs, three solutions are proposed below. [Solution- 1 ]: After the DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, the transmitting PDCP entity 360 retransmits all the PDCP SDUs 410 - 450 from the first PDCP SDU 410 of which a successful delivery of corresponding PDCP PDUs have not been confirmed by the lower layer. This solution can solve the dissertation engagement PDCP SDU missing issue above, but wastes radio resource due to are mobile phones coursework re-transmission. [Solution- 2 ]: After the DRB mapped on employee, RLC AM is resumed, the transmitting PDCP entity 360 retransmits the PDCP SDUs of which the successful delivery of the corresponding PDCP PDUs has not been confirmed by are mobile phones coursework, the lower layer. In other words, the dissertation employee engagement PDCP SDUs 410 , 430 , and 440 are re-transmitted. This solution can improve the method mentioned in the first solution, but still wastes radio resource due to re-transmission. Tourism Essay! [Solution- 3 ]: After the DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, the receiving PDCP entity 320 transmits a PDCP status report configured by RRC to dissertation the transmitting PDCP entity 360 . Lab Reports! After that, the transmitting PDCP entity 360 re-transmits the dissertation engagement PDCP SDUs negatively acknowledged in for chemistry, the PDCP status report. In other words, the PDCP SDUs 430 and 440 are re-transmitted according to the PDCP status report. If an in-sequence delivery of engagement upper layer PDUs is needed in the second solution and essay, the third solution, the employee engagement receiving PDCP entity 320 needs to are mobile phones coursework decipher the received out-of sequence PDCP SDUs and reorder them. A timer is started for reordering the received PDCP SDUs when the DRB mapped on dissertation employee, RLC AM is resumed. When the timer expires, the reordering is restatement done and the received PDCP SDUs are delivered to an upper layer.

The abovementioned solutions 1 - 3 are shown in FIG. Engagement! 5 , which is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection Re-establishment in a wireless communication system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The method includes the restatement following steps: Step 502 : A DRB mapped on engagement, RLC AM is resumed. Step 504 : A designated group of PDCP SDUs are not successfully received due to radio link failure. Step 510 : Re-transmitting all the research report PDCP SDUs from the dissertation engagement first PDCP SDU of which the successful delivery of the corresponding PDCP PDUs have not been confirmed by the lower layer. Step 520 : Re-transmitting the PDCP SDUs of which the restatement successful delivery of the corresponding PDCP PDUs have not been confirmed by dissertation employee engagement, the lower layer. Step 530 : Transmitting a PDCP status report configured by thesis, RRC to the transmitting PDCP entity. Step 532 : Re-transmitting the PDCP SDUs negatively acknowledged in the PDCP status report.

For a DRB mapped on dissertation employee engagement, RLC AM, header decompression in the receiving PDCP entity 320 may not work after resumption. For example, five compressed PDCP SDUs are not transmitted successfully by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 due to radio link failure. The compressor's context in how to write a scientific research, the transmitting PDCP entity 360 has been updated but the decompressor's context in the receiving PDCP entity 320 has not been updated. To solve this problem, two solutions are proposed as below. [Solution- 4 ]: After a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, the header compression protocol is reset by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 and the de-compression protocol is dissertation engagement reset by the receiving PDCP entity 320 . [Solution- 5 ]: After a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, header compression and lab reports, decompression protocols are not reset. The receiving PDCP entity 320 does not perform a header decompression on the received out-of-sequence PDCP SDUs in employee, a reordering buffer if the how to a scientific report out-of-sequence PDCP SDUs are received due to RLC re-establishment.

The UE 310 further includes a timer Discard_Timer associated with the received PDCP SDUs, wherein the timer Discard_Timer is started to engagement reorder the received out-of-sequence PDCP SDUs in the reordering buffer to generate received in-sequence PDCP SDUs when a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed. When the timer Discard_Timer expires, the receiving PDCP entity 320 performs a header decompression on the received in-sequence PDCP SDUs in the reordering buffer and then delivers the PDCP SDUs to the upper layer after decompression. The abovementioned solutions 4 - 5 are shown in FIG. Moral Values! 6 , which is a flowchart illustrating a method for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection Re-establishment in a wireless communication system according to dissertation engagement another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The method includes the phones dangerous coursework following steps: Step 602 : A DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed.

Step 604 : Header decompression in the receiving PDCP entity cannot work after resumption. Step 610 : Reset the header compression and de-compression protocols. Step 620 : Start a timer Discard Timer to reorder received PDCP SDUs to generate received in-sequence PDCP SDUs after a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed. Step 622 : When the timer expires, perform a header decompression on the received in-sequence PDCP SDUs. A new base-key (KeNB) is always derived corresponding to the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure.

However, the lifetime of the employee engagement new key is decreased due to dissertation on capital waste of usable HFN and Sequence Number space if state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN are not initiated to zero. The state variable Next_PDCP_TX_SN indicates the PDCP sequence number of the next PDCP SDU. The state variable TX_HFN indicates the HFN value for employee, the generation of the COUNT value used for the PDCP PDUs. The state variable Next_PDCP_RX_SN indicates the next expected PDCP sequence number by the receiving PDCP entity. Lab Reports! The state variable RX_HFN indicates the HFN value for the generation of the employee engagement COUNT value used for moral values, the received PDCP PDUs. To avoid the inefficient key usage, one solution is proposed as below. [Solution- 6 ]: After a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, the dissertation state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN and TX_HFN are reset to initial values by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 . The state variables of are mobile dangerous coursework Next_PDCP_RX_SN and RX_HFN are reset to initial values by the receiving PDCP entity 320 . The abovementioned solution 6 is shown in dissertation engagement, FIG.

7 , which includes the following steps: Step 702 : A DRB mapped on thesis, RLC AM is resumed. Step 704 : The lifetime of a new key KeNB is dissertation employee engagement decreased due to waste of usable HFN and Sequence Number space. Step 710 : Reset the state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN to are mobile dangerous coursework initial values, respectively. As mentioned above, a new base-key (KeNB) is always derived corresponding to the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure. A new ciphering key is also generated from the new KeNB. However, it is not clear which ciphering key (old or new) is used to cipher and decipher the retransmitted PDCP PDUs proposed in the solutions 1 - 3 . Dissertation! To solve this problem, one solution is thesis restatement proposed as below. [Solution- 7 ]: The retransmitted PDCP PDUs are ciphered with the new ciphering key derived by a new KeNB generated by the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure. The abovementioned solution 7 is employee shown in FIG. 8 , which includes the following steps: Step 802 : Perform an in rotorua, RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure.

Step 804 : After a DRB mapped on RLC AM is resumed, re-transmit a designated group of PDCP SDUs being not successfully received. Step 806 : Generate a new KeNB corresponding to dissertation engagement the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure, and in rotorua, generate a new ciphering key from the new KeNB. Step 810 : Utilize the new ciphering key to cipher the re-transmitted PDCP SDUs. For a DRB mapped on RLC UM, header decompression in the receiving PDCP entity 320 may not work after resumption. For example, five compressed PDCP SDUs are not transmitted successfully by employee engagement, the transmitting PDCP entity 360 due to radio link failure. Lab Reports! The compressor's context in the transmitting PDCP entity 360 has been updated but the decompressor's context in the receiving PDCP entity 320 has not been updated. To solve this problem, one solution is proposed as below. [Solution- 8 ]: After a DRB mapped on RLC UM is resumed, the header compression protocol is employee engagement reset by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 and the de-compression protocol is budgeting reset by the receiving PDCP entity 320 . The abovementioned solution 8 is shown in FIG. 9 , which includes the following steps:

Step 902 : A DRB mapped on dissertation employee engagement, RLC UM is resumed. Step 904 : Header decompression in the receiving PDCP entity cannot work after resumption. Step 910 : Reset the header compression and de-compression protocols. In this embodiment, a DRB mapped on RLC UM is resumed. As mentioned above, a new KeNB is always derived corresponding to the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure. However, the lifetime of the phones new key is decreased due to dissertation engagement waste of usable HFN and are mobile phones, Sequence Number space if state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN are not initiated to zero. To avoid the engagement inefficient key usage, one solution is proposed as below. [Solution- 9 ]: After a DRB mapped on RLC UM is resumed, the state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN and TX_HFN are reset to initial values by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 . The state variables of Next_PDCP_RX_SN and how to write research, RX_HFN are reset to initial values by the receiving PDCP entity 320 . The abovementioned solution 9 is shown in dissertation engagement, FIG. 10 , which includes the following steps:

Step 1002 : A DRB mapped on RLC UM is resumed. Step 1004 : The lifetime of a new key KeNB is decreased due to waste of usable HFN and Sequence Number space. Step 1010 : Reset the thesis restatement state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN to initial values, respectively. In this embodiment, SRB 1 and SRB 2 are resumed. Dissertation Employee Engagement! As mentioned above, a new KeNB is always derived corresponding to the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure. However, the lab reports for chemistry lifetime of the new key is decreased due to waste of engagement usable HFN and Sequence Number space if state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN are not initiated to zero.

To avoid the inefficient key usage, one solution is proposed as below. [Solution- 10 ]: After an SRB 1 and an SRB 2 are resumed, the state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN and TX_HFN are reset to initial values by the transmitting PDCP entity 360 . The state variables of lab reports Next_PDCP_RX_SN and RX_HFN are reset to initial values by the receiving PDCP entity 320 . The abovementioned solution 10 is shown in FIG. 11 , which includes the following steps: Step 1102 : SRB 1 and SRB 2 are resumed. Step 1104 : The lifetime of a new key KeNB is decreased due to waste of usable HFN and Sequence Number space. Step 1110 : Reset the state variables of Next_PDCP_TX_SN, TX_HFN, Next_PDCP_RX_SN, and RX_HFN to initial values. The steps of the methods mentioned above are merely practicable embodiments of the present invention, and in no way should be considered to be limitations of the scope of the present invention.

The methods can include other intermediate steps or several steps can be merged into a single step for suitable modifications without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Of course, the abovementioned embodiments are merely examples for illustrating features of the present invention and should not be seen as limitations of the present invention. It will be obvious to those skilled in employee, the art that various modifications on the mechanism for synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection Re-establishment in a wireless communication system may be made without departing from the spirit of the dissertation on capital budgeting present invention, and this should also belong to the scope of the present invention. The abovementioned embodiments are presented merely for describing features of the dissertation employee present invention, and in thesis, no way should be considered to employee engagement be limitations of the scope of the present invention. In summary, the present invention provides a method for dissertation report budgeting, synchronizing PDCP operations after RRC Connection Re-establishment in a wireless communication system and a related device. Through adopting the mechanism disclosed in dissertation, the present invention, the abovementioned issues raised due to the RRC Connection Re-establishment can be solved.

For example, the missing PDCP SDU issue in RLC AM can be solved by dissertation on capital, adopting the solutions 1 - 3 ; the header decompression fail issue can be solved by adopting the solutions 4 - 5 and 8 ; the inefficient key usage issue can be solved by adopting the solutions 6 , 9 , and 10 ; and dissertation employee, the ciphering key issue can be solved by adopting the solution 7 . Therefore, the PDCP operations between the UE and for chemistry, the E-UTRAN after RRC Connection Re-establishment can be synchronized to avoid the issues mentioned above. Those skilled in the art will readily observe that numerous modifications and alterations of the device and method may be made while retaining the teachings of the employee invention. Accordingly, the above disclosure should be construed as limited only by the metes and bounds of the appended claims.

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5 Speechwriting Lessons from dissertation employee, Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech. Some will argue that Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech was not his most electric speech , or that it failed to deliver on unreasonably high expectations . Moral. Nonetheless, studying the speech provides five key speechwriting lessons that can help us all be better communicators. This article is the latest in a series of video speech critiques which help you analyze and learn from excellent speeches. Speech Video: Barack Obama delivers Inauguration Speech. I encourage you to: Watch the video below (or listen to the audio); Read the analysis in this speech critique; Study the speech text in the complete transcript; and Share your thoughts on this presentation. Speech Analysis Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Address. Note that numbers in square brackets (e.g. Dissertation. [14]) refer to paragraph numbers in the speech text at the end of this article.

Speechwriting Lesson #1: Start with a Strong, Simple Speech Outline. Speech analysis by media pundits often focuses exclusively on the soundbites #8212; a few phrases here and lab reports, there hole-punched out of a 17-minute speech. It is easy to engagement, forget that other words were used to phones dangerous, stitch together those soundbites into dissertation engagement (hopefully) a cohesive whole. So, it is for chemistry worthwhile to study and analyze the speech outline of Obama#8217;s inauguration speech, because all speechwriters can learn from the strong, simple structure which helped convey his message coherently. My own wishlist for his speech was that he would accomplish five tasks: Be frank and honest about the realities of the dissertation employee engagement, economy and wars Address the sagging morale and lack of confidence Appear strong Offer an olive branch to the world Make a call-to-action for personal contributions (along the lines of #8220;Ask not what your country can do#8230;#8221;) I think Obama achieved all of these aims in his inauguration speech using a simple six-part structure: Some will point to Obama#8217;s mention of Bush as mere formality, but it#8217;s more significant than that. Obama is preaching respect for the individual regardless of whether you agree with them. Thus, it is moral important he follows his own advice.

To do otherwise would damage his credibility. Honestly acknowledge the economic crisis [paragraphs 3-7] Obama was blunt and direct, using phrases like #8220; the challenges #8230; are real. They are serious and they are many. #8221; He didn#8217;t promise solutions in this year or the employee, next. He didn#8217;t sugarcoat it, and I applaud him for that. As the economic issue is tourism development essay #1 in the minds of Americans, he was wise to address this first in his speech. Equally important, he showed great resolve and leadership with his powerful #8220; But know this, America #8212; they will be met. #8220; Americans have always faced crises and engagement, overcome them [paragraphs 8-17] In this section of the restatement, speech, Obama stays consistent with his message of hope that won him the election.

He is speaking directly to millions of Americans who feel the #8220; sapping of confidence across our land #8221; [paragraph 6]. He cites scripture [10], refers to engagement, the Declaration of Independence [10], and then reminds his audience of the struggles of the past which were overcome [paragraphs 12-15]. He concludes this section by important reminding everyone that the dissertation employee, core American strength still persists [paragraph 16]. Address cynics [paragraphs 18-20] This brief interlude seems to be aimed at Congress and other political forces. In an important moral, attempt to persuade those who are skeptical of his plans, the key phrase here is dissertation employee engagement #8220;Their memories are short.#8221; Speak about and to the World [paragraphs 21-26] This section was very, very strong. His words are strong, yet friendly. He charts a new foreign policy which is anchored on common, human ideals. I expect that this part of the speech will be received quite favorably around the world.

The solution lies within the how to research, determination of the people [paragraphs 27-35] Obama transitions back to employee, the American people with remarkable skill. Drawing a parallel between the armed forces and phones coursework, normal citizens in terms of embodying a spirit of service was masterful. This is the call-to-action which I was particularly looking for, and he delivered beyond expectations. The concluding story taken from the Revolutionary war was a great metaphor, and employee, a fine way to conclude. Speechwriting Lesson #2: Craft Impactful Lines. The message and outline are more important, but the soundbites are important too. How To Research. If there#8217;s one weakness in Obama#8217;s speech , it#8217;s that there#8217;s no clear , unmistakable phrase which people will be quoting years from now (although only time holds the definitive judgment). There was no #8220;Ask not what your country can do for you#8221;.

There was no #8220;I have a dream#8221;. Employee Engagement. There was no #8220;This was their finest hour.#8221; There was no #8220;Yes we can.#8221; But that#8217;s not to say that this speech was lacking in wonderfully crafted and impactful lines . As I listened, several of these resonated strongly with me and I found myself thinking #8220;Oh, what a line!#8221; #8220; #8230; begin again the work of remaking America. Dissertation Budgeting. #8221; [paragraph 16] #8220; Their memories are short. Employee Engagement. #8221; [18] (I particularly loved the tourism in rotorua, brevity of this line) #8220; The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works #8221; [19] (He busts open the debate by reframing the question.) #8220; [W]e reject as false the employee engagement, choice between our safety and our ideals. #8221; [21] (A particularly sharp indictment of Bush#8217;s policies.) #8220; [W]e are ready to lead once more. #8221; [21] (Simply stated, but this is exactly what America#8217;s allies wanted to hear.) #8220; For the world has changed, and we must change with it. #8221; [26] #8220; What is required now is a new era of responsibility #8221; [29] Finally, although it wasn#8217;t a single line, I loved everything about how paragraphs 27 and 28 were crafted (which included #8220; a moment that will define a generation #8220;, even though it is a somewhat cliche statement). Will any of in rotorua essay, these be quoted decades from now? It#8217;s impossible to tell, but my money is on dissertation employee engagement, #8220; the work of remaking America #8221; or #8220; a new era of responsibility .#8221; Speechwriting Lesson #3: Employ the tourism in rotorua essay, Magical Rule of Three. Employee. Finding examples of the Rule of Three in speeches by great speakers is like finding smiling kids in dissertation, a candy store. Dissertation Employee. Examples abound!

But this does not lessen the importance of this speechwriting tactic. Quite the opposite! If all the are mobile dangerous, Presidential speechwriters wield the Rule of employee engagement, Three, why don#8217;t you do it more often ? Here are just some of the examples in the inauguration speech of varying length: grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by report on capital our ancestors. #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Homes have been lost; businesses shuttered. #8221; [5] #8220; Our health care is dissertation employee engagement too costly; our schools fail too many; and all deserve [#8230;] pursue [#8230;] happiness. #8221; [10] #8220; struggled and sacrificed and worked #8221; [15] #8220; birth or wealth or faction #8221; [15] #8220; we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the lab reports, work of remaking America #8221; [16] #8220; to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day #8221; [19] #8220; the justness of employee, our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint. Thesis. #8221; [22] Speechwriting Lesson #4: Amplify Words by Drawing Contrasts. As pointed out in the speech analysis of dissertation employee, Martin Luther King#8217;s #8220;I Have a Dream#8221;, sometimes the best way to highlight and important values, sharpen concepts is to introduce contrast . Here are a few examples from Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech: #8220; rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace #8221; versus #8220; gathering clouds and raging storms #8221; [paragraph 3] #8220; know that your people will judge you on dissertation engagement, what you can build, not what you destroy. #8221; [25] #8220; we will extend a hand if you are willing to values, unclench your fist #8221; [25] #8220; a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. #8221; [32] Speechwriting Lesson #5: Thread Your Theme Throughout Your Speech. If the core message of dissertation employee engagement, your speech is the plot of the story, then the theme of your speech is the setting and how to a scientific research report, mood . Stated another way, your message is the what you say #8212; your theme is the how you say it . Inauguration speeches are very naturally set with themes that emphasize the continuity and progress of engagement, a nation. Thesis Restatement. Whatever the concerns of the era, they can be expressed relative to the past. The theme for Obama#8217;s inauguration speech could be expressed as #8220; drawing strength from our common past #8220;. (This is consistent with Obama#8217;s intellect #8212; he is well versed in the nation#8217;s history through his studies of Lincoln and others.) This speech repeatedly drew examples from the past and even urged the people to return to old values near the dissertation employee engagement, end of the dissertation report, speech: But those values upon dissertation, which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old.

These things are true. They have been the quiet force of important, progress throughout our history. What is dissertation employee demanded then is a return to report on capital, these truths. Dissertation. All in report, all, there are numerous references to the past to dissertation engagement, set the theme for this speech: #8220; mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath #8221; [3] #8220; faithful to the ideals of our forebearers, and true to our founding documents #8221; [3] #8220; So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. #8221; [4] #8220; passed on from generation to generation #8221; [10] #8220; Our journey has never been #8230; #8221; [11] #8220; Concord and Gettysburg ; Normandy and restatement, Khe Sahn #8221; [14] At seven words, this passage is wonderfully brief, yet manages to span four wars: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War II, and Vietnam War, respectively. #8220; Their memories are short. #8221; [18] #8220; Our Founding Fathers [#8230;] expanded by the blood of generations. Engagement. #8221; [21] #8220; Recall that earlier generations#8230; #8221; [22] #8220; the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington #8221; [27] #8220; But those values upon dissertation, which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. Employee. What is demanded then is a return to tourism development in rotorua essay, these truths. #8221; [29] #8220; In the year of employee engagement, America’s birth#8230; #8221; [33] Verbal snapshot: Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguation Speech (larger words used more often) Barack Obama Inauguration Speech Prepared Text. [1] My fellow citizens: [2] I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors.

I thank President Bush for his service to write a scientific, our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Employee Engagement. [3] Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the development essay, People have remained faithful to the ideals of dissertation employee engagement, our forbearers, and true to our founding documents. [4] So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. [5] That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Important Moral Values. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of dissertation employee engagement, greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet. Tourism Development In Rotorua Essay. [6] These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics.

Less measurable but no less profound is a sapping of confidence across our land a nagging fear that America#8217;s decline is inevitable, and that the next generation must lower its sights. [7] Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. Dissertation Employee. But know this, America they will be met. [8] On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over restatement, fear, unity of employee engagement, purpose over conflict and discord. [9] On this day, we come to proclaim an end to important moral, the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations and dissertation employee, worn out budgeting, dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics. [10] We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the employee, God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to development essay, pursue their full measure of happiness. [11] In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less. Employee. It has not been the how to a scientific report, path for the faint-hearted for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of employee engagement, riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things some celebrated but more often men and women obscure in their labor, who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. [12] For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life. [13] For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and plowed the dissertation report on capital budgeting, hard earth. [14] For us, they fought and died, in dissertation employee engagement, places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.

[15] Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions; greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction. [16] This is the on capital, journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Employee Engagement. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and for chemistry, services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year. Engagement. Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America. [17] For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. The state of the tourism in rotorua, economy calls for action, bold and swift, and we will act not only to create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth.

We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technology#8217;s wonders to raise health care#8217;s quality and lower its cost. We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and engagement, colleges and universities to meet the phones dangerous, demands of a new age. All this we can do. And all this we will do. [18] Now, there are some who question the dissertation employee, scale of our ambitions who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short.

For they have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and lab reports, women can achieve when imagination is joined to dissertation engagement, common purpose, and necessity to tourism development in rotorua essay, courage. [19] What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the answer is no, programs will end. Dissertation. And those of us who manage the thesis, public#8217;s dollars will be held to dissertation, account to dissertation report, spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day because only then can we restore the vital trust between a people and their government. [20] Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. Engagement. Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of control and that a nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous. The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but on the reach of our prosperity; on are mobile coursework, our ability to engagement, extend opportunity to tourism development essay, every willing heart not out of employee engagement, charity, but because it is the surest route to our common good. [21] As for our common defense, we reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals. Our Founding Fathers, faced with perils we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to tourism in rotorua, assure the rule of law and the rights of man, a charter expanded by the blood of generations.

Those ideals still light the world, and dissertation employee, we will not give them up for are mobile coursework expedience#8217;s sake. And so to all other peoples and governments who are watching today, from the grandest capitals to the small village where my father was born: know that America is a friend of dissertation employee, each nation and phones coursework, every man, woman, and child who seeks a future of dissertation, peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more. A Scientific Report. [22] Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and communism not just with missiles and tanks, but with sturdy alliances and enduring convictions. They understood that our power alone cannot protect us, nor does it entitle us to do as we please. Instead, they knew that our power grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the justness of employee, our cause, the lab reports for chemistry, force of our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint. [23] We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by these principles once more, we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. We will begin to dissertation engagement, responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and forge a hard-earned peace in Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we will work tirelessly to essay, lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the specter of a warming planet.

We will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defense, and for those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you. [24] For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of dissertation employee engagement, Christians and Muslims, Jews and how to a scientific, Hindus and non-believers. We are shaped by dissertation employee engagement every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the thesis, old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of employee, tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace. [25] To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect. To those leaders around the globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their society#8217;s ills on lab reports for chemistry, the West know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. To those who cling to power through corruption and deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history; but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to engagement, unclench your fist. [26] To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to make your farms flourish and let clean waters flow; to nourish starved bodies and feed hungry minds. And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world#8217;s resources without regard to effect. Dissertation On Capital. For the world has changed, and we must change with it. [27] As we consider the road that unfolds before us, we remember with humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-off deserts and distant mountains. They have something to tell us today, just as the fallen heroes who lie in dissertation engagement, Arlington whisper through the ages. We honor them not only values, because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves. And yet, at engagement, this moment a moment that will define a generation it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all. [28] For as much as government can do and must do, it is ultimately the are mobile, faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. It is the kindness to take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours.

It is the firefighter#8217;s courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent#8217;s willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate. Dissertation Employee Engagement. [29] Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. But those values upon which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and tourism development, fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and employee, patriotism these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of development in rotorua essay, progress throughout our history. Employee. What is demanded then is a return to research, these truths. What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility a recognition, on the part of every American, that we have duties to dissertation engagement, ourselves, our nation, and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of lab reports, our character, than giving our all to a difficult task. [30] This is the price and the promise of dissertation employee, citizenship. [31] This is the source of our confidence the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny. [32] This is the meaning of our liberty and a scientific, our creed why men and dissertation employee engagement, women and important values, children of every race and employee, every faith can join in thesis restatement, celebration across this magnificent mall, and dissertation engagement, why a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. Lab Reports For Chemistry. [33] So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and employee engagement, how far we have traveled. In the year of America#8217;s birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. Lab Reports. The enemy was advancing.

The snow was stained with blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in employee engagement, doubt, the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people: [34] #8220;Let it be told to the future world#8230;that in the depth of values, winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive#8230;that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to employee engagement, meet [it].#8221; [35] America. Lab Reports. In the dissertation employee engagement, face of our common dangers, in this winter of are mobile dangerous, our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and dissertation engagement, endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children#8217;s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God#8217;s grace upon for chemistry, us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations. [36] Thank you. God bless you. Dissertation. [37] And God bless the United States of America. This article is one of a series of speech critiques of inspiring speakers featured on Six Minutes . Report. Subscribe to Six Minutes for dissertation employee engagement free to tourism in rotorua essay, receive future speech critiques. This is a thoughtful and insightful analysis of Obama#8217;s speech.

The 5 lessons are well put and useful for any writer. While in my blog I said Obama#8217;s inaugural was #8216;very good#8217; not #8216;great#8217;, nonetheless, it was artfully constructed and this blog brilliantly shows how. the speech is good to getting to the point and although its not as great and optimistic as people had expected; its truthful and realistic to dissertation employee, the current state and difficulties in which the dissertation report on capital, nations stand. One other thing that he did really did was the use of anaphora in dissertation engagement, paragraphs 12-14, each of these three paragraphs (again, power of three!) beginning with #8220;For us#8221; Liked your comments, but would add lots more and indeed I think there are things to be remembered like the how to write research, one I liked best: we will extend a hand if you are willing to employee engagement, unclench your fist. or your people will judge you#8230; thanks, I will subscribe right away to keep receiving comments and whatever. Tourism Development. This is a suberb speech analysis, almost a complete speech writing course. For me, the dissertation engagement, word pictures are amazing: “rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace” “we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist” Fantastic, easy to understand and the words apply to are mobile phones, all of us. Dissertation. His speech gives us the thing that we all look for#8230; hope, the thing that we all need. The verbal snapshot is very clever, how is it done? I have never read such an impressive and meaningfull speech. I was given an tourism development in rotorua, aasignment by my instructor to analyze different speeches of popular people around the world and my choice was President Barak Obamas.

However, I couldn#8217;t find any shortcoming in the speech. Good bless him so many so many times. Student Melkamu Bersissa. Dissertation Employee Engagement. From Africa, Ethiopia, Haramay University. I really like your article. But it would be great if you did?t just explain how to write a speech but how to analyse it. Thanks from Germany. This article is very useful and wonderfully analysed. Thank you so much. There is report so much skill and knowledge involved to be judgemental about one of the world#8217;s greatest figures in today#8217;s society! thank you !! i have always admired MR Barack Obama speeches.am interested in speech making and i love this article.

Excellent analysis! I like the rhythm created by the rule of dissertation employee, three and use that all the time. I love reading your blog man, every tip is comes across as practical and readily applicable, easy to read and comfortable to dissertation on capital, follow, marvel to understand and a delight to learn. Your blog is a gem. Keep it coming, I#8217;m going to visit your blog everyday from now on. Keep up your good work, thoroughly appreciate you insight intellect.

Excellent analysis of an excellent speech! Very glad to have found this website- I was able to take a lot of key components of speech writing and delivery from this analysis. anyone who loves this country would love the dissertation employee engagement, speech. Thanks a million for an excellent blog from important moral values, a high school teacher in Copenhagen, Denmark! I love this. Employee Engagement. As a teacher it makes my job very easy. I appreciate you offering this lesson! Blessings to you and your family. I usually use Obama#8217;s speeches in phones dangerous, my classes of English. Sir, I would like to read more of your analysis of speeches. Employee Engagement. Thanks. Thanks for the beautiful edition#8230;#8230;.it gav me a better idea of making great speeches#8230;#8230;on the important, other hand it would be much great if it is more illustrated.in simple terms#8230;..thanks.

many thanks for the lessons you share. Dissertation Employee Engagement. I not only like it as it is very academic, but I also make it the tourism in rotorua essay, handout for my students. Again, many thanks. This is good stuff. Thanks! Obama is dissertation employee engagement jewish. Dude Obama is the worst president in American history.

As trump said. Then obama burned him. Wow he got praanked. Now trump is pres. DUDE SO TRUE M8 GET PRANKED. OMG SHUT UP IM TRIGGED. 5 Speech writing Lessons from Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/E4yVNPMt via @6minutes. For Chemistry. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/jfghBkSI via @6minutes. Here is another #speech critic about Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech.

Have a look http://t.co/IBj5WkM5jA #speechwriting #lessons #ruleofthree. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/nJ0nBIC2Ff via @6minutes. #TuesdayTips Excellent speechwriting lessons from President Obama’s Inaugural Speech by @6minutes https://t.co/pxoJkrZjMu. Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/YEB809ZvlB by @6minutes. Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/MDgXhLUyJp by @6minutes. Engagement. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/qzh1bcvcNy by how to write a scientific research report @6minutes. Dissertation Employee. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/7KSSx67XMw by @6minutes.

Humor, audience interaction Dick Hardt (OSCON, 2005) Lessig Method of Presentation. Discusses the different types of stories that every speaker must be able to tell. Tourism Development In Rotorua. Weaves numerous stories through the book. Who Should Read It (1) Anyone who is not yet convinced how powerful storytelling can be. (2) Speakers looking to enhance their story repertoire. Book Review Read our book review.

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Dec 19, 2017 Dissertation employee engagement,

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Subchapter B. PERMITS, TRANSFERS AND OBJECTIONS. 78.12. Compliance with permit. 78.14. Transfer of well ownership or change of address. 78.16. Accelerated permit review. 78.18. Disposal and enhanced recovery well permits. 78.19. Permit application fee schedule.

78.21. Opportunity for objections and dissertation engagement conferences; surface landowners. 78.22. Objections by owner or operator of coal mine. 78.23. Time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine. 78.24. Information to lab reports for chemistry, be provided with objections by employee owner or operator of coal mine. 78.26.

Agreement at conference. 78.27. Continuation of conference. 78.28. Final action if objections do not proceed to panel. 78.29. Lab Reports! Composition of employee engagement, panel. 78.30. Jurisdiction of panel. 78.31. Values! Scheduling of meeting by the panel.

78.32. Recommendation by the panel. 78.33. Employee Engagement! Effect of panel on time for permit issuance. (a) No person may drill or alter a well unless that person has first obtained a permit from the Department. (b) No person may operate a well unless one of the following conditions has been met: (1) The person has obtained a permit under the for chemistry act. (2) The person has registered the well under the engagement act. (3) The well was in important, operation on April 18, 1985, under a permit that was obtained under the Gas Operations Well-Drilling Petroleum and Coal Mining Act (52 P. S. Dissertation Engagement! § § 2104, 2208, 2601 and moral values 2602) (Repealed). The provisions of this § 78.11 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Engagement! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and how to write research report enhanced recovery well permits). A person may not drill, alter or operate an oil or gas well except in accordance with a permit or registration issued under the act and in compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit, this chapter and the statutes under which it was promulgated. A copy of the permit shall be kept at the well site during drilling or alteration of a well. The provisions of dissertation engagement, this § 78.12 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138804). (a) No transfer, assignment or sale of rights granted under a permit or registration may be made without prior written approval of the Department. Permit transfers may be denied for employee engagement the reasons set forth in important moral, section 201(e)(4) and dissertation employee (5) of the in rotorua essay act (58 P. S. § 601.201(e)(4) and dissertation employee engagement (5)). (b) The Department may require the transferee to fulfill the drilling, plugging, well site restoration, water supply replacement and other requirements of the act, regardless of whether the transferor commenced the activity and regardless of whether the research transferor failed to properly perform the transferor#146;s obligations under the employee act. The provisions of this § 78.13 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Are Mobile Dangerous Coursework! 3229. § 78.14.

Transfer of well ownership or change of address. (a) Within 30 days after the sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance or exchange of a well, the new owner or operator shall notify the employee Department, in writing, of the lab reports transfer of ownership. (b) The notice shall include the following information: (1) The names, addresses and telephone numbers of the former and new owner, and the agent if applicable. (2) The well permit or registration number. (3) The effective date of the transfer of ownership. (4) An application for a well permit transfer if there is a change in engagement, the well operator. (c) The permittee shall notify the Department of a change in important moral, address or name within 30 days of the change.

The provisions of this § 78.14 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (193955) to (193956). (a) An application for a well permit shall be submitted on forms furnished by engagement the Department and contain the information required by the Department to evaluate the application. (b) The permit application will not be considered complete until the applicant submits a complete and accurate plat, an approvable bond or other means of complying with section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215), the fee in compliance with § 78.19 (relating to permit application fee schedule), proof of notification, necessary requests for lab reports for chemistry variance or waivers or other documents required to be furnished by employee engagement law or the are mobile phones dangerous Department.

The person named in dissertation, the permit shall be the important values same person named in dissertation employee engagement, the bond or other security. The provisions of this § 78.15 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 1982. Immediately preceding text appears at a scientific serial page (276300). In cases of hardship, an operator may request an accelerated review of a well permit application. For the purposes of this section, hardship includes cases where immediate action is engagement necessary to protect public health or safety, to control pollution or to effect other environmental or safety measures, and how to a scientific research report extraordinary circumstances beyond the control of the operator. Permits issued shall be consistent with the requirements of the act. The provisions of this § 78.16 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. An operator may request a 1-year renewal of a well permit. The request shall be accompanied by a permit fee, the employee surcharge required in section 601 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.601), and an affidavit affirming that the information on are mobile phones coursework the original application is still accurate and complete, that the well location restrictions are still met and that the dissertation surface owners, coal owners and operators, gas storage operators, where the permit renewal is for a proposed well location within an underground gas storage reservoir or the reservoir protective area, and water supply owners within 1,000 feet have been notified of important moral, this request for dissertation employee engagement renewal. The request shall be received by how to write the Department at least 15 calendar days prior to dissertation, the expiration of the original permit. The provisions of this § 78.17 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (263008).

§ 78.18. Dissertation Report On Capital! Disposal and enhanced recovery well permits. (a) A person may not drill a disposal or enhanced recovery well or alter an existing well to be a disposal or enhanced recovery well unless the person: (1) Obtains a well permit under § 78.11 (relating to permit requirements). (2) Submits with the employee engagement well permit application a copy of the well permit, approved permit application and required related documentation submitted for the disposal or enhanced recovery well to the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program). (3) Submits a copy of a control and disposal plan for the disposal or enhanced recovery well and phones related facilities that meets the requirements of § 91.34 (relating to activities utilizing pollutants). (4) Submits a copy of an engagement, erosion and sedimentation plan for the disposal or enhanced recovery well site that meets the report budgeting requirements of Chapter 102 and § 78.53 (relating to engagement, erosion and lab reports for chemistry sediment control; and erosion and sedimentation control). (b) By December 18, 1995, an operator of engagement, disposal or enhanced recovery wells which were operating before December 18, 1995, shall submit to the Department a list of the operator#146;s disposal or enhanced recovery wells including: (1) The Department#146;s permit or registration number for each well on this list. (2) The corresponding permit number issued to each well on this list by the EPA. (c) A person who operates multiple well projects may submit one copy of the documents required under subsection (a) if the documents are applicable to the entire project. The provisions of this § 78.18 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78a.18 (relating to disposal and enhanced recovery well permits); and 25 Pa. On Capital! Code § 95.10 (relating to treatment requirements for new and expanding mass loadings of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)). § 78.19. Permit application fee schedule. (a) An applicant shall pay a permit application fee according to the following schedule: (b) An applicant for a conventional well exceeding 12,000 feet in total well bore length shall pay a permit application fee of $1,950 + $100 for every 500 feet the well bore extends over dissertation employee 12,000 feet. Fees shall be rounded to the nearest 500-foot interval under this subsection. (c) If, when drilled, the total well bore length of the conventional well exceeds the length specified in the permit application due to target formation being deeper than anticipated at the time of lab reports for chemistry, application submittal, the operator shall pay the engagement difference between the amount paid as part of the permit application and tourism in rotorua essay the amount required under subsections (a) and (b).

(d) An applicant for a conventional well with a well bore length of 1,500 feet or less for home use shall pay a permit application fee of employee, $200. (e) At least every 3 years, the Department will provide the EQB with an evaluation of the fees in this chapter and recommend regulatory changes to the EQB to how to a scientific, address any disparity between the program income generated by the fees and the Department#146;s cost of administering the dissertation program with the objective of ensuring fees meet all program costs and programs are self-sustaining. The provisions of this § 78.19 amended under sections 201(d) and phones 604 of the Oil and employee Gas Act (58 P.S. Lab Reports For Chemistry! § § 601.201(d) and 601.604) (Repealed); sections 1917-A and engagement 1920-A of The Administrative Code of for chemistry, 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20); 58 Pa.C.S. Dissertation! § § 3202, 3211(d), 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of lab reports for chemistry, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the employee engagement Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. Report Budgeting! § 693.5); section 104 of the dissertation Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and thesis 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); and section 13.2 of the act of dissertation employee, July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of development essay, The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E). The provisions of this § 78.19 adopted April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 1982; amended October 23, 2009, effective October 24, 2009, 39 Pa.B. Employee Engagement! 6232; amended June 13, 2014, effective June 14, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 3517; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. Thesis! 6431.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (372299) to engagement, (372300). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.15 (relating to application requirements). § 78.21. Opportunity for objections and conferences; surface landowners. (a) The surface landowner of the tract on which the proposed well is located may object to the well location based on the assertion that the well location violates section 205 of the act (58 P. How To A Scientific Research! S. § 601.205) or on the basis that the information in engagement, the application is thesis restatement untrue in a material respect, and request a conference under section 501 of the act (58 P. Dissertation Engagement! S. § 601.501).

(b) The objection and request for a conference shall be filed in writing with the on capital Department within 15 calendar days of receipt of the plat by dissertation the surface landowner. The objection shall contain the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person submitting the write a scientific research report objection. (2) The name of the well operator, and dissertation employee engagement the name and number of the proposed well. (3) A statement of the objection and lab reports for chemistry a request for a conference if a conference is being requested. The provisions of this § 78.21 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.22. Objections by owner or operator of coal mine. The owner or operator of an operating coal mine or a coal mine already projected and platted, but not yet being operated, may file written objections to employee engagement, a proposed well location with the Department if the following apply: (1) The well, when drilled, would penetrate within the outside coal boundaries of such a mine or within 1,000 feet beyond the boundaries. (2) In the opinion of the tourism in rotorua owner or operator, the well will unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or persons working in the mine. The provisions of this § 78.22 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.23. Time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine. (a) A coal mine owner or operator who objects to a proposed gas well for financial considerations, and wishes to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, shall file objections to dissertation, a proposed gas well within 10-calendar days of the receipt of the plat. (b) A coal mine owner or operator who does not wish to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, or who is not raising financial objections to the proposed gas well, shall file objections to a proposed oil or gas well within 15 calendar days of the receipt of the how to research plat.

The provisions of this § 78.23 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.24. Information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine.

(a) The objections shall be filed in writing and dissertation employee shall contain the following information, if applicable: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person filing the objection, and the date on which a copy of the plat was received. (2) The name and write research report address of the applicant for dissertation the well permit and the name and number of the well. (3) The type of well#151;for example, oil, gas, injection and the like#151;that is the subject of the objections. (4) The location of the well in relation to are mobile phones coursework, the coal owned or operated by the objecting party. (5) The area through which the employee well will be drilled, specifically: (i) Whether the well will be drilled through a mining area that is projected, platted or permitted, but not yet being operated. (ii) Whether the well will be drilled through a perimeter area. (iii) Whether the restatement well will penetrate a workable coal seam. (iv) Whether the well will be located above an active mine. (v) Whether the well will penetrate an operating mine. (6) A copy of the plans, maps or projections of the engagement mining area underlying the proposed gas well showing the location of the proposed well. (7) Whether the owner or operator believes that the well will pose undue interference or endangerment to the mine, and the nature of the threat.

(8) The financial impact posed by the well, to which objections may be heard by a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (9) Whether the well will violate the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518) or another applicable law administered by in rotorua essay the Department. (b) The objections shall include an employee engagement, alternate location, if possible, on the tract of the thesis restatement well operator that would overcome the objections or at which the interference would be minimized. The Department is not bound to consider alternate locations that are proposed after the close of the first conference. The provisions of this § 78.24 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) If a timely objection to the location is filed by the coal owner or operator under § § 78.22#151;78.24 (relating to objections by owner or operator of coal mine; time for filing objections by owner or operator of engagement, coal mine; and information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine), or if objections are made by the Department, the Department will fix a time and place for a conference within 10 calendar days from the date of service of the tourism in rotorua essay objections upon the well operator, unless all parties agree to an extension of dissertation employee, time for the conference. (b) The Department may decide not to hold a conference if it determines that the are mobile phones coursework objections are not valid or if the objection is resolved. (c) The Department will attempt to schedule the conference as late as possible in the 10-day period if the well is subject to the Coal and engagement Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. How To Write A Scientific! S. § § 501#151;518). The Department will not schedule a conference under section 202 of the act (58 P. Dissertation Employee! S. § 601.202) if it receives written notice that the gas well operator or the coal mine owner or operator has made a written request to convene a panel to resolve objections to the location of a gas well over which a panel has jurisdiction in accordance with § § 78.29#151;78.33. (d) The conference shall be governed by § § 78.26#151;78.28 (relating to agreement at conference; continuation of conference; and thesis restatement final action if objections do not proceed to panel). (e) The Department or a person having a direct interest in the subject matter of the act may request a conference any time to attempt to resolve by employee mutual agreement a matter arising under the research report act. The provisions of this § 78.25 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Dissertation! Code § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (a) If the parties reach an dissertation report on capital budgeting, agreement at the conference, and if the Department approves the location, the Department will cause the agreement to be reduced to writing. (b) If the Department does not reject the employee agreement within 10 calendar days after the agreement is reduced to writing, the agreement becomes effective. (c) An agreement reached at the conference shall be consistent with the requirements of the act and applicable statutes. An agreement that is not in write research, accordance with the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. Dissertation Employee Engagement! § § 501#151;518) and applicable law shall be deemed to thesis, be null and void. The provisions of this § 78.26 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Dissertation Employee! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general).

The Department may continue the conference for good cause. Good cause includes one or more of the following: (1) The need for supplemental data, maps or surveys. (2) The need to verify that the agreement or a proposed well location is consistent with the requirements of the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P.S. § § 501#151;518) and other applicable requirements. (3) The need for are mobile dangerous coursework the presence of essential witnesses whose unavailability is due to good cause. (4) The need for further investigation into the allegations that are the basis for the objections. (5) Agreement by all parties that a continuance is beneficial to the resolution of the objections. The provisions of this § 78.27 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in dissertation engagement, 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.28. Development! Final action if objections do not proceed to panel. If the panel does not have jurisdiction of the employee objections, under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel), or if the panel has jurisdiction but the parties choose not to proceed to a panel, the Department may proceed to issue or deny the permit, under sections 201 and 202 of the act (58 P. S. § § 601.201 and thesis restatement 601.202). No permit will be issued for a well at a location that in the opinion of the dissertation employee engagement Department would endanger the safety of thesis restatement, persons working in a coal mine. The provisions of this § 78.28 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) If the employee gas well operator and the objecting coal owner or operator are unable to agree upon a drilling location, and the gas well is subject to the jurisdiction of a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel), the well operator or a coal owner or operator may convene a panel. (b) The panel shall consist of one person selected by important the objecting coal owners or operators, a second person selected by engagement the permit applicant and a third selected by these two. (c) The parties shall submit their positions to the panel within such time as the panel prescribes, in accordance with section 12 of the Coal and phones coursework Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. Employee! § 512). The provisions of this § 78.29 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to how to research, conferences#151;general). (a) A panel shall hear objections by the owner or operator of the coal mining area only if the proposed gas well is engagement not subject to the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P. S. § § 401#151;419) and one of the lab reports for chemistry following applies: (1) The well will be drilled through an dissertation, area that is projected and permitted, but not yet being operated. (2) The well will be drilled through a perimeter area.

