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Brief intervention to topics, encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in how to write scholarship half among adolescents. Education! Edited by barber essay, Susan T. Fiske, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and education approved March 18, 2016 (received for essay contest high school students review December 1, 2015) There is increasing concern about rising discipline citations in K–12 schooling and education topics a lack of means to reduce them. Ged Essay! Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the present research examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an education empathic mindset about discipline halved student suspension rates over an academic year. Barber! This intervention, an online exercise, can be delivered at near-zero marginal cost to essay, large samples of attend law school essay, teachers and essay education topics students. Attend Law School! These findings could mark a paradigm shift in society’s understanding of the essay topics, origins of and remedies for discipline problems. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment.

Experiment 1 tested whether teachers ( n = 39) could be encouraged to uk, adopt an education topics empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and essay on global issues sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an education empathic response to misbehavior would sustain students’ ( n = 302) respect for samuel barber teachers and essay motivation to essay, behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Topics! Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to adopt an empathic mindset about discipline. School Application! Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts ( N teachers = 31; N students = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. Essay Education! It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from essay teachers. Essay Education Topics! Teachers’ mindsets about about my dream, discipline directly affect the quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. Removal from mainstream education settings for discipline problems denies children opportunities to learn and essay thus predicts major negative life outcomes such as adult unemployment and barber incarceration (1).

However, in education topics the United States, the number of students suspended for misbehavior nearly tripled from write scholarship 1.7 million in 1974 to essay, more than 5 million in issues 2011 (3.7–11% of education, all students) (2, 3). On Global! Contemporaneously, a dominant approach to misbehavior, which prioritizes punishment over education, remediation, has emerged in samuel US schooling (4). Essay Education! For instance, zero-tolerance policies aim to how to essay, deter misbehavior through tough consequences and thus promote severe disciplinary action (e.g., suspensions) for even minor misbehavior (5). Topics! Although many factors contribute to steck-vaughn, high suspension rates, we examined teachers’ mindsets about education topics, discipline. Ged Essay! We hypothesized that a punitive response to education topics, misbehavior can, ironically, alienate disaffected students and thus incite the contest high students 2012, destructive, oppositional behaviors it aims to essay, prevent. A response that values students’ perspectives and school essays maintains high-quality relationships in essay topics disciplinary interactions may improve outcomes. Much research shows that feeling respect for 2012 and being respected by authority figures can motivate people to follow rules enforced by education topics, those figures, especially in conflicts (6). Law School Essay! If teachers convey this respect while disciplining students, this may improve students’ behavior.

Consistent with this hypothesis, the essay, quality of students’ relationships with teachers is samuel barber essay one of the strongest predictors of classroom behavior (7). Relationships of essay topics, trust and barber respect may be especially important in essay education adolescence. Samuel Barber Essay! In this period before cognitive-control regions in essay the brain have fully matured, external resources like trusted teachers may be essential to guide children’s growth (8, 9). Destination! Punitive disciplinary interactions risk undermining these relationships (10). If students feel disrespected and subsequently misbehave, this may confirm in essay topics teachers’ minds that the samuel barber, student is a “troublemaker,” facilitating harsh responses to future misbehavior (11). Essay Education Topics! Thus, a punitive approach to write essay, discipline may give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle of punishment and misbehavior (12). Three experiments tested whether teachers can be encouraged to essay topics, adopt an empathic mindset about discipline and samuel essay examined its impact on topics students.

This mindset prioritizes valuing and understanding students’ experiences and negative feelings that give rise to misbehavior, sustaining positive relationships with misbehaving students, and write scholarship working with students within trusting relationships to essay education, improve behavior (9). Essay My Dream! For example, perspective-taking, the essay, cognitive component of empathy, may help teachers understand students’ experiences and graduate school application internal states (13) and essay education thus respond more appropriately to essay contest school students 2012, misbehavior (e.g., with greater concern for the needs of the education topics, student) (12, 14). Samuel Barber Essay! Notably, even as many teachers are exposed to a default punitive approach to education topics, discipline (5), teachers also have, as a central plank of their profession, the goal to essay, build and essay education sustain positive relationships with students, especially struggling students (15). School Application Essays! The existence of this alternative mindset suggests that it may be possible through relatively modest means to essay education topics, encourage a different approach to essay contest 2012, student misbehavior. Essay! We thus test whether an steck-vaughn ged series empathic mindset can change teachers’ practices, whether this improves students’ responses to discipline, and education whether encouraging an graduate essays empathic mindset in teachers can reduce suspension rates among students.

Experiment 1 tested whether a targeted message about education topics, empathic discipline would change teachers’ approach to discipline. Thirty-nine K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y) were randomly assigned to graduate, an empathic- or a punitive-mindset condition. Education! Teachers read a brief article, which reminded them either that “good teacher–student relationships are critical for essay about students to essay education, learn self-control” (empathic mindset) or that “punishment is critical for teachers to take control of the graduate, classroom” (punitive mindset). Next, teachers were asked how this approach helps teachers “maintain control over a class.” Teachers then reviewed three counterbalanced incidents of minor misbehavior drawn from essay education middle-school referral records (e.g., disrupting class by throwing away trash). Issues! After each incident, teachers described how they would discipline the student. Last, they reported the likelihood they would consider the student a troublemaker (1, not at essay, all; 7, extremely).

As predicted, teachers’ disciplinary responses were less punitive and more empathic in school the empathic-mindset condition than in essay the punitive-mindset condition. Teachers were also less likely to how to write essay, label the essay education topics, student a troublemaker in the empathic-mindset condition (see Tables 1 and 2). Teacher responses to minor student misbehavior as a function of condition (experiment 1) ( n = 39) Coded disciplinary responses and law school essay teacher judgments (experiment 1) ( n = 39) How do students respond to essay education topics, empathic discipline? In experiment 2, we asked college students ( n = 302) to how to write best scholarship essay, imagine themselves as middle-school students who had disrupted class by topics, repeatedly walking around to throw away trash. School Application! Their teacher, Mrs. Essay Education Topics! Smith, responded in a manner reflective of how to best essay, each condition in essay education topics experiment 1: by assigning detention and destination referring them to the principal’s office (punitive-discipline condition) or by essay education topics, asking them about their misbehavior and moving the wastebasket closer to their desk (empathic-discipline condition). Essay On Global Issues! Next, participants reported the topics, respect they would have for the teacher (six items; e.g., “I think Mrs.

Smith deserves my respect”; ? = 0.85) and the motivation they would have to behave well in distance learning writing the future (two items; e.g., “It is important to education topics, me that I follow rules in contest high school students this class”; ? = 0.83) (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree). As predicted, college students reported that, as middle-school students, they would respect the education, teacher far more in school the empathic-mindset than in the punitive-discipline condition ( M = 5.23, SD = 1.14 versus M = 2.47, SD = 1.09), t (300) = 20.98, P 0.001, d = 2.42. They also anticipated they would feel greater motivation to behave well in the future ( M = 4.38, SD = 1.41 versus M = 3.79, SD = 1.56), t (300) = 3.43, P 0.001, d = 0.40 (see Fig. 1). Moreover, consistent with our theory, the greater respect college students reported that they as middle-school students would have for education topics the teacher statistically mediated the increase in their anticipated motivation to application essays, behave well in essay education topics the future. Using mediation procedures with model 4 of the essay contest students 2012, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) macro mediation analysis package (PROCESS) (16) and 10,000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples, we tested a model with “condition > respect (mediator) > behave well.” As noted, the total effect of condition on essay students’ anticipated motivation to behave well was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.17, P = 0.001). Issues! In step 1, the total effect of essay education topics, condition on the mediator (respect) was significant ( b = 2.02, SE = 0.11, P 0.001). In step 2, we regressed the essay on global, dependent variable (behave well) on the mediator and essay education condition. The effect of barber, respect was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.08, P 0.001), and essay education topics the effect of write best scholarship essay, condition was reduced ( b = –0.60, SE = 0.23, P = 0.011). Education Topics! In step 4, the predicted mediation (indirect path from steck-vaughn condition > respect for teacher > motivation to education, behave well) was significant [ b = 1.19, SE = 0.19, confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 1.58]. Issues! College students ( n = 302) who imagined themselves as middle-school students being disciplined in topics an empathic rather than a punitive manner reported that they would respect the steck-vaughn ged series, teacher more and essay topics be more motivated to essay, behave well in the future (experiment 2).

The y axes represent the full range of the essay, scales. Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Experiments 1 and best scholarship essay 2 show that teachers can be encouraged to take an essay empathic approach to discipline and that students report that such treatment motivates better behavior. Write! Can an empathic mindset give rise to a cycle of topics, improved interactions between teachers and students and, thus, cause lasting benefits? Experiment 3, a longitudinal randomized placebo-controlled field experiment, tested whether encouraging an on global empathic mindset about discipline in essay teachers would reduce student suspension rates over about my dream destination, an academic year. Participants were math teachers at five diverse middle schools in three school districts in education California ( n = 31) and their students ( n = 1,682; 52% female; 17% Asian, 2% Black, 54% Latino, 7% White, 20% other/unknown). Contest High School Students 2012! This sample represents 91.12% of essay education, recruited faculty, 83% of math faculty, and 55.57% of students at these schools. Distance Learning Creative Writing! For school characteristics, see Table S1. Essay Education! The intervention comprised one 45-min and school application one 25-min online module.

Teachers were told that the essay, purpose of the ged essay, exercise was to essay education, review common but sometimes neglected wisdom about ged essay ged series, teaching and to collect their perspectives as experienced teachers on how best to education, handle difficult interactions with students, especially disciplinary encounters. Teachers were randomly assigned to samuel, a condition within school immediately after consent. Essay Education! Demographics of participating schools (experiment 3) The first module was completed midway through the Fall semester. First, teachers read an article that described nonpejorative reasons why students sometimes misbehave in steck-vaughn ged series class and how positive relationships with teachers can facilitate students’ growth (e.g., “[the] social and biological changes of adolescence can make middle school students insecure … worries [about unfair treatment] can cause students to education topics, experience stress, to overreact, and my dream destination sometimes to disengage from education school”). Learning Creative Writing! These materials discouraged the labeling of misbehaving students as troublemakers. Instead, they encouraged teachers to understand and essay value students’ experiences and attend negative feelings that can cause misbehavior and to sustain positive relationships when students misbehave. Education! Teachers were reminded that “a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and attend law school essay respected shows them that school is fair and they can grow and succeed there.” These ideas were reinforced through stories from essay students (e.g., “One day I got detention, and instead of essay issues, just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to essay education topics, me. Barber Essay! … It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in education topics school. Attend Law School! …”). Teachers then wrote how they incorporate or could incorporate these ideas in their own practice. These responses, they were told, would be “incorporated into education topics, a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from ged essay steck-vaughn your experiences and essay education insights” (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

This representation of the exercise and interactive elements draws on other successful social–psychological interventions (17 ? ? –20). Essay My Dream Destination! Teachers were treated as experts and agents of positive change for topics others, not as recipients of write best scholarship, remediation. Topics! They were exposed to powerful stories on essay contest which they elaborated in guided writing exercises, allowing them to education, take ownership of the scholarship essay, intervention message, to essay education, connect it to their own practice, and to essay, advocate for essay education topics it to others (21) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). (Students completed separate randomized materials at essay, this time, which did not affect the primary outcomes examined here; SI Experiment 3 .) The second session completed 2 mo later reinforced the treatment message. Teachers were reminded that “students’ feelings about and behavior in essay topics school can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the ged essay steck-vaughn, care and education topics respect students crave.” They reviewed a story from barber essay a teacher who described a teacher of essay education, hers who had eased her worries about mistreatment by ged essay, showing her respect and how she tried to convey the same respect to her students. Essay Education Topics! Participating teachers then described how they show their own students respect. Teachers also had their students complete surveys during this session, which assessed broad perceptions of the issues, school climate. Essay! The present study focused on the critical factor of perceived respect (“Teachers and attend law school other adults at my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

It is education topics important to on global issues, note what the education topics, empathic-mindset intervention does not do. Steck-vaughn Ged Series! Even as this intervention encourages teachers to understand and value students’ perspectives, it does not ask teachers to topics, share students’ perspective or to think that that perspective is application essays reasonable, which it may not be. In many contexts, simply understanding and feeling understood may be enough to initiate a better teacher–student relationship (20). The intervention also does not encourage teachers to education, not discipline misbehaving students. As in parenting contexts (22), an writing uk overly permissive approach may be counterproductive.

It may cause teachers to essay topics, lose control of the essay contest high school, class and deny misbehaving children the essay education topics, understanding and supportive feedback they need to on global issues, improve. Education! Instead, the intervention encourages teachers to graduate school essays, discipline students in a context of education topics, mutual understanding and trust. Distance Creative! The control exercise was similar in form and interactivity but discussed ways to use technology to promote learning (see SI Experiment 3 for details). Topics! This neutral comparison tests whether the graduate application, empathic-mindset intervention can reduce suspensions compared with typical disciplinary practice. Essay Education! How did intervention-condition teachers describe how they would incorporate empathic approaches in their practice? When asked how they “would like … to improve your relationships with your students?” teachers powerfully echoed the how to write, intervention themes: For example, “[I] greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what has occurred the education topics, day before”; “[I] answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been”; and ged essay steck-vaughn ged series “I NEVER hold grudges. I try to remember that they are all the son or daughter of someone who loves them more than anything in education the world. About My Dream! They are the light of someone’s life!” (see SI Experiment 3 for essay topics details).

The primary outcome was students’ year-long suspension rates. Barber! (Each school district recorded discipline data differently and primarily only as year sums, so it was not possible to education topics, examine discipline outcomes across the how to write, full sample with greater granularity.) Examining official school records, a mixed-effect linear regression with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom (each teacher taught multiple classes) showed that students whose math teacher received the empathic-mindset intervention were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (4.6%) as students of essay education, control teachers (9.8%) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, z = –3.33, P = 0.001; see Fig. Distance Learning! 2). The effect remained significant controlling for student race, gender, and essay prior-year suspension status (OR = 0.49, z = –2.37, P = 0.018). It was consistent across all these factors; there was no interaction involving them ( z s 1.85, P s 0.05). As in essays national data (4), control-condition suspension rates were highest among boys (OR = 3.21, z = 4.16, P 0.001), African American and Latino students (OR = 2.48, z = 2.30, P = 0.021), and essay topics students with a history of essay on global, suspensions (OR = 17.34, z = 1,420.00, P 0.001). Topics! The reduction in suspension rates was comparably large for essay school these groups (boys, 14.6–8.4%; African Americans and Latinos, 12.3–6.3%; previously suspended students, 51.2–29.4%). Topics! Middle-school students ( n = 1,682) whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the samuel barber essay, empathic-mindset intervention compared with randomized control materials were half as likely to be suspended over essay education topics, the school year (experiment 3). My Dream! Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps.

Did the essay education, empathic-mindset intervention improve teacher–student relationships from students’ perspective? It did for essay the most at-risk students, those with a history of suspensions. Essay Education! An initial mixed-effect linear regression on students’ reports of respect from teachers with students nested within school, teacher, and issues classroom revealed a main effect of topics, prior suspension status, t (1,440) = –2.01, P = 0.045, and no main effect of condition ( t 1.25). (We used Satterthwaite approximations to attend law school essay, estimate degrees of education, freedom with the lmerTest package in R.) However, a subsequent model revealed a significant Prior Suspension ? Treatment interaction, t (1,438) = 2.57, P = 0.010 (see Fig. 3). Scholarship Essay! In the essay topics, control condition, previously suspended students thought their teachers were less respectful ( M = 3.85) than did students with no history of steck-vaughn ged series, suspension ( M = 4.53), t (1,434) = –3.20, P = 0.001, d = 0.56. Essay Education! This effect was eliminated by the intervention, t (1,430) 1. Issues! Students with a history of suspension felt more respected by their teachers when their math teacher had been treated ( M = 4.70) than when the teacher had not ( M = 3.85), t (1,439) = 2.68, P = 0.008, d = 0.77. Middle-school students ( n = 1,449) with a history of suspension whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention perceived their teachers as more respectful of them 2 mo after the initial teacher intervention than students whose math teacher completed randomized control materials (experiment 3). The analysis omits 233 students who did not complete the topics, follow-up survey (13.85%).

Attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Essay High! Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Essay! The present research demonstrates how a punitive climate can create in teachers a punitive approach to discipline and how this approach undermines students’ feelings of attend essay, respect for education topics teachers and motivation to behave well in barber essay class (experiments 1 and essay education topics 2). Ged Essay Ged Series! A brief, online intervention to essay education topics, encourage an write best scholarship empathic mindset in essay topics teachers about discipline halved year-long suspension rates among 1,682 students in my dream five diverse middle schools (experiment 3). Many past interventions have aimed to facilitate mindsets that help students overcome challenges in education topics school (18, 19). The present intervention targeted teachers’ mindsets to make school more psychologically safe, removing a barrier to samuel barber essay, students’ success. Importantly, the empathic-mindset intervention did not attempt to essay topics, teach teachers new skills for samuel barber essay interacting with students or introduce new policies for essay topics how to essay contest, discipline students (23). Essay! Nor did it attempt to build students’ self-control or social–emotional skills, another common approach to improving student behavior (24).

Like learning any new skill or program, such approaches may require ongoing coaching and practice. Instead, we assumed that teachers were capable of on global, building better relationships with students and that students could behave more positively with more supportive treatment. The intervention simply encouraged teachers to view discipline as an opportunity to topics, facilitate mutual understanding and better relationships and essay on global empowered teachers to essay education, do so in learning creative writing a manner effective for them and essay education topics their students. The findings suggest that, at least in the school contexts examined here, punitive mindsets about barber, discipline serve as a critical barrier to education, better teacher–student relationships. Write Best! Moreover, insofar as relatively brief, online modules can encourage teachers to topics, take a more empathic approach, the attend, results suggest the topics, potential for effective, scalable intervention to graduate school essays, improve discipline outcomes. However, our emphasis on education teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the importance of learning creative writing, punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter. They create a context that discourages teachers from essay topics prioritizing building strong relationships with students at steck-vaughn, critical junctures. Education Topics! Efforts to essay, change discipline policies and to encourage empathic mindsets about discipline thus go hand-in-hand. Essay! The present research raises important questions, which will be exciting to essay on global issues, address in essay topics future research.

First, a notable finding was that the randomization of ged series, a single teacher to essay, treatment versus control condition caused a reduction in samuel suspensions that arise from misbehavior in all school settings; indeed, supplementary analyses provide evidence that the intervention effect extended beyond a reduction in suspensions referred by essay education, math teachers ( SI Experiment 3 ). Although striking, this finding is consistent with research suggesting the essay my dream, importance for children of having at essay education, least one teacher in school whom they trust (20). Ged Essay Steck-vaughn! It will be important to further understand how, when, and why improvement in a single teacher–student relationship causes reverberating benefits for topics students. Second, it is graduate important to further explore the essay, psychological and ged essay social–relational changes induced by essay topics, the intervention and essay contest students 2012 how these improve discipline. Using a chain of experiments, the present research identified key causal relationships (25) linking an essay education empathic mindset and treatment to greater feelings and perceptions of on global, respect and reduced suspensions. An important next step is to include periodic assessments of essay education topics, teachers’ and students’ attitudes and developing relationships and observations of their interactions in school application future trials. Such measures may further clarify how and topics when an distance creative empathic approach to essay education topics, discipline can become enduring in steck-vaughn ged series teachers’ minds and essay embedded in write best scholarship teacher–student interactions and essay support statistical tests of mediation (26). They may also shed light on consequences beyond discipline, like for school engagement and best learning. Ideally, these assessments will be unobtrusive so as not to lead teachers to education, feel scrutinized or to undercut the honorific representation of the exercise, which could undermine intervention effectiveness. In changing teachers’ mindsets to ged essay ged series, improve a social system, the present research suggests a new frontier for topics psychological intervention. Many past interventions help students navigate the social world of high students, school more effectively (18 ? –20, 27). However, psychological interventions can also make social worlds easier to navigate.

Racial-minority students can be held back by essay education topics, teachers’ feelings of uk, dissimilarity to them (28). Essay Topics! People trying to graduate school application essays, lose weight or quit smoking can contend with pejorative views among physicians of health-risk behaviors (29). In circumstances like these, the mindsets of education topics, a few can undermine the outcomes of many. Where else can we alter the essay on global, mindsets of essay education topics, powerful social actors to write scholarship, improve the essay education topics, functioning of on global, systems as a whole? Empathic Discipline Session 1: Sample Materials. Essay Education! Empathic discipline session 1: Introduction of the activity (excerpt). “Teachers are always looking for new ways to teach and to on global issues, better serve their students.

As you know, one important part of teaching is essay developing positive relationships with students so they can learn. Our own research team has been studying the essay, role of teacher–student relationships in students’ motivation, learning, and essay topics behavior. Distance Creative Writing Uk! This research suggests that how teachers and essay students interact, especially during the critical period of barber essay, adolescence, can have long-lasting effects on students’ motivation and education success. School Application! The relationships students build with their middle-school teachers can influence students’ motivation and education behavior in graduate school essays class and their attitudes and education success beyond. In this web module, we will share with you some of this research.

Then, we will ask you for ged essay ged series your input as a professional educator. We are especially interested in essay education topics your thoughts about my dream destination, how teachers like you can and education do use these ideas to have better interactions with students and to write scholarship, improve their lives. Education! Your input will be incorporated into a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experience and insights. Thank you for essays your time and essay help.” Empathic discipline session 1: Empathic-mindset article (excerpt). Law School! “Almost everyone has a personal story about education topics, a great teacher who influenced his or her life. For some, it’s a teacher who reached out and helped them feel both comfortable and respected in school. Ged Essay Ged Series! For others, it’s a teacher who helped them see they could reach a higher standard, even when they doubted themselves. As teachers, these stories warm our hearts. They inspire us to essay, create a positive setting that brings out the graduate school application, best in our students. Research suggests that students’ relationships with teachers are important—and even more so than you might think.

Children who experience caring relationships with adults grow up to be more respectful and caring people. At home, a kind and responsive parent shows a child that their family is essay education good and about my dream trustworthy. Education Topics! In school, a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and essay respected shows them that school is fair and essay education they can grow and succeed there. Of course, creating positive relationships is essay destination not always easy—especially with middle-school students. Education! The social and biological changes of adolescence can make middle-school students insecure and sensitive. Samuel Barber! Yet students’ attitudes about school and behavior can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the essay education, caring and respect students crave. This makes understanding students’ perspectives very important to teaching. The more teachers understand how students perceive teachers’ actions, the distance creative writing, better equipped teachers are to interact with students in ways that nurture their growth into responsible, motivated young adults.

Many teachers worry about education, students disengaging from essay school during middle school and essay topics seek out barber essay a variety of strategies to help their students. Topics! Adolescence is a time of new worries and pressures. Essay Contest High Students! In middle school, students interact with far more students, have far more teachers, and essay topics go through puberty. Issues! As a result, middle-school students think a lot about how they are treated. They worry about topics, being treated unfairly, and essay they are sensitive to any sign that others—especially authority figures, like teachers—are dealing them an education topics unfair hand. Attend Law School! These worries can cause students to essay education, experience stress, to samuel, overreact, and sometimes to education topics, disengage from school. Some students have additional reasons to worry if people will treat them fairly, which cause concern for teachers. Essay About Destination! For instance, students from poor families or from ethnic minority backgrounds may hear discouraging stories from topics friends, parents, or the how to scholarship, media about essay, how their group is treated. So it’s reasonable for essay these students to topics, be especially worried about how they will be treated in samuel middle school. And this is an additional challenge for teachers when forming positive relationships with these students.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample student stories. “In middle school, I didn’t feel like I belonged.

It seemed like the essay education topics, teachers always called on write best essay the other students. So I didn’t pay attention in class and essay sometimes I got in creative uk trouble. Education! One day I got detention, and instead of write best scholarship essay, just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to me. And then he told me that he had trouble sometimes in essay topics middle school but that it gets better. It felt good to contest school students 2012, know I had someone I could trust in school.” “One time, after I got in trouble in essay education seventh grade, I still remember how my teacher took me aside later and listened to my side of the story. She repeated what I said back to me to be sure she understood what I was saying. Then she explained why she still had to give me a detention because I was disrupting class.

Even though I still got a detention, I was glad that she didn’t just dismiss what I had to learning creative, say, like other teachers sometimes did. