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Dec 19, 2017 How to write a personal memoir essay,

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terus si aliran selanganya itu malah kering jadi tintan ga ngalir ke cartridge gmna nih bang 0.0. saya baru beli printer canon ip2770, belum lama isi cartidge habis, pas disuntik baru beberapa lembar sudah minta diganti lagi, lau saya ganti cartridge baru, tapi ketika habis dan disuntik ulang, ada peringatan catridge kosong(tinta habis), paadahal paunya teman saya dengan tipe yang sama tida seperti itu. bagaimana cara mengatasinya ya aga cartridgenya bisa di pake ulang?? aku g tau harus ngapain??tolong dibantu ya! saya tunggu jawabannya melalui e-mail saya. pdahal tinta hitamnya uga bis di isi. Saya pake printer canon pixma ip2770.. Baro 3 minggu pake udah ngadat… Awalnya yg cardtridge hitam,,katanya is a personal memoir essay not runing now… Dulu saya reset,,alhamdulillah bisa…

Tp yang ini kok gak bisa padahal udah saya reset..kemaren sih gara2 kehabisan tinta,,skrg gag tau knapa ?? Tolong bantu ya admin.. Banyak tugas yg harus di print ne #128550; untuk MP 258 itu cukup tekan reset 5 detik. Writing Prompts? mungkin bisa membantu. mohon untuk bisa sharing bareng2. A Personal Memoir? trims. tolong kirim ke e_mail : [email protected] cara ngatasinya gimana nih? selama masih bisa di pakai ngprint tidak masalah, asal jangan lampu indikator Alarm nya yang nyala. Jika nanti sudah tidak bisa ngprint karena indikator tinta kosong, coba di reset pakai resetter buat MP258.

printer saya MP198 tidak bisa dipakai buat scan , tpi klau buat fto copy bisa.. gimana solusinya gan…? padahal warna aslinya biru (pic hasil scanning), gimana ngesettingnya. Tks BANTUAN dan INFO SOLUSInya ats MASALAH sy ini….. dan saya sudah melakukan instal tapi hasil nya sama,.dan saya sudah melakukan restar berkali2,,juga sudah buka-tutup cartrid juga tapi tetap begitu terus (tidak ada hasil),.

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tolong di beri penjelasannya. solusinya apa ya;;; kenapa hasil print selalu warna hijau, padahal tinta penuh. tolong d bntu secepatnya y… blas scepatnya ya mas. mkasih atas sblumnya. kirim ke email saya [email protected] bantuin dunk….penting bgt nih kirim ke mail q yah. mohon balasannya… Thank’s.

The following ink cartridge cannot be recognized. pertama kali, ink catridge yg warna gak l dikenali (unrecognized) pas habis diisi,kluar bling warna oranye n gak terinstal dgn baik kt’a, tpi udah aq reset ulang, masih juga error n kluar’a error 5600. itu masalahnya apa ya mas?? tolong Dibantuuu, pliiiss, kirim lewat email bsa jgaa,,pliiis. Mohon batuannya terima kasih. ni printer jarang ane pake. How To A Personal Memoir Essay? pas terakhir mau dipake gak kedetek tuh cartridge yg warna…?? apa harus ganti cartridge??

berapa harganya ya mas bro?? kirim solusinya ke email ane gan. On Brett Faver? please…[email protected] yang keluar hanya warna hitam,kuning dan merah saja…… warna birunya gak bisa keluar….. pas dites ke tisu tintanya keluar….dari kartigenya … masalahnya tu mas……………tolong kasih tau solusinya ya mas…. tolong di bantu yaaa.makasi sebelum nyaa. mohon balasannya secepatnya… gimana cara ngatasi lampu tinta nyala terus…dah aq reset pake ssc service utility tpg ada perubahan… minta bantuanya ya mas soalnya ini buat laporan prakerin aku….

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sehari penuh saya mencoba utak-utik sendiri kenapa printer setelah diiisi kok ga bisa jalan. How To Write Memoir Essay? kemudian saya telpon teman, saya disarankan buka blog ini. Prompts? saya lakukan saran tersebut. Write Memoir? hasilnyapun berhasil. sekali lagi saya senang sekali, terimaksih Tasikisme. apa solusinya ya? saya bersihkan secara manual dan ketiga tinta warna keluar, tetapi jika di printkan yang warna kuning tidak ada. Research Paper? tolong di bantu yaaaa…. like this : error number. printer error has occured.

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1. How To Write Memoir? setiap kali mau ngeprint pasti kertas nya macet.padahal posisi kertas nya uda pas trus gk ada yang berlipat. 2. Practice? setiap tombol off pada printer dimatikan itu catdrige nya berada di tenggah. 3. How To Write Memoir? tinta di tabung influs nya masih penuh tapi di dalam catdrige eh malah udah kosong. gimana sih caranya untuk mengatasi maslah seperti itu . waktu ngeprint tiba2 dikatan bersihkan secara manual gitu, apa solusinya bang..thx bgt yahh… tapi saya gk bisa memprint karena banjir mungkin ada muncul tampilan gambar warna berserakan dan tulisannya mengatakan FUUl. Trus dapat info dari temen……,suruh JEMPER komponen IC.kaki 8.yang ada di meanboadnya, ternyata emang bisa tuk ngeprint.TAPI……Cuma separuh kertas udah resum….eh tak lihat tipe printerku jadi S2O. Paper Faver? yang saya tanykn Gimana ya jadi T2O lagi..tolong kirin ke email [email protected] tlg dong solusinya…..makasih ya sebelumnya (klo bs email aja ya….) saya minta tolong catrid dah baru.

tapi setelah beberapa hari kemudian hasil print bagus tapi ga lurus. contoh : saya ingin garis yang lurus, lalu setelah diprint. garisnya jadi zig-zaq. gimana mz ya solusinya ? trus ada warning yang artinya. How To A Personal Memoir? .. 1. Reactionh Essays On Articles? keluarkan kertas yang nyangkut. How To Write? . Reactionh Essays On Articles? . padahalkan kertasnya ga ada yg nyangkut. Write Memoir? . Ideas For Creative? . How To Essay? yang saya kesel kenapa kertasnya ga mau masuk2. Enga Essays? .. How To Write? thx.

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waktu catridge nya dibuka dan dilap dengan tissue warna kuningnya masih keluar. Solusinya gimana ya …? Mohon petunjuknya….. Write Memoir Essay? Trim’s. Dan saya juga punya banyak Sofware2 yg mungkin dibutuhkan. printer saya type canon ip1200. waktu itu saya pake resetter canon setelah selesai tiba2 printer yg ke deteksi menjadi canon ip1600. tolong dong mas.. Ideas Prompts? kasih tahu caranya… atau kirim ke emailku [email protected] terima kasih ya atas bantuannya. gimana yah solusinya….!

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emang printer epson penyakitan. harga murah sesui dengan kualitas nya ^^ kira2 sebaiknya solusi apa yang harus saya lakukan agar catridge printer saya dapat terdeteksi. Saya bingung pisan euy…. Tolonglah bagi para user memberi saran yang pasti, sudah banyak reset manual yang saya coba alhasil blinking terus. software sudah saya download, tapi penggunaan software ini tentunya setelah reset manual khan. Service Practice Essay Questions? #128578; nah justru mengatasi blinking inilah yang tidak bisa-bisa. How To Essay? please. On Articles? bagi user…tolong oe – tolong oe.

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waktu test pattern 1, cuma ngeprint sebanyak 2 baris ( ip1700e P=V1.00 Dd=004.2 ………….dan seterusnya) trus kertas macet.

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TOWARD COMMON SECURITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA. Working Paper 90-8, July, l990. By Paul Wehr and Klaus Pfoser. Department of Sociology University of how to a personal memoir essay, Colorado at Boulder. This paper was prepared for presentation at the Twenty-fifth Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Groningen, The Netherlands, July, 1990. The statements and ideas presented in this paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. This paper was written with a small grant from the Conflict Resolution Consortium, University of reactionh essays, Colorado.

Funding for the Consortium and its Small Grants Program was provided by how to memoir the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The statements and reactionh on articles ideas presented in this paper are those of the author and how to memoir do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the enga essays University of Colorado, or the William and how to write memoir Flora Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail: [email protected] Copyright (C) 1990. Paul Wehr and Klaus Pfoser. Do not reprint without permission. Funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the University of Colorado, the Conflict Resolution Consortium is reactionh a coordinated program of research, education and application on three of the University's four campuses. Memoir? The program unites researchers, educators, and practitioners from many fields for the purposes of theory-building, testing, and reactionh application in the field of conflict resolution. Current focus areas include international conflict; environmental and natural resource conflict; urban, rural, and inter-jurisdictional conflicts; and the evaluation of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.

The Conflict Resolution Consortium working paper series includes a variety of papers written by write essay our members as a part of their research. Ideas Writing Prompts? Usually these papers are in how to write a personal memoir essay preliminary draft stage and are being prepared for eventual publication in professional journals or books. Other papers record discussions from Conflict Resolution Consortium seminars and plenary presentations. The purpose of the working paper series is to generate a dialogue about the work presented. Readers are encouraged to respond to the papers either by contacting the essays author directly or by contacting the essay Consortium office. The 1980s produced profound changes in the nations of Europe and enga essays Central America.

In both regions the concept of military-based security has been increasingly eclipsed by that of a security dependent on a personal memoir essay, cooperation, demilitarization and democratization. The authors examine the realization of this common security in Europe and Central America. They give particular attention to for creative writing, the Esquipulas peace process and the importance of Nicaragua and Costa Rica as drivers of it. The Central American case presents students of conflict with a rich store of conflict management illustration and a personal essay innovation, the study of which could advance our understanding of regional integration and domestic peace and justice. The authors see Nicaragua and Costa Rica as the ideas writing potential nucleus of a common security movement which, informed by memoir essay the post-war European experience, could grow to include all of Central America. 1. Origin of the essay questions Concept. Common security was born in the breakdown of U.S.Soviet detente and the subsequent nuclear buildup of the 1970s, as Europe became aware of its role as nuclear battlefield. It was a radical shift in a personal memoir essay thinking -away from bully thesis security through competitive antagonism, to one of regional cooperation, away from threat-based deterrence to one of mutual trust. Swedish prime minister Olof Palme first promoted the concept to replace nuclear deterrence which could no longer assure national security, if indeed it ever had.

Originally the term addressed the problem of military security -how to minimize the possibility of war by way of verification, confidence-building measures, better communication and the like. Such non-military developments as economic cooperation and write memoir essay cultural exchange would support military security. Strong forces were encouraging common security at statement that time: the instability and risk of how to a personal, nuclear deterrence; the social costs of the arms race; global problems of environmental degradation, population pressure, and poverty that were eclipsing the traditional class-based ideological conflicts sustaining the Cold War; the need for a permanent framework for language association of america mla handbook for writers arms control and disarmament. The core assumption of common security is how to essay that a nation's defense of essays, its right to secure sovereignty must take into account the equally legitimate security interests of its antagonists. Such mutual recognition of defense and security rights has been institutionalized to a considerable degree through the a personal machinery of the Helsinki process and Vienna and Geneva arms reduction negotiations. Its bipolar architecture must now accommodate the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and enga essays COMECON. Despite its eurocentrism, cooperative common security has taken root in Asia as well. The ASEAN group, primarily for economic reasons, agreed upon a regional division of how to a personal, labor and a harmonization of political interests that have laid the basis for bully statement trust and cooperation on security issues between member states. There is also an integrative common security model developing in Western and Southern Europe complementary to, but distinct from the cooperative model. Its emphasis is not on international cooperation as much as on the development of regional institutions which increasingly assume the functions of the separate nations involved. The integrative concept had its beginnings in the ruins of post-war Europe, in the coal and steel community of Schumann and ultimately in the European Economic Community forged in how to write a personal memoir essay the spirit of Jean Monnet.

Its primary purpose was to overcome the historical antagonism between Germany and France that would weaken Western Europe's defense against reactionh essays the Soviet threat. The political institutions such as the European Council and how to a personal Parliament followed in the integrative process and 1992 is the target date for language association of america mla handbook of research papers full economic union. COMECON, the a personal memoir essay socialist bloc counterpart, has all but collapsed, and the eastward expansion of the reactionh European Community seems only a matter of time as Germany prepares to reunify. 2. Realization of Common Security in Europe. Cooperative common security has intended not to remove basic political differences but to create processes by which those conflicts are made less military, less dangerous. Write A Personal Essay? The concept assumes that East-West conflict will continue but will be moderated by recognition of the legitimate security rights of all, and the unacceptability of the use of enga essays, military force. While the initial goal is to reduce military risk and force levels on write a personal, all sides, the longer term goal is the emergence of a cooperative exchange so valuable to the participants that it would be too costly to disrupt with military conflict. The initiation of the Federal Republic's Ostpolitik in the early 1970s led off the process. The Ostvertrage mitigated East-West conflict sufficiently to permit the gradual construction of the on articles framework for the Conference on Security and how to write a personal essay Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). The CSCE agreement reached in Helsinki (1975) was the culmination of U.S.Soviet detente.

It proved to be the major stabilizing factor in Europe as the superpower disarmament talks all but closed down for nearly a decade. The durability of CSCE owed much to its gradual expansion to include all 35 European states, with the neutral and nonaligned nations playing a significant role in the Belgrade and Madrid follow-on conferences. Out of CSCE came a broad all-Europe consensus on reactionh essays, the principles for a personal memoir peaceful East-West relations -the increasingly obvious benefits of which encouraged the essays on articles Gorbachev reforms in write a personal essay the U.S.SR. The four baskets of CSCE measures suggest how broad this common security process has been: 1) the demilitarization and regularization of interstate relations through setting human rights protection standards and monitoring and crafting confidence-building measures; 2) increased economic, scientific, technological and ecological cooperation; 3) growing transnational citizen contact, exchange and the modern language association of america mla handbook of research papers communication; 4) institutionalizing East-West diplomacy through follow-on conferences and permanent commissions. Ideological questions were eclipsed by human rights and humanitarian concerns that could only be protected and how to a personal essay monitored within the new framework. The continuing conferences of CSCE kept in foreign service practice questions motion a process that all sides came to a personal memoir essay, see had to be protected from the foreign exam effects of short term interruptions and how to write essay temporary setbacks. The common humanity of on brett faver, Europeans on write a personal memoir essay, all sides and the risk presented if the process failed, propelled it onward. The Modern Association Of America For Writers Papers? Joint responsibility for the common security of Europe as a whole became the guide. The Palme Commission report (1982) was really an interim evaluation of the CSCE process. While its primary concern was for CS development in Europe, it made a clear call for CSCE-like regional security to be developed in the Third World.

It recognized the developing nations' wish to essay, seek solutions to their problems free of great power interference. to resolve conflicts at regional or sub-regional levels. Foreign Exam Practice Essay? There will be continuing validity in regional initiatives, the report went on, provided the regional organizations themselves are strengthened and their own security initiatives tied in with a more forceful UN security system (p. 129). That is precisely what appears to have happened in how to write memoir essay Central America. The Contadora-Esquipulas process drew its initial strength from resistance to U.S., Soviet and on articles Cuban intervention. Like the CSCE process, C-E set as its short term goals the demilitarization of conflicts in the region, human rights protection, social reform and how to write a personal essay economic cooperation.

The longer term objective was a nonmilitary security community capable of protecting regional and national interests from unwanted external influence -Central Americans managing Central American conflict within regional security arrangements. It was not, however, a matter of simply transferring European common security for application in a different region. First, the European model assumed regional pluralism of political and economic systems and worked initially because of that assumption. Bully Statement? Perestroika, glasnost and the revolutions of 1989-90 have since encouraged more of an intersystem convergence. In Central America, by a personal memoir essay contrast, while Contadora-Esquipulas tolerated economic pluralism, liberal democratization of member states was always explicitly stated as a requirement for regional peace and cooperation. There are other dissimilarities between the European and Latin American settings as well that preclude a common security replication. In Europe, the threat of nuclear war was a global one, East and West threatened equally, both sides accepted the continuation of nonmilitary intersystem conflict, and both benefited visibly from common security. In Central America, by contrast, the threat is regionspecific. Enga Essays? The threat system appears to be unbalanced, with especially the U.S. but to a lesser degree the Soviet Union and Cuba perceived as monopolizing the intervention-threat system. Their capacity ranges from direct and how to memoir essay indirect military intervention, to drug-related paramilitary influence, to economic control through embargos, sanctions and control of international lending policies.

One could argue that the threat system, unlike that in research faver Europe, is unilateral in character and that interest in changing it, therefore, resides wholly with the Central Americans. Actually the threat system is not totally one-sided. Central Americans do have some leverage through military base leases, cooperation with drug interdiction, and essay the threat of debt default. But it is hardly the foreign service mutual threat system that propelled European common security. Central American common security, then, must necessarily look different from the European model.

Its integrative aspects have somewhat different configurations as well. While European institutions are highly developed, those of Central America are at an early stage of development. The West European achievement of stable exchange rates, a common market, an envisioned common currency unit (ECU), a directly-elected European parliament, and how to a personal other integrative measures have taken nearly 50 years to statement, develop. The new stage of East-West integration now underway could take several decades more. Essay? European integration was stimulated by both the perceived threat from the East and large infusions of U.S. Enga Essays? capital through the Marshall Plan. It was protected by U.S. military superiority and encouraged by how to memoir the U.S., which saw a strong Western Europe as important for U.S. military security and economic growth. Each major integrative step -The Council of Europe and NATO (1949), the coal and steel commission (1951), Euratom and enga essays the EEC (1957) -were responses to external threats -the Prague coup (1948), the Korean War outbreak (1950), the Suez crisis (1956) and so on. Central American integrative institutions have quite different origins. A Personal Memoir? Unlike those of Europe, they have been more a response to intraregional threats -civil war and class conflict and U.S. policy has only rarely supported their development. While the Alliance for Progress was a U.S. effort to encourage regional integration, in the 1980s U.S. counterinsurgency, militarization and lending and trade policies have tended to enga essays, discourage integration - quite the opposite how to write a personal memoir essay of the U.S. role in Western European integration. Since the integrative conditions giving rise to European integration are largely absent in Central America, realities there will produce a different integrative configuration.

Central American common security, unlike the European model, has begun without the encouragement of the U.S., without the massive external nonmilitary aid, and without the external threat to impel institutionalization of regional defense. European integration was first economic, with political institutions following. Central America is having quite the opposite experience. The Modern Association Of America Papers? Integration is to date primarily political, through Esquipulas. Its most developed common security dimension is its increasing ability to manage conflict. It is to that capacity that we now turn. 3. Common Security in Central America. Central America has incorporated elements of both CS models -the cooperative, in the form of the how to Esquipulas process, and the integrative in that of the Central American Common Market (CACM) and the Central American Parliament. Is it thereby creating a composite model of common security?

Can such a model deal with both intrastate and interstate conflict as the others have not been forced to do? The move toward common security in southern Central America is a direct function of the Contadora-Esquipulas peace process and its institutional framework. That process has produced the enga essays elements of an embryonic regional security system with Nicaragua and Costa Rica at its core. Here we define security as the ability of societies and their states both to maintain internal peace and justice systems and to defend themselves against external threat and intervention. States like Costa Rica saw the U.S.-Nicaraguan conflict endangering their security, much as external conflicts have led to the destruction of Lebanon.

The preventive response had to be regionalization of conflict resolution. Since 1987, Esquipulas has been creating loose consultation and conflict management institutions that include: 1) periodic summit meetings of the how to write presidents of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica that produce agreements subsequently implemented by 2) national reconciliation commissions, 3) an interim ministerial consultative group, and bully thesis 4) a regional monitoring commission (CIAV) relying heavily on the use of external third parties such as the a personal United Nations, the Organization of American States, and the Council of research, Former Heads of State. That institutional framework has been in large part responsible for the settlement of how to memoir essay, both the Contra and Sandinista-Atlantic Coast conflicts in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan elections of 1990, the subsequent peaceful transfer of power there, and moves toward negotiated settlement of civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala are also products of those institutions. The Esquipulas process envisages the enga essays development of other regional organizations that could contribute to common security. The establishment of a Central American parliament was an explicit goal of the Esquipulas treaty.

It would, initially at least, be a consultative not a legislative body. With conflict in Nicaragua well on write a personal memoir, its way to resolution in 1990, the Esquipulas states have turned once again to plans for on articles the parliament. There have been renewed efforts to write memoir essay, resurrect the Central American Common Market, more or less moribund for two decades. There has even been some discussion of a reconstitution of the for creative writing Central American Court of Justice (1907-17), that precursor of the World Court. We would argue then, that an embryonic framework for Central American common security already exists in the form of a personal, Esquipulas, and that it has a rather impressive record of accomplishment to date, in spite of earlier U.S. government efforts to subvert it. 4. Common Security. The collective experience in conflict management represented by Nicaragua and Costa Rica provides a substantial base upon which regional common security could build. This experience and the institutions that embody it represent a substantial capacity to manage conflict without the use of state violence. In assessing this common security potential in these two nations we looked at four variables: a) The capacity for equitable distribution and stable transfer of power (i.e., conflict prevention). How stable and participatory is the political process in these nations?

How equitable is the socioeconomic structure? How responsive is the electoral system to the legitimate needs and sentiments of the population as a whole? How peacefully is power transferred? b) The capacity for peaceful internal conflict management (i.e., conflict resolution). What has been the nation's cumulative historical experience with maintaining internal peace without violence? Is the society structured to moderate social conflict -through cross-cutting affiliations and by way of mediating structures and voluntary associations such as labor unions, cooperatives and the like? Does it have a tradition of nonviolent collective action to permit peaceful change? Is the research paper social structure sufficiently open and equitable to allow for movement and facilitate nonviolent conflict?

To what degree does the how to write a personal memoir nation use third-parties and intermediaries to enga essays, help it resolve disputes? Does the how to a personal memoir ethnic composition of the society present special conflict problems? c) Relations with other states (i.e., a negotiation/accommodation tradition). Here we looked at the modern association for writers of research papers the incidence of conflictive and peaceful relations the write a personal memoir essay nation has had with its neighbors. How have wars, border disputes and bully thesis statement other conflicts been averted or resolved? What integrative and how to write a personal accommodative policies have been initiated or agreed to? d) State militarization (i.e., the capacity for state violence). How prominent and influential are military institutions in the nation?

How repressive, ready-to-use armed force, responsive to conflict moderation needs are they? How strong is popular sentiment for reducing or limiting their role? How independent are its armed forces from external control and influence (e.g., foreign advisors, weapons supplies, training programs, intelligence)? To what degree has there been a militarization of the police and other security agencies? How explicit is the demilitarization ethic in association mla handbook the society? These, then, are four essential indicators of a nation's potential for common security as we have defined it. We then evaluated the Nicaraguan and Costa Rican national security systems by these criteria. Prerevolutionary Nicaragua had an extremely poor record in managing both internal and how to write memoir external conflict.

The Liberal-Conservative, Leon-Grenada conflict precluded national unity for a century. Language Association Of America For Writers? The intervention of the U.S., Great Britain and free-lance filibusteros such as William Walker helped to how to write essay, keep Nicaragua's relations with neighboring states problematic as well. Revolutionary Nicaragua (1979-1990) offered no immediate improvement. The Sandinista government stimulated early civil conflict by forcing ideological unity within its leadership ranks, thus providing ample defectors for a contra movement. It also produced a second civil conflict by bully thesis statement forcing the geographical and political integration of the Atlantic Coast indigenous peoples. Resolution of those two conflicts required an a personal essay inordinate amount of conflict management learning. That knowledge is now the exam questions most salient feature of Nicaragua's national security model.

5.1 Conflict prevention. Four characteristics of Central American societies appear to determine their capacity to preclude social conflict: socioeconomic equitability, meaningful political participation, a tradition of peaceful governmental transfer of power, and the existence of mediating structures and cross-cutting affiliations that preclude nation-rending cleavages. Write Memoir? How did Sandinista Nicaragua score on these conflict prevention dimensions? The Sandinista government was of course a product of revolutionary conflict which was by no means resolved with the disappearance of the bully thesis statement Somoza regime and its clients. Write Essay? Conflicts with political dissidents, with the mainstream Catholic hierarchy, with those of the privileged class who remained in Nicaragua, and with the indigenous peoples. Ideas For Creative Writing Prompts? all emerged from the revolution. So in that sense, Nicaragua of the a personal memoir 1980s could hardly be characterized as a conflict-preventive society. The character and the modern association of america mla handbook for writers structural consequences of the revolution did, however, transform Nicaraguan society in ways that tended to prevent conflict in numerous ways. It was, by and large, a gentle revolution, tempered by how to write a personal memoir essay a Christian and humanist ethic that prevented many of the enga essays usual revolutionary excesses. Nicaraguan nationalism and religious fraternity helped to how to write memoir, keep rancor and conflict largely within bounds, so to bully statement, speak, and lent a reasonableness and moderation to political conflict.

The socioeconomic restructuring accomplished by the Sandinistas -for example, agricultural and land reform, literacy and a personal basic education, economic cooperatives of all kinds, social health and thesis statement welfare programs -likewise tended to create a more participatory society that balanced conflict with cooperation, eliminating the worst conflict cleavages in Nicaraguan society. In that sense, it was and continues to be conflict preventive. It remains to write a personal, be seen what will be the conflict consequences of the Sandinistas' last minute efforts to protect the ideas prompts gains of the Revolution as it prepared to how to memoir essay, transfer the government to the opposition. Bully Statement? Its frantic passing of legislation to legitimize redistributed smallholdings, dwellings, cooperative ownership and the like before the Opposition took control in April 1990 will probably increase conflict short term, as former owners return to claim what they left behind. In the long term, however, the Sandinista Revolution may have prevented conflict if Nicaragua continues to be a more equitable society. As concerns Nicaragua's traditions of peaceful transfer of power and broad electoral participation, there appears to have been a steady movement from 1979 to 1984 to 1990, toward wider participation and greater stability of write memoir essay, power transfer. The 1990 elections were a quite remarkable and novel nonviolent transition from ideas for creative prompts a revolutionary-radical political system to a liberal-democratic one. The two-month transition process between election and inauguration is worthy of a separate conflict management study. The Sandinista party and its mass organizations, which had previously provided for a large degree of revolutionary political participation, is being converted into a coalition-building opposition movement. Such a remarkable transformation must certainly bode well for the future of Nicaragua as a nonviolent, continuous political system. Through their mass organizations, the a personal essay Sandinistas will continue to provide some healthy mediating structures that will facilitate the individual-group-state mediation that moderates conflict.

The multiplicity of cross-cutting nonpolitical affiliations such as strong church membership, traditions of family solidarity, and enga essays Nicaraguan nationalism adds an write a personal important conflict prevention aspect to Nicaraguan society. 5.2 Conflict resolution. For Creative Prompts? Nicaraguans from all points on the politico-ideological spectrum have shown themselves adept at resolving conflict. In 1983, the Sandinista government began its long retreat from reliance on armed force as an a personal memoir approach to conflict. The development of the Autonomy Law is one illustration of this, evolving over several years of consultation with Atlantic Coast representatives.

The 1987 law, by making geographical units rather than traditional tribal rights the basis for local autonomy, moderated considerably East Coast-West Coast and interethnic conflict in Nicaragua. Bully? The process will now continue as dissident Indian leaders return to Nicaragua to once again claim tribal rights over geographic ones, and to how to write a personal, confront their indigenous colleagues who negotiated the Autonomy Law. Language Association Of America Papers? The Nicaraguans have used the Esquipulas process more than any other participating state, despite early U.S. efforts to exclude them from and isolate them within it. Most of the summit agreements have focused on Nicaraguan conflicts. The most active and a personal successful reconciliation commissions have been those in Nicaragua.

These have produced a number of agreements: Sapoa (Sandinista-Contra), the Sandinista-YATAMA accord, and the Toncontin agreement paving the way for foreign practice essay Contra demobilization and repatriation. A striking aspect of Nicaraguan conflict resolution has been its ever-growing use of third-party intermediaries from within Nicaragua (e.g., Cardinal Obando y Bravo) and from outside (e.g., the a personal memoir United Nations, the Organization of American States, the the modern language association Council of memoir, Former Heads of State). As noted by language of america papers Wehr and Lederach, that use of impartial, external third parties was combined with the enlisting of trusted intermediaries from within the conflicts. the creative use of write a personal memoir essay, confianza. Finally, the exam practice essay questions Nicaraguans made interesting use of what Wehr and Lederach have called the sympathetic third-party presence to how to memoir, moderate their conflicts. The presence of European and North American volunteers and technical experts tended to essay, limit violence in the conflicts both from within Nicaragua and by way of influencing the how to a personal memoir U.S. Congress, thereby dissuading the U.S. government from further militarizing those conflicts. 5.3 Societal militarization. Nicaragua's modern history saw until 1988 a steadily increasing militarization of social conflict in that nation. Reactionh? The Somoza dynasty made armed force and state violence the centerpiece of its political control strategy.

The Sandino rebellion began the how to write memoir modern tradition of armed opposition in Nicaragua. The Sandinistas expanded that tradition and made the Sandinista Peoples Army a central mobilizing and controlling force after coming to power. That militarization of Nicaraguan society was a stimulus and in enga essays some cases a pretext for how to write a personal memoir Nicaraguan conflict. First, it alarmed and threatened other governments in enga essays the region, generating much antipathy toward the Sandinistas regionally. Second, it provided an EastWest conflict arena in which the U.S. and the Soviet Union further militarized the conflicts by several degrees of magnitude.

Third, it permitted and how to write a personal essay encouraged the Sandinista government to thesis, use state violence and armed force to resolve political conflicts, creating in the process counterrevolutionary and Indian insurgent groups which the Reagan government then expanded into movements. Finally, such militarization ultimately called for how to a personal essay conscription, a most unpopular policy that distanced the Sandinista government from even many of its supporters. Whatever the reasons for it, the steadily increasing role of Nicaragua's military and paramilitary institutions imposed heavy costs on its society and economy. Not the least of those was a wild proliferation of weapons, which now complicates social conflict in Nicaragua. By 1988, Nicaraguan militarization appeared to have peaked. The Sandinistas reduced the 1989 military budget substantially, responding to the suspension of direct U.S. military aid to essays, the contra. In the 1990 elections, the Chamorro opposition's strongest support came for its promises to end conscription, to depoliticize the military, and to demilitarize Nicaraguan society. Write A Personal? While the research paper faver SandinistaUNO transition protocol protected the professional integrity of the armed forces, it also signaled its depolitization and a substantially reduced role for it in Nicaragua's future. If demilitarization continues in a controlled and balanced way, it will further enhance that nation's capacity to manage conflict without armed force.

5.4 Relations with other states. Does Nicaragua's past foreign policy and relations with neighboring states counter or reinforce its common security potential? In prerevolutionary times, its relations were complicated by its direct and memoir indirect interventions in Honduran and Costa Rican affairs, by close and suspect collaboration with the U.S. government on transisthmus canal proposals, and in the mid19th century, even by a direct military invasion of Costa Rica. In the Sandinista period, only with Cuba and Guatemala did Nicaragua have cordial relations within the region. Enga Essays? As Esquipulas developed, however, that changed somewhat as Nicaragua agreed progressively to a prohibition of arms transfers to insurgents, cessation of write memoir, cross-border hostilities, refugee repatriation, cease fires, mediated and negotiated settlements, and the creation of various regional integrating institutions. Through Esquipulas, then, Sandinista Nicaragua added considerably to the nation's common security potential. On balance, given its demonstrated capacity in the 1985-1990 period for increasingly nonviolent resolution of both domestic conflict and disputes with its neighbors, Nicaragua could be judged at the head of the current trend toward demilitarized societies and integrative institutions in the region. If Nicaragua could be the cornerstone of common security in Central America, Costa Rica would be its keystone.

It has been unique in the region for of research papers its pacific relations with other states and its social democratic stability. 6.1. Conflict prevention. Costa Rica, led by Oscar Arias, was able to how to a personal, play a central role in Esquipulas because of its relative freedom from violent civil conflict, as both a smallholder society and writing prompts a social democracy. Comparatively equitable land distribution, an independent if conservative press, a modern constitution, the absence of armed forces to how to write a personal, upset peaceful transfer of power -all of these characteristics have brought relative domestic peace in Costa Rica. The single term presidency has produced a large number of the modern, former presidents who, as elder statesmen, have helped make Costa Rica the most stable political system in write a personal memoir Latin America. Political and economic conflicts are kept within bounds. Since its wealth and life chance distribution is more equitable than elsewhere in Latin America, Costa Rica has an average life expectancy strikingly near that of developed nations. Ideas Prompts? Costa Rica is very much a democracy of write a personal, voluntary associations - labor unions, agricultural cooperatives, organized interest groups of all shapes and sizes. Such mediating structures negotiate away many potentially divisive conflicts. A pervasive national myth of pure democracy, while substantially flawed in its practice, is paper on brett a further stabilizing force.

6.2. Conflict resolution. As a stable democracy for nearly half a century, Costa Rica has developed a set of how to a personal essay, formal conflict management mechanisms that have institutionalized most conflict. The court system, collective bargaining, a social security system, unemployment insurance, rural justices of the practice peace, a parliamentary forum, a free if unbalanced press -all of these give access and voice to individuals and interest groups in how to a personal essay conflict -not equal access, certainly, but equitable when compared with most of the region. Costa Rica also has a well-developed tradition of nonviolent collective action. Strikes, protest marches, road blockades, sit-ins, squatter settlement -the full repertoire of open nonviolent direct action has a long history in that society. This tends to moderate social conflict. Costa Rica was also one of the first states to abolish capital punishment, a limitation on state violence which sets the tone of the basically nonviolent citizengovernment relationship. Finally, Costa Rican society makes maximum use of faver, intimate conflict management methods. Family intermediaries keep many conflicts from reaching the formal conflict management processes. All in all, then, Costa Rican society is rather well-equipped to deal creatively with its conflicts.

6.3. Relations with other states. There are several reasons why Costa Rica has a history of memoir essay, largely peaceful relations with states in the region. First, it has common borders with only two -Nicaragua and ideas for creative prompts Panama. That in itself is write a personal memoir essay a conflict constraint. In both cases, border disputes and enga essays ambiguities have historically been resolved through lengthy negotiation and arbitration. Second, Costa Rica abolished its army in 1948 and prohibited its return in the constitution of 1949. It poses no military threat, then, to neighboring countries.

This prohibition of military institutions is a personal memoir essay set in a larger national policy of strict neutrality and non-intervention. That policy was under serious attack in the 1980s when Costa Rica was being pressured by the Reagan government to militarize its police force and essays on articles join the Contra War against the Sandinistas. While the unarmed neutrality policy was reaffirmed, it came close to collapsing. Despite its non-interventionist inclinations, Costa Rica has developed a role as a regional mediator-conciliator. As early as 1924, when it intervened in memoir essay the Honduras conflict, Costa Rica was encouraging unarmed resolution of conflict. But it has been the Esquipulas process, largely designed by Oscar Arias with the backing of his government and people, that has best illustrated the Costa Rican peacemaking role in Central America. And because of its historical stability, Costa Rica has become the research paper faver seat of a number of regional intergovernmental and interuniversity associations. For these many reasons, Costa Rica has provided a positive model of peaceful interstate relations for the rest of Central America. 6.4. State militarization. A Personal Essay? Costa Rica's capacity to do violence to its citizens and to other states must be among the lowest in language of america papers the world.

Its abolition of the death penalty in 1878 and prohibition of a standing armed force in 1949 were benchmarks in how to memoir essay the effort to limit state violence. In a public ceremony rich with symbolism, the army commander-inchief handed the for creative keys to his headquarters to the minister of education who promptly converted it to a school. Costa Rica's non-military tradition, however, does have its opponents within the nation. There is a substantial pro-military sentiment that was used extensively by the Reagan government in its efforts to militarize Costa Rica. Resistance to those efforts marked a low point in U.S.-Costa Rican relations. A disquieting recent trend is a follow-on effort by the U.S. to paramilitarize Costa Rica by enlisting it in the so-called War on Drugs. For the moment, militarization is held at bay but the pressures are considerable and increasingly tied to U.S. support for Costa Rican loans from the World Bank. The government of Calderon appears to be tolerant of such paramilitarization and reactive against Costa Rica's role as Esquipulas peacemaker. That may, however, be more a temporary displeasure at Nobel Laureate Arias' visibility than an indicator of major policy change to come. 7. Creating a Composite Security Model. On the four common security dimensions of how to memoir essay, conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peaceful external relations and thesis demilitarization, both Nicaragua and Costa Rica demonstrate strong historical movement in a positive direction.

What sort of regional common security model might be built on close cooperation between these two states, with subsequent involvement of other Central American states within the Esquipulas framework? Certainly the a personal restructuring of other Central American societies along the lines taken by Nicaragua and Costa Rica is the essential conflict prevention mechanism. Genuine democratization, not the unrepresentative oligarchic systems now in place in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama, is one side of the statement coin. The other is basic and effective land reform and the development of supportive economic and social structures which permit families and communities to feed themselves. The U.S., Europe and how to memoir Japan could, for example, progressively buy out and redistribute the major part of the latifundist holdings in those countries to free up the enga essays resources needed for small-scale local food, energy and shelter production. Costa Rica and Nicaragua could share their experience in small and medium land tenure systems and the development of the how to essay essential mediating organizations that connect families and communities with their national government in social democracies. Europe in particular has much relevant experience to thesis, share in that realm. How To A Personal? The conflict resolution experience of Nicaragua and Costa Rica could be shared more fully through the Esquipulas framework, thereby stimulating nation-specific self-studies of conflict resolution histories and capacities.

Intranational dispute resolution goes on at all societal levels in these two nations -in the reconciliation commissions, in national assembly committees, within the voluntary associations and mass organizations, and between them and government. Such experience could be distilled into formal training and integrated into the education systems of research paper, all the Esquipulas states, each of which has its own rich experience with resolving conflict. Projects of the University for Peace, the University of how to write memoir, Costa Rica, and the Faculty of Social Science in Latin America are already underway for regional training in conflict resolution. Mediation, negotiation, legislative tradeoffs, parliamentary debate of serious social problems, nonviolent collective action - such are conflict resolution mechanisms that need diffusion throughout Central America. Peaceful interstate relations, within Central America and with the U.S., could come about through integrative institutions. Statement? Such have become highly developed in Europe and are growing slowly in Central America. The structures of Esquipulas are already combining the functions of cooperative and integrative common security.

They could be expanded and refined as a permanent conciliation body -a Central American Parliament. The Central American Common Market (CACM) could draw usefully on the experience of its European counterpart. Real progress could be made toward a regional division of write, labor (as ASEAN has done) - regional trade stimulation, import substitution, food self-sufficiency and reactionh essays agricultural reform policies to prevent conflict and how to a personal memoir essay strengthen national and regional economies. More integrated transportation, environmental protection, resource management, and individual freedom of movement could also emerge from such regional institutions. Foreign Essay Questions? The Central American Court of Justice could be resurrected to hear civil and human rights cases as well as appeals of judgments from national courts, much in the way that the European Court of how to a personal essay, Human Rights now does. Perhaps the most significant outcome of such regional integration would be the substantial increase in Central American power and influence in relation to the outside world, particularly the U.S.. A cooperative relationship of more equal partners could develop that would benefit all sides. Finally, the state militarization trend in ideas for creative writing the northern states of Central America must be reversed by both the demonstration effect of common security models in the south and a change in U.S. policy. Costa Rica illustrates that a disarmed democracy can be a secure and write a personal memoir prosperous one.

Nicaragua has shown how demilitarization of conflict is successfully done. Enga Essays? Within the regional institutions just discussed, decisions can be implemented by memoir essay the member states on a number of demilitarization steps. A first measure might be a regional arms embargo -no further weapons to enter the region and no further intraregional weapons traffic. There could then be established maximum levels of armed forces for each nation based on population, with annual reductions over a specified period. The ultimate goal of force reductions might be the replacement of national armed forces by a small, multilateral peacekeeping force for regional defense and unarmed intervention in intranational conflicts. Thesis Statement? Such a disarmament process might start with a Nicaraguan-Costa Rican agreement to test its feasibility for the other states. The civil wars and military buildups of the write memoir 1980s have left a legacy of tens of foreign service exam practice, thousands of weapons in Central America.

As common security develops, those levels must and will come down, perhaps through voluntary weapons turn-in and write memoir buy-back programs, with public destruction ceremonies such as those used in the Nicaraguan contra demobilization process. What would replace military security at the national level? Costa Rica uses lightly armed urban and enga essays rural police. Write A Personal Essay? Such a disarmed nation appears to paper on brett faver, work very well indeed. It would work better, in write memoir essay our estimation, if the concept of citizen training for research paper on brett faver nonmilitary defense were introduced there and throughout Central America. Through national education systems and mediating organizations families, communities, workers, and officials would be trained to resist either external attack or internal state violence through disciplined noncooperation with the aggressor. This concept has gained some support in Europe as an alternative defense strategy that deters an aggressor who must necessarily rely on the obedience of those it seeks to control. While demilitarization is occurring, these nations must guard against a more sinister variant -paramilitarization. This would include the arming and training of paramilitary elements such as insurgent groups, death squads, vigilante bands and drug enforcement agents, most of whom are engaged in covert activity.

8. How To Write Memoir Essay? Problems and service questions Prospects. There are both obstacles and stimuli as a region moves from how to write essay military to common security. Even in the European experiment there are important problems with national sovereignty to be overcome. One must not be naive about the obstacles to regionalism in Central America. There are reasons why Central American common security, as we have envisioned it, might not develop in the foreseeable future. The most important are the bully thesis military oligarchies that remain in place, propped up with the massive military support and presence of the memoir U.S.

The latifundia agriculture and export crop economies are in turn held tightly in place by these oligarchic governments. Critics claim that U.S. policymakers want the form of democracy in Central America but not its substance, since that would lead to foreign service exam practice questions, regional independence. Central America continues to be seen by a personal these officials as a U.S. security zone, to be controlled through militarization and paramilitarization, mass media influence and international lending policy. A second major obstacle to common security is the economic weakness of Central America, its near total dependence on research paper, a few export crops and world markets. A Personal Essay? Costa Rica, for example, has been seriously weakened by currency devaluations, increased indebtedness, and the collapse of world coffee prices. Its policies can be dictated by the IMF and the controlling nations. Language Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers? Were they so inclined, private and international lending agencies could structurally readjust their policies to reward demilitarization, regional integration, and the prevention and resolution of conflict in Central America. They are not likely to do so, however, without a major shift in U.S. policy.

The optimist, however, can find equally sound reasons why common security or something like it will develop in Central America. Write A Personal? The most important reason is the growing sense of regional identity and a determination to resolve conflicts without violence and through regional cooperation and integration. Regional institutions are emerging to accomplish that. Third party NGO facilitation of peacemaking will be heavily relied on. Within the hemisphere, the Council of Former Heads of State (CFHS) represents a valuable third-party resource. Jimmy Carter and Rodrigo Carrazo will now be joined by foreign service exam practice questions Oscar Arias and Daniel Ortega as former presidents directly involved in regional peacemaking. There also exists a stronger than ever regional desire for economic and political independence and an end to U.S. Write A Personal Memoir Essay? intervention. The clearest evidence of that is the success of the Esquipulas process, so long and energetically opposed by the U.S. government. The Central Americans' common history of U.S. intervention provides a strong mortar for regional cooperation. The end of the Cold War and the death of communism have removed any number of ideas for creative, pretexts, rationales and excuses for military oligarchies to continue their repression, and for the U.S. government to support them in doing so. The decline of U.S. public support for such policies should continue to decline.

The ethic of demilitarization is gaining momentum in Central America. That interest is part of write, a larger sentiment for trying alternatives to methods and institutions that have clearly failed in the past. The Modern Association Of America For Writers? Military force has been heavily discredited in a personal memoir Central America. Research Faver? Violence has a way of write, exhausting itself after a time. That appears to be happening at least in southern Central America. Ideas Writing Prompts? Another development likely to encourage Central American common security is the growing involvement of Japan and write a personal memoir essay Europe as sources of political, economic and enga essays cultural influence there. This will tend to moderate U.S. influence somewhat and alter dependency relationships, though not necessarily to the advantage of the Central Americans.

There is no reason why Japan and Europe should compete with the U.S. for influence. A stable, peaceful, independent Central America is in how to memoir essay the long range interests of all three power centers. They should cooperate to bring about such an outcome. If the U.S. government would shift from thesis statement its U.S. security zone of control view of how to essay, Central America to a common security vision, it could play a most constructive role there. A stronger, more confident, more effective Central America would help solve a number of current U.S. strategic concerns -drug traffic, Panama Canal security, foreign debt solutions. The U.S. already appears to have shifted its policy toward Esquipulas. It is at language of america least no longer actively opposing it and is perhaps even moderately supportive of it. How To Memoir Essay? That is a most constructive change. 8.1. A model.

We foresee a possible Central American security community developing simultaneously along three lines -regional defense, political-legal coordination, and for creative writing economic harmonization of national interests. The interim goals of regional defense would be the demilitarization of national conflicts and the progressive replacement of national military forces by a Central American Defense Force. Such a force would be small in a personal essay size, lightly armed, and responsible for such regional security tasks as securing the enga essays neutral status and how to a personal memoir continued operation of the Panama Canal. A preliminary step in Central American demilitarization would be an arms embargo in the entire region, initiated by the U.S. as primary supplier of weapons, training and foreign military presence in the region. The embargo would be enforced both by suppliers and by the regional defense force, with governments and writing insurgent groups alike agreeing to forego weapons acquisition. A second regional defense responsibility would be to replace the how to a personal essay U.S. military presence in Panama with a force modeled on UN peacekeeping units. Such a canal security force might be composed of a contingent from each of the the modern language of america mla handbook of research papers Central American states and the U.S., and under Panamanian command to how to write a personal essay, protect a demilitarized Panama's sovereignty.

Internationalizing canal security in prompts this way would remove it as a source of conflict between the region and the U.S. and would .pa strengthen the region's self-defense capacity. The canal security program would also train the civilians operating the canal in methods of nonmilitary resistance to any military effort to seize the how to a personal memoir canal. Political-legal coordination in the region would be accomplished through the expanded institutions of Esquipulas, perhaps to include the Central American Parliament, a resurrected Central American Court of Justice, and on brett faver a reborn Central American Federation. Such institutions would set, implement and monitor regional standards for human rights protection, demilitarization processes and timetables, harmonization of legal codes, standardization of insurance, employment, health care and other social democratic rights, election monitoring and the like. A Personal? Economic harmonization must facilitate political and military integration. Central American governments cannot act beyond the enga essays tight constraints of economic resources. How To A Personal Memoir Essay? Cooperative action taken external to Central America is necessary. Research On Brett Faver? A genuine Marshall Plan for Central America jointly and equally funded by the U.S., the how to European Community and Japan could go far toward strengthening Central American economies so weakened by armed conflict, collapse of export crop prices and foreign indebtedness. That economic infusion from the wealthy world would be administered by a regional unit of reactionh, Esquipulas or CACM and need not be without strings. There is no good reason why influence applied to ameliorate internal checks on economic and social development -galloping birth rates, absence of write essay, land reform, deforestation, human rights abuse, state violence - should not accompany such economic aid. The debt-for-nature swap is an imaginative idea that could be modified to encourage basic sociocultural changes in association of america of research papers El Salvador, Guatemala and elsewhere.

Despite such influence of the grantors, however, the conduit and ultimate decisional and distributive bodies would be the regional economic institutions. These might also have the power to levy regional taxes and memoir essay duties as their European counterparts do. Research? The common linguistic, cultural and historical backgrounds of the Central American nations would support this shift away from the traditional bilateral aid relationship with the U.S. and how to write international lending agencies to one in which Central Americans were making decisions about resources for essays Central Americans and within regional institutions. Write Essay? Central America's geographical position as both a bridge between North and South America and an isthmian crossroads through which passes much of the world's trade suggest substantial potential for regional self-sufficiency and stability. That potential can only research paper, be realized through regional institutions. We have suggested how the European experience with common security might inform its Central American variant. Learning can flow in the other direction as well. The Central American peace process has much to a personal essay, teach us. Some real precedents in conflict resolution, conflict prevention and regional integration have occurred in Central America in the 20th century.

The Central Americans themselves are aware of their creative experimentation and the contribution it has made to the world's conflict knowledge pool. Enga Essays? Particularly in the 1980s, they have realized that this is a time for alternative concepts, models and methods. We intend our study to contribute to that effort of assessing Central America's capacity to resolve its conflicts and defend its territorial, cultural, political and economic integrity. We have learned from our research that those societies are well equipped from how to a personal memoir their experience to do so -better than even Central Americans might have thought. On Brett Faver? Peace researchers should pay the closest attention to the common security process as it unfolds there. References. Aguilar B., Oscar 1986. How To Write A Personal Memoir Essay? La constitucion de 1949: Antece dentes y proyecciones.

San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 191pp. A description of the constitution that created a stable, unarmed, neutral, democratic Costa Rica, and enga essays the events leading up to write a personal memoir, the constitutional assembly. Aguilar H., Marielos 1989. Clase trabajadora y organizacion sindical en Costa Rica, 1943-1971. Reactionh Essays? San Jose: Editori al Porvenir. A history of the modern labor movement in Costa Rica. Aguilera, Gabriel 1989. How To A Personal Memoir? El fusil y el olivo. San Jose: FLACSO-DEI. Contains chapters on Esquipulas and ideas for creative internal conflict in Central America, and the balance of memoir essay, security there. Aldecoa L., Francisco 1989.

El parlamento Centroamericano a la luz de la experiencia Europea. Polemica, No. 8, pp 35-40. A comparison of the Central American and European approaches to enga essays, political integration. Araya I., Manuel 1984. Fundamentos historicos de la neu tralidad costarricense. Unpublished paper. FLACSO, San Jose, Costa Rica, 23 pp. Traces the development of Costa Rican neutrality policy. Arias S., Oscar 1989.

El camino de la paz. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 426 pp. Arias' collected works including the draft and final Esquipulas treaties, his Nobel acceptance address, and speeches made since 1987 in support of write memoir essay, Esquipulas implementation. Arrieta Q., Santiago 1982. El pensamiento politicosocial de Monsenor Sanabria. San Jose: EDUCA. Research? The collected works of how to essay, Archbishop Sanabria whose role as mediator, labor movement supporter and social democrat is recog nized as important for Costa Rican civil peace and justice.

Barahona, Francisco 1988. Ideas For Creative Writing Prompts? Costa Rica frente al reto cen troamericano: Perspectivas de la neutralidad y la paz. In Costa Rica hacia el 2000. Caracas: Editorial/Nueva Sociedad/UNITAR/PROFAL, pp 55-69. Documents the medi ating and moderating role Costa Rica has played in the region since 1923.

Bird, Leonard 1984. Costa Rica: The Unarmed Democracy. London: Sheppard Press, 224 pp. Bolanos, Pio 1985. How To Write Memoir Essay? Genesis de la intervencion norteamerica na en Nicaragua. Managua: Editorial Nueva Nicaragua, 101 pp.

Booth, John Mitchell Seligson 1989. Elections and Democ racy in prompts Central America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 214 pp. Brock, Lothar 1988. Regional Security: The European Expe rience and its Meaning for Central America. Unpub lished paper presented to the 12th General Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Rio de Janeiro. Buvollen, Hans Petter 1989. Regional Autonomy in write a personal essay Nicara gua: A New Approach to writing, the Indigenous Question in Latin America. Alternatives, XIV, pp 123-132. Clements, Kevin 1989.

Common Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: Problems and Prospects. Alternatives, Vol. XIV, pp 49-76. Everett, Melissa 1986. Bearing Witness, Building Bridges: Interviews with North Americans Living and Working in Nicaragua. How To A Personal Essay? Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 169 pp. Gomariz, Enrique ed.

1988. Balance de una esperanza: Esquipulas II un ano despues. San Jose: FLACSO, 395 pp. A first year progress report on the implementation of the bully Esquipulas agreement, with original documents. Gomez, Carmen 1985. La pena de muerte en Costa Rica durante el siglo XIX. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 155 pp.

A history of the process leading to how to write, the Costa Rican abolition of the death penalty in 1878. Gonzalez B., Jaime 1988. La lucha politica noviolenta. Mexicali, Mexico: Bernal, 78 pp. Resume of Sharp's Politics of Nonviolent Action which lays out one theory of nonviolent resistance as a form of national defense. Gutierrez G., Carlos 1957.

La Corte de Justicia Centroamer icana. Language Association Of America Of Research Papers? Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Organization of American States, 61 pp. The history, structure and demise of the Central American Court of Justice. Hernandez P., Juan 1989. Religion y revolucion en Nicara gua. Cuadernos de Sociologia, Nos 9-10, pp 69-90. Discusses the interplay of religious and political beliefs within the Sandinista movement. Herrarte, Alberto 1989. Federacion: Alternativa a la crisis centroamericano. San Jose: Libro Libre, 167 pp.

A well-reasoned argument for write a personal essay a Central American federa tion to reactionh essays on articles, include Panama and Belize. Hopmann, P. Terrence 1988. Negotiating Peace in Central America. The Negotiation Journal, vol. A Personal? 4, No. 4, pp 361-380. Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, 1982. Common Security: A Blueprint for Survival.

New York: Simon and Schuster, 202 pp. Instituto Nicaraguense de Desarrollo 1978. Mediacion: Etapa preparatoria. Mimeo. Managua, 69 pp. Karnes, Thomas 1961. Reactionh Essays? The Failure of Union: Central America, 1824-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Marin Z., Carlos 1987. Relaciones Estados Unidos-Costa Rica durante las administraciones de Carazo y Monge, 1978 1986. How To Write Essay? San Jose: University of Costa Rica, Center for Historical Research, 123 pp.

Discusses Costa Rican resistance to U.S. pressure to militarize and deneu tralize, and Costa Rican participation in Contadora. Morales, Carlos 1981. El hombre que no quiso la guerra: Una revolucion en el periodismo de Costa Rica. San Jose: Ariel/Seix Barral, 270 pp. The development of Costa Rican journalism and its role in the modern language association mla handbook papers moderating civil conflict. Munoz G., Mercedes 1989. El estado y la abolicion del Ejercito 1914-1949.

San Jose: Editorial Porvenir. The internal and how to a personal external factors that led to the abolition of the Costa Rican army. Ortega, Manuel 1987. La cuestion etnica y el Projecto de Autonomia. Cuadernos de Sociologia, No 3, pp 3-9.

Discusses the process of consultation and language mla handbook for writers legislation in resolving autonomy conflicts on write, the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Ortega, Marvin 1988. La gestion de los trabajadores en las empresas de Reforma Agraria. Ciencias Sociales, Vol 40-41, pp 25-37. Describes the structure and research on brett process of worker democratization and participation in deci sionmaking in how to write essay Nicaraguan agrarian reform organizations. Pasos A., Luis 1982.

Los conflictos internacionales de Nicaragua. Managua: Bank of thesis statement, America. 300 pp. Randall, Margaret 1983. Christians in how to write the Nicaraguan Revo lution. Vancouver: New Star. 207 pp. Rodriguez Mirtha 1984. Ideas For Creative? Nicaragua y la revolucion sandinis ta.

Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales. 405 pp. A sympathetic history of the impact of the how to write essay Sandinista revolution on Nicaragua. Romero P., Jorge 1977. La social democracia en Costa Rica. San Jose: Imprenta Trejos, 326 pp. The ethics and institutions of social democracy in Costa Rica as a root cause of civil peace. Romero, Ramon 1961. Sandino y los yanquis. Mexico City: Patria y Libertad.

262 pp. Sala V., Jose 1977. El liberalismo positivista en Costa Rica: La lucha entre ladinos e indigenas en Orosi, 1881-1884. Revista de Historia. Vol III, No. 5, pp 187-217. The roles of Justices of the Peace, petitions and liberal positivist ideology in moderating conflict between indigenous and European peoples. Salisbury, Richard 1978.

Costa Rica y la crisis hondurena de 1924. Revista de Historia. Vol III, No. 6, pp 43-68. Bully Statement? Discusses the Central American Federa tion(1920), the Washington Conference(1923) and subse quent peacemaking intervention by how to a personal essay Costa Rica in Hondu ras. Sanson-Teran, Jose 1959.

El arbitraje internacional y la controversia de limites entre Nicaragua y Honduras. Barcelona: Hispano Europea. 579 pp. Explains one of the early third party inverventions in thesis Nicaraguan border conflicts. Sunol, Julio 1981. How To A Personal Essay? Insurreccion en Nicaragua: La historia no contada.

San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica. 237 pp. Description of the major events of the Sandinista insurrection including the help given it by for creative writing the Costa Rican and Panamanian governments. Walker, Thomas 1986. Essay? Nicaragua: The Land of Sandino.

Boulder London: Westview Press, 170 pp. Wehr, Paul John Paul Lederach 1989. Mediating Conflict in prompts Central America. Unpublished paper. Department of Sociology, University of how to write essay, Colorado, Boulder, 36 pp. Windass, Stanley 1988. The Crucible of Peace: Common Secu rity in research on brett Europe. New York and London: Pergamon-Brassey.

Wunderich, Volker 1988. How To Memoir? 'Dios hablara por el indio de la Segovias': Las bases sociales de la lucha de Sandino por la liberacion nacional en Nicaragua, 1927-1934. Revista de Historia, No. 17, pp 13-34. Analysis of the Sandino movement as reformist and non-revolutionary directed primarily at national liberation and socioeconomic justice. Single copies of this paper may be reproduced for service practice questions personal use with the following conditions: All information concerning copyrights, authorship, acknowledgement of grant support, and essay publication must not be deleted from printed or electronic copies. Any use of this material must be fully cited and in compliance with all copyright statutes and ethical fair use principles. Essays? The paper may be reproduced only in how to write memoir its entirety. This paper may not be reposted on any other electronic bulletin board or retrieval system without formal permission from the Consortium or the author. This paper is provided free of charge and enga essays may not be offered for sale by anyone other than the Consortium or the author(s).

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altria essays P recocial and altricial, two words describing the degree of development in a personal young birds at hatching, are good examples of useful scientific jargon. Reactionh On Articles! They save ornithologists from write memoir, repeatedly using phrases when single words will do. A precocial bird is essays, capable of how to memoir essay moving around on bully thesis statement, its own soon after hatching. The word comes from the same Latin root as precocious. Altricial means incapable of moving around on its own soon after hatchling. It comes from a Latin root meaning to nourish a reference to the need for extensive parental care required before fledging in how to write altricial species. If you consult some of the literature we have cited, you may sometimes see the term nidifugous used to describe precocial young that leave the nest immediately, and nidicolous to describe young that remain in on articles the nest. All nidifugous birds are precocial, but some nidicolous birds are precocial, too-they remain in how to write memoir essay the nest even though capable of locomotion. These terms are less widely used than precocial and altricial, and we will not employ them outside of this essay. Instead of a sharp dividing line between hatchlings that are precocial and reactionh those that are altricial, there is a gradient of precociality.

In this guide, we recognize the following categories of young: Precocial Hatched with eyes open, covered with down, and leave the nest within two days. There are four levels of precociality, although only three are found in North American birds. A Personal Memoir Essay! Level 1 of development (precocial 1) is the bully thesis, pattern found in the chicks of megapodes (Australian Malee fowl, Brush Turkeys, etc.), which are totally independent of their parents. The megapode young are incubated in huge piles of decaying vegetation, and upon hatching dig their way out, already well feathered and able to how to essay, fly. No North American birds show this extreme precociality. Precocial 2 development is found in ducklings and the chicks of shorebirds, which follow their parents but find their own food. The young of game birds, however, trail after their parents and are shown food; they are classified as precocial 3. Precocial 4 development is represented by the young of birds such as rails and on brett grebes, which follow their parents and are not just shown food but are actually fed by them. Semi-precocial Hatched with eyes open, covered with down, and a personal capable of leaving the writing, nest soon after hatching (they can walk and often swim), but stay at the nest and are fed by parents. Basically precocial but nidicolus, this developmental pattern is found in the young of gulls and terns. Semi-altricial Covered with down, incapable of departing from the nest, and fed by the parents.

In species classified as semi-altricial 1, such as hawks and herons, chicks hatch with their eyes open. Owls, in the category semi-altricial 2, hatch with the eyes closed. How To Write A Personal! If all young were divided into enga essays, only two categories, altricial and precocial, these all would be considered altricial. Altricial Hatched with eyes closed, with little or no down, incapable of departing from the nest, and fed by the parents. How To A Personal Memoir! All passerines are altricial. Note that in the species treatments in this book we use the term fledging (F:) for the number of days it takes for the young of an altricial or semi-altricial bird to practice essay, acquire its full set of feathers, after which it leaves the nest. Thus for altricial and semi-altricial birds, the how to write memoir essay, time needed to get fully feathered and time spent in the nest are essentially the same. In precocial and semi-precocial birds, F: indicates not the number of days that pass before the bully statement, young leave the nest, but the time from hatching until they can fly. Left: House Sparrow hatchling (altricial-naked, blind and helpless on hatching).

Right: Ruffed Grouse hatchling (precocial 3-downy, open-eyed, mobile on hatching, follows parents and is shown food). Characteristics Of Nestlings. (modified from O'Connor, 1984) . *= Precocial 2 follow parents but find own food. Why have these different modes of development evolved? They are obviously tied into two important aspects of the bird's environment: food availability and predation pressure. Precociality puts a premium on the ability of write a personal essay females to obtain abundant resources before laying.

They must produce energy-rich eggs to support the greater in-egg development of the language of america of research papers, chicks (eggs of precocial birds may contain almost twice the calories per how to a personal unit weight as those of altricial birds). Females of altricial species do not have such large nutritional demands before egg laying, but must be able (with their mates) to find sufficient food to rush their helpless young through to fledging. While the reactionh on articles, young are in the nest, the how to memoir, entire brood is foreign practice, extremely vulnerable to predation and is dependent on concealment of the nest and parental defense for survival. In contrast, precocial young, having left the nest, have some ability to avoid predation, and there is a much smaller chance of the entire brood (as opposed to how to a personal memoir essay, single chicks) being devoured. Interestingly, there seems to be an evolutionary trade-off in for creative prompts bird brain sizes related to the degree of precocity. Precocial species have relatively large brains at hatching-as one might expect since the young, to one degree or another, must be able to fend for essay, themselves.

But precocial species trade for this advantage an adult brain that is small in relation to their body size. Altricial young, in contrast, are born small-brained, but on the pro-tern-rich diet provided by the adults (and with their highly efficient digestive tracts) postnatal brain growth is great, and the adults have proportionally larger brains than precocial species. Bully Thesis! Parrots have evolved their way into the best of both worlds. They are altricial, but the write, female invests in a nutrient-rich egg just like females of precocial species. Parrots are among the most intelligent of birds; they have adopted the same evolutionary strategy as we have. People (like other primates, elephants, and antelopes, but unlike rodents and marsupials) are precocial-born with hair, open eyes, and large brains. But our brains and those of research on brett faver parrots, both large at birth, also grow a great deal after birth as a result of large parental investments of food energy. Thus a complex evolutionary problem of balancing the need to provide nourishment to how to write a personal memoir, the young and to protect them from predation has been. For Creative! solved by each group of birds-and the solutions are the different avian developmental patterns we now observe. Similar problems have been solved, also in diverse ways, in the course of how to mammalian evolution.

But many more groups of mammals than birds have managed to become big-brained as both young and adults. Copyright ® 1988 by Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye.

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Sampling Nostalgia: “Forever Young,” “Young Forever,” and write a personal memoir essay the Impossibility of the Occasional. Okay, so that’s a totally cliched academic title: Strange Phrase: The Things I Will Discuss to Explain the Strange phrase. Anyway. Enga Essays. . . I won’t pretend to be an expert on occasional poetry, but I will bet that Pope did not perform “The Rape of the memoir essay, Lock” past his prime to a bunch of aging baby-boomers who want to bully statement party like its 1712. I’m thinking of anecdotal accounts friends once gave me upon seeing Modern English circa 1997. Of course they wrote and performed other songs besides “I’ll Stop the World (and Melt with You)”, but really, who wants to hear them? Also recall Homer Simpson on Bachmann Turner Overdrive: “They were Canada’s answer to CCR. How To A Personal Memoir Essay. Their big hit was TCB.” When he sees them perform not only can he not wait for “Taking Care of Business,” but he can’t even wait for “the workin’ overtime part.” But I digress, as neither of these examples get to statement exactly what I mean to how to write a personal memoir essay discuss. While we might dismiss the occasional as too rooted in a particular context and therefore not amenable to its own legacy, I would argue that this situatedness makes the occasional all the more important and, presently, all the more rare (which is to enga essays say impossible). According to write essay Wikipedia, “Goethe declared that ‘Occasional Poetry is the highest kind.'” Likewise, Hegel had the following to say about it (I can’t believe I am about to agree with Hegel): Poetry’s living connection with the real world and thesis statement its occurrences in public and private affairs is revealed most amply in write memoir essay, the so-called pieces d’occasion . If this description were given a wider sense, we could use it as a name for nearly all poetic works: but if we take it in the proper and narrower sense we have to restrict it to productions owing their origin to some single present event and expressly devoted to its exaltation, embellishment, commemoration, etc. But by such entanglement with life poetry seems again to reactionh essays fall into how to memoir a position of dependence, and for association of america for writers of research, this reason it has often been proposed to assign the whole sphere of pieces d’occasion an inferior value although to some extent, especially in lyric poetry, the most famous works belong to this class.

The occasional speaks to a personal essay a specific moment, to something that had a specific historicity, a particularity, perhaps a singularity. It resists appropriation into a culture of sameness, or at ideas writing, least did. Well, perhaps it never did and I am merely romanticizing what the occasional was. Perhaps better to how to write a personal memoir say that what the occasional could be is for creative writing, a fleeting moment in which representation touches materiality. How To A Personal Essay. If considered in an historical manner, the occasional thereby might offer some understanding of its occasion. That is most likely wishful thinking, but I throw it out there. What the Modern English and Homer Simpson examples begin to demonstrate is the fact that the present United States can in no way deal with occasionality.

I see this inability in for writers papers, student essays which rush to declare whatever they are about to be the “greatest poem/modernist poem/novel/postmodernist novel/song/album/etc. OF ALL TIME!” Everything has to be eternal, capable of transmitting meaning to how to write a personal essay everyone, everywhere, everywhen in the same manner, transparently and without regard to historical notions of essays on articles, reading, epistemology, etc. When we are confronted with something new, we try to make it something old. I think that this desire is how to write memoir, a function of nostalgia, which dovetails with the fact that we don’t give a damn about anything Tony Basil has done since “Hey Mickey.” To be a bit more academic about this issue, let’s just say it’s very much related to foreign practice essay Jameson’s lament that postmodernism is bound up with a culture that can no longer think historically. With that, a screed about contemporary music or, rather, a contemporary song and memoir what it means in terms of contemporary culture.

While I do have some idea what happens in the world of music, I have no idea whether the things I know about are actually part of some kind of social vocabulary. I know Beyonce made one of the best music videos of all time, but I have no idea what the ideas for creative prompts, song sounds like. That said, I may be making mountains of molehills here. That said, I have some issues with Jay-Z’s “Young Forever.” Before I begin, let me say that if Jay-Z wants to use the lyrics and music from an older song to make a million dollars, more power to how to a personal memoir him. Writing Prompts. I don’t care and would like to see copyright open up a bit for more of this kind of work (although, given the fact that his use of the song in question is almost certainly controlled by how to write memoir a mechanical license for covering the song and not sampling it, the issue of copyright is research faver, not really an issue here). Nonetheless, because the 80s are on my mind constantly, and because I trace many contemporary cultural and political problems in the United States to that period, I take issue with the memoir essay, manner in which Jay-Z appropriates Alphaville’s 1984 song “Forever Young,” which, thank god, has no relation to the Rod Stewart song of the same name. What strikes me most about this song and video (or, rather, the combination of the on articles, two) is the utter lack of nostalgia. Write Memoir. To contemporary ears, the title “Forever Young” reads as an ode to a better time, the right now/present when we are as beautiful, fit, and enga essays carefree as we will ever be.

As I will argue below, Jay-Z seriously (perhaps willfully) misreads the song as such. Of course, it’s not surprising that he does so. A great deal of rock and write memoir essay popular music celebrates youth for one reason or another, and I know more than one person who thinks that The Ramones’ cover of Tom Waits’ “I Don’t Wanna Grow Up” is some kind of punk rock anthem to youth and the modern language mla handbook for writers of research papers its fuck-all attitude. (It’s actually a late song that, like Twain’s Huck Finn , is performed by an older person/group who only understands what he/they had in his/their youth by virtue of no longer being youthful. That self-awareness is the memoir, price of maturity and exactly what destroys innocence). In the the modern of america for writers of research, case of the present song, Alphaville is not singing about write a personal being young and the powers that stage of life affords. Rather, this song is a product of a Cold War culture that directly impacted a German band on a social/cultural level and, of course, an entire planet, which wondered if they “would drop the bomb or not.” The end of the first verse further clarifies this issue (lyrics):

Can you imagine when this race is won. Turn our golden faces into the sun. Praising our leaders we’re getting in tune. The music’s played by the madman. The race in question is the arms race, a race that cannot be won. However, there were of course those who at least implied the possibility of victory if not openly claimed it–a logic that derived from Vietnam and foreign service exam essay questions would lead to how to our present situations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Thus imagining victory here does not refer to the end of the Cold War in peaceful terms, and the praising/getting-in-tune-with the reactionh essays on articles, leaders is write a personal memoir, like drinking the enga essays, Kool-Aid, swallowing the bi-polar logic of the how to a personal essay, Cold War in which the only choice is between one side or the other (regardless of enga essays, what Joshua tells us in Wargames , you cannot choose not to play). Considered in how to memoir, these terms, and given that the video is mainly about the very young and the very old–those who cannot yet understand and those who understand all too well–the song’s chorus does not refer to being young in any conventional sense. Rather, it refers to essays on articles life, a life threatened regardless of that life’s age. That is, the song is about the decline of the world, the death of everything.

I am reminded of the judge in Blood Meridian : If God meant to essay interfere in the degeneracy of mankind would he not have done so by now? Wolves cull themselves, man. What other creature could? And is not the bully thesis, race of how to write a personal memoir essay, man more predacious yet? The way of the world is to bloom and to flower and die but in research paper on brett, the affairs of man there is no waning and the noon of his expression signals the onset of night. His spirit is exhausted at the height of how to write essay, its achievement. His meridian is at once his darkening and faver the evening of his day. He loves games? Let him play for takes. This you see here, these ruins wondered at how to a personal memoir essay, by tribes of savages, do you not think that this will be again? Aye.

And again. With other people, with other sons. For the ideas for creative prompts, judge, the West and perhaps all the world of men exists in how to a personal essay, a state of permanent decline interrupted by mortal attempts to erect eternal monuments meant to stave off the effect of time and research on brett faver the violence of nature. Man (and I use the word knowingly) refuses to die, refuses to admit his mortality. And this logic is write a personal essay, precisely that which leads to a situation like the Cold War: as empires decline they grasp at straws to maintain their status. In the early to mid-1980s, that grasping had led to the capability of two nations to destroy all life on Earth rather than appear weak and vulnerable. With the Cold War it had appears that man had learned to ideas for creative prompts play for stakes and would soon cull its own, all of its own. This reading of the Cold War (and McCarthy) is write, overly simple, but the of research, song in question is not altogether complex. My point is simply that it is not a song bound up in how to write a personal, nostalgia for the past. It does not wish for a simpler time, does not long for the days before atomic power or the Cold War. Of America Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers. Rather, it regrets that the future may not exist at all, that everything might end.

The songs final verse alludes top this regret: So many adventures couldn’t happen today. So many songs we forgot to play. So many dreams are swinging out of the blue. We let them come true. I don’t think that these lyrics allude to past adventures that were better than what is how to, possible in the present so much as the impossibility of adventures period. There is ideas for creative prompts, no future and, as a result, any action in the present becomes meaningless. Alphaville longs to be forever young because it wishes to retain the potential of the future, something that the leaders of the world had foreclosed on. Thus the song is very rooted in its moment.

It is write memoir essay, not some eternal anthem to youth, but a statement about the late Cold War. Language Association For Writers Papers. And while my use here of the a personal essay, term “occasional” is somewhat inexact, it nonetheless gets to the heart of what I am arguing: that the power of this text does not derive from its touching something eternal and ubiquitous but rather from its particularity and for the fact that it only research, fits within history in its specific situation. Of course, that doesn’t stop Alphaville from going all Modern English on us: The song’s Wikipedia page mentions that it has become something of how to write memoir essay, a pop standard. Indeed, it has been covered numerous times. Enga Essays. For example, Laura Branigan (of “Gloria” fame) covered “Forever Young” just a year after Alphaville first released it.

Thus she retains the how to write a personal, Cold War context and, it seems, just about everything else from the song, and adds very little to foreign service practice essay the original: I guess I am being somewhat problematic by implying that covers should add to how to a personal a song, modify it, and respect its specificity. Perhaps. Maybe I am just not a fan of the cover at all. However, I do think that there is a way to reconcile this tension, even if I am not going to deal with it here. In any case, Branigan’s interpretation does not add much to reactionh essays Alphaville’s text. It’s inoffensive, but just does not break any ground. Compare that version to how to a personal this one by another german band, Die goldenen Zitronen, who cover “Forever Young” as “Fur immer Punk”:

Now Die goldenen Zitronen’s cover is essays, what a cover ought to be: an memoir, interpretation and resituation (and that’s without even considering the issue of language). Association Of America Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers. They are playing on the notion of being young and equating it with being punk, which reads against the grain in the manner that punks do such things. They use the song as a point of departure even while retaining some of it as a misinterpretation. Of course, my German sucks (viz. nonexistent), so I can’t speak directly to most of the lyrics, but I am sure that whatever the a personal, misinterpretation it works because the point is to misinterpret. More important, that misinterpretation situates the song in a new context and allows it to develop its meaning in that context. Reactionh. Branigan’s version largely fails to do so. (Yes, something of a moral argument here.)

Finally, compare each of these versions of the song to Jay-Z’s, entitled “Young Forever”: Now, I can’t be sure if that is the actual music video for the song. A Personal Memoir Essay. Youtube has a number of versions up, although this is the research paper, only one that appears as if it could be official. Nonetheless, the fact that the video appears out of essay, sync with the enga essays, audio gives me pause. How To A Personal. Even so, without what I will say about the video, I think that the critique holds true. To begin, this (mis)interpretation falls short. Research Paper Faver. Whereas Die goldenen Zitronen rewrite “Forever Young” as “Forever Punk”, and alters the lyrics as well, Jay-Z wholly appropriates the song’s first verse and chorus without changing them at a personal essay, all (Again,the lyrics from “Forever Young” in “Young Forever” are not sampled, but covered by Mr Hudson). This appropriation without alteration is significant because it retains those lyrics which are most explicitly about the research paper on brett faver, Cold War: “are you gonna drop the how to, bomb or not?” Now, I understand that “drop a bomb” can mean a number of different things ( The Simpsons played with this line too), but the foreign service exam practice questions, lyrics simply don’t make sense in this context as written. While I would probably scoff at what would be a crass use of a rewritten song (a la anything P Diddy has ever done), but at least it would make sense and demonstrate cultural literacy.

By retaining the lyrics as originally written and a personal essay performed, Jay-Z misreads the original song. Perhaps, again, this misreading is intentional, but it nonetheless falls short of the interesting misreading from Die goldenen Zitronen because it does not resituate the song in any way, shape, or form. To be a bit clearer, Jay-Z merely adds the exam, old song to his own. Memoir Essay. He does not seek a level of abstraction at which the two songs might meet and converge, but rather grafts one to the other seemingly under the assumption that they are about the same thing, that they derive from service exam questions, similar occasions. Now, such juxtapositions can be useful and interesting, and I am willing to listen to such arguments. Again, my target here is not really Jay-Z, but rather the type of thinking “Young Forever” represents.

What that thinking does is always already approach the past as something amenable to the present, as something that can be easily grasped in this moment without regard to its own moment. The video and lyrics to “Young Forever” bear this reading out. Here’s the first verse: So we live a life like a video. When the sun is always out and you never get old. and the champagne’s always cold. and the music’s always good. and the pretty girls just happen to stop by in the hood. and they hop their pretty ass up on the hood of dat pretty ass car. without a wrinkle in today.

cuz there is no tomorrow. just some picture perfect day. to last a whole lifetime. and it never ends. cos all we have to do is hit rewind.

so lets just stay in the moment, smoke some weed, drink some wine, reminisce talk some shit forever young is in how to memoir, your mind. leave a mark that can never erase me neither space nor time. so when the director yells cut, I’m forever young… There is something here about life as an icon, living life according to fantasy rather than reality. However, the lyrics do not critique this lifestyle, and if they don’t exactly celebrate they present it as a matter of service exam practice questions, fact. This is how Jay-Z lives his life, that’s how we roll. What’s more, the how to write a personal memoir essay, lyrics ask that this way of life last forever. In a very real sense, Jay-Z’s song demands that which Alphaville’s despises: the posturing that comes with power and the desire that power be maintained against all reason, against all decline. The Jay-Z of the video, who seduces numerous women and becomes the victim of violence as a result, is the top dog for whom everyone is reactionh essays, gunning, the one who has become so big that he has nowhere to go but down.

Tony Montana. And while there may be here some critique of the lifestyle, that critique is no more than metaphorical: no one needs to take Jay-Z down to become the next kingpin. How To Write A Personal Memoir Essay. Capitalism has more than enough room for captains of reactionh essays, industry. Ther can always be another, even if the overall number must remain finite. In other words, no one is gunning for Jay-Z and he has little need to remain young forever f by memoir that he means fast and strong, capable of on articles, staying hungry and withstanding the attack of the memoir essay, new. Regardless, he no doubts desires sameness. His song demands it, the endless continuation of present circumstances, a flattening of the research paper on brett faver, world that makes possible the status quo. It is this very sameness that Alphaville laments, the sameness manifested by essay those who do have the power to decide, the ones who cannot abide seeing anything that might diminish that power. Moreover, this sameness is that which makes impossible the exam essay questions, occasional, which is a reminder that there is variation, that there is particularity, that there is such a thing as a situation (in both the active and write a personal memoir passive senses).

Jay-Z’s use of enga essays, “Forever Young” seems nothing but an attempt to a personal cash in on a half-memorable song the lyrics to which somewhat/kinda match a certain theme that we commonly understand to on brett faver be universal. And while Jay-Z’s song in no way applies to how to memoir essay all people everywhere (except to those, perhaps, who vote their aspirations rather than their situations), it attempts to popularize (in the sense of populism) that which can never be popular through recourse to that universal. It asks that we feel his pain, that he too wants to reactionh essays on articles be young forever just like us and damn his fame that makes that impossible. Compare that idea to what Alphaville was saying: that there is no future for anyone because of a specific threat to humanity. The occasion of that statement has become something of a joke, subject to nostalgic remembrances of legwarmers and John Hughes films (there’s a paper: “Nostalgic Apparel: Princesses, Legwarmers, and how to write John Hughes”). I am not arguing for respect here, so much as the necessity of knowing that the past is more than a sample. The song and of course the lyrics “Forever Young” although written during the time of the cold war, could never have been more contemporary and realistic than today. Language Association Mla Handbook For Writers Papers. Today we live in a controlled world where banks and multinational corporations rule our lives through financial terrorism making us feel entirely insecure about our futures and our lives and deciding how we are to a personal memoir essay live these lives. If we do not like this and do not sumbit to enga essays the terror state, we are considered terrorists. The recent corruption – stealing of how to a personal memoir, money by on articles politicians and how to memoir essay governments in Greece entailing the service essay questions, intervention of the IMF in how to memoir essay, Greece highlights this fact exactly and accurately. Revolution will start in Greece which will spill to other countries in the EU and we are now talking of Greece’s lost generation.

The duty of young people and all peoples of the research paper faver, world is to enact and realise our dreams and not to submit to the final pre-set stage of extreme private capitalism – in other words, destitution, poverty, hunger, control, fear, dependency. Write A Personal Memoir Essay. All of these are exactly what our leaders want as debt = money and money = profit for banks and multinational corporatocracy. We must awaken to on brett faver these sad truths – yes still many people are afraid, but we must get up and stand up and fight for our rights. Greece will give birth to democracy all over and if it needs axes and chainsaws as happened in Argentina to achieve this then so be it. Our government (s) must stop stealing salaries and pensions from ordinary employees and pensioners.

They know who has stolen the money as it is those who enforce austerity measures who have stolen it. The people will get vengeance if it means storming parliament and killing all our politicians. that’s not the write essay, real young forever video. It is this false moneyer with his gravers and burins who seeks favor with the judge and he is at contriving from cold slag brute in the crucible a face that will pass, an image that will render this residual specie current in the markets where men barter. Of this is the judge judge and bully thesis the night does not end.

--Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, or, the Evening Redness in the West.