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bible job essay The reasons for essays on literature suffering in a person#8217;s life are not necessarily related to human explanations of statement for alcohol use, personal unrighteousness, but are within the essays scope of God#8217;s good and powerful providence resulting in flaws essay, the defeat of evil and glory to himself. I. Essays On Literature. Introduction--Job#8217;s Former State of Integrity: 2 1:1-5. B. Job#8217;s Prosperity: 1:2-3. C. Job#8217;s Posterity: 1:4-5. II.

Speeches Dialogues--The Problem and Proposed Solutions: 3 1:6--42:6. Dramatic Monologue English. A. Two Interviews of Yahweh with Satan--The Presenting Problem: 4 1:6--2:13. Essays On Literature. 1. First Interview of how would essay, Yahweh with Satan, a Test and Reaction: 1:6-22. a. Interview with Satan: 1:6-12. b. The Disasters: 1:13-12. Essays On Literature And Journalism. c. Job#8217;s Reaction: 1:20-22. 2. Second Interview of Yahweh with Satan, a Test and Reaction: 2:1-13. a. Interview with Satan: 2:1-7a. b. Job#8217;s Affliction: 2:7b, 8. c. Job#8217;s Second Reaction: 2:9-10. On Literature. d. Transition--The Arrival of Job#8217;s Friends: 2:11-13. B. Dialogue of Job with His Friends--The Solutions of Job#8217;s Three Friends and Elihu: 3:1--37:24. 1. Essay Writing And Referencing. Three Cycles of Debate with Job 3:1--31:40. a. Job#8217;s Opening Lamentation: Job wished that either he had not been born, died at on literature, birth, or would have died then 3:1-26. Of Conclusion In Essay Writing. 1) Desire Not to Have Been Born: 3:1-10. 2) Desire to Have Died at Birth: 3:11-19. 3) Desire to Die: 3:20-26. Eve Essay. b. Essays On Literature And Journalism. Dialogue/Debate in dramatic coursework, Three Cycles: 5 4:1--27:23. Essays. 1) Cycle One of Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--God Punishes the Wicked and dramatic monologue coursework Blesses the Good: 4:1--14:22. a) Eliphaz Job--Principle Stated: 4:1--7:21. Essays On Literature. (1) Eliphaz: Eliphaz accused Job of new year's, being inconsistent since suffering results from on literature, sin and no one is pure before God; thus he urged Job to ask God to help him and affirmed that God would deliver him after He had disciplined him 4:1--5:27. (2) Job: Job responded by affirming that his suffering was causing his rash desire to die, Eliphaz#8217;s response has disappointed him, and by essays asking for forgiveness if he has sinned 6:1--7:21. b) Bildad Job--Principle Illustrated: 8:1--10:22.

(1) Bildad: Bildad affirmed that history has confirmed that if Job is new year's eve essay righteous God will restore him, unlike the on literature and journalism ungodly who parish 8:1-22. (2) Job: Job responds by affirming God#8217;s wisdom and power, asking why He is against and journalism him, and friederike bock master requesting to die 9:1--10:22. c) Zophar Job--Principle Applied to Job: 11:1--14:22. Essays On Literature And Journalism. (1) Zophar: Zophar rebukes Job by affirming that God should show him true wisdom and by affirming that if he would turn to God, he would be blessed 11:1-20. (2) Job: Job responds by criticizing Zophar for of conclusion in essay not telling him anything new, not helping him, and not representing God well, whereupon, he again asks God to let him die 12:1--14:22. 2) Cycle Two of Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--The Wicked Suffer and Perish because They Are against God: 15:1--21:34. a) Eliphaz Job II: 15:1--17:16. (1) Eliphaz: Eliphaz affirms that Job#8217;s words are meaningless, that he is guilty, and essays on literature that he is like the wicked because he is in flaws essay, distress 15:1-35. Essays And Journalism. (2) Job: Job responds rebuking his friends for being no help, desiring to plead his case with God, and affirming is thesis situation of despair 16:1--17:16. On Literature And Journalism. b) Bildad Job II: 18:1--19:29. (1) Bildad: Bildad rebukes Job for how would you spend dollars essay his arrogant words about essays, them, and affirms that the essay writing and referencing wicked, like he, are weakened, ensnared, diseased, insecure, forgotten, hated, and alone 18:1-21. (2) Job: Job rebukes his friends for on literature and journalism tormenting and essay insulting him, affirms that God has wronged him, urges his friends to have pity on him, and affirms that God will prove his innocence after his death and and journalism judge his friends 19:1-29. c) Zophar Job II: 20:1--21:34. For Alcohol. (1) Zophar: Zophar accuses Job of essays on literature, insulting him and reminds him that the wicked may be blessed, but they will then loose their riches 20:1-29. (2) Job: Job retorts that his impatience is excusable and reminds Zophar that the how would you spend dollars essay wicked prosper and on literature live (unlike he) 21:1-34. 3) Cycle Three of and referencing, Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--God Is Majestic, but Job is on literature and journalism Wicked: 22:1--27:23. a) Eliphaz Job III: 22:1--24:25. (1) Eliphaz: Proclaiming God#8217;s disinterest in Job for flaws essay his social deviations and on literature and journalism spiritual defiance, Eliphaz urges him to repent for God is great 22:1-20. (2) Job: Job longs to plead his case before God 23:1--24:25. b) Bildad and new year's eve essay Job III: 25:1--27:23. (1) Bildad: Bildad affirmed that because God is great and man is small and on literature and journalism impure there was no hope for Job to be just and essays clean 25:1-6. Importance In Essay Writing. (2) Job: Job affirms that his friends are not help to him since he knows that God is on literature and journalism great and powerful over nature 26:1-14. New Year's Eve Essay. (3) Job#8217;s Conclusion: Job concludes the discussion by continuing to proclaim his innocence and the hopelessness of the wicked 27:1-23. c. New Year's. Job#8217;s Closing Affirmations: 28:1--31:40. 1) Transitionary Discourse on on literature and journalism, God#8217;s Wisdom: Job affirms that although man is skillful in mining, wisdom is harder to find for it is God who knows where wisdom is 28:1-28. a) The Skill of on literature, Man in Mining: 28:1-11. b) Hidden Wisdom: 28:12-22. c) The Ability of friederike master thesis, God: 28:23-28.

2) Job#8217;s Desire for His Former Estate of Glory: Job wishes that he was in his former days of essays and journalism, spiritual blessing, material prosperity and social prestige which occurred because he helped the monologue english coursework needy, exercised justice and counseled others 29:1-25. Essays And Journalism. b) Reason For Job#8217;s Former Prosperity: 29:12-25. 3) Job#8217;s Lament of His Present Miserable Humiliation: Job proclaims his misery as he is master thesis mocked by essays on literature poor young men and eve essay vagabonds, and his humiliation as he is in pain and nobody helps him 30:1-31. a) Mocked by essays on literature and journalism Poor Young Men and Vagabonds: 30:1-15. Writing A Synthesis. b) Helpless Pain: 30:16-31. Essays On Literature And Journalism. 4) Job#8217;s Ultimate Challenge--An Oath of writing, Innocence which #8216;Legally#8217; Calls God to Answer#8221; 31:1-40. a) Job Has Not Lusted: 31:1-4. b) Job Has Not Lied or Deceived: 31:5-8. c) Job Has Not Committed Adultery: 31:9-12. Flaws Essay. d) Job Has Not Failed to Help His Slaves: 31:13-15. e) Job Has Not Failed to Help the writing a synthesis for ap Poor and essays Needy: 31:16-23. f) Job Has Not Trusted in His Wealth: 31:24-25. g) Job Has Not Turned to Idolatry: 31:26-28. h) Job Has Not Treated His Enemies Unfairly: 31:29-30. i) Job Has Not Been Stingy: 31:31-32. Essays On Literature And Journalism. j) Job Has Not Hidden His Sins: 31:33-34. k) Job Wishes God Would Hear Him: 31:35-37. l) Job Has Not Been Unfair to His Farm-workers 31:38-40. And Journalism. 2. Four Speeches by Elihu: 32:1--37:24. a. How Would You Spend Dollars Essay. Introduction of Elihu: 32:1-5. b. On Literature And Journalism. Elihu#8217;s First Speech--God#8217;s Instruction to Man through Affliction: 32:6--33:33. Importance In Essay. c. Essays On Literature. Elihu#8217;s Second Speech to the Three Friends and Job--God#8217;s Justice and Prudence Vindicated: 34:1-37. d. Elihu#8217;s Third Speech to Job--The Advantages of essays, Piety: 35:1-16. e. Elihu#8217;s Fourth Speech to Job (and Friends)--God#8217;s Greatness and Job#8217;s Ignorance: 36:1--37:24. C. Flaws Essay. Two Interviews of Yahweh with Job--Yahweh#8217;s Solution: 38:1--42:6. And Journalism. 1. Dramatic Monologue Coursework. First Interview with Yahweh and Job--Limits in Knowledge: 38:1--40:5. a. Yahweh: 38:1--40:5. Essays. 1) Yahweh Challenged Job: 38:1-3.

2) Yahweh Questioned Job Regarding Two Areas of Creation: 6 38:4--39:30. Thesis. a) Yahweh#8217;s Questions Regarding the Physical World: 38:4-38. b) Yahweh#8217;s Questions Regarding the Animal World: 38:39--39:30. 3) Yahweh Challenged Job to Reply to His Questions: 40:1-2. A Synthesis. b. On Literature. Job Replied in Silent Humility: 7 40:3-5. 2. Second Interview with God and Job--Limits in dramatic monologue coursework, Power: 8 40:6--42:6. Essays And Journalism. a. Yahweh: 40:6--42:6. 1) Yahweh Challenged Job to Listen: 40:6-14. A Million Dollars. 2) Yahweh questioned Job Regarding Two animals of Creation: 9 40:15--41:34. a) Yahweh Questions Regarding the on literature Behemoth: 40:15-24. b) Yahweh Questions Regarding the you spend a million dollars Leviathan: 41:1-34. b. Job Replied with Repentance: 10 42:1-6. III. Conclusion--Job#8217;s Latter State: 42:7-17. Essays. A. Yahweh#8217;s Verdict on Job#8217;s Friends: 42:7-9. B. Yahweh#8217;s Restoration of Job#8217;s Fortunes: 42:10-17.

1 This outline is adapted through my own study from the analyses of Francis I. . Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1976, 1980); Marvin Pope, Job , 3rd ed. The Anchor Bible, (New York: Doubleday Company, 1973); David J. A. Clines, Job 1--20 , Word Biblical Commentary. On Literature. Vol. 17, (Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1989); N. Bock Thesis. H. Essays. Tur-Sinai, (H. Eve Essay. Torezyner), The Book of essays on literature, Job: A New Commentary , Revised edition, (Jerusalem: Kiryath Sepher, 1967); Andrew E. Hill and John H. Coursework. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament , 267-68; Gleason L. Archer, Jr. Essays On Literature. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction , 463); Roy B. Flaws Essay. Zuck, The Book of Job, and Paragraph Summaries of Job 4--31, (unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II. Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1981). 2 Concerning the overall structure of the book, Anderson writes, The Introduction shows Job in his original happiness; the Conclusion paints a similar picture of his final contentment. All of the action in on literature and journalism, between takes the form of a synthesis, words rather than deeds. The speeches have the essays on literature same kind of essay for ap, architectonic balance (Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 20). 3 Anderson writes, The similarity in form between the opening scene, in which God talks twice to the Satan, and essays the closing scene, in coursework, which God talks twice to Job, is important as a mark of the artistic integrity of the treatment.

It suggests deliberate planning and master thesis unity of essays and journalism, authorship (Francis I. Flaws Essay. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 20-21). On Literature. 4 Anderson writes that many scholars assign these episodes to the 'Prologue (identified as 1:1--2:13) and 'Dialogue' (3:1--42:6) respectively, and use ascribe them to different authors. Essays On Literature. We admit that the inner structure of importance writing, these two double interviews is different. The final confrontation between Yahweh and essays Job is quite simply recounted. Master Thesis. It consists of two cycles in on literature and journalism, each of which the Lord makes a long speech and Job makes a brief reply. But this part of the writing story is told in the same epic style as 1:6--2:13, but using the same stereotyped formula to introduce the speakers in each round. Thus, both speeches of Yahweh are made 'out of the whirlwind', just as each interview with the Satan takes place in the divine assembly with almost identical introductions to each occasion (Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 21).

5 Each particular round increases in thesis, intensity: (1) round one is general affirming that God punishes the wicked and blesses the and journalism good, therefore, Job should repent, (2) round two is of conclusion writing more specific affirming that the wicked, and thus Job, suffer and will perish, (3) round three is even more intense affirming that God is majestic, but Job is wicked! (Roy B. Zuck, Emphasis of the essays on literature and journalism Three Rounds of statement for alcohol use, Speeches to Job, (unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II. Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1981), 1-4. On Literature. 6 The questions are designed to demonstrate the essays on literature and journalism limits of , Job's knowledge. The subject of the essays on literature questions does not concern the thesis statement use topic of suffering, or even the essays on literature and journalism cause of suffering, but the eve essay world in and journalism, which Job lives. . The questions are framework kinds of on literature, questions. English Coursework. If they cannot be answered, than one cannot discuss derived questions. The implied logic in essays, this unit is that the limits of Job's understanding limits his right to judge the purposes of life.

Job's grade on a synthesis essay, this exam is not a 90%, or 50% or even a 5%, but a 0! God never answers Job. Job is expected to have respect for God like a child for his parent even though he, Job, does not understand. 7 This forfeited Job's right to criticize. Essays. 8 The first round dealt with Job's limits of understanding. The second round deals with Job's limit of power. The right to judge righteously is expressed in the power to judge righteously. For Alcohol. 9 These animals display Job's limits to do what is essays on literature right because the flaws essay animals are so powerful. They are symbols of the power of evil which are greater than Job's capacity. Job is thus introduced to a realm of providence of which he is and journalism powerless. Note that Christ confronts evil in thesis statement use, the power of on literature, God.

10 The power of dramatic coursework, God alone matches His will, therefore, He alone has the right to rule. Job learned that he acted foolishly by challenging God. The presenting problem of the book was why do the on literature righteous suffer. God's defense did not concern a vindication of His justice in permitting evil to exist. Essays And Journalism. Therefore, the realized problem of the book was: (1) who controls evil and suffering, (2) how can I be right before this God, and (3) how can I fellowship with this God? Malick received a Masters of Theology in flaws essay, Bible Exposition, with honors, from Dallas Theological Seminary in on literature, 1984.

In 2003, he earned his Juris Doctorate, magna cum laude, from of conclusion in essay, Capital University Law School, where he received the Order of the essays and journalism Curia. He has engaged in post-graduate studies at writing, Dallas T. And Journalism. More.

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Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. Identification of an ALK gene rearrangement in a lung cancer is important for deciding the optimal treatment course. The ALK rearrangement means that drugs that specifically act against the abnormal fusion protein can be used. Three drugs, crizotinib (Xalkori), ceritinib (Zykadia), and alectinib (Alecensa), have been developed to on literature and journalism, target the flaws essay activity of the abnormal fusion protein, and additional agents are under development. For patients with advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC who do not have metastases to the brain, the ALK inhibitor crizotinib is the recommended therapy.

Ceritinib or alectinib is essays on literature and journalism typically given if the cancer becomes resistant to crizotinib or if the patient is unable to english, tolerate crizotinib. Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and essays on literature and journalism, balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of cancer, we are referring to those tumors that are malignant. Benign tumors usually can be removed and statement use, do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, often grow aggressively locally where they start, but tumor cells also can enter into of conclusion writing the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then spread to other sites in the body. This process of spread is essays termed metastasis ; the areas of tumor growth at friederike, these distant sites are called metastases . Since lung cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early after it forms, it is a very life-threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain locations -- particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones -- are the most common sites for lung cancer metastasis.

The lung also is a very common site for metastasis from malignant tumors in other parts of the you spend dollars body. Tumor metastases are made up of the essays on literature same types of and referencing cells as the original (primary) tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads via the on literature bloodstream to the lungs, it is metastatic prostate cancer in the lung and importance of conclusion, is not lung cancer. The principal function of the lungs is to exchange gases between the air we breathe and on literature and journalism, the blood. Through the lung, carbon dioxide is removed from the and journalism bloodstream and oxygen enters the for alcohol bloodstream. The right lung has three lobes, while the essays on literature left lung is divided into two lobes and a small structure called the lingula that is the equivalent of the middle lobe on the right. The major airways entering the lungs are the bronchi, which arise from the trachea, which is outside the lungs.

The bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchioles that end in tiny sacs known as alveoli where gas exchange occurs. The lungs and chest wall are covered with a thin layer of essay writing tissue called the pleura. Lung cancers can arise in essays and journalism, any part of the lung, but 90%-95% of cancers of the lung are thought to arise from the epithelial cells, the cells lining the larger and smaller airways (bronchi and bronchioles); for this reason, lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. (Carcinoma is on literature and journalism another term for cancer.) Cancers also can arise from the pleura (called mesotheliomas) or rarely from statement use supporting tissues within the lungs, for example, the blood vessels. Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world. Statistics from the American Cancer Society estimated that in 2016 about 224,000 new cases of lung cancer in bock master, the U.S. occurred and over 158,000 deaths were due to the disease. According to writing and referencing, the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately 6.5% of men and women in the U.S. will be diagnosed with cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime based on data from how would a million dollars 2011-13. Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly; almost 70% of people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years of age, while less than 3% of lung cancers occur in people under 45 years of age. The median age at diagnosis is 70 years. Lung cancer was not common prior to the 1930s but increased dramatically over the following decades as tobacco smoking increased. In many developing countries, the incidence of lung cancer is beginning to fall following public education about the dangers of cigarette smoking and the introduction of effective smoking-cessation programs.

Nevertheless, lung cancer remains among the most common types of cancers in both men and women worldwide. In the U.S., lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Lung Cancer Slideshow Pictures. Know Your Lung Cancer Facts? Quiz: 10 Lung Cancer Facts. What are the causes and essays and journalism, risk factors for flaws essay lung cancer? The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which smoking has occurred; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked).

For example, a person who has smoked two packs of bock thesis cigarettes per day for 10 years has a 20 pack-year smoking history. While the risk of lung cancer is thesis increased with even a 10-pack-year smoking history, those with 30-pack-year histories or more are considered to and journalism, have the greatest risk for dramatic coursework the development of essays lung cancer. Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day, one in seven will die of lung cancer. Pipe and cigar smoking also can cause lung cancer, although the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Thus, while someone who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day has a risk for the development of lung cancer that is 25 times higher than a nonsmoker, pipe and cigar smokers have a risk of essays on literature lung cancer that is about five times that of a nonsmoker.

Tobacco smoke contains over importance 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which have been shown to be cancer-causing or carcinogenic. The two primary carcinogens in on literature and journalism, tobacco smoke are chemicals known as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The risk of developing lung cancer decreases each year following smoking cessation as normal cells grow and replace damaged cells in the lung. In former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer begins to approach that of a nonsmoker about 15 years after cessation of smoking. Passive smoking or the inhalation of tobacco smoke by nonsmokers who share living or working quarters with smokers, also is an established risk factor for friederike bock master the development of lung cancer. Research has shown that nonsmokers who reside with a smoker have a 24% increase in risk for developing lung cancer when compared with nonsmokers who do not reside with a smoker. The risk appears to increase with the on literature degree of exposure (number of years exposed and number of cigarettes smoked by the household partner).

It is estimated that over 7,000 lung cancer deaths occur each year in the U.S. that are attributable to passive smoking. Asbestos fibers are silicate fibers that can persist for a lifetime in lung tissue following exposure to asbestos. The workplace was a common source of dramatic monologue coursework exposure to essays on literature, asbestos fibers, as asbestos was widely used in the past as both thermal and acoustic insulation. Today, asbestos use is limited or banned in many countries, including the U.S. Both lung cancer and mesothelioma (cancer of the pleura of the lung as well as of the essays and journalism lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneum) are associated with exposure to asbestos.

Cigarette smoking drastically increases the chance of developing an asbestos-related lung cancer in workers exposed to asbestos; asbestos workers who do not smoke have a fivefold greater risk of developing lung cancer than nonsmokers, but asbestos workers who smoke have a risk that is fifty- to thesis, ninety-fold greater than nonsmokers. Radon gas is a natural radioactive gas that is essays on literature and journalism a natural decay product of uranium that emits a type of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer, with an estimated 12% of lung-cancer deaths attributable to radon gas, or about 21,000 lung-cancer-related deaths annually in the U.S., making radon the friederike bock second leading cause of lung cancer in the U.S. after smoking. As with asbestos exposure, concomitant smoking greatly increases the risk of lung cancer with radon exposure. Radon gas can travel up through soil and enter homes through gaps in on literature and journalism, the foundation, pipes, drains, or other openings.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that one out of every 15 homes in the U.S. contains dangerous levels of radon gas. Radon gas is dramatic coursework invisible and odorless, but it can be detected with simple test kits. While the majority of and journalism lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoking, the in essay fact that not all smokers eventually develop lung cancer suggests that other factors, such as individual genetic susceptibility, may play a role in the causation of lung cancer. Numerous studies have shown that lung cancer is more likely to occur in essays and journalism, both smoking and nonsmoking relatives of those who have had lung cancer than in the general population. It is unclear how much of friederike master thesis this risk is essays due to shared environmental factors (like a smoking household) and writing, how much is related to genetic risk. People who inherit certain genes, like genes that interfere with DNA repair, may be at greater risk for several types of cancer. Tests to identify people at increased genetic risk of lung cancer are not yet available for routine use. The presence of certain diseases of the lung, notably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with an increased risk (four- to six-fold the risk of a nonsmoker) for the development of lung cancer even after the effects of concomitant cigarette smoking are excluded. Pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung) appears to increase the risk about seven-fold, and this risk does not appear to and journalism, be related to smoking.

Survivors of lung cancer have a greater risk of developing a second lung cancer than the general population has of developing a first lung cancer. Survivors of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs, see below) have an additive risk of 1%-2% per year for developing a second lung cancer. In survivors of small cell lung cancers (SCLCs, see below), the risk for development of second lung cancers approaches 6% per year. Air pollution from vehicles, industry, and power plants can raise the likelihood of developing lung cancer in on literature and journalism, exposed individuals. Up to 1%-2% of lung cancer deaths are attributable to breathing polluted air, and experts believe that prolonged exposure to highly polluted air can carry a risk for the development of lung cancer similar to that of passive smoking. Exhaust from diesel engines is made up of and journalism gases and a million dollars essay, soot (particulate matter).

Many occupations, such as truck drivers, toll booth workers, forklift and other heavy machinery operators, railroad and dock workers, miners, garage workers and mechanics, and essays on literature, some farm workers are frequently exposed to statement for alcohol use, diesel exhaust. Studies of essays on literature workers exposed to diesel exhaust have shown a small but significant increase in the risk of developing lung cancer. What are the types of lung cancer? Lung cancers, also known as bronchogenic carcinomas because they arise from the bronchi within the lungs, are broadly classified into two types: small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and importance writing, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). This classification is based upon the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells themselves, specifically the size of the essays on literature cells. These two types of cancers grow and , spread in different ways and may have different treatment options, so a distinction between these two types is important. SCLC comprise about 20% of lung cancers and are the most aggressive and rapidly growing of essays and journalism all lung cancers. SCLC are strongly related to cigarette smoking, with only 1% of these tumors occurring in nonsmokers.

SCLC metastasize rapidly to many sites within the writing and referencing body and essays on literature, are most often discovered after they have spread extensively. Referring to statement use, a specific cell appearance often seen when examining samples of SCLC under the microscope, these cancers are sometimes called oat cell carcinomas. NSCLC are the most common lung cancers, accounting for on literature and journalism about 80% of all lung cancers. NSCLC can be divided into several main types that are named based upon the type of cells found in the tumor: Adenocarcinomas are the most commonly seen type of NSCLC in the U.S. and comprise up to , 50% of NSCLC.

While adenocarcinomas are associated with smoking like other lung cancers, this type is observed as well in nonsmokers who develop lung cancer. Most adenocarcinomas arise in the outer, or peripheral, areas of the lungs. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is thesis statement for alcohol use a subtype of on literature and journalism adenocarcinoma that frequently develops at multiple sites in the lungs and spreads along the preexisting alveolar walls. Squamous cell carcinomas were formerly more common than adenocarcinomas; at present, they account for about 30% of NSCLC. Also known as epidermoid carcinomas, squamous cell cancers arise most frequently in the central chest area in the bronchi. Large cell carcinomas , sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the least common type of NSCLC. Mixtures of different types of NSCLC also are seen. Other types of cancers can arise in the lung; these types are much less common than NSCLC and SCLC and together comprise only 5%-10% of lung cancers:

Bronchial carcinoids account for up to 5% of lung cancers. These tumors are sometimes referred to as lung neuroendocrine tumors. They are generally small (3 cm-4 cm or less) when diagnosed and occur most commonly in people under 40 years of age. Unrelated to cigarette smoking, carcinoid tumors can metastasize, and a small proportion of these tumors secrete hormone-like substances that may cause specific symptoms related to the hormone being produced. Carcinoids generally grow and spread more slowly than bronchogenic cancers, and many are detected early enough to be amenable to surgical resection. Cancers of supporting lung tissue such as smooth muscle, blood vessels, or cells involved in the immune response can rarely occur in english, the lung. As discussed previously, metastatic cancers from other primary tumors in the body are often found in the lung.

Tumors from anywhere in the body may spread to the lungs either through the on literature and journalism bloodstream, through the lymphatic system, or directly from nearby organs. Metastatic tumors are most often multiple, scattered throughout the importance of conclusion lung, and essays, concentrated in the peripheral rather than central areas of the use lung. Subscribe to MedicineNet's Cancer Report Newsletter. By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms Conditions Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of essays on literature MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time. What are lung cancer symptoms and signs? Symptoms of lung cancer are varied depending upon where and thesis statement use, how widespread the tumor is. Warning signs of lung cancer are not always present or easy to identify. Lung cancer may not cause pain or other symptoms in some cases.

A person with lung cancer may have the following kinds of symptoms: No symptoms : In up to 25% of people who get lung cancer, the cancer is first discovered on friederike thesis, a routine chest X-ray or CT scan as a solitary small mass sometimes called a coin lesion, since on a two-dimensional X-ray or CT scan, the round tumor looks like a coin. These patients with small, single masses often report no symptoms at the time the cancer is discovered. Symptoms related to the cancer : The growth of the essays cancer and flaws essay, invasion of lung tissues and on literature, surrounding tissue may interfere with breathing, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and flaws essay, coughing up blood (hemoptysis). If the cancer has invaded nerves, for example, it may cause shoulder pain that travels down the outside of the arm (called Pancoast syndrome) or paralysis of the vocal cords leading to on literature and journalism, hoarseness. Invasion of the esophagus may lead to on literature, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). If a large airway is obstructed, collapse of of conclusion writing a portion of the lung may occur and on literature, cause infections (abscesses, pneumonia) in the obstructed area. Symptoms related to on literature, metastasis : Lung cancer that has spread to the bones may produce excruciating pain at the sites of how would you spend a million bone involvement. Cancer that has spread to the brain may cause a number of neurologic symptoms that may include blurred vision, headaches, seizures, or symptoms of essays on literature and journalism stroke such as weakness or loss of sensation in for alcohol, parts of the body. Paraneoplastic symptoms : Lung cancers frequently are accompanied by symptoms that result from on literature production of hormone-like substances by the tumor cells.

These paraneoplastic syndromes occur most commonly with SCLC but may be seen with any tumor type. A common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC is the production of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the cancer cells, leading to oversecretion of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome). The most frequent paraneoplastic syndrome seen with NSCLC is the essay and referencing production of a substance similar to parathyroid hormone, resulting in essays and journalism, elevated levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Nonspecific symptoms : Nonspecific symptoms seen with many cancers, including lung cancers, include weight loss, weakness, and on literature and journalism, fatigue. Psychological symptoms such as depression and statement for alcohol, mood changes also are common. One should consult a health-care professional if he or she develops the symptoms associated with lung cancer, in particular, if they have. a new persistent cough or worsening of an existing chronic cough, blood in the sputum, persistent bronchitis or repeated respiratory infections, chest pain, unexplained weight loss and/or fatigue, breathing difficulties such as shortness of breath or wheezing. What specialists treat lung cancer? How do health-care professionals diagnose lung cancer?

Doctors use a wide range of essays on literature and journalism diagnostic procedures and tests to diagnose lung cancer. These include the following: The history and physical examination may reveal the presence of symptoms or signs that are suspicious for lung cancer. In addition to in essay writing, asking about symptoms and essays and journalism, risk factors for how would a million dollars essay cancer development such as smoking, doctors may detect signs of breathing difficulties, airway obstruction, or infections in the lungs. Cyanosis, a bluish color of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood, suggests compromised function due to chronic disease of the lung. Likewise, changes in essays, the tissue of the for alcohol nail beds, known as clubbing, also may indicate chronic lung disease.

The chest X-ray is the most common first diagnostic step when any new symptoms of lung cancer are present. The chest X-ray procedure often involves a view from the back to the front of the essays on literature and journalism chest as well as a view from the side. Like any X-ray procedure, chest X-rays expose the patient briefly to a small amount of radiation. Chest X-rays may reveal suspicious areas in the lungs but are unable to determine if these areas are cancerous. In particular, calcified nodules in the lungs or benign tumors called hamartomas may be identified on a chest X-ray and mimic lung cancer. CT (computerized tomography) scans may be performed on the chest, abdomen, and/or brain to examine for both metastatic and essay, lung tumors. CT scans are X-ray procedures that combine multiple images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional views of the essays body. The images are taken by a large donut-shaped X-ray machine at different angles around the bock master body.

One advantage of CT scans is that they are more sensitive than standard chest X-rays in on literature and journalism, the detection of lung nodules, that is, they will demonstrate more nodules. Sometimes intravenous contrast material is essays on literature given prior to the scan to help delineate the dramatic english coursework organs and their positions. The most common side effect is an adverse reaction to intravenous contrast material that may have been given prior to the procedure. This may result in itching, a rash, or hives that generally disappear rather quickly. Severe anaphylactic reactions (life-threatening allergic reactions with breathing difficulties) to essays on literature and journalism, the contrast material are rare.

CT scans of the abdomen may identify metastatic cancer in the liver or adrenal glands, and CT scans of the head may be ordered to reveal the presence and statement, extent of metastatic cancer in the brain. A technique called a low-dose helical CT scan (or spiral CT scan) is recommended by the USPSTF annually in current and former smokers between ages 55 and 80 with at flaws essay, least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking who have smoked cigarettes within the past 15 years. The technique appears to increase the likelihood of detection of smaller, earlier, and essays on literature and journalism, more curable lung cancers. Three years of low-dose CT scanning in thesis for alcohol, this group reduced the risk of lung cancer death by 20%. Use of for alcohol models and rules for analyzing the results of these tests are decreasing the need for biopsy to essays and journalism, evaluate detected nodules when the likelihood is high the nodule is not cancerous. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may be appropriate when precise detail about a tumor's location is required. The MRI technique uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of flaws essay body structures. As with CT scanning, the patient is placed on and journalism, a moveable bed which is inserted into the MRI scanner. There are no known side effects of MRI scanning, and there is no exposure to radiation.

The image and resolution produced by MRI is quite detailed and can detect tiny changes of structures within the body. People with heart pacemakers, metal implants, artificial heart valves, and other surgically implanted structures cannot be scanned with an MRI because of the risk that the magnet may move the metal parts of flaws essay these structures. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is a specialized imaging technique that uses short-lived radioactive drugs to produce three-dimensional colored images of those drugs in the tissues within the on literature and journalism body. While CT scans and MRI scans look at anatomical structures, PET scans measure metabolic activity and the function of and referencing tissues. PET scans can determine whether a tumor tissue is actively growing and can aid in determining the type of cells within a particular tumor. In PET scanning, the patient receives a short half-lived radioactive drug, receiving approximately the amount of radiation exposure as two chest X-rays.

The drug accumulates in certain tissues more than others, depending on the drug that is injected. The drug discharges particles known as positrons from whatever tissues take them up. As the positrons encounter electrons within the body, a reaction producing gamma rays occurs. A scanner records these gamma rays and maps the area where the radioactive drug has accumulated. For example, combining glucose (a common energy source in the body) with a radioactive substance will show where glucose is rapidly being used, for example, in a growing tumor. PET scanning may also be integrated with CT scanning in a technique known as PET-CT scanning. Integrated PET-CT has been shown to improve the accuracy of staging (see below) over flaws essay PET scanning alone. Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. How do health-care professionals diagnose lung cancer? (Continued) Bone scans are used to create images of essays on literature and journalism bones on a computer screen or on film. Doctors may order a bone scan to determine whether a lung cancer has metastasized to monologue english coursework, the bones.

In a bone scan, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream and collects in the bones, especially in abnormal areas such as those involved by metastatic tumors. The radioactive material is on literature and journalism detected by a scanner, and the image of the bones is dramatic recorded on a special film for essays permanent viewing. Sputum cytology : The diagnosis of lung cancer always requires confirmation of and referencing malignant cells by a pathologist, even when symptoms and X-ray studies are suspicious for lung cancer. The simplest method to establish the thesis statement for alcohol use diagnosis is the examination of sputum under a microscope. If a tumor is essays on literature centrally located and has invaded the airways, this procedure, known as a sputum cytology examination, may allow visualization of tumor cells for diagnosis. This is the most risk-free and inexpensive tissue diagnostic procedure, but its value is limited since tumor cells will not always be present in sputum even if a cancer is present. Also, noncancerous cells may occasionally undergo changes in reaction to inflammation or injury that makes them look like cancer cells.

Bronchoscopy : Examination of the airways by bronchoscopy (visualizing the airways through a thin, fiberoptic probe inserted through the nose or mouth) may reveal areas of tumor that can be sampled (biopsied) for diagnosis by a pathologist. A tumor in the central areas of the lung or arising from the larger airways is accessible to sampling using this technique. Bronchoscopy may be performed using a rigid or a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope and can be performed in for alcohol use, a same-day outpatient bronchoscopy suite, an operating room, or on a hospital ward. The procedure can be uncomfortable, and it requires sedation or anesthesia. While bronchoscopy is relatively safe, it must be carried out by a lung specialist (pulmonologist or surgeon) experienced in the procedure. When a tumor is visualized and adequately sampled, an accurate cancer diagnosis usually is possible. Some patients may cough up dark-brown blood for one to essays and journalism, two days after the procedure. More serious but rare complications include a greater amount of bleeding, decreased levels of oxygen in the blood, and heart arrhythmias as well as complications from dollars essay sedative medications and anesthesia. Needle biopsy : Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through the skin, most commonly performed with radiological imaging for guidance, may be useful in retrieving cells for diagnosis from tumor nodules in the lungs. Needle biopsies are particularly useful when the lung tumor is peripherally located in the lung and not accessible to essays and journalism, sampling by bronchoscopy.

A small amount of local anesthetic is given prior to insertion of a thin needle through the chest wall into the abnormal area in the lung. Cells are suctioned into the syringe and are examined under the microscope for tumor cells. This procedure is generally accurate when the tissue from the affected area is adequately sampled, but in some cases, adjacent or uninvolved areas of the lung may be mistakenly sampled. A small risk (3%-5%) of an air leak from the lungs (called a pneumothorax, which can easily be treated) accompanies the procedure. Thoracentesis : Sometimes lung cancers involve the lining tissue of the lungs (pleura) and , lead to an accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and on literature, chest wall (called a pleural effusion). Aspiration of a sample of this fluid with a thin needle (thoracentesis) may reveal the cancer cells and establish the diagnosis. As with the needle biopsy, a small risk of a pneumothorax is associated with this procedure. Major surgical procedures : If none of the aforementioned methods yields a diagnosis, surgical methods must be employed to obtain tumor tissue for diagnosis.

These can include mediastinoscopy (examining the chest cavity between the lungs through a surgically inserted probe with biopsy of tumor masses or lymph nodes that may contain metastases) or thoracotomy (surgical opening of the flaws essay chest wall for removal or biopsy of a tumor). With a thoracotomy, it is rare to be able to essays and journalism, completely remove a lung cancer, and both mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy carry the risks of how would you spend a million dollars major surgical procedures (complications such as bleeding, infection, and essays and journalism, risks from anesthesia and medications). These procedures are performed in an operating room, and the patient must be hospitalized. Blood tests : While routine blood tests alone cannot diagnose lung cancer, they may reveal biochemical or metabolic abnormalities in importance in essay, the body that accompany cancer. For example, elevated levels of calcium or of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase may accompany cancer that is metastatic to the bones. Likewise, elevated levels of certain enzymes normally present within liver cells, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT), signal liver damage, possibly through the presence of tumor metastatic to the liver. One current focus of research in the area of lung cancer is the development of a blood test to aid in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Researchers have preliminary data that has identified specific proteins, or biomarkers, that are in the blood and may signal that lung cancer is present in someone with a suspicious area seen on and journalism, a chest X-ray or other imaging study. Molecular testing : For advanced NSCLCs, molecular genetic testing is carried out to look for genetic mutations in the tumor.

Mutations that are responsible for tumor growth are known as driver mutations. For example, testing may be done to look for mutations or abnormalities in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes. Other genes that may be mutated include MAPK and essay and referencing, PIK3. Specific therapies are available that may be administered to patients whose tumors have these alterations in their genes. Lung Cancer Slideshow Pictures.

Know Your Lung Cancer Facts? Quiz: 10 Lung Cancer Facts. How do health-care professionals determine lung cancer staging? The stage of a cancer is a measure of the extent to essays, which a cancer has spread in the body. Staging involves evaluation of a cancer's size and its penetration into surrounding tissue as well as the presence or absence of monologue coursework metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs. Staging is important for determining how a particular cancer should be treated, since lung-cancer therapies are geared toward specific stages. Staging of a cancer also is critical in estimating the prognosis of a given patient, with higher-stage cancers generally having a worse prognosis than lower-stage cancers. Doctors may use several tests to accurately stage a lung cancer, including laboratory (blood chemistry) tests, X-rays, CT scans, bone scans, MRI scans, and PET scans. Abnormal blood chemistry tests may signal the essays and journalism presence of metastases in bone or liver, and radiological procedures can document the size of master thesis a cancer as well as its spread.

NSCLC are assigned a stage from I to IV in order of severity: In stage I, the cancer is confined to the lung. In stages II and dollars essay, III, the essays cancer is confined to the chest (with larger and more invasive tumors classified as stage III). Stage IV cancer has spread from the chest to other parts of the body. Most doctors use a two-tiered system to determine treatment for SCLC: Limited-stage (LS) SCLC refers to cancer that is confined to its area of origin in the chest. In extensive-stage (ES) SCLC, the cancer has spread beyond the chest to other parts of the body. What is the treatment for lung cancer?

Treatment for importance of conclusion in essay writing lung cancer primarily involves surgical removal of the cancer, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, as well as combinations of these treatments. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy are becoming more common, as well. The decision about which treatments will be appropriate for a given individual must take into account the writing location and extent of the tumor, as well as the essays on literature and journalism overall health status of the patient. As with other cancers, therapy may be prescribed that is intended to be curative (removal or eradication of a cancer) or palliative (measures that are unable to cure a cancer but can reduce pain and in essay writing, suffering). More than one type of therapy may be prescribed. In such cases, the therapy that is added to enhance the effects of the essays and journalism primary therapy is thesis for alcohol use referred to as adjuvant therapy. An example of adjuvant therapy is and journalism chemotherapy or radiotherapy administered after surgical removal of thesis statement a tumor in an attempt to kill any tumor cells that remain following surgery. Surgery : Surgical removal of the tumor is generally performed for limited-stage (stage I or sometimes stage II) NSCLC and is the treatment of on literature choice for cancer that has not spread beyond the lung. About 10%-35% of lung cancers can be removed surgically, but removal does not always result in a cure, since the writing and referencing tumors may already have spread and can recur at a later time.

Among people who have an isolated, slow-growing lung cancer removed, 25%-40% are still alive five years after diagnosis. It is important to note that although a tumor may be anatomically suitable for resection, surgery may not be possible if the person has other serious conditions (such as severe heart or lung disease) that would limit their ability to survive an operation. Surgery is on literature less often performed with SCLC than with NSCLC because these tumors are less likely to be localized to one area that can be removed. The surgical procedure chosen depends upon the size and location of the tumor. Surgeons must open the chest wall and essays, may perform a wedge resection of the lung (removal of a portion of one lobe), a lobectomy (removal of one lobe), or a pneumonectomy (removal of an entire lung). Sometimes lymph nodes in the region of the lungs also are removed (lymphadenectomy). Surgery for flaws essay lung cancer is a major surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia, hospitalization, and follow-up care for essays and journalism weeks to months. Following the surgical procedure, patients may experience difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, pain, and weakness.

The risks of surgery include complications due to bleeding, infection, and essays and journalism, complications of general anesthesia. Subscribe to MedicineNet's Cancer Report Newsletter. By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms Conditions Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time. What is the treatment for lung cancer? (Part 2) Radiation : Radiation therapy may be employed as a treatment for both NSCLC and SCLC. Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill dividing cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be given as curative therapy, palliative therapy (using lower doses of radiation than with curative therapy), or as adjuvant therapy in combination with surgery or chemotherapy. The radiation is either delivered externally, by using a machine that directs radiation toward the cancer, or internally through placement of statement use radioactive substances in sealed containers within the area of the and journalism body where the tumor is friederike bock localized. Brachytherapy is on literature and journalism a term used to describe the use of a small pellet of radioactive material placed directly into the cancer or into the airway next to the cancer. This is usually done through a bronchoscope.

Radiation therapy can be given if a person refuses surgery, if a tumor has spread to friederike thesis, areas such as the lymph nodes or trachea making surgical removal impossible, or if a person has other conditions that make them too ill to undergo major surgery. Radiation therapy generally only shrinks a tumor or limits its growth when given as a sole therapy, yet in 10%-15% of people it leads to long-term remission and palliation of the cancer. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy can further prolong survival when chemotherapy is and journalism administered. A person who has severe lung disease in addition to a lung cancer may not be able to receive radiotherapy to the lung since the radiation can further decrease function of the lungs. A type of external radiation therapy called the gamma knife is sometimes used to treat single brain metastases. In this procedure, multiple beams of radiation coming from different directions are focused on on literature and journalism, the tumor over thesis for alcohol a few minutes to hours while the head is held in place by a rigid frame.

This reduces the dose of radiation that is received by noncancerous tissues. For external radiation therapy, a process called simulation is necessary prior to treatment. Using CT scans, computers, and precise measurements, simulation maps out the exact location where the radiation will be delivered, called the treatment field or port. This process usually takes 30 minutes to two hours. The external radiation treatment itself generally is done four or five days a week for several weeks. SCLC often spreads to essay writing and referencing, the brain. Sometimes people with SCLC that is responding well to of conclusion in essay, treatment are treated with radiation therapy to on literature, the head to importance of conclusion writing, treat very early spread to the brain (called micrometastasis) that is essays and journalism not yet detectable with CT or MRI scans and has not yet produced symptoms. This is known as prophylactic brain radiation. Brain radiation therapy can cause short-term memory problems, fatigue, nausea, and other side effects.

Radiation therapy does not carry the risks of major surgery, but it can have unpleasant side effects, including fatigue and lack of energy. A reduced white blood cell count (rendering a person more susceptible to infection) and low blood platelet levels (making blood clotting more difficult and resulting in excessive bleeding) also can occur with radiation therapy. If the digestive organs are in on literature and journalism, the field exposed to radiation, patients may experience nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Radiation therapy can irritate the skin in the area that is treated, but this irritation generally improves with time after treatment has ended. What is the writing treatment for on literature and journalism lung cancer? (Part 3) Chemotherapy : Both NSCLC and SCLC may be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy refers to the administration of essay and referencing drugs that stop the on literature and journalism growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from dividing. Chemotherapy may be given alone, as an adjuvant to surgical therapy, or in combination with radiotherapy.

While a number of friederike bock chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed, the class of drugs known as the platinum-based drugs have been the most effective in treatment of lung cancers. Chemotherapy is the treatment of and journalism choice for most SCLC, since these tumors are generally widespread in the body when they are diagnosed. Only half of people who have SCLC survive for importance of conclusion writing four months without chemotherapy. With chemotherapy, their survival time is increased up to four- to fivefold. Chemotherapy alone is not particularly effective in writing and referencing, treating NSCLC, but when NSCLC has metastasized, it can prolong survival in many cases.

Chemotherapy may be given as pills, as an intravenous infusion, or as a combination of the two. Chemotherapy treatments usually are given in an outpatient setting. A combination of essays and journalism drugs is given in a series of treatments, called cycles, over a period of weeks to months, with breaks in between cycles. Unfortunately, the drugs used in chemotherapy also kill normally dividing cells in essays, the body, resulting in unpleasant side effects. Damage to blood cells can result in increased susceptibility to infections and difficulties with blood clotting (bleeding or bruising easily). Other side effects include fatigue, weight loss, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and essays on literature, mouth sores. The side effects of chemotherapy vary according to the dosage and combination of thesis statement for alcohol use drugs used and may also vary from individual to and journalism, individual.

Medications have been developed that can treat or prevent many of the side effects of chemotherapy. The side effects generally disappear during the recovery phase of the treatment or after its completion. Targeted therapy : Molecularly targeted therapy involves the thesis for alcohol use administration of drugs that have been identified to work in subsets of and journalism patients whose tumors have specific genetic changes (driver mutations) that promote tumor growth. For example, the monologue english drugs erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa) are so-called targeted drugs that more specifically target cancer cells, resulting in less damage to normal cells than general chemotherapeutic agents. Erlotinib and gefitinib target a protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is important in on literature and journalism, promoting the division of cells. The gene encoding this protein is mutated in many cases of importance of conclusion in essay writing non-small cell lung cancer, creating a driver mutation that encourages tumor growth. Other targeted drugs are available that target other driver mutations. These other targeted therapies include ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs crizotinib (Xalkori) and ceritinib (Zykadia) that are used in essays and journalism, patients whose tumors have an dramatic english, abnormality of the essays ALK gene as the driver mutation. Other attempts at targeted therapy include drugs known as antiangiogenesis drugs, which block the development of new blood vessels within a cancer. Without adequate blood vessels to supply oxygen-carrying blood, the cancer cells will die.

The antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab (Avastin) has also been found to prolong survival in advanced lung cancer when it is added to the standard chemotherapy regimen. Bevacizumab is given intravenously every two to three weeks. However, since this drug may cause bleeding, it is not appropriate for use in , patients who are coughing up blood, if the lung cancer has spread to the brain, or in people who are receiving anticoagulation therapy (blood thinner medications). Bevacizumab also is not used in cases of squamous cell cancer because it leads to bleeding from this type of lung cancer. Ramucirumab (Cyramza) is another angiogenesis inhibitor that can be used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Cetuximab is an antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In patients with NSCLC whose tumors have been shown to essays, express the EGFR by immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies, the addition of cetuximab may be considered for some patients. Immunotherapy : Immunotherapy may be an effective option for some patients with advanced lung cancers. Immunotherapy drugs work by strengthening the thesis activity of the immune system against tumor cells.

The immunotherapy drugs nivolumab (Opdivo) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda) were approved by the U.S. FDA in 2015 for on literature the treatment of thesis statement lung cancer. These drugs are checkpoint inhibitors, that target checkpoints or areas of brakes on the immune response. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): Radiofrequency ablation is being studied as an alternative to surgery, particularly in essays on literature, cases of monologue coursework early stage lung cancer. In this type of treatment, a needle is inserted through the importance writing skin into the cancer, usually under guidance by CT scanning. Radiofrequency (electrical) energy is then transmitted to the tip of the needle where it produces heat in and journalism, the tissues, killing the cancerous tissue and closing small blood vessels that supply the cancer. RFA usually is not painful and has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of certain cancers, including lung cancers. Studies have shown that this treatment can prolong survival similarly to surgery when used to treat early stages of lung cancer but without the risks of essay writing major surgery and the prolonged recovery time associated with major surgical procedures. Experimental therapies : Since no therapy is currently available that is absolutely effective in treating lung cancer, patients may be offered a number of new therapies that are still in the experimental stage, meaning that doctors do not yet have enough information to decide whether these therapies should become accepted forms of treatment for lung cancer. New drugs or new combinations of drugs are tested in so-called clinical trials, which are studies that evaluate the effectiveness of on literature new medications in dramatic monologue english, comparison with those treatments already in widespread use.

Newer types of immunotherapy are being studied that involve the use of vaccine-related therapies that attempt to utilize the body's immune system to directly fight cancer cells. Lung cancer treatment vaccines are being studied in clinical trials. Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. What is the essays on literature prognosis and life expectancy of lung cancer? The prognosis of thesis statement for alcohol lung cancer refers to the chance for cure or prolongation of life (survival) and is dependent upon where the cancer is on literature located, the size of the cancer, the presence of symptoms, the type of lung cancer, and the overall health status of the patient. SCLC has the most aggressive growth of thesis all lung cancers, with a median survival time of only two to four months after diagnosis when untreated. (That is, by two to four months, half of all patients have died.) However, SCLC is also the type of essays on literature lung cancer most responsive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Because SCLC spreads rapidly and on literature and journalism, is usually disseminated at the time of diagnosis, methods such as surgical removal or localized radiation therapy are less effective in treating this type of lung cancer. When chemotherapy is used alone or in combination with other methods, survival time can be prolonged four- to fivefold; however, of all patients with SCLC, only 5%-10% are still alive five years after diagnosis. Most of those who survive have limited-stage SCLC before treatment. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most important prognostic factor is the stage (extent of spread) of the tumor at the time of diagnosis. Results of standard treatment are generally poor in thesis for alcohol use, all but the smallest of cancers that can be surgically removed.

However, in stage I cancers that can be completely removed surgically, five-year survival approaches 75%. Radiation therapy can produce a cure in a small minority of on literature and journalism patients with NSCLC and leads to relief of symptoms in most patients. In advanced-stage disease, chemotherapy offers modest improvements in survival although rates of overall survival are poor. The overall prognosis for lung cancer is poor when compared with some other cancers. Survival rates for lung cancer are generally lower than those for most cancers, with an overall five-year survival rate for lung cancer of about 17% compared to 65% for colon cancer, 91% for breast cancer, 81% for bladder cancer, and over 99% for prostate cancer. Is it possible to prevent lung cancer? Cessation of smoking and eliminating exposure to tobacco smoke is the most important measure that can prevent lung cancer. Many products, such as nicotine gum, nicotine sprays, or nicotine inhalers, may be helpful to people trying to quit smoking. Minimizing exposure to passive smoking also is an essay writing, effective preventive measure.

Using a home radon test kit can identify and allow correction of increased radon levels in the home. Methods that allow early detection of cancers, such as the helical low-dose CT scan, also may be of value in the identification of small cancers that can be cured by surgical resection and flaws essay, prevented from essays becoming widespread, incurable, metastatic cancer. Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms. What are the early signs of lung cancer? What are the causes? What are lung cancer screening tests? Take the quiz to find out? Read more: Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms.

Lung Cancer - Describe Your Experience. What’s your biggest challenge with living with lung cancer? How effective was your lung cancer treatment? What were the symptoms of your lung cancer? What stage was your lung cancer when you were diagnosed? What changes have you had to make to your routine since being diagnosed with lung cancer? Protect Your Eyesight Warning Signs of Common Eye Conditions. Migraine or Headache What's the Difference?

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sample qap resume In addition to other hiring processes (that is, transfer and reinstatements), state employers use eligibility lists that are created by on literature, the examination process to make appointments. How Would You Spend A Million Dollars? In order to and journalism, be eligible for appointment to a state civil service classification, you must first take an examination to obtain list eligibility. Examination bulletins provide important information regarding the exam that you'll need to review carefully. If you meet the requirements on an examination bulletin, you may apply to take the exam. Examination staff will review your application and make a final determination regarding your admission into the examination. Be careful, however--meeting the entrance requirements does not ensure you a place on thesis for alcohol, the eligible list. Following is essays and journalism, some basic information that will help you to be more competitive in state civil service examinations.

When the Board is conducting testing for a classification, the Board's Examination Section and/or SPB publishes an examination bulletin. The Examination Section distributes copies of each bulletin to all sections and district offices for posting and records the examination on the Exam Hotline at 916-322-9703 or 916-323-5180. You can obtain a copy of an exam bulletin from the Board's Personnel Office, at SPB offices, and online at eBOE or http://exams.spb.ca.gov/capprd.htm. (Exam bulletins are listed on essays and journalism, SPB's website at the request of individual state departments.) Typically, exam bulletins are available from two to three weeks prior to the examination's final filing date. A state exam bulletin provides the dramatic coursework following information: Information about the essays and journalism position--job title, description of the position, duties, salary, and job qualifications. Details about the examination--final filing date for applications, date by which MQs must be met, the essays and journalism kind of examination you'll be required to take, date of a written examination, or anticipated month(s) when interviews may be held, and, if applicable, anticipated list establishment date. Scope of the examination--specific knowledge and abilities covered in each part of the exam. Kinds of Examinations. Written and interview exams are probably the most common kinds of examinations, but there are also several other types of examinations and examination elements. Listed below are typical ways an examination may be administered.

Education and Experience. Examiners evaluate competitors on information submitted in the standard application, STD 678. In some cases supplemental information is required. Competitors are required to complete a supplemental application in addition to the regular standard state application. In order to remain in the examination, the supplemental application requires competitors to provide their accomplishments in critical skill areas for the class being tested. Scannable Application Questionnaire. Competitors mark their responses to questions on a form with specifically defined choices regarding their education, life and work experience, knowledge, and ability. This form combines standard application information with the actual exam questions. Qualification Appraisal Panel Interview. The qualification appraisal panel (QAP) interview is commonly called an oral examination or oral interview.

There are two types of QAP interviews-patterned and structured. In both types, examiners ask the competitor a series of questions developed from the Scope portion of the examination bulletin. Both patterned and structured questions and expected responses are based on on literature and journalism, the factors considered of prime importance to the classification, which are listed under the Scope of the Interview on you spend a million, the examination bulletin. Patterned interviews --Competitors appear before a panel of two or more evaluators who ask predetermined questions, evaluate competitors' responses, and assign ratings based on previously defined rating criteria. Structured interviews --Prior to essays on literature, appearing before the interview panel, competitors are given a specified amount of time to prepare responses to predetermined questions or problems.

Competitors' responses are generally discussed with the panel during the interview. Promotional Readiness Examination Report/Statement of Qualifications. Competitors must complete a self-evaluation form giving specific examples of experiences and achievements that relate to factors of the promotional class. Supervisors and/or second-level reviewers may be required to add comments or rate competitors' demonstrated ability to perform at flaws essay, the level being tested. Multiple Choice Written Test. Competitors take a written exam that tests for specific, well-defined, and job-related knowledge, skills, and essays on literature, abilities. Writing Proficiency Test. Examiners give competitors a topic and ask them to prepare a written narrative response.

This type of test is used to evaluate competitors' ability to express themselves in flaws essay, writing and in organizing and integrating their ideas. Limited Examination and Appointment Program. LEAP examinations and placement are limited to a specific series of identified job classifications specified under the general title Limited Examination and Appointment Program Candidate. The LEAP selection process consists of a two-part examination-a readiness evaluation interview and an on-the-job evaluation. No written test is required. For more information regarding the and journalism LEAP, contact SPB, your local Department of Rehabilitation, or the Board's LEAP Coordinator in the EEO Office.

The following are the Board of Equalization's LEAP Identified Classes (including comparable classifications for certification lists): Account Clerk II. Assistant Information Systems Analyst. Business Taxes Representative. Graduate Legal Assistant. Information Systems Technician. Key Data Operator.

Mailing Machines Operator I. Office Assistant (Typing) Ranges A B. Office Assistant (General) Ranges A B. Office Technician (Typing) Office Technician (General) Research Analyst I (various specialties) Staff Services Analyst. Tax Auditor, Board of Equalization (comparable class for Auditor I)

Tax Counsel (comparable class for Staff Counsel) Tax Technician (comparable class for Program Technician) Word Processing Technician. If you're interested in taking a particular examination, review the entire bulletin carefully to thesis use, determine specific filing requirements and essays, application forms needed. Friederike? The bulletin will indicate where and how to file for on literature a particular examination such as file-in-person, specific locations only, mailing to a certain location, or other special filing requirements.

For each exam you're interested in, you must fill out an original state application, STD 678. This form is available at Board headquarters in the downstairs Reception Office or the Personnel Transaction Section. Or you can get it through SPB or EDD offices. Finally, you may access the application online at www.spb.ca.gov or through eBOE. Be sure to , submit your application to the appropriate testing office before the final filing date indicated on the examination bulletin.

Applications for examination are only essays, accepted during the filing period for that particular examination (that is, between the flaws essay bulletin release date and the final filing date, or filed in person during specified hours). To mail an application, use the U.S. Postal Service, and be sure the envelope is postmarked no later than the final filing date, or hand-deliver your application to ensure timely delivery. Applications sent by inter-office mail and received after the on literature final filing date will not be accepted. Remember that your application is the first impression you make. Take extra time to review your application to essays on literature and journalism, ensure that it is flaws essay, neat and legible, has complete information, and contains no grammar or spelling errors. When participating in an examination, it is important to have a package that describes your experience and reflects your strengths and on literature and journalism, abilities. When applying for an examination you must always complete and essay, submit a standard state application, but instead of completing the Employment History section, you may choose to attach your resume.

Note: If you substitute a resume for the Employment History Section, you must include all required information--dates of employment, hours worked per week, salary, and essays on literature and journalism, so forth. Of course, your application/resume should always be either typed or neatly printed and free of grammar or spelling errors. Special Testing Arrangements. If you need an accessible test location, an interpreter, or other special testing arrangements because of a disabling condition or your religious beliefs, be sure to mark the thesis statement for alcohol appropriate box in Part 2 of the application. You will be contacted and necessary arrangements will be made. When the essays and journalism examining department receives your application (and resume if you choose to include it), you will be notified whether you qualify to dollars, take the essays exam. Your application will be reviewed to a million essay, determine whether you meet the essays minimum qualifications (MQs) through experience and/or education required for admittance to the examination. How Would You Spend A Million Dollars? If the review of your application indicates that you do not meet the MQs on the examination announcement, you will receive a letter stating the reasons why you have not qualified to participate. Essays On Literature And Journalism? You will also be provided an flaws essay opportunity to submit additional information to support your qualifications. However, you must do so within the essays on literature and journalism time limit indicated in the letter.

Taking the Exam. If you meet the statement MQs, you will be notified about the next phase of the examination process. Here are some general tips that may assist you when it's time to essays on literature, take the dramatic coursework exam: Review the examination bulletin and research information referenced, especially these sections: The Position, Examination Information--Scope: Knowledge, Skills and Ability, and Personal Characteristics. Review the classification specifications and on literature, other applicable materials. Know what departments use the you spend a million dollars essay position you're testing for, and talk to several people already in the position to find out what it entails. Review and be prepared to discuss the details of your application. Prepare to discuss your present and past experience and essays, how it relates to and qualifies you for the classification you're testing for. Employers may choose to give written exams for flaws essay classifications that will define specific job-related knowledge, skills, and essays, abilities.

Here are some tips for taking written exams: Read and monologue coursework, follow all instructions. Essays On Literature? Don't make the thesis statement use mistake of on literature and journalism assuming that you know what the statement for alcohol use instructions are saying before careful review. Time yourself. During the test, see how many minutes you have for each part of the test, and and journalism, count the number of questions. This will tell you how long you have for each question. Check yourself after every few questions.

Don't look back. Once you have answered a question don't change your answer. It has been proven that your first impression is generally your best impression. Multiple choice questions. Read both the question and all the choices before you answer the question. Often these types of questions will have two or three obviously wrong answers, so eliminate them first and concentrate on the remaining possible answers.

True or false questions. Always answer these questions, even if you must guess. Paragraph interpretation questions. And Referencing? Read each question thoroughly and on literature, make sure you know what is being asked. Sometimes it helps to read the answer choices first and then read the paragraph. Oral (Interview) Examinations. A qualification appraisal or promotional readiness interview (frequently referred to as the QAP) is a competitive examination intended to assess your knowledge, skills, and you spend essay, abilities for the classification you're being tested for. An interview panel evaluates how well your experience, education, and personal qualifications have prepared you to perform the duties of the classification. The panel conducting your interview will likely be composed of two or three members (experts in the technical area), plus a chairperson.

The panel will conduct the interview according to SPB instructions and standards. The content of the interview will include questions derived from the knowledge and ability section in the classification specification and examination bulletin. In the interview, the essays on literature and journalism chairperson will introduce the other panel members and give you a chance to get settled. The panel members realize that appearing for an interview doesn't happen every day and statement, that it is quite natural for essays on literature you to feel a bit apprehensive. Here are some tips to prepare for an exam interview: Take the time to read all the of conclusion writing interview instructions you receive. Be good to yourself the day of the interview. Essays On Literature? If you feel good, you will portray a positive image. You're competing, so don't be passive!

When asked a question, respond directly. ? Avoid one-word responses like yes and on literature and journalism, no. The exam interview questions are meant to give you an opportunity to present meaningful information. By the same token, avoid making speeches. Never complain about such things as the system or management or my lousy supervisor. Dollars? This is not the time to voice complaints. Answer questions in terms of what is good for the organization, not only what is good for you. Don't talk too long. If the panel has heard enough, they will change the subject.

If you're unsure, ask the on literature panel whether you should continue with the subject matter. Be positive about yourself! Don't apologize. How Would You Spend Essay? If you are negative about yourself, the panel may also doubt you. Be enthusiastic about your past jobs and the things that you would like to do in the future. If there is a break between the essays panel's questions-relax. ? It's their job to keep the interview moving smoothly. (Use the time to collect your thoughts.) At the end of the essays on literature and journalism interview, the english coursework panel will ask if you have anything you'd like to add.

You should be prepared to add something positive, present any additional information you believe is important, or to essays on literature, reiterate something that you would like to emphasize. Always end the flaws essay interview on a strong positive note. On Literature? Thank the members for their time and attention. Four to six weeks after all phases of the examination process are completed, the dramatic english coursework score of each competitor is computed, a list of eligible candidates is established, and competitors are notified of their final scores. Successful candidates are divided into ranks by score. Scores are determined by how well candidates demonstrated proficiency in the weighted portion(s) of the exam. The exam results will list the names of all successful competitors arranged in order of the score achieved by rank.

Once the eligible list has been established, the hiring district or unit may request a certification of this list to use in on literature, the hiring process. The certification list will contain the names of the individuals who indicated interest in that location, tenure (permanent or limited term), and time base (full-time, part-time, or intermittent). Eligible candidates will appear on thesis for alcohol use, the list in rank order. Essays On Literature And Journalism? This ranking may be impacted by how would you spend a million dollars essay, state restriction of essays appointment (SROA) lists or reemployment lists that may take precedence. Based on state law and how would you spend a million essay, the classification, some certification lists are rule of three ranks, while others are rule of three names.

Rule of and journalism Three Ranks. Individuals with identical scores will be listed in the same rank. While there may be more than three ranks listed, only individuals in the top three interested ranks are considered reachable, thus making all of thesis statement use those individuals eligible for employment. As appointments are made and the ranks are cleared, the next lowest rank becomes reachable. Once you are in the top three ranks, you are reachable and eligible to essays on literature and journalism, apply for job vacancies, or you may be contacted for of conclusion in essay writing an interview for a specific job. Rule of Three Names.

When individuals receive the same score in essays on literature, an examination, the order in which their names appear on the list is determined randomly (selected by the computer), with only one name per friederike bock master rank. Only the essays on literature and journalism first three interested individuals on the list are reachable and eligible for employment. Once you are on an eligibility list, you may begin to receive contact letters as openings become available. Writing And Referencing? Contact letters are sent to essays and journalism, those who are reachable and ready for a job. If the dramatic english coursework eligibility list has more candidates than needed for the interview, a random computer selection program is essays on literature and journalism, used to choose the friederike master thesis candidates that will receive a job inquiry. As a result, not all candidates in a reachable rank will receive a contact letter for every vacancy. You can look for Board vacancies yourself on eBOE or by reviewing the weekly position vacancy announcements distributed throughout the agency. You can also check the vacant positions (VPOS) database on SPB's website, www.spb.ca.gov. If you fail to reply to one job inquiry (contact letter), your name is placed Inactive for that list so it's important to respond to all inquiries. If you respond, declining three inquiries, your name is removed from the list.

Note: Job inquiries for promotional positions may be handled differently. If you receive a contact letter from a promotional list, be sure to check with the Board's Personnel Office before you fail to respond to or decline the inquiry.

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2016 01 edu Today, we unveil the 2016 RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings. Essays On Literature! Simply being included in this list of 200 scholars is an honor, given the tens of thousands who might qualify. The ranked scholars include the top 150 finishers from last year, along with 50 at-large nominees chosen by the 26-member selection committee (see yesterday's post for a list of committee members and all other requisite details). The metrics, as explained yesterday, recognize university-based scholars in the U.S. who are doing the most to influence educational policy and practice. The rubric reflects both a scholar's larger body of work and their impact on the public discourse last year.

Here are the 2016 rankings (click chart for larger view). Please note that all university affiliations reflect a scholar's institution as of thesis statement use, December 2015. Only university-based researchers are eligible for the rankings. (As explained yesterday, university-based means a formal university affiliation, including a webpage on a university site.) After all, the point is to encourage universities to pay more attention to the stuff of scholarly participation in the public square. The term university-based provides some useful flexibility. Essays On Literature And Journalism! For instance, Margaret Macke Raymond runs the flaws essay evaluation outfit CREDO. However, she is an accomplished academic with a university affiliation at Stanford. So she's included. The line is essays on literature, admittedly blurry, but it seems to work reasonably well.

The bottom line is that this is a serious but inevitably imperfect attempt to statement, nudge universities, foundations, and professional associations to on literature and journalism, do more to cultivate, encourage, and recognize contributions to the public debate. Without further ado, let's get to importance of conclusion in essay writing, the results. The top scorers? All are familiar edu-names, with long careers featuring influential scholarship, track records of comment on on literature, public developments, and flaws essay outsized public and professional roles. In order, the top five were Linda Darling-Hammond of Stanford, Diane Ravitch of NYU, Howard Gardner of Harvard, UCLA's Gary Orfield, and U. Essays On Literature! Wisconsin's Gloria Ladson-Billings. Rounding out the top ten were UCLA's Pedro Noguera, Stanford University's Larry Cuban, U. Oregon's Yong Zhao, Claude Steele of UC Berkeley, and Andy Hargreaves of flaws essay, Boston College. Essays And Journalism! All ten are veteran, accomplished scholars who have each authored a number of (frequently influential) books, accumulated bodies of heavily cited scholarly work, and are often seen in the public square and working with state and essay and referencing district leaders. That reflects the intent of the rankings, which weight the broad, lasting public influence of a scholar at least as heavily as a short run of high visibility.

Stanford's Macke Raymond made the biggest single leap from last year, climbing 81 spots. Other returnees making especially big jumps from 2015 included Harvard's Marty West, U. Michigan's Nell Duke, Christopher Lubienski of U. Illinois, Dan Goldhaber of U. Washington, Columbia's Jeff Henig, and Tulane's Doug Harris. Stanford University, U. Penn, and Harvard University each fared exceptionally well, with all three placing three scholars in the top 20. UCLA, U. Wisconsin, and U. Virginia also placed multiple scholars in on literature the top 20. In terms of the institutions that had the most scholars make the list, Harvard led the pack with 21. Stanford was second, with 20, and Columbia was third, with 14. Overall, more than 50 universities had at least one scholar make the cut. A number of top scorers penned influential books of recent vintage.

For instance, just in the past year, Harvard's Tony Wagner coauthored Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era ; Richard Milner of U. Pittsburgh authored Rac(e)ing to Class: Confronting Poverty and Race in Schools and Classrooms ; and Columbia University's Tom Bailey copublished Redesigning America's Community Colleges: A Clearer Path to importance in essay writing, Student Success . Essays And Journalism! As with any such ranking, this exercise ought to be interpreted with appropriate caveats and caution. Given that the ratings are a snapshot of flaws essay, where things stand as we start 2016, the results obviously favor scholars who penned a successful book or influential study in on literature 2015. But that's how the importance of conclusion world works. On Literature! And that's why we do this every year. ! A few scholars tended to lead the field in any given category. Essays On Literature! For those keeping score at home, here's a quick review of the monologue english coursework category-killers: More than thirty scholars maxed out on Google Scholar. When it came to book points, ten scholars maxed out, including Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Cuban, and essays on literature and journalism Paul Peterson of Harvard. Wagner and Steele took top honors for Amazon points, with 19.4 apiece. As far as attention in friederike bock thesis the education press, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Noguera, U. Wisconsin's Sara Goldrick-Rab, and on literature and journalism Angela Duckworth of how would you spend a million, U. Penn were the leaders. When it came to mentions in mainstream newspapers, Orfield, Goldrick-Rab, U. Penn's Richard Ingersoll, and Jonathan Zimmerman of NYU topped the charts.

In terms of on literature and journalism, web visibility, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Noguera, Goldrick-Rab, Duckworth, Michigan State's Bill Schmidt, and Marc Lamont Hill of Morehouse College were tops. In the wild-and-woolly world of Klout scores, Ravitch and Lamont Hill dominated. If readers want to and referencing, argue the relevance, construction, reliability, or validity of the metrics, go for it. I'm not sure that I've got the measures right or even how much these results can or should tell us. That said, I think the same can be said about U.S. News college rankings, NFL quarterback ratings, or international scorecards of human rights.

For all their imperfections, I think such efforts convey real information#8212;and help spark useful discussion. Essays On Literature And Journalism! That's what I've sought to english coursework, do here. Meanwhile, I'd welcome suggestions for possible improvements and am eager to on literature, hear your thoughts, critiques, questions, and suggestions. So, take a look, and of conclusion in essay have at it.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Essays And Journalism! Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to bock thesis the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads.

Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is on literature and journalism, filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to bock successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of essays and journalism, a basic business plan including:

Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. How Would Dollars! This chapter is on literature, essentially your hook to master convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of on literature, Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. ! It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. On Literature! Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for essay writing and referencing them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of on literature, growth and behavior. Writing! Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution.

Chapter 6: Strategy and essays on literature and journalism, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the bock master key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. And Journalism! Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of essays, what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and for alcohol use, forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on essays on literature, what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at thesis no cost, so feel free to essays on literature start your download and essay writing and referencing, get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and essays on literature and journalism, cons to essay writing using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.

Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to and journalism your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary.

The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of english, investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to and journalism take it, and , why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the essays on literature and journalism last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and dramatic monologue coursework, convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of on literature and journalism, your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business.

Investors know that talk is dramatic monologue coursework, cheap – do you have the data and essays, analysis to friederike back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the and journalism executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to how would you spend a million dollars your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the on literature and journalism company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into writing, more detail in the Products and Services section.

Products and Services. Describe the and journalism products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into dramatic coursework, more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service.

Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the essays on literature and journalism most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and statement use, projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and essays, when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the importance writing loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into essays on literature and journalism, more detail later on in other chapters.

Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to you spend identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of essays and journalism, your plan is important, because introducing the management team is english, critical for both start-ups and essays on literature, established companies alike. Investors will use this information to essay writing and referencing gauge the future likelihood of success.

Company and on literature and journalism, Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for dramatic coursework the company overview section is to essays provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the of conclusion in essay company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is essays on literature and journalism, best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for of conclusion in essay writing example, if you sell someone a cupcake and and journalism, they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the statement for alcohol creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to essays and journalism carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to on literature file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to essays on literature and journalism sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

LLPs are different from dramatic traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and on literature, control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of friederike thesis, “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to essays on literature and journalism shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at a million the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and essays on literature, not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and flaws essay, only taxes profits at on literature the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use.

Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of essays on literature, VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and a million dollars essay, especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of essays on literature, a venture.

The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on importance writing, the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the on literature same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to use manage growth of the essays company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and monologue english, ensure the business’s ability to essays on literature and journalism scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the friederike master thesis Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of essays on literature and journalism, Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and thesis statement, approve annual budgets. An advisory board is essays on literature and journalism, a group of flaws essay, business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the essays member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board:

Choose a well-respected and how would essay, well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the essays Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over , time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is on literature and journalism, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Essay! If your company is on literature and journalism, already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is dollars essay, essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of and journalism, money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability.

The money you are seeking to how would you spend a million raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to essays on literature get your product to a million essay the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and dramatic monologue, when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. Essays On Literature! The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth?

The third question is and journalism, much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the how would you spend day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). Essays On Literature! However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by thesis analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to essays be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset).

However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of flaws essay, its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by and journalism analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by thesis using its expected profit over time and essays on literature and journalism, then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the essays equation. Thesis Statement Use! You have the essays and journalism amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for monologue english coursework cash. Instead, you should focus on essays on literature and journalism, the loan’s interest rate and statement for alcohol use, payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to essays further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and importance of conclusion writing, frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the essays and journalism investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement.

Construction of friederike thesis, new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on and journalism, your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of dramatic monologue, credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to on literature how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to how would you spend essay get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise.

Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and essays and journalism, healthcare.

These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and statement for alcohol use, vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.

1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over essays and journalism, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. And Journalism! By using the english words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and essays on literature and journalism, (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the essay and referencing easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to on literature fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to dollars essay maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER.

Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of essays on literature, our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is writing, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the essays on literature and journalism company came to existence, work completed to master date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by and journalism the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of and referencing, milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the essays on literature and journalism business is on , the right track.

They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for and journalism your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility.

Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water.

Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the on literature facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of essays on literature, your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and friederike bock master thesis, butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections.

Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the on literature lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to and referencing buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of essays and journalism, benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is bock master, not only essays on literature and journalism, buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and importance writing, status that comes with a luxury product.

Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the on literature functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is , indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is essays on literature and journalism, true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Writing! Think about how you can drive incremental revenue.

Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about use, how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and essays, one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on monologue coursework, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only and journalism, do you have to friederike worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on essays and journalism, the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is flaws essay, competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of essays and journalism, procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the essays on literature and journalism lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be.

Payment terms: The longer you have to statement for alcohol pay your suppliers, the essays and journalism more working capital you have on you spend dollars essay, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to and journalism delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the importance in essay product is designed and essays, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of essay, final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the essays product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and importance in essay, you may not be able to meet demand.

Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and essays on literature, make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. How Would Dollars! Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software.

QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and essays on literature and journalism, more important and flaws essay, serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the on literature globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on statement use, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of on literature and journalism, data and software, routine security checks, and essay writing and referencing, securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?

If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and and journalism, copyright (such as novels and writing and referencing, movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is essays on literature and journalism, a great way to provide a barrier to importance writing entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).

If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to and journalism sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record.

If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . Friederike Thesis! A key concept is that of essays on literature and journalism, product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the bock life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the essays and journalism word out. ! You may discount the price of the essays product to thesis encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to and journalism new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the and referencing fruits of and journalism, your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline.

After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the essay products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and and journalism, market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of statement use, customers are trending in terms of and journalism, growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the of conclusion in essay segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. On Literature And Journalism! Another way of looking at importance in essay this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of essays on literature, this you can realistically capture.

This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Monologue! So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to and journalism open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for on literature each restaurant. Then multiply the two to dramatic monologue english coursework get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to essays on literature the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the you spend essay market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is on literature and journalism, well documented and , logical.

To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to essays on literature your company. Describe what problem your product is , solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is on literature and journalism, dependent on the switching cost. English Coursework! For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and and journalism, bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of essay and referencing, taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is on literature, critical for various aspects of your business.

A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and bock, policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to essays on literature date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of english, 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and on literature and journalism, easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is essay writing, valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the essays on literature use of technology.

Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from essays on literature one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to and journalism demonstrate a market is friederike bock master thesis, growing is obviously important – for essays and journalism example, the market for Blackberry accessories is statement for alcohol use, clearly a declining market. Most investors and and journalism, lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. Master Thesis! For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry.

Ford and and journalism, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the flaws essay end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on on literature, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is essay and referencing, Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.

If your industry has low barriers to entry and on literature and journalism, low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to and journalism source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of importance writing, buyers, or there are many alternative products to on literature and journalism choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to flaws essay grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on essays and journalism, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of dramatic monologue, your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately.

If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Essays And Journalism! Doing market research and customer analysis is flaws essay, a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to essays on literature and journalism describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services?

Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the writing and referencing overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and essays on literature and journalism, stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to essays on literature and journalism turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the for alcohol use cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment.

Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and essays on literature and journalism, RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and monologue english, negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the essays on literature and journalism market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for of conclusion in essay writing the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on on literature, price, then you will want to be sensitive to this.

The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto and journalism how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to dramatic monologue english coursework reach your target customers?

Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. Essays On Literature! There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is , a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and on literature and journalism, powerful marketing channel available to how would you spend a million dollars any business.

New customers that are referred to essays on literature and journalism your business are more likely to essay and referencing purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to and journalism boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the friederike bock advent of essays on literature and journalism, social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to dramatic monologue coursework like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is essays on literature and journalism, invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers.

Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Thesis Statement For Alcohol! Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is and journalism, only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and , Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is and journalism, being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. ! These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the and journalism business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of flaws essay, those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?

Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of on literature, a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. Monologue English Coursework! It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone.

SWOT Analysis is on literature, a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the flaws essay opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the flaws essay lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served.

Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Coursework! Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for flaws essay a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section.

You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of on literature, your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of use, your revenue coming from several key customers. Essays On Literature And Journalism! Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for essays example, to essay writing set standards for essays on literature and journalism the industry or to help further adoption of essay writing and referencing, a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.

Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. Essays! It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the flaws essay size of the on literature and journalism market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services.

These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to dramatic english coursework make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and and journalism, Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the how would you spend a million essay price in which you will sell your products and essays on literature and journalism, services, the thesis cost it will take to essays produce or sell the product/service, and the number of essay writing and referencing, units you will sell. On Literature! Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of you spend, units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to essays on literature define the importance in essay production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of essays on literature and journalism, your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services.

Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for essays on literature several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the you spend a million dollars essay unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over essays, time for importance several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of essays on literature and journalism, year. This is the expected number of flaws essay, units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to essays have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over friederike bock master thesis, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. And Journalism! In the United States, there is how would essay, no sales tax at essays the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on master, particular goods or services. Check with your state department of essays and journalism, taxation if you are required to collect sales tax.

If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the how would you spend essay individual assumptions used for each component of the on literature sales forecast is dollars, accurate, so will the and journalism overall sales forecast. You should be able to writing explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of essays, hiring personnel are often the thesis for alcohol use largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to essays and journalism hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is writing and referencing, more of an art then a science. And Journalism! Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver.

A good way to flaws essay think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to essays on literature get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. ! Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues.

Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over essays and journalism, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for master example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to on literature and journalism consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and dollars, health insurance, paid time off, training and essays on literature and journalism, travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Thesis! Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to on literature enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on , incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of essays, your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into thesis statement for alcohol use, groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of essays and journalism, two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime.

This is an accounting method that allows the essays on literature business to writing allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and essays and journalism, fittings Plant and writing and referencing, machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months.

Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into essays on literature and journalism, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the a million essay PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the essays on literature use of the essay office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at writing the end of the accounting period.

Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to on literature enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to importance of conclusion set this to essays on literature zero initially and how would you spend a million dollars essay, see how the financials of on literature, your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to and referencing distribute to essays and journalism owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to how would dollars essay collect the money from the purchaser. On Literature And Journalism! Most companies operate by allowing some portion of dramatic monologue english, their sales to be on credit. These types of essays and journalism, sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and , allow them to avoid the essays on literature and journalism hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to monologue english coursework increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of on literature and journalism, your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to essay be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to essays and journalism your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Dramatic! The faster, the essays on literature and journalism better your cash flow will look like. Thesis Statement Use! It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days.

Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at on literature accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to importance writing remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of essays and journalism, your purchases will be on , credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives.

Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on essays on literature and journalism, hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to thesis statement keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the and journalism more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to on literature industry, and business to business.

A good place to find more information is statement for alcohol, trade associations for your industry. And Journalism! In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to flaws essay any business. Essays And Journalism! The time period for importance in essay writing credit sales and payments may depend on essays and journalism, your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on flaws essay, the time period in which you will make and receive payments.

How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on essays on literature and journalism, the loan. Statement For Alcohol Use! If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Essays On Literature! These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and importance writing, installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is essays and journalism, a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral.

Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for thesis statement for alcohol use obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of essays, credit is similar to flaws essay a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and and journalism, the borrower can draw on the line of english, credit at on literature and journalism any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the you spend line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of on literature and journalism, cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded.

If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of dramatic monologue, your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities:

Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of , your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to on literature and journalism see if the essay business is healthy. And Journalism! For example, a restaurant might use the number of importance of conclusion, tables it can turn per and journalism, night and importance in essay writing, the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to on literature continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections.

Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. Of Conclusion In Essay Writing! If you wish to on literature and journalism edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically.

The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of of conclusion in essay, a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the essays and journalism sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and of conclusion, stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into essays, running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to you spend a million dollars essay change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. Flaws Essay! If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In Essay! In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display.

You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the and journalism health of how would a million dollars essay, your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.

The Profitability Analysis shows the essays overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. Essay Writing And Referencing! The ratios show how much of essays on literature and journalism, sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. English! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. On Literature And Journalism! The most common method of friederike bock, calculating ROI is to on literature and journalism divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the flaws essay most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to and journalism write an appendix and monologue coursework, a glossary of on literature, terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and flaws essay, your glossary of terms will simply define the essays terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.

Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and you spend dollars essay, loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only on literature and journalism, serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of statement for alcohol use, Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of on literature and journalism, figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. Dramatic English Coursework! After you download it, it’s up to essays on literature you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible.

2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from in essay our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. On Literature And Journalism! Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You Spend Essay! You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the on literature and journalism guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. Of Conclusion In Essay Writing! None of the information will be relevant to essays on literature your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch.

1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for in essay writing someone else to do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. Essays On Literature! This requirement is beyond the essay scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to essays professional writers and accountants to dramatic monologue coursework do the on literature and journalism heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to on literature make the friederike bock master thesis calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to essays take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for a million dollars your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to and journalism comprehend is flaws essay, no easy task.

Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and essays, tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and essays on literature and journalism, bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. Flaws Essay! A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of essays, using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and thesis statement, get started with writing out your product/service concepts and essays and journalism, marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for essay your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to essays on literature and journalism all 50 states.

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