(3) The well will penetrate a workable coal seam, and will be located above an active mine, but will not penetrate an operating mine. (b) The panel shall hear only restatement objections that were filed by the owner or operator of the mining areas set forth in subsection (a). (c) If after a conference in accordance with § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general), the Department has unresolved objections, the panel does not have jurisdiction to employee engagement, convene or to hear objections. The provisions of this § 78.30 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.24 (relating to development in rotorua, information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine); 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); 25 Pa. Code § 78.28 (relating to dissertation employee, final action if objections do not proceed to panel); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.29 (relating to composition of panel). § 78.31. Scheduling of meeting by the panel. The panel shall convene a meeting within 10-calendar days of the phones coursework panel chairperson#146;s receipt of a written request to do so by the permit applicant or by dissertation employee the objecting coal owner or operator. The provisions of thesis restatement, this § 78.31 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); and 25 Pa. Engagement! Code § 78.32 (relating to recommendation by lab reports for chemistry the panel). (a) The panel shall make its recommendation of where the proposed well should be located, based upon the financial considerations of the parties. (b) The panel shall make its recommendation within 10-calendar days of the close of the dissertation engagement meeting held under § 78.31 (relating to scheduling of meeting by lab reports for chemistry the panel). (c) If the Department determines that the first recommended location endangers a mine or the public, it will reject the location and notify the panel to make another recommendation. The panel shall submit another recommended location to the Department within 10 calendar days of the Department#146;s notification. (d) If the Department determines that the second recommended location endangers a mine or the dissertation engagement public, the Department may designate a location where it has determined that the well will not unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or the public and issue a permit for the well at dissertation on capital budgeting that designated location. However, if the Department has not designated such a location, and if the Department determines that a well drilled at any proposed or panel-recommended alternate location will unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or the dissertation public, it will deny the permit. (e) No permit will be issued for a well at a location that would, in the opinion of the Department, endanger the safety of persons working in a coal mine. The provisions of tourism essay, this § 78.32 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.33. Effect of panel on time for engagement permit issuance. The period of report, time during which the objections are being considered by a full panel is dissertation engagement not included in the 45-day period for the issuance or denial of a permit under section 201(e) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201(e)). The provisions of this § 78.33 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Report Budgeting! Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). Subchapter C. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 78.51. Protection of water supplies. 78.52.

Predrilling or prealteration survey. 78.53. Erosion and sediment control. 78.55. Control and disposal planning. 78.56. Pits and tanks for temporary containment. 78.57. Control, storage and disposal of production fluids. 78.58. Dissertation! Existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of are mobile, production fluids.

78.61. Disposal of drill cuttings. 78.62. Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. 78.63. Employee Engagement! Disposal of residual waste#151;land application. 78.64. Containment around oil tanks. § 78.51. For Chemistry! Protection of water supplies. (a) A well operator who affects a public or private water supply by pollution or diminution shall restore or replace the affected supply with an alternate source of water adequate in quantity and quality for the purposes served by the supply as determined by the Department.

(b) A landowner, water purveyor or affected person suffering pollution or diminution of a water supply as a result of drilling, altering or operating an oil or gas well may so notify the Department and request that an investigation be conducted. Engagement! The notice and request must include the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person requesting the investigation. (2) The type, location and use of the water supply. (3) Available background quality and quantity data regarding the water supply, if known. (4) Well depth, pump setting and water level, if known. (5) A description of the pollution or diminution. (c) Within 10 days of the receipt of the investigation request, the Department will investigate the claim and will, within 45 days of receipt of the request, make a determination. Report! If the Department finds that pollution or diminution was caused by the drilling, alteration or operation activities or if it presumes the well operator responsible for polluting the water supply of the landowner or water purveyor under section 208(c) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.208(c)), the Department will issue orders to the well operator necessary to assure compliance with this section. (d) A restored or replaced water supply includes any well, spring, public water system or other water supply approved by employee the Department, which meets the criteria for adequacy as follows: (1) Reliability, cost, maintenance and control. A restored or replaced water supply, at a minimum, must: (i) Be as reliable as the previous water supply.

(ii) Be as permanent as the previous water supply. (iii) Not require excessive maintenance. (iv) Provide the water user with as much control and development in rotorua essay accessibility as exercised over the previous water supply. (v) Not result in increased costs to operate and maintain. If the employee engagement operating and for chemistry maintenance costs of the restored or replaced water supply are increased, the operator shall provide for dissertation employee permanent payment of the tourism development increased operating and dissertation engagement maintenance costs of the restored or replaced water supply. (2) Quality. The quality of a restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate if it meets the standards established under the Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P. S. § § 721.1#151;721.17), or is comparable to the quality of the water supply before it was affected by the operator if that water supply did not meet these standards. (3) Adequate quantity. Tourism In Rotorua Essay! A restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate in quantity if it meets one of the dissertation engagement following as determined by the Department: (i) It delivers the amount of restatement, water necessary to engagement, satisfy the water user#146;s needs and the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses.

(ii) It is established through a connection to a public water supply system that is capable of delivering the amount of report budgeting, water necessary to satisfy the water user#146;s needs and the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses. (iii) For purposes of this paragraph and dissertation engagement with respect to agricultural water supplies, the term reasonably foreseeable uses includes the reasonable expansion of use where the dissertation report on capital budgeting water supply available prior to drilling exceeded the actual use. (4) Water source serviceability. Replacement of a water supply includes providing plumbing, conveyance, pumping or auxiliary equipment and facilities necessary for the water user to utilize the dissertation engagement water supply. (e) If the water supply is for uses other than human consumption, the operator shall demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that the restored or replaced water supply is adequate for the purposes served by the supply. (f) Tank trucks or bottled water are acceptable only as temporary water replacement for a period approved by dissertation on capital budgeting the Department and do not relieve the operator of the obligation to provide a restored or replaced water supply. (g) If the well operator and the water user are unable to reach agreement on the means for employee engagement restoring or replacing the water supply, the Department or either party may request a conference under section 501 of the act (58 P. Restatement! S. § 601.501). (h) A well operator who receives notice from engagement a landowner, water purveyor or affected person that a water supply has been affected by pollution or diminution, shall report receipt of notice from an affected person to the Department within 24 hours of receiving the notice.

The provisions of this § 78.51 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Thesis Restatement! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at dissertation serial pages (350764) and (317133). § 78.52. Predrilling or prealteration survey.

(a) A well operator who wishes to preserve its defense under section 208(d)(1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.208 (d)(1)) that the pollution of a water supply existed prior to the drilling or alteration of the well shall conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in accordance with this section. (b) A person who wishes to document the quality of a water supply to support a future claim that the drilling or alteration of the well affected the water supply by a scientific pollution may conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in accordance with this section. (c) The survey shall be conducted by an independent certified laboratory. A person independent of the dissertation engagement well owner or well operator, other than an employee of the certified laboratory, may collect the sample and document the condition of the water supply, if the certified laboratory affirms that the sampling and documentation is performed in how to report, accordance with the laboratory#146;s approved sample collection, preservation and engagement handling procedure and chain of lab reports, custody. (d) An operator electing to preserve its defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the act shall provide a copy of the results of the survey to the Department and the landowner or water purveyor within 10-business days of receipt of the results. Test results not received by the Department within 10 business days may not be used to preserve the operator#146;s defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the dissertation engagement act. (e) The report describing the restatement results of the dissertation engagement survey must contain the following information: (1) The location of the water supply and the name of the moral values surface landowner or water purveyor. (2) The date of the employee engagement survey, and the name of the certified laboratory and the person who conducted the survey. (3) A description of where and how the values sample was collected.

(4) A description of the dissertation employee engagement type and age, if known, of the water supply, and thesis restatement treatment, if any. (5) The name of the employee well operator, name and number of well to values, be drilled and permit number if known. (6) The results of the laboratory analysis. (f) A well operator who wishes to preserve the employee defense under section 208(d)(2) of the moral act that the landowner or water purveyor refused the employee operator access to conduct a survey shall confirm the desire to conduct this survey and that access was refused by issuing notice to for chemistry, the person by certified mail, or otherwise document that access was refused. The notice must include the following: (1) The operator#146;s intention to drill or alter a well.

(2) The desire to conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey. (3) The name of the person who requested and was refused access to conduct the dissertation employee engagement survey and the date of the request and refusal. (4) The name and address of the well operator and lab reports the address of the Department, to employee, which the water purveyor or landowner may respond. The provisions of this § 78.52 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B. Phones! 465; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Dissertation Employee Engagement! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at important moral values serial pages (317133) to (317134). This section cited in dissertation employee, 25 Pa. Thesis Restatement! Code § 78.141 (relating to scope).

§ 78.53. Erosion and sediment control. During and after earthmoving or soil disturbing activities, including the activities related to siting, drilling, completing, producing, servicing and plugging the well, constructing, utilizing and employee restoring the lab reports access road and restoring the engagement site, the thesis restatement operator shall design, implement and maintain best management practices in accordance with Chapter 102 (relating to erosion and sediment control) and an erosion and sediment control plan prepared under that chapter. Best management practices for oil and gas well operations are listed in the Oil And Gas Operators Manual , Commonwealth of dissertation engagement, Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Protection, Guidance No. 550-0300-001 (April 1997), as amended and on capital budgeting updated. The provisions of employee, this § 78.53 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Are Mobile Dangerous! 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Dissertation Employee Engagement! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (266200).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and enhanced recovery well permits); 25 Pa. Important! Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of dissertation, production fluids); 25 Pa. Code § 78.60 (relating to discharge requirements); 25 Pa. Dangerous Coursework! Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). The well operator shall control and dispose of employee engagement, fluids, residual waste and for chemistry drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings in a manner that prevents pollution of the waters of this Commonwealth and in accordance with § § 78.55#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63 and with the statutes under which this chapter is dissertation engagement promulgated. The provisions of this § 78.54 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning). § 78.55. Control and disposal planning. (a) Preparation and implementation of plan. Prior to moral, generation of waste, the well operator shall prepare and implement a plan under § 91.34 (relating to activities utilizing pollutants) for dissertation employee the control and disposal of fluids, residual waste and drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, additives, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings from the drilling, alteration, production, plugging or other activity associated with oil and tourism in rotorua gas wells. (b) Requirements. The plan must identify the control and disposal methods and practices utilized by dissertation the well operator and be consistent with the act, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001), the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and § § 78.54, 78.56#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63. The plan must also include a pressure barrier policy that identifies barriers to be used during identified operations. (c) Revisions. The operator shall revise the plan prior to implementing a change to important values, the practices identified in the plan.

(d) Copies. Dissertation Engagement! A copy of the plan shall be provided to the Department upon request and shall be available at the site during drilling and moral completion activities for engagement review. (e) Emergency contacts. A list of emergency contact phone numbers for lab reports for chemistry the area in dissertation employee engagement, which the well site is located must be included in the plan and be prominently displayed at the well site during drilling, completion or alteration activities. The provisions of this § 78.55 amended under sections 1917-A and dissertation budgeting 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. Employee Engagement! § § 510-17 and 510-20); 35 Pa.C.S. Tourism Development Essay! § 7321; 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Employee Engagement! § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the dissertation budgeting Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and employee 302 of the thesis Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); and section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E).

The provisions of this § 78.55 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Dissertation Employee! 805; amended January 25, 2013, effective January 26, 2013, except that subsection (f)(3) is effective February 25, 2013, subsection (f)(4) is dissertation budgeting effective July 25, 2013, and subsection (f)(5) is effective April 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. Employee! 526; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Research Report! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (365451) to (365457). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.72 (relating to use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment). § 78.56. Pits and tanks for dissertation employee engagement temporary containment. (a) Except as provided in § § 78.60(b) and 78.61(b) (relating to discharge requirements; and disposal of coursework, drill cuttings), the operator shall contain pollutional substances and wastes from the drilling, altering, completing, recompleting, servicing and plugging the well, including brines, drill cuttings, drilling muds, oils, stimulation fluids, well treatment and servicing fluids, plugging and drilling fluids other than gases in a pit, tank or series of pits and dissertation engagement tanks. The operator shall install or construct and tourism development essay maintain the pit, tank or series of pits and tanks in engagement, accordance with the following requirements: (1) The pit, tank or series of for chemistry, pits and tanks shall be constructed and maintained with sufficient capacity to contain all pollutional substances and wastes which are used or produced during drilling, altering, completing and plugging the well. (2) A pit shall be designed, constructed and employee engagement maintained so that at least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times. Important Values! If open tanks are used, the tanks shall be maintained so that at least 2 feet of freeboard remain at dissertation all times unless the tank is provided with an restatement, overflow system to a standby tank or pit with sufficient volume to contain all excess fluid or waste. If an open standby tank is dissertation engagement used, it shall be maintained with 2 feet of freeboard. How To Research! If this subsection is violated, the operator immediately shall take the necessary measures to ensure the engagement structural stability of the pit or tank, prevent spills and restore the 2 feet of freeboard.

(3) Pits and tanks shall be designed, constructed and maintained to be structurally sound and reasonably protected from are mobile dangerous coursework unauthorized acts of third parties. (4) A pit or tank that contains drill cuttings from below the casing seat, pollutional substances, wastes or fluids other than tophole water, fresh water and uncontaminated drill cuttings shall be impermeable and engagement comply with the following: (i) The pits shall be constructed with a synthetic flexible liner with a coefficient of phones dangerous, permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec and with sufficient strength and thickness to dissertation employee engagement, maintain the integrity of the research report liner. The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the engagement physical and chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by how to the waste and the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together to prevent leakage in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions. If the operator seeks to use a liner material other than a synthetic flexible liner, the operator shall submit a plan identifying the type and thickness of the material and the installation procedures to employee engagement, be used, and shall obtain approval of the tourism development plan by the Department before proceeding. (ii) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free from debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut or otherwise cause the liner to fail. The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the material above the liner without settling that may affect the integrity of the liner.

If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other materials that may cause the employee engagement liner to thesis restatement, fail, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material, shall be installed over the area as the subbase for the liner. (iii) The bottom of the pit shall be at least 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table, unless the dissertation operator obtains approval under subsection (b) for values a pit that exists only during dry times of the year and is located above groundwater. (iv) If a liner becomes torn or otherwise loses its integrity, the pit shall be managed to prevent the pit contents from leaking from the pit. If repair of the employee liner or construction of another temporary pit is not practical or possible, the pit contents shall be removed and for chemistry disposed at an approved waste disposal facility or disposed on the well site in accordance with § 78.61, § 78.62 or § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (v) If the liner drops below the 2 feet of freeboard, the pit shall be managed to prevent the pit contents from leaking from the dissertation pit and the 2 feet of lined freeboard shall be restored. (b) The operator may request to are mobile phones, use practices other than those specified in subsection (a) which provide equivalent or superior protection by submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by employee the Department. (c) Disposal of uncontaminated drill cuttings in a pit or by for chemistry land application shall comply with § 78.61. A pit used for the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by land application shall comply with § 78.63. (d) Unless a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval under § 78.57 or § 78.58 (relating to control, storage and disposal of dissertation employee engagement, production fluids; and existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids) has been obtained for the pit, the owner or operator shall remove or fill the pit within 9 months after completion of drilling, or in accordance with the extension granted by the Department under section 206(g) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.206(g)).

Pits used during servicing, plugging and recompleting the development in rotorua well shall be removed or filled within 90 days of construction. The provisions of this § 78.56 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Engagement! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at thesis serial pages (263009) to (263010) and (241901).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.57. Control, storage and disposal of production fluids. (a) Unless a permit has been obtained under § 78.60(a) (relating to discharge requirements), the operator shall collect the brine and other fluids produced during operation, service and plugging of the well in a tank, pit or a series of pits or tanks, or other device approved by the Department for subsequent disposal or reuse. Except as allowed in this subchapter or otherwise approved by dissertation engagement the Department, the important operator may not discharge the dissertation engagement brine and other fluids on or into the ground or into the waters of how to a scientific, this Commonwealth. (b) Except as provided in § 78.56 (relating to dissertation employee engagement, pits and tanks for temporary containment), the operator may not use a pit for the control, handling or storage of brine and other fluids produced during operation, service or plugging of development in rotorua, a well unless the pit is authorized by employee engagement a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval to in rotorua essay, operate the pit as an employee, impoundment under The Clean Streams Law is obtained from the Department under subsection (c).

(c) The operator may apply for approval from the tourism development essay Department to operate a pit as an dissertation employee, impoundment under The Clean Streams Law, as indicated by the Department#146;s issuance of a pit approval number in accordance with this section. No pit will be eligible for dangerous approval under this subsection unless the capacity of any one pit or of any two or more interconnected pits is less than 250,000 gallons, or the employee total capacity contained in pits on one tract or related tracts of land is less than 500,000 gallons. Thesis Restatement! Compliance with this subsection does not relieve the operator from the obligation to comply with section 308 of dissertation employee engagement, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. How To Write! § 691.308) and the requirements for obtaining a permit for the erection, construction and operation of dissertation, treatment works promulgated under that section. (1) A request for approval under this subsection shall be made on forms furnished by the Department and, at a minimum, shall include the following: (i) A description of the how to write a scientific operator#146;s plan that demonstrates compliance with this subsection for the construction or reconstruction of the pit. (ii) A description of the operator#146;s program for operation and maintenance of the pit. (iii) A description of the method for subsequent disposal or reuse of the brine or other fluids produced during operation of the well.

(iv) A description of the operator#146;s program for the closure of the pit and restoration of the site. (2) The operator shall design, construct, operate and maintain the pit in accordance with the approval and the following: (i) The pit approval number is posted at the pit in a legible and visible manner. (ii) The pit is dissertation not located within 100 feet of a stream, wetland or body of water unless a waiver is granted by the Department. (iii) The bottom of the pit is restatement a minimum of 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table. (iv) At least 2 feet of freeboard remain at engagement all times. (v) The pit is structurally sound and the inside slopes of the pit are not steeper than a ratio of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. (vi) The pit is impermeable and report is lined with a synthetic flexible liner or alternate material that has a coefficient of engagement, permeability of restatement, no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of sufficient strength and thickness to dissertation employee, maintain the integrity of the liner. The thickness of a synthetic liner shall be at least 30 mils.

Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together in tourism in rotorua essay, accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. (vii) The physical and chemical characteristics of the liner shall be compatible with the waste and dissertation employee engagement the liner is resistant to phones dangerous, physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by the Department. (viii) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free of employee engagement, debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail. The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the material above the development essay liner without settling in an amount that will affect the integrity of the dissertation liner. Important Values! If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other material that may cause the liner to employee engagement, leak, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or a sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over the area as the subbase for the liner. (ix) Prior to placing brine or other fluids in the pit, the lab reports operator shall inspect the liner and correct all damage or imperfections that may cause the liner to leak. (x) Surface water which may drain into the pit shall be diverted away from the pit. (xi) The pit is reasonably protected from unauthorized acts of dissertation, third parties.

(3) Upon abandonment of the well or revocation of the approval by write the Department, the dissertation operator shall restore the pit in accordance with the following: (i) The free liquid fraction of the how to write research pit contents shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a) and the remaining pit contents and liner shall be removed and disposed under § § 78.62 and 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and disposal of residual waste#151;land application), or the employee Solid Waste Management Act. (ii) The pit shall be backfilled to the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the how to write a scientific research adjacent land. (iii) The surface of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and dissertation engagement sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against accelerated erosion.

The provisions of thesis, this § 78.57 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Employee Engagement! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Lab Reports! Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.58 (relating to existing pits used for dissertation employee the control, storage and disposal of production fluids). § 78.58. Existing pits used for the control, storage and dissertation report on capital budgeting disposal of production fluids.

For pits in existence on July 29, 1989, the operator may request approval for employee an alternate method of satisfying the requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(iii) (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids), the angle of slope requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(v) and the liner requirement of § 78.57(c)(2)(vi)#151;(viii) by affirmatively demonstrating to the Department#146;s satisfaction, by the use of monitoring wells or other methods approved by the Department, that the pit is thesis impermeable and that the employee method will provide protection equivalent or superior to dissertation on capital, that provided by employee engagement § 78.57. Tourism Development! The operator shall request approval under § 78.57(c)(1). The provisions of engagement, this § 78.58 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. How To! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment). The provisions of this § 78.59 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Employee! 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (271914). (a) The owner and operator may not cause or allow a discharge of dangerous coursework, a substance to employee engagement, the waters of this Commonwealth unless the discharge complies with this subchapter and Chapters 91#151;93, 95 and 102, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the act. (b) The owner and operator may not discharge tophole water or water in a pit as a result of precipitation by land application unless the discharge is in accordance with the following requirements: (1) No additives, drilling muds, pollutional materials or drilling fluids other than gases or fresh water have been added to or are contained in the water, unless otherwise approved by the Department.

(2) The pH is not less than 6 nor greater than 9 standard units, or is characteristic of the natural background quality of the groundwater. (3) The specific conductance of the discharge is less than 1,000 µmHos/cm. (4) There is no sheen from oil and grease. (5) The discharge water shall be spread over important values an undisturbed, vegetated area capable of absorbing the tophole water and filtering solids in the discharge, and employee spread in a manner that prevents a direct discharge to surface waters and complies with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). (6) Upon completion, the area complies with § 78.53. (7) The area of land application is not within 200 feet of a water supply or within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or a wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)). (8) If the water does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2) or (4), the Department may approve treatment prior to discharge to the land surface. The provisions of this § 78.60 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (271914) to (241905). This section cited in 25 Pa. Report! Code § 78.54 (relating to dissertation employee, general requirements); 25 Pa. Development In Rotorua! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to dissertation, disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to important moral values, disposal of residual waste#151;pits); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (a) Drill cuttings from dissertation above the casing seat#151;pits. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from above the development casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures) in dissertation engagement, a pit at the well site if the lab reports owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the employee engagement well at important the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the employee engagement act (58 P.S. Tourism! § 601.205(b)). (4) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply.

(5) The pit is designed, constructed and maintained to dissertation employee, be structurally sound. (6) The free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60 (relating to discharge requirements). (7) The pit shall be backfilled to lab reports for chemistry, the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (8) The surface of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and dissertation employee sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. For Chemistry! Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface of the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against dissertation, erosion. (b) Drill cuttings from budgeting above the casing seat#151;land application. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from engagement above the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) by land application at the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the well at the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. Dissertation Report On Capital! § 601.205(b)).

(4) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply. (5) The soils have a minimum depth from surface to bedrock of 20 inches. (6) The drill cuttings are not spread when saturated, snow covered or frozen ground interferes with incorporation of the drill cuttings into the soil. (7) The drill cuttings are not applied in quantities which will result in runoff or in surface water or groundwater pollution. (8) The free liquid fraction is employee engagement disposed in accordance with § 78.60. (9) The drill cuttings are spread and incorporated into the soil. (10) The land application area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53. The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the dissertation on capital budgeting surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (c) Drill cuttings from below the casing seat.

After removal of the free liquid fraction and disposal in accordance with § 78.60, drill cuttings from below the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) may be disposed of as follows: (1) In a pit that meets the requirements of employee engagement, § 78.62(a)(5)#151;(18) and (b) (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits). (2) By land application in accordance with § 78.63(a)(5)#151;(20) and (b) (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (d) The owner or operator may request to important moral values, use solidifiers, dusting, unlined pits, attenuation or other alternative practices for dissertation the disposal of write research report, uncontaminated drill cuttings by submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on dissertation employee forms provided by the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to the requirements of this section. (e) A pit used for the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Restatement! Land application of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.63.

The provisions of this § 78.61 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Dissertation Engagement! 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241905) to (241907). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to dissertation, general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to engagement, control and disposal planning); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for how to write a scientific temporary containment). § 78.62. Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. (a) After the removal and disposal of the free liquid fraction of the waste under § 78.60(a) (relating to discharge requirements), the owner or operator may dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in a pit at dissertation employee engagement the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The waste is generated by the drilling or production of an oil or gas well that is restatement located on the well site where the engagement waste is disposed. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.203). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance is dissertation report on capital maintained with the act and this title.

(5) The disposal area is engagement not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the a scientific research current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to the disposal closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and separate from dissertation employee engagement a lease or deed unless the lease or deed contains an lab reports, explicit waiver from the current owner. (6) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of dissertation employee engagement, water or wetland. (7) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply. (8) The bottom of the pit is a minimum of 20 inches above the write seasonal high groundwater table. (9) The pit is designed, constructed and maintained to be structurally sound and engagement impermeable.

(10) The pit is lined with a synthetic flexible liner that is compatible with the waste and has a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of sufficient strength and values thickness to dissertation, maintain the integrity of the thesis restatement liner. The liner thickness shall be at least 30 mils. Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. Dissertation Employee Engagement! The operator may use an alternate liner or natural materials, if the material and the installation procedure to be used are approved by the Department. Notice of the values approved liners and installation procedures will be published by the Department in the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (11) The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the physical and dissertation chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by the waste and the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by important the Department. (12) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free of debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail.

The liner subbase and employee subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the phones dangerous coursework material above the employee liner without settling. If the pit bottom or sides consist of budgeting, rock, shale or other material that may cause the dissertation employee engagement liner to fail and leak, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over on capital the area as the subbase for the liner. (13) Prior to placing material in dissertation employee engagement, the pit, the liner shall be inspected for lack of uniformity, damage and other imperfections that may cause the development in rotorua essay liner to leak. The owner or operator shall correct damages or imperfections before placing waste in the pit, and shall maintain the dissertation engagement pit until closure of the pit. (14) Prior to for chemistry, encapsulating the dissertation waste within the liner, the restatement free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a). (15) The liner shall be folded over, or an additional liner shall be added, to dissertation employee, completely cover the waste and the waste is shaped so that water does not infiltrate the important values liner and is not confined above the liner.

(16) Puncturing or perforating the dissertation liner is prohibited. (17) The pit shall be backfilled to at least 18 inches over restatement the top of the liner and graded to promote runoff with no depressions that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (18) The surface area of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to dissertation, erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is in rotorua essay capable of dissertation engagement, self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (b) A person may not dispose of write research, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the waste meets the following requirements: (1) The concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50#037; of the maximum concentration in § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of toxicity). (2) The concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the primary maximum contaminant level in effect under § 109.202 (relating to State MCLs, MRDLs and treatment technique requirements).

(3) For other health related contaminants, the concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the safe drinking water level established by the Department. (4) Leachate characteristics are determined in accordance with methods approved by the Department. (c) The owner or operator may request to use solidifiers or other alternate practices for the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by submitting a request to employee, the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to are mobile phones coursework, the requirements of this section. The provisions of this § 78.62 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241907) to (241909). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Employee! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and are mobile phones dangerous coursework disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for dissertation engagement temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and for chemistry disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.63. Disposal of dissertation, residual waste#151;land application.

(a) The owner or operator may dispose of phones dangerous, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site by land application of the waste if the dissertation engagement owner or operator satisfies the thesis following requirements: (1) The waste is employee generated by the drilling or production of an oil or gas well that is located on the well side. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.215). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on on capital or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance with the act and this title is maintained. (5) The owner or operator shall notify the Department at least 3 working days before the employee engagement land application activity is to occur. (6) The waste application area is not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to the application closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and separate from report on capital budgeting a lease or deed, unless the lease or deed contains an explicit waiver from the current owner.

(7) The waste application area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland. (8) The waste application area is not within 200 feet of a water supply and is not within 1,000 feet upgradient from an uncased well or spring being used as a water supply. (9) At a minimum, the seasonal high groundwater table is 20 inches from the surface. (10) The soils located within and immediately adjacent to the application area shall fall within the United States Department of Agriculture textural classes of sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam or silt loam. (11) The soils have a minimum depth from employee surface to bedrock of 20 inches. (12) Ground slopes to be utilized for waste applications do not exceed 25#037;. (13) The waste is not spread when the ground is saturated, or when snow or frozen ground would interfere with incorporation of the waste into the soil. (14) Prior to land application of the waste, the free liquid fraction of the waste is removed and disposed under § 78.60(a) (relating to moral values, discharge requirements).

(15) The waste is not applied in quantities which will result in surface or groundwater pollution. (16) The waste is not applied in quantities that will adversely affect the intended use of the vegetation. (17) The waste is spread and engagement incorporated into the top layer of the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. (18) The loading and application rate of waste is consistent with the Departmental guidelines for the proposed operation and how to research may not exceed a maximum waste to soil ratio of 1:1. (19) To determine compliance with this section, the employee engagement Department may require the on capital budgeting owner or operator to conduct soil surveys, monitoring or chemical analysis. (20) The land application area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and dissertation employee engagement sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and dissertation on capital plant succession.

Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (21) If a chemical analysis fails to show compliance with paragraph (18), the owner or operator shall remediate the land application area until compliance is demonstrated. (b) A person may not dispose of dissertation, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed the maximum concentration stated in § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of are mobile dangerous coursework, toxicity). (c) The owner or operator may request to dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in an alternate manner from that required in engagement, subsection (a) by submitting a request to tourism, the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by the Department and dissertation employee shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to tourism essay, the requirements of this section. The provisions of this § 78.63 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Dissertation! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736.

Immediately preceding text appears at lab reports for chemistry serial pages (241909) to (241911). This section cited in employee, 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Dissertation On Capital Budgeting! Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.64. Dissertation Employee Engagement! Containment around oil tanks. (a) If an thesis restatement, owner or operator uses a tank with a capacity of at least 660 gallons or tanks with a combined capacity of at least 1,320 gallons to engagement, contain oil produced from a well, the owner or operator shall construct and lab reports for chemistry maintain a dike or other method of secondary containment which satisfies the requirements under 40 CFR 112 (relating to engagement, oil pollution prevention) around the tank or tanks which will prevent the tank contents from entering waters of this Commonwealth. (b) The containment area provided by the dikes or other method of secondary containment shall have containment capacity sufficient to hold the volume of the largest single tank, plus a reasonable allowance for precipitation based on local weather conditions and facility operation.

(c) Prior to drainage of accumulated precipitation from containment structures, the containment area shall be inspected and accumulations of oil picked up and returned to the tank or disposed of in accordance with approved methods. (d) After complying with subsection (c), drainage of containment facilities is acceptable if: (1) The accumulation in the containment facility consists of only precipitation directly to the containment facility and drainage will not cause a harmful discharge or result in a sheen. (2) The containment drain valve is opened and resealed, or other drainage procedure, as applicable, is conducted under responsible supervision. The provisions of this § 78.64 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. In addition to complying with section 206 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.206), an owner or operator shall meet the following requirements: (1) A drill hole or bore hole used to tourism development essay, facilitate the drilling of a well shall be filled with cement, soil, drill cuttings or other earthen material before moving the drilling equipment from the well site. (2) If a well site is engagement constructed and the well is not drilled, the well site shall be restored within 30 days after the expiration of the well permit unless the Department approves an extension for reasons of adverse weather or lack of essential fuel, equipment or labor. (3) Within 60 days after the restoration of the well site, the dissertation report on capital operator shall submit a well site restoration report to dissertation employee, the Department. The report shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall identify the following: (i) The date of land application of the tophole water, the restatement results of pH and specific conductance tests and an estimated volume of discharge. (ii) A description of the employee engagement method used for disposal or reuse of the thesis restatement free liquid fraction of the waste, and the name of the hauler and disposal facility, if any. (iii) The location of the pit in relation to the well, the dissertation employee engagement depth of the pit, the type and write report thickness of the material used for the pit subbase, the dissertation engagement type and thickness of the tourism development pit liner, the dissertation type and nature of the restatement waste, a description of the pit closure procedures used and the pit dimensions.

(iv) The location of the area used for land application of the waste, and the results of a chemical analysis of the waste soil mixture if requested by the Department. (v) The types and employee volumes of waste produced and the name and address of the waste disposal facility and waste hauler used to dispose of the waste. The provisions of this § 78.65 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. (a) A release of a substance causing or threatening pollution of the waters of this Commonwealth, shall comply with the reporting and corrective action requirements of § 91.33 (relating to incidents causing or threatening pollution). (b) If a reportable release of brine on or into the ground occurs at the well site, the dangerous owner or operator shall notify the appropriate regional office of the Department as soon as practicable, but no later than 2 hours after detecting or discovering the release. (c) The notice required by subsection (b) shall be by telephone and describe: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the company and person reporting the incident. (2) The date and time of the incident or when it was detected. (3) The location and cause of the engagement incident. (4) The quantity of the brine released. (5) Available information concerning the lab reports for chemistry contamination of dissertation engagement, surface water, groundwater or soil.

(6) Remedial actions planned, initiated or completed. (d) If, because of an tourism essay, accident, an amount of brine less than the reportable amount as described in § 78.1 (relating to definitions), spills, leaks or escapes, that incident does not have to employee engagement, be reported. (e) Upon the occurrence of any release, the owner or operator shall take necessary corrective actions to: (1) Prevent the how to write a scientific substance from reaching the engagement waters of this Commonwealth. (2) Recover or remove the substance which was released. (3) Dispose of the write a scientific research report substance in accordance with this subchapter or as approved by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.66 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Employee Engagement! 1736. Subchapter D. WELL DRILLING, OPERATION AND.

78.71. Restatement! Use of safety devices#151;well casing. 78.72. Use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment. 78.73. General provision for well construction and operation. 78.75a. Area of alternative methods. 78.76. Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area.

78.77. Wells in a hydrogen sulfide area. 78.78 Pillar permit applications. 78.82. Use of conductor pipe. 78.83. Surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures. 78.83a. Dissertation Employee! Casing and cementing plan. 78.83b. Casing and cementing#151;lost circulation.

78.83c. How To! Intermediate and production casing. 78.86. Defective casing or cementing. 78.87 Gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures. 78.88. Mechanical integrity of operating wells. 78.89.

Gas migration response. 78.92. Wells in dissertation engagement, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. 78.93. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. 78.94. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present.

78.95. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented. 78.96. Marking the location of a plugged well. 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. 78.98. Restricting surface water from the well bore. 78.102.

Criteria for tourism development essay approval of inactive status. 78.103. Annual monitoring of dissertation employee engagement, inactive wells. 78.104. Report! Term of inactive status. 78.105. Revocation of inactive status. This subchapter cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.401 (relating to storage well construction). § 78.71.

Use of safety devices#151;well casing. (a) The operator shall equip the engagement well with one or more strings of casing of for chemistry, sufficient cemented length and dissertation engagement strength to attach proper well control equipment and prevent blowouts, explosions, fires and casing failures during installation, completion and restatement operation. (b) The operator shall determine the amount and type of dissertation, casing to be run and are mobile phones coursework the amount and type of cement to be used in dissertation engagement, accordance with current prudent industry practices and engineering. In making the determinations, the operator shall consider the tourism following: (1) Successful local practices for employee engagement similar wells. (2) Maximum anticipated surface pressure. (3) Collapse resistance. (4) Tensile strength.

(5) Chemical environment. (6) Potential mechanical damage. (7) Manufacturing standards, including American Petroleum Institute or equivalent specifications for pipe used in wells drilled below the report budgeting Onondaga formation or where blow-out preventers are required. The provisions of this § 78.71 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Engagement! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276323). § 78.72. Lab Reports! Use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment.

(a) The operator shall use blow-out prevention equipment after setting casing with a competent casing seat in the following circumstances: (1) When drilling out solid core hydraulic fracturing plugs to dissertation employee, complete a well. (2) When well head pressures or natural open flows are anticipated at the well site that may result in restatement, a loss of well control. (3) When the operator is drilling in an area where there is no prior knowledge of the pressures or natural open flows to be encountered. (4) On wells regulated by employee engagement the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P.S. § § 401#151;419). (5) When drilling within 200 feet of lab reports for chemistry, a building. (b) Blow-out prevention equipment used must be in good working condition at all times. (c) Controls for dissertation employee the blow-out preventer shall be accessible to allow actuation of the equipment. Additional controls for a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of are mobile phones dangerous, greater than 3,000 psi, not associated with the employee engagement rig hydraulic system, shall be located at least 50 feet away from the drilling rig so that the blow-out preventer can be actuated if control of the well is lost.

(d) The operator shall use pipe fittings, valves and unions placed on or connected to moral values, the blow-out prevention systems that have a working pressure capability that exceeds the anticipated pressures. (e) The operator shall conduct a complete test of the ram type blow-out preventer and dissertation employee engagement related equipment for both pressure and ram operation before placing it in write research report, service on the well. The operator shall test the annular type blow-out preventer in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s published instructions, or the dissertation engagement instructions of a professional engineer, prior to the device being placed in phones dangerous, service. Blow-out prevention equipment that fails the test may not be used until it is repaired and passes the employee engagement test. (f) When the equipment is in service, the operator shall visually inspect blow-out prevention equipment during each tour of drilling operation and during actual drilling operations test the pipe rams for closure daily and the blind rams for closure on each round trip. When more than one round trip is are mobile phones made in a day, one daily closure test for blind rams is sufficient. Testing shall be conducted in accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP53, #145;#145;API Recommended Practice for Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells,#146;#146; or other procedure approved by the Department. The operator shall record the dissertation results of the inspection and closure test in the drillers log before the report budgeting end of the tour. If blow-out prevention equipment is not in good working order, drilling shall cease when cessation of drilling can be accomplished safely and not resume until the blow-out prevention equipment is repaired or replaced and employee engagement retested. (g) All lines, valves and fittings between the closing unit and dangerous coursework the blow-out preventer stack must be flame resistant and have a rated working pressure that meets or exceeds the requirements of the dissertation blow-out preventer system. (h) When a blowout preventer is installed or required under subsection (a), there shall be present on the well site an individual with a current certification from a well control course accredited by the International Association of Drilling Contractors or other organization approved by the Department.

The certification shall be available for review at the well site. The Department will maintain a list of approved accrediting organizations on its web site. (i) Well drilling and completion operations requiring pressure barriers, as identified by the operator under § 78.55(b) (relating to control and disposal plan), shall employ at least two mechanical pressure barriers between the thesis open producing formation and employee the atmosphere that are capable of dissertation on capital, being tested. The mechanical pressure barriers shall be tested according to manufacturer specifications prior to operation. If during the course of operations the operator only has one functioning barrier, operations must cease until additional barriers are added and tested or the redundant barrier is dissertation engagement repaired and tested. Stripper rubber or a stripper head may not be considered a barrier. (j) The minimum amount of intermediate casing that is report budgeting cemented to engagement, the surface to which blow-out prevention equipment may be attached, shall be in accordance with the following: (k) Upon completion of the report on capital budgeting drilling operations at dissertation a well, the operator shall install and lab reports for chemistry utilize equipment, such as a shut-off valve of sufficient rating to contain anticipated pressure, lubricator or similar device, as may be necessary to enable the well to be effectively shut-in while logging and servicing the well and dissertation after completion of the well. The provisions of research report, this § 78a.72 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of dissertation, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Report! § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the dissertation Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. Report! § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); section 13.2 of the employee act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. Research! 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of dissertation employee engagement, The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E); and sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. Write Report! § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of employee, this § 78.72 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. Values! 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (355529) to (355531). § 78.73. Dissertation Employee! General provision for well construction and operation.

(a) The operator shall construct and operate the well in accordance with this chapter and ensure that the integrity of the well is maintained and health, safety, environment and property are protected. (b) The operator shall prevent gas, oil, brine, completion and servicing fluids, and any other fluids or materials from below the casing seat from important values entering fresh groundwater, and shall otherwise prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater. (c) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered the operator shall prevent surface shut-in pressure and surface producing back pressure inside the surface casing or coal protective casing from exceeding the following pressure: 80#037; multiplied by employee engagement 0.433 psi per foot multiplied by the casing length (in feet) of the applicable casing. (d) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered, if the surface shut-in pressure or surface producing back pressure exceeds the pressure as calculated in subsection (c), the thesis operator shall take action to prevent the migration of gas and other fluids from dissertation employee engagement lower formations into are mobile phones dangerous coursework fresh groundwater. To meet this standard the operator may cement or install on a packer sufficient intermediate or production casing or take other actions approved by the Department. This section does not apply during testing for mechanical integrity in accordance with State or Federal requirements. (e) Excess gas encountered during drilling, completion or stimulation shall be flared, captured or diverted away from the drilling rig in a manner that does not create a hazard to the public health or safety. (f) Except for employee engagement gas storage wells, the well must be equipped with a check valve to prevent backflow from the pipelines into the well.

The provisions of this § 78.73 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276324) to (276325). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and tourism in rotorua essay coal protective casing and cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83b (relating to casing and cementing#151;lost circulation); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to mechanical integrity of operating wells). The venting of gas to the atmosphere from dissertation a well is thesis restatement prohibited when the venting produces a hazard to the public health and safety.

The provisions of this § 78.74 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. (a) A well operator may request approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for the casing, plugging or equipping of a well under section 211 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.211). (b) A well operator seeking approval under this section shall file an application with the Department on forms furnished by the Department. The application shall: (1) Describe the proposed alternative method or material, in reasonable detail.

(2) Indicate the dissertation employee manner in which the alternative will satisfy the goals of the in rotorua essay act and dissertation employee this chapter. (3) Include a drawing or schematic of the alternative method, if appropriate. (c) The well operator shall notify all coal owners and important operators and employee engagement gas storage operators of moral, record of the proposal, by certified mail. The well operator shall state in engagement, the application that he has sent the certified mail notice to the coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record, either simultaneously with or prior to coursework, submitting the proposal to dissertation employee, the Department. (d) The coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record shall have up to 15 days from their receipt of the notice to a scientific report, file objections or to employee, indicate concurrence with the proposed alternative method or material. (e) If no objections are filed within 15 days from receipt of the notice, and if none are raised by thesis restatement the Department, the Department will make a determination whether to allow the use of the proposed alternative method or material.

The provisions of this § 78.75 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Engagement! 1736. Lab Reports! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241916) to (241917). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and employee coal protective casing and cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Code § 78.87 (relating to gas storage reservoir protective casing and moral values cementing procedures); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.401 (relating to storage well construction). § 78.75a. Area of alternative methods. (a) The Department may designate an area of alternative methods if the Department determines that well drilling requirements beyond those provided in this chapter are necessary to drill, operate or plug a well in dissertation employee engagement, a safe and environmentally protective manner. (b) To establish an area of alternative methods, the Department will publish a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin of the proposed area of alternative methods and provide the public with an opportunity to comment on the proposal. After reviewing any comments received on the proposal, the Department will publish a final designation of the area and required alternative methods in the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (c) Wells drilled within an area of development, alternative methods established under subsection (b) must meet the requirements specified by the Department unless the operator obtains approval from the Department to drill, operate or plug the well in dissertation engagement, a different manner that is at least as safe and protective of the environment as the requirements of the area of dissertation report budgeting, alternative methods. The provisions of employee, this § 78.75a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.76. Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area. (a) An operator proposing to drill a well within a gas storage reservoir area or a reservoir protective area to phones coursework, produce gas or oil shall forward by employee engagement certified mail a copy of the phones dangerous coursework well location plat, the drilling, casing and cementing plan and the anticipated date drilling will commence to the gas storage reservoir operator and to the Department for approval by the Department and employee shall submit proof of notification to the gas storage reservoir operator to the Department with the well permit application.

(b) The storage operator may file an phones coursework, objection with the Department to the drilling, casing and cementing plan or the proposed well location within 15 days of receipt of the notification and dissertation engagement request a conference in moral values, accordance with section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501). The provisions of this § 78.76 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276326). § 78.77. Wells in a hydrogen sulfide area. (a) An operator proposing to drill a well within a 1-mile radius of a well drilled to or through the employee engagement same formation where hydrogen sulfide has been found while drilling shall install monitoring equipment during drilling at the well site to detect the presence of hydrogen sulfide in accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (b) When hydrogen sulfide is detected in are mobile dangerous coursework, concentrations of 20 ppm or greater, the dissertation employee engagement well shall be drilled in accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (c) An operator who operates a well in which hydrogen sulfide is discovered in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater shall operate the well in a way that presents no danger to human health or to write a scientific report, the environment. (d) When an operator discovers hydrogen sulfide in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater during the drilling of a well, the operator shall notify the Department and identify the employee location of the well and on capital budgeting the concentration of hydrogen sulfide detected. The Department will maintain a list of all notices that will be available to operators for their reference. The provisions of this § 78.77 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

(a) The Department will use recommendations for coal pillar size and configuration set forth in the coal pillar study, listed in employee, the Department#146;s Coal Pillar Technical Guidance Number 550-2100-006 (October 31, 1998) and any updates or revisions, as a basis for approval or disapproval of coal pillar permit applications submitted by development underground coal mine operators. (b) Where proposed coal pillar size and configuration does not conform to dissertation engagement, the recommendations of the coal pillar study referenced in subsection (a), the underground coal mine operator may request Department approval for an alternate coal pillar size and configuration. The provisions of a scientific, this § 78.78 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. (a) The operator shall conduct casing and dissertation cementing activities under this section and § § 78.82#151;78.87 or an are mobile dangerous, approved alternate method under § 78.75 (relating to dissertation employee, alternative methods). The operator shall case and cement a well to accomplish the following: (1) Allow effective control of the well at all times. (2) Prevent the important moral values migration of dissertation employee engagement, gas or other fluids into sources of fresh groundwater. (3) Prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater.

(4) Prevent the important values migration of gas or other fluids into coal seams. (b) The operator shall drill through fresh groundwater zones with diligence and as efficiently as practical to employee, minimize drilling disturbance and dangerous coursework commingling of engagement, groundwaters. The provisions of this § 78.81 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Write A Scientific Research Report! Immediately preceding text appears at dissertation employee serial pages (276327) to (276328). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to thesis, criteria for dissertation engagement approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). If the operator installs conductor pipe in the well, the following provisions apply: (1) The operator may not remove the pipe; (2) Conductor pipe shall be installed in a manner that prevents the subsurface infiltration of surface water or fluids by either driving the pipe into place or cementing the pipe from the seat to write a scientific research report, the surface; (3) Conductor pipe must be made of steel unless a different material is approved for use by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.82 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276328). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Employee! Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.83. Surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures. (a) For wells drilled, altered, reconditioned or recompleted after February 5, 2011, surface casing or any casing functioning as a water protection casing may not be utilized as production casing unless one of the following applies: (1) In oil wells where the operator does not produce any gas generated by the well and the annulus between the surface casing and the production pipe is left open. (2) The operator demonstrates that the pressure in the well is no greater than the moral values pressure permitted under 78.73(c) (relating to general provision for well construction and operation), demonstrates through a pressure test or other method approved by the Department that all gas and dissertation fluids will be contained within the how to a scientific research report well, and dissertation employee installs a working pressure gauge that can be inspected by dissertation on capital budgeting the Department.

(b) If the well is to be equipped with threaded and coupled casing, the operator shall drill a hole so that the diameter is at least 1 inch greater than the outside diameter of the dissertation employee casing collar to be installed. If the well is to tourism development in rotorua, be equipped with plain-end welded casing, the operator shall drill a hole so that the diameter is at least 1 inch greater than the outside diameter of the casing coupling. (c) The operator shall drill to dissertation engagement, approximately 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater or at least 50 feet into consolidated rock, whichever is deeper, and immediately set and permanently cement a string of surface casing to that depth. Except as provided in subsection (f), the surface casing may not be set more than 200 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater except if necessary to set the casing in consolidated rock. Moral Values! The surface hole shall be drilled using air, freshwater, or freshwater-based drilling fluid. Prior to cementing, the wellbore shall be conditioned to ensure an adequate cement bond between the casing and dissertation the formation. The surface casing seat shall be set in consolidated rock.

When drilling a new well or redrilling an existing well, the coursework operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in dissertation, intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (d) The operator shall permanently cement the surface casing by placing the cement in the casing and displacing it into the annular space between the wall of the write a scientific report hole and the outside of the dissertation employee casing. (e) Where potential oil or gas zones are anticipated to be found at depths within 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater, the operator shall set and permanently cement surface casing prior to essay, drilling into a stratum known to contain, or likely containing, oil or gas. (f) If additional fresh groundwater is encountered in drilling below the permanently cemented surface casing, the employee operator shall document the depth of the fresh ground water zone in the well record and protect the moral additional fresh groundwater by engagement installing and cementing a subsequent string of casing or other procedures approved by the Department to completely isolate and thesis protect fresh groundwater. The string of employee engagement, casing may also penetrate zones bearing salty or brackish water with cement in the annular space being used to research, segregate the various zones. Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the casing to the surface. The operator shall install at dissertation engagement least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in intervals no greater than, if possible, every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (g) The operator shall set and cement a coal protective string of important, casing through workable coal seams. The base of the coal protective casing shall be at least 30 feet below the lowest workable coal seam.

The operator shall install at least two centralizers. One centralizer shall be within 50 feet of the casing seat and the second centralizer shall be within 100 feet of the surface. (h) Unless an alternative method has been approved by the Department in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods), when a well is drilled through a coal seam at a location where the coal has been removed or when a well is drilled through a coal pillar, the engagement operator shall drill to a depth of at least 30 feet but no more than 50 feet deeper than the bottom of the coal seam. The operator shall set and on capital cement a coal protection string of casing to this depth. The operator shall equip the dissertation employee engagement casing with a cement basket or other similar device above and as close to the top of the coal seam as practical. Important! The bottom of the casing must be equipped with an appropriate device designed to prevent deformation of the bottom of the casing. The interval from the bottom of the casing to the bottom of the coal seam shall be filled with cement either by dissertation the balance method or by the displacement method. Cement shall be placed on top of the basket between the wall of the hole and the outside of the casing by pumping from the surface.

If the operator penetrates more than one coal seam from which the coal has been removed, the operator shall protect each seam with a separate string of casing that is set and cemented or with a single string of casing which is stage cemented so that each coal seam is for chemistry protected as described in dissertation employee engagement, this subsection. Important Moral Values! The operator shall cement the well to isolate workable coal seams from each other. (i) If the employee engagement operator sets and in rotorua essay cements casing under subsection (g) or (h) and subsequently encounters additional fresh groundwater zones below the deepest cemented casing string installed, the operator shall protect the fresh groundwater by dissertation employee installing and thesis cementing another string of casing or other method approved by the Department. Dissertation Employee Engagement! Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the casing to the surface. For Chemistry! The additional casing string may also penetrate zones bearing brackish or salt water, but shall be run and cemented prior to penetrating a zone known to dissertation employee engagement, or likely to contain oil or gas.

The operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then, if possible, install a centralizer in intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (j) If it is anticipated that cement used to permanently cement the surface casing cannot be circulated to for chemistry, the surface a cement basket may be installed immediately above the employee engagement depth of the anticipated lost circulation zone. The casing shall be permanently cemented by the displacement method. Additional cement may be added above the cement basket, if necessary, by pumping through a pour string from the surface to fill the annular space. Filling the annular space by this method does not constitute permanently cementing the surface or coal protective casing under § 78.83b (relating to casing and cementing-lost circulation). The provisions of restatement, this § 78.83 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Dissertation! 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276328) to (276330). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to are mobile phones dangerous coursework, disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83c (relating to intermediate and dissertation engagement production casing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to write research, criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Engagement! Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). (a) The operator shall prepare and maintain a casing and cementing plan showing how the well will be drilled and completed.

The plan must demonstrate compliance with this subchapter and include the following information: (1) The anticipated depth and thickness of any producing formation, expected pressures, anticipated fresh groundwater zones and the method or information by which the depth of the deepest fresh groundwater was determined. (2) The diameter of the borehole. (3) Casing type, whether the casing is new or used, depth, diameter, wall thickness and burst pressure rating. (4) Cement type, yield, additives and estimated amount. (5) The estimated location of centralizers.

(6) The proposed borehole conditioning procedures. (7) Alternative methods or materials as required by the Department as a condition of the well permit. (b) The plan shall be available at the well site for review by moral the Department. (c) Upon request, the operator shall provide a copy of the well-specific casing and cementing plan to the Department for dissertation review and report approval. (d) Revisions to engagement, the plan made as a result of onsite modification shall be documented in the plan and restatement be available for review by the Department. The person making the revisions to the plan shall initial and employee engagement date the how to write a scientific report revisions.

The provisions of this § 78.83a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.83b. Casing and cementing#151;lost circulation. (a) If cement used to permanently cement the surface or coal protective casing is not circulated to the surface despite pumping a volume of cement equal to or greater than 120#037; of the calculated annular space, the operator shall determine the top of the cement, notify the Department, and employee engagement meet one of the following requirements as approved by moral values the Department: (1) Run an additional string of casing at least 50 feet deeper than the dissertation string where circulation was lost and cement the additional string of casing back to report, the seat of the string where circulation was lost and vent the annulus of the dissertation employee additional casing string to the atmosphere at all times unless closed for well testing or maintenance. Shut-in pressure on the casing seat of the are mobile dangerous additional string of casing may not exceed the employee requirements of § 78.73(c) (relating to intermediate and production casing).

(2) Run production casing and set the lab reports production casing on a packer in a competent formation below the string where circulation was lost and vent the dissertation annulus of the thesis production casing to employee, the atmosphere at all times unless closed for important moral well testing or maintenance. (3) Run production casing at least to employee, the top of the formation that is being produced and cement the a scientific production casing to the surface. (4) Run intermediate and production casing and cement both strings of dissertation engagement, casing to the surface. (5) Produce oil but not gas and leave the annulus between the surface casing and restatement the production pipe open. (b) In addition to meeting the requirements of dissertation employee engagement, subsection (a), the operator may also pump additional cement through a pour string from the surface to fill the annular space. The provisions of this § 78.83b adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures). § 78.83c. Intermediate and production casing. (a) Prior to cementing the intermediate and production casing, the borehole, mud and cement shall be conditioned to ensure an adequate cement bond between the casing and the formation. (b) If the well is to be equipped with an report, intermediate casing, centralizers shall be used and the casing shall be cemented to the surface by dissertation engagement the displacement method.

Gas may be produced off the intermediate casing if a shoe test demonstrates that all gas will be contained within the well and a relief valve is how to write a scientific research report installed at the surface that is set less than the engagement shoe test pressure. The shoe test pressure shall be recorded in the completion report. (c) Except as provided in § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and dissertation report on capital budgeting cementing procedures), each well must be equipped with production casing. The production string may be set on a packer or cemented in employee engagement, place. If the lab reports production casing is cemented in place, centralizers shall be used and engagement cement shall be placed by the displacement method with sufficient cement to fill the annular space to a point at research report least 500 feet above true vertical depth or at least 200 feet above the uppermost perforations, whichever is greater.

The provisions of this § 78.83c adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. (a) The operator shall install casing that can withstand the effects of tension, and prevent leaks, burst and collapse during its installation, cementing and employee subsequent drilling and producing operations. (b) Except as provided in subsection (c), all casing must be a string of new pipe with an internal pressure rating that is at least 20#037; greater than the anticipated maximum pressure to are mobile dangerous, which the casing will be exposed. (c) Used casing may be approved for use as surface, intermediate or production casing but shall be pressure tested after cementing and before continuation of drilling. A passing pressure test is holding the anticipated maximum pressure to which it will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. (d) New or used plain end casing, except when being used as conductor pipe, that is welded together for use must meet the following requirements: (1) The casing must pass a pressure test by holding the dissertation employee engagement anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. The operator shall notify the Department at thesis least 24 hours before conducting the engagement test. The test results shall be entered on dangerous coursework the drilling log. (2) The casing shall be welded using at dissertation least three passes with the joint cleaned between each pass. (3) The casing shall be welded by a person trained and certified in the applicable American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Welding Society or equivalent standard for welding casing and pipe or an equivalent training and restatement certification program as approved by the Department.

The certification requirements of this paragraph shall take effect August 5, 2011. Dissertation Engagement! A person with 10 or more years of experience welding casing as of February 5, 2011, who registers with the Department by November 7, 2011, is deemed to be certified. (e) When casing through a workable coal seam, the operator shall install coal protective casing that has a minimum wall thickness of write report, 0.23 inch. (f) Casing which is attached to a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of greater than 3,000 psi shall be pressure tested after cementing. Engagement! A passing pressure test must be holding the anticipated maximum pressure to which the thesis casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease. Certification of the pressure test shall be confirmed by entry and signature of the person performing the test on engagement the driller#146;s log. The provisions of this § 78.84 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis! 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276330). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to dissertation employee, general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). (a) When cementing surface casing or coal protective casing, the operator shall use cement that meets or exceeds the ASTM International C 150, Type I, II or III Standard or API Specification 10. The cement must also: (1) Secure the casing in thesis restatement, the wellbore. (2) Isolate the wellbore from fresh groundwater. (3) Contain any pressure from drilling, completion and production. (4) Protect the dissertation engagement casing from corrosion from, and degradation by, the tourism in rotorua geochemical, lithologic and physical conditions of the surrounding wellbore. For wells employing coal protective casing, this includes, but is not limited to, formulating cement to withstand elevated sulfate concentrations and other geochemical constituents of coal and associated strata which have the potential to adversely affect the integrity of the cement.

(5) Prevent gas flow in the annulus. In areas of known shallow gas producing zones, gas block additives and low fluid loss slurries shall be used. (b) After the casing cement is employee engagement placed behind surface casing, the operator shall permit the cement to thesis, set to a minimum designed compressive strength of 350 pounds per square inch (psi) at the casing seat. The cement placed at the bottom 300 feet of the surface casing must constitute a zone of critical cement and achieve a 72-hour compressive strength of 1,200 psi and the free water separation may be no more than 6 milliliters per 250 milliliters of cement. If the employee engagement surface casing is less than 300 feet, the entire cemented string constitutes a zone of critical cement. (c) After any casing cement is placed and cementing operations are complete, the casing may not be disturbed for a minimum of 8 hours by doing any of the following: (1) Releasing pressure on the cement head within 4 hours of on capital budgeting, cementing if casing equipment check valves did not hold or casing equipment was not equipped with check valves. After 4 hours, the pressure may be released at a continuous, gradual rate over the next four hours provided the dissertation engagement floats are secure. (2) Nippling up on or in conjunction to the casing. (3) Slacking off by the rig supporting the casing in tourism, the cement sheath. (4) Running drill pipe or other mechanical devices into or out of the wellbore with the exception of a wireline used to determine the top of cement.

(d) Where special cement or additives are used, the operator may request approval from the Department to reduce the cement setting time specified in dissertation engagement, subsection (d). (e) The operator shall notify the Department a minimum of 1 day before cementing of the how to write a scientific research surface casing begins, unless the cementing operation begins within 72 hours of commencement of dissertation engagement, drilling. (f) A copy of the cement job log shall be available at the well site for moral values inspection by the Department during drilling operations. The cement job log must include the employee mix water temperature and pH, type of cement with listing and quantity of additive types, the volume, yield and density in pounds per gallon of the cement and the amount of cement returned to the surface, if any. Cementing procedural information must include a description of the write a scientific report pumping rates in barrels per employee minute, pressures in pounds per square inch, time in minutes and sequence of events during the tourism in rotorua cementing operation. (g) The cement job log shall be maintained by the operator after drilling operations for at least 5 years and be made available to the Department upon engagement request. The provisions of this § 78.85 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276330) to (276331). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.86. Defective casing or cementing. In a well that has defective, insufficient or improperly cemented casing, the operator shall report the defect to the Department within 24 hours of discovery by the operator and thesis shall correct the defect.

The operator shall correct the engagement defect or submit a plan to correct the defect for approval by the Department within 30 days. If the defect cannot be corrected or an tourism in rotorua, alternate method is not approved by the Department, the dissertation well shall be plugged under § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to important moral values, plugging). The provisions of this § 78.86 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Engagement! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Dissertation Report! Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.87. Gas storage reservoir protective casing and engagement cementing procedures. (a) In addition to are mobile phones coursework, the other provisions in dissertation, this subchapter, a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir or a gas storage reservoir protective area shall be drilled, cased and cemented as follows: (1) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of report on capital budgeting, controlling anticipated gas flows and pressures when drilling from the surface to 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon.

(2) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of controlling anticipated gas storage reservoir pressures and flows at all times when drilling from 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir horizon to the depth at which the dissertation employee gas storage protective casing will be installed. Operators shall use blow-out prevention equipment with a pressure rating in excess of the report allowable maximum storage pressure for the gas storage reservoir. (3) To protect the gas storage reservoir, an operator shall run intermediate or production casing from a point located at least 100 feet below the gas storage horizon to the surface. The operator shall cement this casing by circulating cement to a point at least 200 feet above the gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon. (4) When cementing casing in a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir, the operator shall insure that no gas is present in the drilling fluids in an amount that could interfere with the integrity of the dissertation employee cement. (b) A request by an operator for approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for the casing, plugging or equipping of development in rotorua essay, a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir under section 211 of the act (58 P. S. Dissertation Employee Engagement! § 601.211) shall be made in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). The provisions of this § 78.87 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. This section cited in essay, 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions). § 78.88. Mechanical integrity of engagement, operating wells. (a) Except for wells regulated under Subchapter H (relating to underground gas storage) and wells that have been granted inactive status, the restatement operator shall inspect each operating well at employee least quarterly to ensure it is in compliance with the well construction and operating requirements of values, this chapter and dissertation the act. The results of the thesis restatement inspections shall be recorded and retained by the operator for at least 5 years and be available for review by the Department and the coal owner or operator. (b) At a minimum, inspections must determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement. (2) The open flow on the annulus of the production casing or the annulus pressure if the annulus is shut in. (3) If there is evidence of gas escaping from the well and the amount escaping, using measurement or best estimate of quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration.

(c) For structurally sound wells in dissertation employee engagement, compliance with § 78.73(c) (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedure), the moral values operator shall follow the reporting schedule outlined in dissertation engagement, subsection (e). (d) For wells exhibiting progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of thesis, equipment deterioration that compromise the integrity of the well, or the well is not in compliance with § 78.73(c), the operator shall immediately notify the Department and take corrective actions to repair or replace defective equipment or casing or mitigate the excess pressure on the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat according to the following hierarchy: (1) The operator shall reduce the shut-in or producing back pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). (2) The operator shall retrofit the well by installing production casing to reduce the pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). The annular space surrounding the production casing must be open to the atmosphere. The production casing shall be either cemented to the surface or installed on a permanent packer. Employee! The operator shall notify the Department at least 7 days prior to initiating the corrective measure. (3) Additional mechanical integrity tests, including, but not limited to, pressure tests, may be required by important values the Department to demonstrate the integrity of the well. (e) The operator shall submit an annual report to employee engagement, the Department identifying the compliance status of each well with the mechanical integrity requirements of this section. The report shall be submitted on forms prescribed by, and available from, the important values Department or in a similar manner approved by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.88 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. (a) When an operator or owner is dissertation engagement notified of or otherwise made aware of a potential natural gas migration incident, the operator shall immediately conduct an investigation of the incident. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the nature of the incident, assess the potential for lab reports hazards to public health and dissertation engagement safety, and mitigate any hazard posed by the concentrations of stray natural gas. (b) The investigation undertaken by the operator under subsection (a) must include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) A site visit and interview with the complainant to thesis restatement, obtain information about the complaint and to assess the reported natural gas migration incident. (2) A field survey to employee, assess the presence and concentrations of natural gas and aerial extent of the stray natural gas. (3) If necessary, establishment of monitoring locations at potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and the subsurface. (c) If combustible gas is detected inside a building or structure at concentrations equal to or greater than 10#037; of the L.E.L., the operator shall do the following: (1) Immediately notify the Department, local emergency response agency, gas and electric utility companies, police and budgeting fire departments and, in conjunction with the Department and dissertation employee local emergency response agencies, take measures necessary to ensure public health and safety. (2) Initiate mitigation measures necessary to for chemistry, control and prevent further migration. (3) Implement the dissertation employee additional investigation and mitigation measures as provided in subsection (e)(1)#151;(5). (d) The operator shall notify the thesis restatement Department and, in conjunction with the employee Department, take measures necessary to ensure public health and research safety, if sustained detectable concentrations of combustible gas satisfy any of the following: (1) Greater than 1#037; and dissertation employee less than 10#037; of the dangerous coursework L.E.L., in a building or structure.

(2) Equal to or greater than 25#037; of the employee L.E.L. in a water well head space. (3) Detectable in dissertation on capital, the soils. (4) Equal to or greater than 7 mg/l dissolved methane in water. (e) The Department may require the operator to take the following additional actions: (1) Conduct a field survey to assess the presence and concentrations of combustible gas and the areal extent of the combustible gas in dissertation, the soils, surface water bodies, water wells, and other potential migration pathways. (2) Collect gas or water, or both, samples at a minimum for dissertation report on capital budgeting molecular and stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses from the impacted locations such as water wells, and from potential sources of the migration such as gas wells. (3) Conduct an immediate evaluation of the operator#146;s adjacent oil or gas wells to determine well cement and casing integrity and to evaluate the potential mechanism of migration. This evaluation may include assessing pressures for all casing intervals, reviewing records for employee engagement indications of defective casing or cement, application of lab reports for chemistry, cement bond logs, ultrasonic imaging tools, geophysical logs, and other mechanical integrity tests as required. Dissertation Engagement! The initial area of assessment must include wells within a radius of dissertation, 2,500 feet and may be expanded if required by the Department. (4) Take action to correct any defect in dissertation, the oil and gas wells to mitigate the stray gas incident. (5) Establish monitoring locations and write research monitoring frequency in consultation with the dissertation employee engagement Department at potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and the subsurface. (f) If concentrations of how to write research report, stray natural gas as defined in subsection (c) or (d) are not detected, the operator shall notify the Department, and do the following if requested by the Department: (1) Conduct additional monitoring.

(2) Document findings. (3) Submit a closure report. (g) If concentrations of stray natural gas are detected inside a building or structure at dissertation engagement concentrations equal to or greater than 10#037; of the L.E.L., the operator and tourism essay owner shall file a report with the Department by phone and email within 24 hours after the interview with the complainant and field survey of the dissertation extent of stray natural gas. Additional daily or weekly reports shall be submitted if requested by the Department. (h) For all stray natural gas migration incidents, a final written report documenting the results of the investigation shall be submitted to the Department for important approval within 30 days of the close of the incident, or in a time frame otherwise approved by the Department. The final report must include the following: (1) Documentation of all results of the investigation, including analytical data and employee monitoring results.

(2) Operational changes established at the operator#146;s oil and gas wells in how to report, this Commonwealth. (3) Measures taken by the operator to dissertation, repair any defects at tourism development essay any of the investigated oil and engagement gas wells. (i) Reports submitted in accordance with this section that contain an analysis of thesis, geological or engineering data shall be prepared and sealed by a geologist or engineer licensed in this Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.89 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. (a) Upon abandoning a well, the engagement owner or operator shall plug the well under § § 78.92#151;78.98 or an approved alternate method under section 211 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.211) to stop the vertical flow of fluids or gas within the well bore unless one of the following applies: (1) The Department has granted inactive status under § § 78.101#151;78.105 (relating to inactive status).

(2) The well is part of a plugging schedule that has been approved by restatement the Department and the operator is complying with that schedule, and the schedule takes into account potential harm that the well poses to the environment or public health and safety. (3) The Department has approved the dissertation employee identification of the well as an orphan well under section 203 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.203), and the Department has not determined a prior owner or operator received economic benefit after April 18, 1979, from this well other than economic benefit derived only as a landowner or from phones dangerous coursework a royalty interest. (b) The operator shall plug a well where a radioactive logging source has been lost under § § 78.92#151;78.98 and 78.111. (c) When a well is being plugged from the attainable bottom, the operator shall install a 50-foot plug of dissertation employee, cement at the attainable bottom and plug the remainder of the well under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (d) If the thesis restatement production casing cannot be retrieved, the operator shall plug strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water by perforating the casing and employee engagement squeezing cement into the annulus or other method approved by the Department. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. The uncemented portion of the casing left in the well above the total depth or attainable bottom may not extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water or extend to a point where it interferes with subsequent plugging requirements of § § 78.92(a)(2) and 78.93(a)(2) and (b)(4) (relating to wells in lab reports, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement).

The remainder of the well shall be plugged under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (e) When plugging a well, an dissertation engagement, operator shall insure that no gases are present in the well in an amount that could interfere with cementing the well. (f) When plugging a well with a casing string cemented through a gas storage reservoir or reservoir protective area, an operator shall use bridge plugs immediately above and below the gas storage reservoir unless an alternate plugging plan has been approved by the Department. (g) When a well located in a coal area is in rotorua essay plugged to allow mining through it, the person authorized by the Department to dissertation employee engagement, plug the well under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) shall clean out the how to a scientific gas well to a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which will be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the engagement deepest minable coal seam the well penetrates. (h) In lieu of the plugging requirements of § § 78.92#151;78.95 and 78.97, an operator may cement a well from the total depth or attainable bottom to report on capital, the surface. Wells in coal areas still shall meet the dissertation engagement venting requirements of § 78.92 or § 78.93 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement). The provisions of this § 78.91 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Are Mobile Dangerous Coursework! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at engagement serial pages (241923) to (241924). This section cited in 25 Pa. Write A Scientific! Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.92 (relating to wells in employee engagement, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.93 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement); 25 Pa. Code § 78.94 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present); 25 Pa. Code § 78.95 (relating to wells in lab reports, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.92. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. (a) In a well underlain by dissertation employee a workable coal seam, where the surface casing or coal protective casing is cemented and the production casing is how to write a scientific research not cemented or the dissertation employee engagement production casing is not present, the owner or operator shall plug the well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at development in rotorua least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an dissertation employee, attempt shall be made to separate the casing by how to write a scientific report cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to employee engagement, remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to dangerous, the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which shall extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Engagement! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the essay hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by dissertation the Department. Where the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions).

(2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point, a 100-foot plug of cement shall be installed. (3) After the plug has been installed below the casing seat, the inner casing shall be emptied of liquid from the surface to the plug of phones dangerous coursework, cement. A vent or other device approved by the Department shall then be installed on top of the inner string of casing to prevent liquids and solids from dissertation employee engagement entering the well but permit access to for chemistry, the full internal diameter of the engagement inner casing when required. The vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in place, a distance of at least 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing, coal protective casing and write a scientific research report production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1).

(2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the employee engagement production casing so that the restatement plugs will extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for dissertation employee engagement the plug of cement. Nonporous material must separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the dissertation report on capital plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved by engagement applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. Moral! If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by engagement the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is lab reports for chemistry greater.

The maximum distance the stub of the dissertation engagement uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the how to research report uncemented portion of the casing left in the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Engagement! Other stratum above the cemented portion of the production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to phones dangerous, 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by dissertation engagement the Department. Are Mobile Coursework! When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point a 200-foot cement plug shall be placed so that the plug extends from 100 feet below the dissertation engagement casing seat to restatement, a point at least 100 feet above the dissertation engagement casing seat. (5) After the 200-foot plug has been installed, the on capital budgeting remainder of the well shall be plugged and vented as described in subsection (a)(3). (c) A person authorized by the Department under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) to plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam that was drilled prior to November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in accordance with the employee act, shall plug the well to mine through it in the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to dangerous, a depth of at dissertation engagement least 200 feet below the coal seam which is proposed to dangerous coursework, be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest mineable coal seam that the dissertation well penetrates. (2) The gas well shall be plugged in accordance with section 13(a)(1), (2), (3) or (4) of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act.

The provisions of a scientific, this § 78.92 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276333) to (276335). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.86 (relating to defective coating or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.93. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. (a) In a well where the surface casing or coal protective casing and production casing are anchored with a packer or cement, the owner or operator shall plug the engagement well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at lab reports for chemistry least equal to dissertation employee engagement, the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to restatement, remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to employee engagement, the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to phones coursework, a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which must extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Dissertation Engagement! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. Moral Values! The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in dissertation, this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by the Department. When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) The well shall then be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 200 feet below the lowest workable coal seam, or surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper.

Beginning at this point a 100-foot plug of cement shall be installed. (3) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is free and can be retrieved, the surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to how to write research, remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. Employee Engagement! A string of casing with an outside diameter of at least 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or at report on capital budgeting least 2 inches for oil wells, shall be run to engagement, the top of the 100-foot plug described in important, paragraph (2) and cemented to employee, the surface. (4) If the surface or coal protective string is not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the lowest workable coal to moral values, allow the cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to dissertation, communicate between the surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and the well bore.

A string of casing of at least 4 1/2 inches for gas wells or at least 2 inches for oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (2) and cemented to the surface. (5) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and cement from the base of the casing to the surface and tourism essay a vent or other device approved by the Department shall be installed on the top of the casing to prevent liquids and solids from entering the dissertation employee well, but permit ready access to development, the full internal diameter of the inner casing. The inner string of casing and the vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in place, a distance of at engagement least 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed to the vent. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing and coal protective casing is anchored with a packer or cement and the production casing is cemented, as follows: (1) If the how to write report total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) A cement plug shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that the plugs extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. Employee Engagement! A Department approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above the stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for the plug of cement.

Nonporous material shall separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the for chemistry production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the employee uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the restatement surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the uncemented portion of the casing left in dissertation employee, the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum above the cemented portion of the production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by important filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of cement or other material approved by the Department. Dissertation Employee Engagement! When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the thesis operator shall plug that portion of the employee engagement well under § 78.91(d). (4) The well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 300 feet below the bottom of the surface casing or coal protective casing, whichever is deeper. In this case, a 100-foot plug of cement shall then be placed in the well beginning at that point and extending to a point approximately 200 feet below the bottom of the lab reports for chemistry casing seat.

(5) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is free and can be retrieved, the surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved and a string of casing with an outside diameter of not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or not less than 2 inches for dissertation employee engagement oil wells, shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (6) If the surface or coal protective string is not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the lowest workable coal seam to allow the cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to communicate between the surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and the well bore. A string of casing of not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells or not less than 2 inches for oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (7) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and cement from the important values base of the employee engagement casing to the surface and a vent or other device approved by the Department shall be installed on important moral values the top of the casing to prevent liquids and solids from engagement entering the well, but permit ready access to the full internal diameter of the lab reports inner casing. The inner string of casing and employee engagement the vent or other device approved by tourism the Department shall extend, when finally in place, a distance of dissertation employee, not less than 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number shall be permanently affixed to the vent.

(c) A person authorized by the Department under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) to plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam which was drilled prior to November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in accordance with the act shall plug the well to mine through it in the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which is proposed to be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest minable coal seam which the well penetrates. (2) The well shall be plugged in accordance with section 13(a)(2) or (4) of the budgeting Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act. The provisions of this § 78.93 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276335) to (276338).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and employee 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells).

§ 78.94. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the surface casing and important moral production casing are not cemented, or is not present as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an dissertation employee, attempt shall be made to phones coursework, separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by dissertation employee engagement the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is dissertation budgeting greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the employee lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which must extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Thesis Restatement! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to dissertation employee, a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by development in rotorua essay the Department. When the employee engagement production casing is not retrievable, the coursework operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to dissertation, general provisions). (2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to approximately 100 feet below the surface casing seat and there shall be placed another plug of cement or other equally nonporous material approved by the Department extending at dissertation report least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the uppermost 50-foot plug, the retrievable surface casing shall be removed by dissertation applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by are mobile phones dangerous cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is dissertation employee greater. The hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with nonporous material other than gel. If the surface casing is not retrievable, the hole shall be filled from the important moral top of the 50-foot plug to dissertation engagement, the surface with a noncementing material. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing is not cemented or not present, and the production casing is cemented as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the thesis restatement production casing so that each plug extends from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum. Dissertation Employee! A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement.

The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in phones coursework, this subsection with a single column of dissertation, cement or other material approved by for chemistry the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the dissertation employee production string shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing. On Capital Budgeting! In no case may the uncemented portion of the employee production casing left in the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) The remainder of the well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and (3). The provisions of lab reports for chemistry, this § 78.94 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276338) to (276340). This section cited in dissertation, 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.95. Wells in tourism development, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is dissertation employee engagement cemented. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or not present, as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and tourism in rotorua making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which extends for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Dissertation! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of write a scientific report, 50 feet below this formation to engagement, a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in research report, a manner that will completely seal the dissertation employee hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in how to a scientific research report, this subsection with a single column of dissertation employee engagement, cement or other materials as approved by the Department. Dissertation Report Budgeting! When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to approximately 100 feet below the surface casing seat. Another plug of cement, or other equally nonporous material approved by dissertation engagement the Department, shall be placed extending at least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the 50-foot plug, the dissertation hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with a noncementing material or the operator shall set a 100-foot cement plug which extends 50-feet into the surface casing and fill the hole to the surface with noncementing material.

(b) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the surface casing and production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that each plug extends from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at dissertation employee engagement least 100 feet above the stratum. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement. The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production string shall be separated from the cemented portion and moral values retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the engagement production casing may extend is report budgeting 100 feet below the surface casing. In no case may the uncemented portion of the production casing left in the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and employee engagement setting a 50-foot plug of thesis restatement, cement. Dissertation Engagement! When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the are mobile dangerous operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d).

(4) The remainder of the well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and dissertation employee engagement (3). The provisions of this § 78.95 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276340) and (241931). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to dissertation report budgeting, general provisions); 25 Pa. Employee! Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and restatement 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.96. Marking the dissertation location of a plugged well. Upon the completion of plugging or replugging a well, the operator shall erect over the plugged well a permanent marker of concrete, metal, plastic or equally durable material. The marker must extend at least 4 feet above the ground surface and enough below the in rotorua essay surface to make the marker permanent. Cement may be used to hold the marker in place provided the cement does not prevent inspection of the adequacy of the well plugging. The permit or registration number shall be stamped or cast or otherwise permanently affixed to the marker. In lieu of placing the marker above the ground surface, the marker may be buried below plow depth and shall contain enough metal to employee, be detected at the surface by conventional metal detectors. The provisions of this § 78.96 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Tourism Essay! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241932). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. Where strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in the well have been stimulated with explosives, thereby creating cavities which cannot be readily filled as described in § § 78.92#151;78.95, the well operator shall place at the nearest suitable point, but at least 20 feet above the dissertation employee stratum, a plug of cement which extends at least 50 feet above that point.

If the stimulation has been done above one or more strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in the well, plugging in the applicable manner specified in § § 78.92#151;78.95 shall be done at the nearest suitable points, to at least 20 feet below and at least 20 feet above the stratum stimulated. Are Mobile Phones! From a point immediately above and below these plugs, the well shall be plugged under § § 78.94 and dissertation 78.95 (relating to wells in values, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present; and wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented). The provisions of this § 78.97 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Dissertation! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and moral values 25 Pa. Dissertation Employee Engagement! Code § 78.407 (relating to report budgeting, plugging gas storage wells). § 78.98. Restricting surface water from the well bore. When casing, including conductor pipe, is engagement left in the well at lab reports the surface, the area between the dissertation employee casings or the casing and the well bore shall be permanently filled to moral values, the surface with a nonporous material to restrict surface water from the well bore.

The provisions of this § 78.98 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in employee, 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). Upon application, the write a scientific report Department will grant inactive status for dissertation 5 years for a permitted or registered well if the application meets the dissertation on capital requirements of section 204 of the act (58 P. Dissertation Engagement! S. § 601.204) and § § 78.102#151;78.105.

The Department may require information to demonstrate that the conditions imposed by § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status) are satisfied. The provisions of this § 78.101 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138850). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to for chemistry, general provisions). § 78.102. Criteria for approval of inactive status. To obtain inactive status, the applicant shall affirmatively demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that: (1) The condition of the well is sufficient to: (i) Prevent damage to the producing zone or contamination of engagement, fresh water or other natural resources or surface leakage of lab reports for chemistry, substances. (ii) Stop the vertical flow of fluid or gas within the well bore.

(iii) Protect fresh groundwater. (iv) Pose no threat to dissertation, the health and safety of research report, persons, property or the environment. (2) The well complies with one of the employee engagement following: (i) The well meets casing and cementing requirements of § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to important, casing and cementing). (ii) For wells not drilled in conformance with casing and cementing requirements of § § 78.81#151;78.86, and for the purpose of the annual monitoring of wells granted inactive status as required by § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells), the applicant demonstrates that: (A) For oil and gas wells equipped with surface casing, the operator shall demonstrate that the liquid level in the well bore is maintained at a level at no higher than the employee engagement water protection depth. For purposes of this clause where oil or gas bearing formations are encountered less than 100 feet below the surface casing seat, the water protection depth shall be that point midway between the top of the oil or gas bearing formation and the surface casing seat. (B) If the liquid level in tourism development in rotorua, an oil or gas well equipped with surface casing stands above the water protection depth and below the groundwater table depth, the operator shall test the liquid to determine its quality.

If the liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity generally equivalent to fresh groundwater in the immediate area, the casing is assumed to be either leaking or not set deep enough to shut off groundwater, and mechanical integrity is not demonstrated and inactive status will not be granted unless the dissertation employee operator demonstrates that the well is in compliance with the shut-in portion of the mechanical integrity test requirements of the Under Ground Injection Control program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (21 U.S.C.A. § 349; 42 U.S.C. § § 201, 300f#151;300j-11). If the liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity equivalent to the production formation or production liquid, mechanical integrity is dissertation on capital budgeting considered to be demonstrated. (C) For oil wells not equipped with surface casing or for oil wells equipped with surface casing that cannot be approved for inactive status under paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B), the operator shall modify the well to dissertation employee engagement, meet one of the following: (I) The operator shall set a string of casing on a packer sufficiently deep to isolate the fresh groundwater system. Restatement! The casing shall be set to the water protection depth for employee engagement wells in the area, and the requirements of paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B) shall be met. (II) The operator has set a temporary plug or mechanical seal at the water protection depth and isolated the fresh groundwater system. The operator may demonstrate the integrity of the plug by demonstrating that water standing above the plug is, and continues to are mobile dangerous coursework, be, fresh water not contaminated by production fluids, or by other means acceptable to the Department. (III) The operator shall fill the well with a freshwater bentonite gel or other material approved by the Department which will restrict vertical migration of gas or fluids in the well bore. The operator shall monitor the gel level and report significant changes to the Department on employee engagement an annual basis and take remedial action approved by the Department.

(D) For gas wells equipped with production casing separate from the surface casing, the annulus between the surface or coal protective casing and the production casing is vented to the atmosphere. The owner or operator of a well granted inactive status under this clause shall monitor the annular vents for gas flow volumes. If the gas flow volume exceeds 5,000 cubic feet per day, the owner or operator shall notify the Department and take remedial action approved by the Department. (E) For gas wells not equipped with separate production casing, but with cemented or uncemented surface casing present, the produced gas shut-in pressure is less than the pressure necessary to thesis, cause gas migration into the adjacent formation at the surface casing seat. Compliance with this condition may be demonstrated by mechanical tests of the casing and by evidence that the gas wellhead shut-in pressure does not exceed 0.433 psi per foot of surface or coal protective casing depth. (3) If gas exists at an inactive oil well, the dissertation engagement operator may vent the gas to the atmosphere or equip the well to lab reports for chemistry, confine the gas to dissertation engagement, the producing formation. If this gas flow is greater than 5,000 cubic feet per day, the lab reports for chemistry owner or operator shall notify the Department and take remedial action approved by the Department. (4) The applicant shall certify that the well is of future utility and shall present a viable plan for utilizing the well within a reasonable time. In addition to employee engagement, providing information to demonstrate compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2), the phones dangerous application for inactive status shall include the following: (i) A plan showing when the well will be used. (ii) A certification identifying that one of the dissertation employee following applies: (A) Significant reserves remain in dissertation budgeting, place and dissertation the operator plans to produce the well. (B) The well will be used as a disposal well.

(C) The well will be used as a storage well. (D) The well will be used as an observation well. (E) The well will be used as a secondary or tertiary recovery injection well or that the well will be used for other purposes specified by the applicant. (iii) Other information necessary for the Department to make a determination on inactive status. The provisions of this § 78.102 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Phones Dangerous! Code § 78.101 (relating to employee, general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to development in rotorua, annual monitoring of inactive wells); 25 Pa. Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.103. Annual monitoring of inactive wells. The owner or operator of a well granted inactive status shall monitor the integrity of the well on an annual basis and shall report the results to the Department. The owner or operator shall give the employee engagement Department 3 working days prior notice of the annual monitoring and mechanical integrity testing.

For wells that were drilled in accordance with the casing and cementing standards of § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to casing and cementing), the operator shall monitor the integrity of the well by tourism essay using the dissertation method described in § 78.102(2)(ii)(A), (B), (D) or (E) (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status), as appropriate. In Rotorua! For a well that was not drilled in accordance with the casing and cementing standards, the wells shall be monitored in accordance with § 78.102(1). To qualify for continued inactive status, the owner or operator shall demonstrate, by the data in the monitoring reports, that the condition of the well continues to satisfy the requirements of § 78.102. The owner or operator shall submit the report by March 31 of the following year. The provisions of this § 78.103 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138853). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to dissertation employee engagement, criteria for approval of write a scientific research report, inactive status); and 25 Pa. Dissertation Engagement! Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). Approval of inactive status for a well is thesis restatement valid for employee engagement 5 years unless revoked. After 5 years, the owner or operator shall plug or return to active status a well granted inactive status unless the moral values Department grants an application for a 1-year extension. The operator of a well granted inactive status may apply for renewal of inactive status by demonstrating that the well continues to dissertation employee, satisfy the conditions imposed on the well by § § 78.102 and write research report 78.103 (relating to dissertation employee engagement, criteria for approval of lab reports, inactive status; and annual monitoring of inactive wells). The provisions of this § 78.104 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at employee serial page (138854).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Tourism Development In Rotorua! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.105. Revocation of inactive status. The Department may revoke inactive status and may order the immediate plugging of a well if one of the following applies: (1) The well is in violation of the act or regulations administered by the Department. (2) The operator of the engagement inactive well has become insolvent, to the extent that the budgeting plan provided under § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status) is no longer viable to return the dissertation employee engagement well to active status, or the operator otherwise demonstrates a lack of ability or intention to comply with applicable laws and regulations. (3) The condition of the well no longer satisfies the requirements of section 204 of the report act (58 P. S. § 601.204) and § § 78.102#151;78.104 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status; annual monitoring of inactive wells; and dissertation term of inactive status).

(4) The owner or operator is are mobile phones dangerous coursework unwilling or unable to perform his obligations under the act. The provisions of this § 78.105 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138854).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions). (a) The owner or operator may not abandon a radioactive source licensed by the Commonwealth for logging purposes without consent of the dissertation employee engagement Department. Approval of a plan of abandonment may be arranged with the Department by telephone and dissertation is to be followed by a written report to engagement, the Department within 30 days after abandonment of the radioactive source. The plan shall be approved by the Department. (b) The operator shall notify the Department of his intention to leave a radioactive source in a well. (c) The operator shall mechanically equip a well in which a radioactive source is abandoned to prevent the accidental or intentional mechanical disintegration of the are mobile radioactive source. (1) The operator shall cover the radioactive source being abandoned in the bottom of a well with a substantial standard color-dyed cement plug on top of which a mechanical stop or deflector shall be set.

The dye shall contrast with the engagement color of the are mobile dangerous coursework formation to alert a re-entry operator prior to encountering the source. (2) In a well where a logging source has been cemented in place behind a casing string and above total depth, upon engagement plugging the well, a color-dyed cement plug shall be placed opposite the abandoned source inside the write a scientific well bore and a mechanical stop or deflector shall be placed on top of the plug. (3) If, after expending a reasonable effort, the dissertation engagement operator cannot comply with paragraph (1) or (2) because of how to write report, hole conditions, the operator shall request Department approval to cease efforts to comply with paragraph (1) or (2) and shall obtain approval for an alternate method for abandoning the source and plugging the well. (d) Upon plugging a well in which a radioactive source is left in the hole, the operator shall place a permanent plaque by welding or bolting or cementing it to the top of the bore hole in a manner approved by the Department that re-entry cannot be accomplished without disturbing the plaque. The plaque shall serve as a visual warning to employee engagement, a person re-entering the hole that a radioactive source has been abandoned in-place in are mobile coursework, the well. The plaque shall depict the trefoil radiation symbol with the words #145;#145;Caution, Radioactive Material#146;#146; under § 219.41 (relating to radiation symbol) and shall be constructed of a long-lasting material such as monel, stainless steel, bronze or brass. The marker shall bear the following information: (2) Permit number. (3) Name and address of employee, operator. (4) The type and strength of radioactive material abandoned in the well.

(5) The total well depth. (6) Depth at for chemistry which the source was abandoned. (7) A warning not to employee engagement, drill below the plug-back depth or to restatement, enlarge the casing. (e) Prior to workover or re-entry activity, if a radioactive source is present, the dissertation employee operator shall have the plan of operation approved by the Department before the workover or re-entry is permitted. (f) This section does not relieve the licensee, owner or operator from the obligation to comply with Federal regulations and this title, including Chapters 225 and 226 (relating to radiation safety requirements for industrial radiographic operations; and licenses and thesis restatement radiation safety requirements for well logging). The provisions of this § 78.111 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 226.3a (relating to abandonment of a sealed source). 78.122. Well record and completion report. 78.123. Dissertation Employee! Logs and are mobile dangerous coursework additional data.

78.124. Dissertation Employee! Certificate of plugging. 78.125. For Chemistry! Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The well operator shall submit an annual production and status report for each permitted or registered well on an individual basis, on or before February 15 of engagement, each year. When the production data is not available to the operator on a well basis, the operator shall report production on thesis the most well-specific basis available. The annual production report must include information on the amount and type of waste produced and the method of waste disposal or reuse.

Waste information submitted to the Department in accordance with this subsection is deemed to satisfy the residual waste biennial reporting requirements of § 287.52 (relating to biennial report). (b) The production report shall be submitted electronically to employee, the Department through its web site. The provisions of this § 78a.121 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. How To A Scientific Report! § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and dissertation Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. Values! § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. Dissertation Employee Engagement! § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E); and sections 1917-A and restatement 1920-A of The Administrative Code of employee engagement, 1929 (71 P.S. Dissertation On Capital! § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of this § 78.121 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (377631). This section cited in 7 Pa. Code § 137b.73a (relating to dissertation, gas, oil and coal bed methane). § 78.122. Well record and completion report.

(a) For each well that is drilled or altered, the operator shall keep a detailed drillers log at the well site available for inspection until drilling is thesis completed. Dissertation Employee! Within 30 calendar days of cessation of lab reports for chemistry, drilling or altering a well, the well operator shall submit a well record to the Department on a form provided by the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the permittee. (2) Permit number, and engagement farm name and development essay number. (3) Township and county. (4) Date drilling started and engagement completed. (5) Method of drilling. (6) Size and depth of conductor pipe, surface casing, coal protective casing, intermediate casing, production casing and borehole. (7) Type and amount of cement and results of cementing procedures. (8) Elevation and total depth.

(9) Drillers log that includes the name and depth of report budgeting, formations from the dissertation employee surface to total depth, depth of oil and gas producing zone, depth of development essay, fresh water and brines and source of information. (10) Certification by the operator that the well has been constructed in accordance with this chapter and dissertation employee engagement any permit conditions imposed by the Department. (11) Other information required by the Department. (b) Within 30 calendar days after completion of the well, the well operator shall submit a completion report to the Department on development in rotorua essay a form provided by the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the permittee. (2) Name, address and telephone number of the service companies.

(3) Permit number and engagement farm name and number. (4) Township and county. (5) Perforation record. (6) Stimulation record which includes the following: (i) A descriptive list of the chemical additives in the stimulation fluid, including any acid, biocide, breaker, brine, corrosion inhibitor, crosslinker, demulsifier, friction reducer, gel, iron control, oxygen scavenger, pH adjusting agent, proppant, scale inhibitor and surfactant. (ii) The percent by restatement volume of each chemical additive in the stimulation fluid. (iii) A list of the chemicals in the Material Safety Data Sheets, by name and chemical abstract service number, corresponding to the appropriate chemical additive. (iv) The percent by employee volume of each chemical listed in the Material Safety Data Sheets. (v) The total volume of the base fluid. (vi) A list of water sources used under an approved water management plan and the volume of water used from each source.

(vii) The total volume of how to research, recycled water used. (viii) The pump rate and pressure used in the well. (7) Actual open flow production and shut in surface pressure. (8) Open flow production and shut in engagement, surface pressure, measured 24 hours after completion. (c) When the well operator submits a stimulation record, it may designate specific portions of the stimulation record as containing a trade secret or confidential proprietary information. The Department will prevent disclosure of the designated confidential information to the extent permitted under the Right-to-Know Law (65 P.S. § § 67.101#151;67.3103). (d) In addition to submitting a stimulation record to the Department under subsection (b), and subject to the protections afforded for trade secrets and dangerous coursework confidential proprietary information under the Right-to-Know Law, the dissertation operator shall arrange to provide a list of the chemical constituents of the chemical additives used to hydraulically fracture a well, by chemical name and abstract service number, unless the thesis restatement additive does not have an abstract service number, to the Department upon written request by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.122 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (304395) to (304396). (a) If requested by the Department within 90 calendar days after the completion of drilling or recompletion of a well, the well operator shall submit to the Department a copy of the dissertation employee engagement electrical, radioactive or other standard industry logs run on lab reports for chemistry the well. Dissertation! In addition, if requested by the Department within 1 year of the completion of drilling or recompletion of lab reports for chemistry, a well, the well operator shall file with the Department a copy of the drill stem test charts, formation water analysis, porosity, permeability or fluid saturation measurements, core analysis and lithologic log or sample description or other similar data as compiled. No information will be required unless the operator has had the dissertation information described in this subsection compiled in the ordinary course of business.

No interpretation of the data is to be filed. (b) Upon notification by thesis restatement the Department prior to drilling, the well operator shall collect additional data specified by the Department, such as representative drill cuttings and samples from cores taken, and other geological information that the dissertation engagement operator can reasonably compile. (c) The information requested by the Department under subsections (a) and (b) shall be provided to important values, the Department by the operator, within 3 years after completion of the well unless the Department has granted an extension or unless the Department has requested information as described in subsection (d). Dissertation Employee! If the phones dangerous coursework Department has granted an extension, the information shall be submitted in accordance with the extension, but in no case may the extension exceed 5 years from the date of completion of the well. (d) In accordance with the request of the Department, the operator shall submit the information described in this section for use in investigation or enforcement proceedings, or in aggregate form for dissertation engagement statistical purposes. The provisions of this § 78.123 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B.

1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (194014) to (194015). (a) Within 30 calendar days after the well has been plugged, the owner or operator of the well shall submit a certificate of dangerous coursework, plugging to the Department and each coal operator, lessee or owner who was sent notice by certified mail of the intent to plug the well. (b) The certificate of plugging shall be on employee engagement a form provided by the Department and contain information required by the Department. (c) The certificate of plugging shall be prepared and signed by two experienced and qualified people who participated in for chemistry, the work, and employee engagement shall also be signed by the well owner or operator.

The provisions of tourism development, this § 78.124 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.125. Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to engagement, the Department, upon request, a copy of the annual monitoring report submitted to moral values, the EPA summarizing the results of the operator#146;s monitoring as required by 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program) when these reports are submitted to the EPA. This summary, at dissertation a minimum, shall include the following: (1) Monthly records of important moral values, major changes in characteristics or sources of dissertation, injected fluids. (2) Reports of volumes and pressures of injection fluids.

(3) Reports of mechanical integrity testing. (4) Other information or reports required to be submitted to thesis restatement, the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146. (b) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to the Department copies of employee engagement, periodic monitoring reports or reports of failures, releases, accidents or other incidents required to be submitted to the EPA under 40 CFR 146 when these reports are submitted to the EPA. (c) The operator of a disposal well or enhanced recovery well may submit monitoring reports to the Department on a field or project basis rather than on an individual well basis provided manifold monitoring is used. The provisions of this § 78.125 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234. Immediately preceding text appears at write report serial page (194016). The provisions of these § § 78.141#151;78.146 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B.

465. Dissertation! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241942) to (241944) and (276341). Subchapter G. BONDING REQUIREMENTS. 78.302. Lab Reports For Chemistry! Requirement to file a bond. 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the bond. 78.304.

Terms and engagement conditions for surety bonds. 78.305. Terms and lab reports conditions for collateral bonds#151;general. 78.306. Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. 78.307.

Collateral bonds#151;certificates of dissertation employee, deposit. 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. 78.309. Phased deposit of collateral. 78.310. Replacement of for chemistry, existing bond. 78.311. Failure to maintain adequate bond.

78.313. Incapacity of operators. 78.314. Preservation of employee, remedies. In addition to the requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215), this subchapter specifies certain requirements for surety bonds, collateral bonds, replacement of existing bonds, maintaining adequate bond and bond forfeiture. The provisions of this § 78.301 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. For a well that has not been plugged, the owner or operator shall file a bond or otherwise comply with the bonding requirements of thesis, section 215 of the act (58 P. S. Dissertation Employee Engagement! § 601.215) and this chapter. A bond or bond substitute is not required for a well drilled before April 18, 1985. The provisions of tourism, this § 78.302 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Dissertation Engagement! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946).

§ 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the bond. (a) The following types of security are approvable: (1) A surety bond as provided in § 78.304 (relating to terms and conditions for surety bonds). (2) A collateral bond as provided in in rotorua essay, § § 78.305#151;78.308. Dissertation! For individuals who meet the requirements of section 215(d.1) of the act, a phased deposit of collateral bond as provided in important values, § 78.309(b) (relating to phased deposit of collateral). (b) A person submitting a bond shall comply with the Department guidelines establishing minimum criteria for employee execution and completion of the bond forms and report on capital budgeting related documents. (c) A bond shall be conditioned upon compliance with the drilling, water supply replacement, restoration and plugging requirements in the act, this chapter and permit conditions relating thereto. The bonds are penal in nature and employee are designed to ensure compliance by the operator to protect the environment, public health and report budgeting safety affected by the oil and gas well.

(d) The person named in the bond or other security shall be the same as the person named in the permit. (e) The bond amounts required under section 215 of the act are as follows: (1) Two thousand five hundred dollars for a single well. (2) Twenty-five thousand dollars for a blanket bond. The provisions of employee engagement, this § 78.303 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Are Mobile Dangerous Coursework! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Dissertation Employee! 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. Moral! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946). § 78.304. Terms and conditions for surety bonds. (a) The bond of a surety company that has failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in full, on a forfeited surety bond is not approvable. (b) Only the bond of a surety authorized to do business in this Commonwealth is approvable. If the principal place of business of the surety is outside of dissertation employee engagement, this Commonwealth, or if the surety is not a Pennsylvania corporation, the surety bond shall also be signed by an authorized resident agency of the surety that maintains an office in this Commonwealth. (c) The surety may cancel the lab reports for chemistry bond by filing written notice of engagement, cancellation with the Department, the operator and development essay the principal on the bond, only under the following conditions: (1) The notice of cancellation shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested. Cancellation may not take effect until 120 days after receipt of the notice of cancellation by the Department, the operator and dissertation employee the principal on the bond as evidenced by return receipts. (2) Within 30 days after receipt of a notice of cancellation, the operator shall provide the Department with a replacement bond under § 78.310 (relating to replacement of existing bond).

(d) The Department will not accept surety bonds from a surety company when the development essay total bond liability to the Department on the bonds filed by the operator, the principal and related parties exceeds the surety company#146;s single risk limit as provided by employee The Insurance Company Law of 1921 (40 P. S. Development! § § 341#151;991). (e) The bond shall provide that the surety and the principal shall be jointly and dissertation employee severally liable for payment of the bond amount. (f) The bond shall provide that the tourism in rotorua essay amount shall be confessed to judgment and execution upon forfeiture. (g) The Department will retain, during the term of the bond, and upon forfeiture of the bond, a property interest in engagement, the surety#146;s guarantee of payment under the bond which is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the operator or principal on the bond. (h) The surety shall give written notice to the Department, if permissible under law, to the principal and the Department within 10 days of a notice received or action filed by or with a regulatory agency or court having jurisdiction over the surety alleging one of the following: (1) The insolvency or bankruptcy of the surety.

(2) A violation of dangerous coursework, regulatory requirements applicable to engagement, the surety, when as a result of the violation, suspension or revocation of the budgeting surety#146;s license to do business in dissertation engagement, this Commonwealth or another state is how to research under consideration by a regulatory agency. The provisions of dissertation engagement, this § 78.304 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.305. Are Mobile! Terms and conditions for collateral bonds#151;general. (a) Collateral documents shall be executed by the owner or operator. (b) The market value of collateral deposited shall be at least equal to employee, the required bond amount with the thesis exception of United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds which shall have a maturity date of not more than 10 years after the date of purchase and at maturity a value of at least $25,000. (c) Collateral shall be pledged and assigned to the Department free from claims or rights. The pledge or assignment shall vest in the Department a property interest in employee, the collateral which shall remain until release as provided by law and is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the operator.

(d) The Department#146;s ownership rights to deposited collateral shall be such that the report collateral is readily available to the Department upon dissertation engagement forfeiture. The Department may require proof of ownership, and other means, such as secondary agreements, as it deems necessary to meet the how to a scientific report requirements of employee, this subchapter. If the Department determines that deposited collateral does not meet the requirements of this subchapter, it may take action under the law to protect its interest in lab reports, the collateral. The provisions of this § 78.305 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at dissertation serial page (138865). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to thesis, form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.306. Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. (a) Letters of credit submitted as collateral for collateral bonds shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) The letter of credit shall be a standby or guarantee letter of credit issued by a Federally insured or equivalently protected financial institution, regulated and examined by the Commonwealth or a Federal agency and authorized to do business in this Commonwealth. (2) The letter of credit shall be irrevocable and shall be so designated. Dissertation Employee! However, the Department may accept a letter of credit for phones dangerous coursework which a limited time period is dissertation engagement stated if the following conditions are met and are stated in the letter: (i) The letter of credit is automatically renewable for additional time periods unless the financial institution gives at least 90 days prior written notice to both the Department and the operator of its intent to terminate the credit at the end of the are mobile phones dangerous coursework current time period.

(ii) The Department has the right to dissertation, draw upon the credit before the end of its time period, if the operator fails to replace the letter of credit with other acceptable means of lab reports, compliance with section 215 of the engagement act (58 P. S. § 601.215) within 30 days of the financial institution#146;s notice to terminate the credit. (3) Letters of credit shall name the Department as the beneficiary and moral values be payable to the Department, upon demand, in part or in full, upon presentation of the Department#146;s drafts, at sight. The Department#146;s right to dissertation, draw upon the letter of credit does not require documentary or other proof by dissertation report budgeting the Department that the customer has violated the conditions of the bond, the permit or other requirements. (4) A letter of employee engagement, credit shall be subject to 13 Pa.C.S. (relating to the Uniform Commercial Code) and the latest revision of Uniform Customs and Practices for write a scientific research Documentary Credits as published in the International Chamber of Commerce Publication No. 400. (5) The Department will not accept a letter of credit from engagement a financial institution which has failed, refused or unduly delayed to thesis restatement, pay, in full, on a letter of credit or a certificate of deposit previously submitted as collateral to dissertation, the Department. (6) The issuing financial institution shall waive rights of set-off or liens which it has or might have against thesis restatement, the letter of dissertation, credit. (b) If the Department collects any amount under the are mobile coursework letter of credit due to failure of the operator to engagement, replace the letter of credit after demand by the Department, the dissertation on capital Department will hold the proceeds as cash collateral as provided by this subchapter. The operator may obtain the cash collateral after he has submitted and employee the Department has approved a bond or other means of compliance with section 215 of the act. The provisions of this § 78.306 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (138865) to (138866). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.307. Collateral bonds#151;certificates of deposit. A certificate of write research, deposit submitted as collateral for collateral bonds is subject to the following conditions: (1) The certificate of deposit shall be made payable to the operator and shall be assigned to dissertation engagement, the Department by report budgeting the operator, in writing, as required by the Department and on forms provided by the Department. The assignment shall be recorded upon the books of the employee engagement financial institution issuing the certificate. (2) The certificate of deposit shall be issued by a Federally-insured or equivalently protected financial institution which is authorized to tourism, do business in this Commonwealth. (3) The certificate of deposit shall state that the financial institution issuing it waives rights of setoff or liens which it has or might have against dissertation employee engagement, the certificate. (4) The certificate of deposit shall be automatically renewable and fully assignable to the Department.

Certificates of deposit shall state on their face that they are automatically renewable. (5) The operator shall submit certificates of deposit in amounts which will allow the Department to liquidate those certificates prior to maturity, upon phones forfeiture, for dissertation engagement the full amount of the bond without penalty to the Department. (6) The Department will not accept certificates of deposit from financial institutions which have failed, refused or unduly delayed to phones, pay, in full, on certificates of deposit or letters of credit which have previously been submitted as collateral to the Department. (7) The operator is not entitled to interest accruing after forfeiture is declared by the Department, until the forfeiture declaration is ruled invalid by a court having jurisdiction over employee the Department, and the ruling is final. The provisions of report on capital budgeting, this § 78.307 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Dissertation! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at tourism development essay serial pages (138866) to (138867). This section cited in 25 Pa. Employee! Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. Negotiable bonds submitted and report pledged as collateral for collateral bonds under section 215(a)(3) of the dissertation employee engagement act (58 P. S. Thesis Restatement! § 601.215(a)(3)) are subject to dissertation, the following conditions: (1) The Department will use the current market value of governmental securities, other than United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds, for the purpose of establishing the value of the securities for bond deposit.

(2) The current market value shall be at least equal to the amount of the dissertation report on capital required bond. (3) The Department may periodically evaluate the securities and may require additional amounts if the current market value is insufficient to satisfy the bond amount requirements for the oil or gas well operations. (4) The operator may request and receive the engagement interest accruing on report governmental securities filed with the Department as the dissertation engagement interest becomes due and payable. Important Moral Values! An operator will not receive interest accruing on governmental securities until the full amount of the bond has been accumulated. Employee Engagement! No interest may be paid for postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and after resolution of the appeals, when the forfeiture is adjudicated, decided or settled in favor of the Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.308 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (138867) to (138868). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to values, form, terms and engagement conditions of the bond). § 78.309. Phased deposit of thesis restatement, collateral. (1) Eligibility. Employee Engagement! An operator who had a phased deposit of collateral in tourism in rotorua essay, effect as of November 26, 1997, may maintain that bond for wells requiring bonding, for new well permits and for wells acquired by transfer. (i) An operator may not have more than 200 wells. (ii) Under the following schedule, an employee, operator shall make a deposit with the Department of approved collateral prior to the issuance of a permit for a well or the transfer of a permit for a well, and shall make subsequent annual deposits and additional well payments. For the purpose of moral, calculating the required deposit, all of the operator#146;s wells are included in the number of engagement, wells.

(iii) An operator shall make the phased deposits of collateral as required by the bond. (2) Termination of report budgeting, eligibility. An operator is no longer eligible to make phased deposits of collateral when one or more of the following occur: (i) The operator shall fully bond the dissertation employee wells immediately, if an operator has more than 200 wells. (ii) If the dangerous operator misses a phased deposit of collateral payment, the dissertation operator shall do one of the following: (A) Immediately submit the appropriate bond amount in report on capital, full. (B) Cease all operations and plug the engagement wells covered by the bond in accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the act (58 P. S. Dissertation On Capital Budgeting! § 601.210). (i) An individual who seeks to satisfy the dissertation collateral bond requirements of the act by submitting phased deposit of collateral under section 215(d.1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(d.1)), may not drill more than ten new wells per calendar year. A well in which the individual has a financial interest is to dissertation on capital budgeting, be considered one of the wells permitted under this section.

A partnership, association or corporation is dissertation employee not eligible for on capital phased deposit of collateral under this subsection. (ii) The individual shall deposit with the Department $500 per well in employee, approved collateral prior to issuance of a new permit. (iii) The individual shall deposit 10#037; of the remaining amount of bond in approved collateral in each of the next 10 years. Annual payments shall become due on the anniversary date of the issuance of the permit, unless otherwise established by the Department. Payments shall be accompanied by appropriate bond documents required by the Department. (iv) The individual shall make the phased collateral payments as required by the bond. (2) Termination of eligibility. If the individual misses a phased deposit of collateral payment, the individual will no longer be eligible to make phased deposits of dangerous, collateral and shall do one of the following: (i) Immediately submit the employee appropriate bond amount in full.

(ii) Cease operations and plug the wells covered by the bond in accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the act. (c) Interest earned. Interest earned by collateral on deposit by operators and individuals under this section shall be accumulated and become part of the bond amount until the operator completes deposit of the requisite bond amount in accordance with the schedule of deposit. Interest earned by the collateral shall be retruned to the operator or the individual upon release of the lab reports bond. Interest may not be paid for employee postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and lab reports for chemistry after resolution of the dissertation employee appeals, when the forfeiture is thesis adjudicated, decided or settled in favor of the dissertation employee engagement Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.309 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Development In Rotorua! Immediately preceding text appears at dissertation employee serial pages (241951) to (241953). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the values bond). § 78.310. Replacement of existing bond. (a) An owner or operator may replace an existing surety or collateral bond with another surety or collateral bond that satisfies the requirements of this chapter, if the engagement liability which has accrued against the bond, the owner or operator who filed the first bond and the well operation is transferred to lab reports, the replacement bond. An owner or operator may not substitute a phased deposit of collateral bond under section 215(d) and (d.1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(d) and (d.1)) for a valid surety bond or collateral that has been filed and approved by the Department.

(b) The Department will not release existing bonds until the operator has submitted and the Department has approved acceptable replacement bonds. The provisions of this § 78.310 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241953). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.304 (relating to terms and dissertation employee conditions for report surety bonds). § 78.311. Failure to maintain adequate bond.

The permittee shall maintain a bond in engagement, an amount and with sufficient guarantee as provided by a scientific report this chapter. If a surety company that had provided surety bonds, or a financial institution that had provided certificates of engagement, deposit or letters of credit for an operator enters into bankruptcy or liquidation, has its license suspended or revoked or for another reason indicates an inability or unwillingness to provide an adequate financial guarantee of the obligations under the bond, the operator shall submit a bond within 45 days of notice from the thesis restatement Department. The provisions of this § 78.311 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138869). (a) A collateral or surety bond may be forfeited when the Department determines that the operator fails or refuses to comply with the act, this title, an order of the Department, or the dissertation terms or conditions of the permit relating to drilling, water supply replacement, plugging and site restoration.

(b) If forfeiture of the development bond is required, the Department will: (1) Send written notification by mail to the permittee, and the surety, if any, of the Department#146;s intent to forfeit the bond and describe the grounds for forfeiture. The notification will also provide an opportunity to employee engagement, take remedial action or submit a schedule for tourism development taking remedial actions acceptable to dissertation engagement, the Department within 30 days of the notice of intent to forfeit, in lieu of collecting the bond. (2) If the permittee and surety, if any, fail either to take remedial action or to submit a plan acceptable to the Department within 30 days of the notice of the intent to forfeit, the bond will be subject to forfeiture and for chemistry collection up to the face amount thereof. The Department will issue a declaration to employee, forfeit the are mobile phones bond. (3) The declaration to forfeit is an action which may be appealable to the Environmental Hearing Board under section 4 of the Environmental Hearing Board Act (35 P. S. § 7514).

The provisions of this § 78.312 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. An owner or operator shall notify the Department by certified mail within 10 calendar days after commencement of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under 11 U.S.C.A. § § 101#151;1330, known as the engagement Federal Bankruptcy Act, naming the owner or operator as debtor. The provisions of dissertation, this § 78.313 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. Remedies provided or authorized by dissertation law for development violation of statutes, including the act, the applicable environmental protection acts, this title, the terms and conditions of permits and orders of the Department, are expressly preserved. Nothing in this subchapter is an exclusive penalty or remedy for the violations. No action under this subchapter waives or impairs another remedy or penalty provided in law or equity. The provisions of this § 78.314 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. Subchapter H. UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE.

78.401. Employee! Storage well construction. 78.402. Moral Values! Inspections by the gas storage operator. 78.403. Gas storage well integrity testing. 78.404. Maximum storage pressure. 78.407. Plugging gas storage wells.

The provisions of this Subchapter H adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284, unless otherwise noted. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to dissertation engagement, mechanical integrity of operating wells). (a) In addition to the casing and lab reports cementing requirements of Subchapter D (relating to well drilling, operation and plugging), when constructing new gas storage wells the dissertation engagement operator shall: (1) Cement the surface and intermediate casings with sufficient cement to research report, circulate cement to the surface or to dissertation employee, equal at lab reports least 120#037; of the calculated volume to fill the annular space on the outside of the casing. (2) Cement the production casing with sufficient cement to fill the calculated annular space with cement to a point at least 500 feet above the casing shoe and at dissertation least 200 feet above the upper most perforations. (b) Gas storage wells being reconditioned shall meet the requirements of this section unless an alternate method of casing and cementing has been approved by the Department under § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). (c) The storage operator shall give the Department notice at least 15 days prior to reconditioning or altering a gas storage well and describe the are mobile phones procedure that the operator will use to recondition or alter the gas storage well.

If no objections are raised by the Department within 10 days, the operator may proceed to recondition or alter the well as proposed. The operator shall submit an dissertation employee engagement, updated well record within 30 days of restatement, completing a reconditioning or alteration. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.405 (relating to emergency repairs). § 78.402. Inspections by the gas storage operator. (a) A gas storage operator shall inspect every storage well and observation well in the gas storage field at least once each month. The results of the inspections shall be recorded and retained by the operator and shall be available for employee engagement review by are mobile phones the Department and the coal owner or operator.

(b) Inspections at a minimum shall determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement, as appropriate. (2) The open flow on the annulus of the production casing or the annulus pressure if the annulus is shut in. (3) If there is evidence of gas escaping from a well using measurement or best estimate of quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration. (c) Storage operators shall inspect the gas storage reservoir and storage protective area at least annually to discover if material changes have occurred that require an amendment or supplement of the engagement map and write research data as required in section 301(a) and (b) of the act (58 P. S. Engagement! § 601.301(a) and (b)). As part of that inspection, gas storage operators shall inspect known abandoned wells and plugged wells within the gas storage reservoir area and the gas storage protective area, subject to the right of entry, at the end of the injection season when the storage pressure is at for chemistry its highest.

The inspection record shall include observed evidence of engagement, gas leaking and dissertation budgeting other conditions that may be hazardous to the public or property. (d) Evidence of dissertation employee engagement, a new gas leak and leaks that exceed 5,000 cubic feet per day shall be reported to the Department within 24 hours. Following notification, the gas storage reservoir operator shall file a written report including corrective action taken, or planned, and a detailed explanation of the problem within 10 days. Subsequent reports describing additional corrective action and tourism development essay acquired data may be requested by the Department. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.403 (relating to dissertation, gas storage well integrity testing); and 25 Pa. Are Mobile Coursework! Code § 78.406 (relating to recordkeeping).

§ 78.403. Gas storage well integrity testing. (a) A gas storage reservoir operator shall develop an integrity monitoring and dissertation employee integrity testing program for each gas storage field. (b) A gas storage reservoir operator shall test the integrity of thesis restatement, each gas storage well at least once every 5 years. By June 15, 1995, each gas storage operator shall submit, for Department approval, an integrity testing plan for each gas storage field. (c) The testing program may consist of dissertation engagement, geophysical well logging, pressure testing or other procedures approved by the Department.

The testing program shall indicate a well#146;s integrity, whether there has been gas loss in quantities in excess of those amounts in § 78.402(d) (relating to inspections by dangerous coursework the gas storage operator), and whether there is a well condition that requires reconditioning, plugging or other remedial action. (d) Gas storage field monitoring may consist of annular and engagement tubing pressure monitoring, reservoir engineering evaluation in the form of pressure/volume inventory studies, gauge calibration programs, wellsite inspection programs, casing inspection programs, pressure and flow testing programs, internal and external inventory auditing programs or a combination of monitoring procedures approved by the Department that verify the gas storage reservoir#146;s integrity. (e) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain the information gathered in subsections (a)#151;(d) and shall make the information available to the Department for dangerous 15 years. (f) For an observation well for which a gas storage operator does not retain monitoring data, the gas storage operator shall plug the well or apply for engagement inactive status. (g) The Department may require the operator to perform additional tests it deems necessary after a conference is tourism essay held under section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.406 (relating to recordkeeping). A gas storage reservoir operator, who has not requested approval of a maximum storage pressure for a gas storage reservoir, shall request, by February 15, 1995, Department approval of a maximum gas storage reservoir pressure in accordance with the following: (1) The maximum shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) may not exceed the highest shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) found to exist during the production history of the reservoir, unless a higher pressure is established through testing of caprock and pool containment. The methods used for dissertation employee engagement determining the higher pressure shall be determined in conference with the Department in accordance with section 501 of the act.

(2) If the original discovery shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is restatement not known, or the highest production shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is dissertation employee engagement not known, or a higher pressure has not been established through a method as approved by the Department as established in paragraph (1), the maximum storage reservoir pressure shall be limited to a freshwater hydrostatic gradient. When emergency repairs are necessary, prior notification under § 78.401(c) (relating to tourism essay, storage well construction) is not required. The operator shall give notice to the Department within 24 hours of the repairs. Within 5 days of the emergency, the dissertation employee operator shall submit a written explanation of the emergency and the corrective action taken, or planned. If corrective action requires a permit, an application shall be filed within 10 days.

(a) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain records for each gas storage well and shall make these records available to the Department. These records shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Well inspection results and pressure data for the preceding 7 years. (2) Integrity testing data for each gas storage well required by § 78.403 (relating to gas storage well integrity testing) for at least 15 years. (b) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain data for at least 7 years gathered during inspections of abandoned wells and plugged wells as required by § 78.402 (relating to inspections by the gas storage operator) and shall make these records available to the Department. In addition to complying with the plugging requirements in § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to plugging), the gas storage reservoir operator shall: (1) Notify the Department of an intent to plug a gas storage well at least 15 days before beginning to plug the how to write research report well. This notice shall describe the dissertation employee engagement intended plugging procedure. (2) Clean out the dangerous portions of the dissertation employee engagement well that penetrate the storage horizon.

(3) Set cement across the perforations in a manner that prevents the migration of gas or other fluids within or outside of the well. (4) For an open hole, set a bridge plug immediately above the storage horizon followed by a 500 foot cement plug, or use another method approved by the Department. Subchapter X. Are Mobile Dangerous Coursework! STATEMENTS OF POLICY. INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. 78.903. Frequency of inspections. 78.904. Engagement! Manner of inspection.

INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. The provisions of this § 78.901 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Dissertation On Capital! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at dissertation engagement serial page (241959). (a) This statement of policy sets forth the policy of the Department in regard to inspections of oil and gas well locations, sites, property, facilities, operations or activities governed by the act, the restatement Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Dissertation Engagement! S. § § 501#151;518) or the Oil and thesis restatement Gas Conservation Law (58 P. S. Employee Engagement! § § 401#151;419). This policy does not create a duty or obligation upon the Department to conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per year or during a certain period of time. (b) Inspections are conducted to development, administer, implement, enforce and determine compliance with the statutes set forth in subsection (a) and with Article XIX-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-1#151;510-108), The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and other statutes administered by the Department that apply to activities associated with gas and dissertation oil operations.

The provisions of this § 78.902 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Write A Scientific Research Report! Code § 78.903 (relating to frequency of inspections); and 25 Pa. Engagement! Code § 78.905 (relating to additional inspections). The Department, its employes and agents intend to conduct inspections at the following frequencies: (1) At least once prior to the issuance of a permit, if a waiver or exception is requested by the permit applicant.

(2) At least once in verifying or resolving objections or determining the Department#146;s response to objections, when objections are raised to a permit application. (3) At least once during each of the phases of siting, drilling, casing, cementing, completing, altering and stimulating a well. (4) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the are mobile phones coursework time period in which the owner or operator is required to restore the site, after drilling the well. (5) At least once prior to employee engagement, the authorization to use an development in rotorua essay, alternate method for plugging, casing or equipping the well. (6) At least once during the periods that an employee, alternative method for plugging, casing or equipping the well is being used or installed. (7) At least once when a well is being reconditioned or repaired or when casing is being replaced. (8) At least once prior to a well being granted inactive status.

(9) At least once during the plugging of the well. (10) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the how to write report period in which the owner or operator is required to employee engagement, restore the site, after the tourism in rotorua well is plugged or abandoned. (11) At least once before the bond or other financial security is released. (12) At least once a year, if there is onsite brine disposal or residual waste disposal subject to the statutes referenced in § 78.902 (relating to policy). (13) At least twice a year if the well is located in a gas storage reservoir or in a gas storage reservoir protective area. (14) At least once a year to determine whether compliance with the statutes administered by the Department has been achieved. (15) If there is employee engagement a violation, at least once to determine whether the violation has been corrected, or whether there is a continuing violation. (16) At least once, in response to a complaint. The provisions of this § 78.903 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Thesis! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241959) to (241960). The inspections described in this subchapter may be conducted separately, or in combination, whichever manner is deemed by the Department to permit maximum efficiency, accuracy and thoroughness in implementing the statutes administered by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.904 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Dissertation Engagement! 3229. The Department, its employes and agents may conduct additional inspections, including follow-up inspections, inspections to observe a practice or condition related to the public health or safety and inspections to are mobile phones, determine compliance with the dissertation statutes set forth in § 78.902 (relating to lab reports, policy), with the laws administered by engagement the Department, with the Department#146;s regulations, with the terms or conditions of dissertation on capital, a permit or with the requirements of an order. The provisions of this § 78.905 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. The provisions of this statement of policy are subject to engagement, the availability of report on capital, personnel and financial resources. This statement of policy does not create a duty or obligation upon dissertation employee the Department to conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per year or during a certain period.

The provisions of this § 78.906 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. No part of the information on this site may be reproduced for profit or sold for profit.

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expertise essay I am (or at least think I am) an expert. Not on everything, but in dissertation, a particular area of phones coursework, human knowledge, specifically social science and public policy. Dissertation? When I say something on those subjects, I expect that my opinion holds more weight than that of most other people. I never thought those were particularly controversial statements. As it turns out, they’re plenty controversial. Today, any assertion of expertise produces an explosion of anger from certain quarters of the American public, who immediately complain that such claims are nothing more than fallacious “appeals to authority,” sure signs of dreadful “elitism,” and an obvious effort to use credentials to thesis restatement, stifle the employee engagement dialogue required by thesis a “real” democracy. But democracy, as I wrote in an essay about C.S. Dissertation? Lewis and the Snowden affair, denotes a system of government, not an actual state of equality. It means that we enjoy equal rights versus the government, and in relation to thesis, each other.

Having equal rights does not mean having equal talents, equal abilities, or equal knowledge. It assuredly does not mean that “everyone’s opinion about engagement, anything is as good as anyone else’s.” And yet, this is now enshrined as the credo of a fair number of people despite being obvious nonsense. I fear we are witnessing the “death of thesis restatement, expertise”: a Google-fueled, Wikipedia-based, blog-sodden collapse of dissertation employee, any division between professionals and laymen, students and teachers, knowers and tourism, wonderers – in other words, between those of any achievement in an area and those with none at all. By this, I do not mean the death of actual expertise, the knowledge of specific things that sets some people apart from others in various areas. There will always be doctors, lawyers, engineers, and other specialists in various fields. Rather, what I fear has died is engagement any acknowledgement of expertise as anything that should alter our thoughts or change the important moral way we live. This is dissertation employee a very bad thing. Yes, it’s true that experts can make mistakes, as disasters from thalidomide to the Challenger explosion tragically remind us.

But mostly, experts have a pretty good batting average compared to laymen: doctors, whatever their errors, seem to are mobile dangerous, do better with most illnesses than faith healers or your Aunt Ginny and her special chicken gut poultice. To reject the notion of dissertation employee engagement, expertise, and to important moral values, replace it with a sanctimonious insistence that every person has a right to his or her own opinion, is dissertation engagement silly. Worse, it’s dangerous. The death of expertise is a rejection not only of knowledge, but of the ways in which we gain knowledge and dangerous, learn about dissertation employee, things. Fundamentally, it’s a rejection of science and rationality, which are the moral foundations of Western civilization itself. Yes, I said “Western civilization”: that paternalistic, racist, ethnocentric approach to dissertation, knowledge that created the nuclear bomb, the Edsel, and New Coke, but which also keeps diabetics alive, lands mammoth airliners in the dark, and writes documents like the dissertation report Charter of the dissertation engagement United Nations. This isn’t just about are mobile dangerous coursework, politics, which would be bad enough. No, it’s worse than that: the perverse effect of the death of expertise is that without real experts, everyone is an expert on employee engagement, everything. Moral? To take but one horrifying example, we live today in an advanced post-industrial country that is now fighting a resurgence of whooping cough — a scourge nearly eliminated a century ago — merely because otherwise intelligent people have been second-guessing their doctors and refusing to dissertation employee, vaccinate their kids after reading stuff written by people who know exactly zip about medicine. (Yes, I mean people like Jenny McCarthy.

In politics, too, the problem has reached ridiculous proportions. People in political debates no longer distinguish the dissertation report phrase “you’re wrong” from the phrase “you’re stupid.” To disagree is to insult. To correct another is to dissertation engagement, be a hater. Development In Rotorua? And to dissertation engagement, refuse to acknowledge alternative views, no matter how fantastic or inane, is to be closed-minded. How conversation became exhausting. Critics might dismiss all this by saying that everyone has a right to participate in thesis restatement, the public sphere. That’s true. But every discussion must take place within limits and employee, above a certain baseline of competence. And competence is sorely lacking in the public arena.

People with strong views on going to war in other countries can barely find their own nation on a map; people who want to punish Congress for this or that law can’t name their own member of the House. None of this ignorance stops people from arguing as though they are research scientists. Tackle a complex policy issue with a layman today, and you will get snippy and how to write a scientific report, sophistic demands to show ever increasing amounts of “proof” or “evidence” for your case, even though the ordinary interlocutor in such debates isn’t really equipped to decide what constitutes “evidence” or to dissertation, know it when it’s presented. The use of important, evidence is dissertation employee a specialized form of knowledge that takes a long time to learn, which is why articles and books are subjected to “peer review” and not to “everyone review,” but don’t tell that to someone hectoring you about the how things really work in Moscow or Beijing or Washington. This subverts any real hope of a conversation, because it is moral simply exhausting — at dissertation employee engagement, least speaking from my perspective as the policy expert in most of these discussions — to have to start from the very beginning of every argument and establish the merest baseline of knowledge, and then constantly to have to negotiate the rules of logical argument. (Most people I encounter, for lab reports for chemistry example, have no idea what a non-sequitur is, or when they’re using one; nor do they understand the difference between generalizations and stereotypes.) Most people are already huffy and offended before ever encountering the substance of the dissertation employee issue at hand. Once upon a time — way back in the Dark Ages before the 2000s — people seemed to tourism development in rotorua, understand, in a general way, the difference between experts and laymen. Employee Engagement? There was a clear demarcation in a scientific research report, political food fights, as objections and dissent among experts came from their peers — that is, from people equipped with similar knowledge. The public, largely, were spectators. This was both good and bad. Engagement? While it strained out the kook factor in discussions (editors controlled their letters pages, which today would be called “moderating”), it also meant that sometimes public policy debate was too esoteric, conducted less for public enlightenment and more as just so much dueling jargon between experts. No one — not me, anyway — wants to return to moral values, those days.

I like the 21st century, and I like the employee democratization of knowledge and restatement, the wider circle of public participation. That greater participation, however, is endangered by the utterly illogical insistence that every opinion should have equal weight, because people like me, sooner or later, are forced to tune out people who insist that we’re all starting from dissertation employee engagement intellectual scratch. (Spoiler: We’re not.) And if that happens, experts will go back to only talking to each other. And that’s bad for democracy. How did this peevishness about expertise come about, and how can it have gotten so immensely foolish? Some of it is are mobile coursework purely due to the globalization of employee engagement, communication. There are no longer any gatekeepers: the journals and op-ed pages that were once strictly edited have been drowned under the weight of write a scientific, self-publishable blogs. Employee Engagement? There was once a time when participation in public debate, even in important moral, the pages of the local newspaper, required submission of dissertation engagement, a letter or an article, and that submission had to be written intelligently, pass editorial review, and stand with the author’s name attached. Even then, it was a big deal to get a letter in tourism development in rotorua essay, a major newspaper.

Now, anyone can bum rush the comments section of employee, any major publication. Sometimes, that results in a free-for-all that spurs better thinking. Restatement? Most of the time, however, it means that anyone can post anything they want, under any anonymous cover, and never have to defend their views or get called out for being wrong. Another reason for the collapse of expertise lies not with the global commons but with the increasingly partisan nature of U.S. political campaigns. There was once a time when presidents would win elections and then scour universities and think-tanks for a brain trust; that’s how Henry Kissinger, Samuel Huntington, Zbigniew Brzezinski and engagement, others ended up in government service while moving between places like Harvard and Columbia.

Those days are gone. To be sure, some of the blame rests with the increasing irrelevance of overly narrow research in the social sciences. But it is also because the coursework primary requisite of seniority in the policy world is dissertation too often an answer to the question: “What did you do during the campaign?” This is the code of the samurai, not the for chemistry intellectual, and dissertation employee engagement, it privileges the lab reports campaign loyalist over the expert. I have a hard time, for example, imagining that I would be called to Washington today in the way I was back in 1990, when the engagement senior Senator from Pennsylvania asked a former U.S. Ambassador to the UN who she might recommend to advise him on foreign affairs, and she gave him my name. Despite the fact that I had no connection to Pennsylvania and had never worked on his campaigns, he called me at tourism in rotorua essay, the campus where I was teaching, and later invited me to join his personal staff. Universities, without doubt, have to own some of this mess. The idea of telling students that professors run the show and know better than they do strikes many students as something like uppity lip from the employee engagement help, and so many profs don’t do it. (One of the greatest teachers I ever had, James Schall, once wrote many years ago that “students have obligations to thesis, teachers,” including “trust, docility, effort, and thinking,” an assertion that would produce howls of outrage from the entitled generations roaming campuses today.) As a result, many academic departments are boutiques, in which the employee professors are expected to be something like intellectual valets. For Chemistry? This produces nothing but a delusion of intellectual adequacy in children who should be instructed, not catered to.

There’s also that immutable problem known as “human nature.” It has a name now: it’s called the Dunning-Kruger effect, which says, in sum, that the dumber you are, the dissertation employee engagement more confident you are that you’re not actually dumb. And when you get invested in being aggressively dumb…well, the last thing you want to encounter are experts who disagree with you, and so you dismiss them in order to maintain your unreasonably high opinion of yourself. Phones? (There’s a lot of that loose on social media, especially.) All of these are symptoms of the same disease: a manic reinterpretation of “democracy” in dissertation engagement, which everyone must have their say, and no one must be “disrespected.” (The verb to disrespect is one of the most obnoxious and insidious innovations in our language in tourism development in rotorua, years, because it really means “to fail to pay me the employee engagement impossibly high requirement of report budgeting, respect I demand.”) This yearning for respect and employee engagement, equality, even—perhaps especially—if unearned, is so intense that it brooks no disagreement. For Chemistry? It represents the full flowering of a therapeutic culture where self-esteem, not achievement, is the ultimate human value, and it’s making us all dumber by the day. Thus, at least some of the people who reject expertise are not really, as they often claim, showing their independence of thought.

They are instead rejecting anything that might stir a gnawing insecurity that their own opinion might not be worth all that much. Experts: the servants, not masters, of a democracy. So what can we do? Not much, sadly, since this is a cultural and generational issue that will take a long time come right, if it ever does. Personally, I don’t think technocrats and intellectuals should rule the world: we had quite enough of that in the late 20th century, thank you, and it should be clear now that intellectualism makes for lousy policy without some sort of political common sense. Indeed, in an ideal world, experts are the servants, not the dissertation employee engagement masters, of a democracy. But when citizens forgo their basic obligation to moral values, learn enough to actually govern themselves, and instead remain stubbornly imprisoned by their fragile egos and caged by their own sense of entitlement, experts will end up running things by default. That’s a terrible outcome for everyone. Expertise is necessary, and it’s not going away. Unless we return it to a healthy role in public policy, we’re going to have stupider and less productive arguments every day.

So here, presented without modesty or political sensitivity, are some things to think about when engaging with experts in their area of specialization. We can all stipulate: the expert isn’t always right. But an dissertation employee engagement expert is far more likely to be right than you are. On a question of factual interpretation or evaluation, it shouldn’t engender insecurity or anxiety to think that an expert’s view is likely to be better-informed than yours. (Because, likely, it is.) Experts come in many flavors. Education enables it, but practitioners in a field acquire expertise through experience; usually the combination of the budgeting two is the mark of a true expert in a field.

But if you have neither education nor experience, you might want to consider exactly what it is you’re bringing to the argument. In any discussion, you have a positive obligation to dissertation employee, learn at least enough to make the report budgeting conversation possible. The University of Google doesn’t count. Remember: having a strong opinion about something isn’t the same as knowing something. And yes, your political opinions have value. Of course they do: you’re a member of a democracy and what you want is as important as what any other voter wants.

As a layman, however, your political analysis, has far less value, and dissertation, probably isn’t — indeed, almost certainly isn’t — as good as you think it is. And how do I know all this? Just who do I think I am? Well, of course: I’m an are mobile phones dangerous expert. Tom Nichols is a professor of national security affairs at the U.S. Naval War College and an adjunct at dissertation employee, the Harvard Extension School. He claims expertise in a lot of things, but his most recent book is tourism development in rotorua essay No Use: Nuclear Weapons and dissertation engagement, U.S. National Security (Penn, 2014). The views expressed are entirely his own.

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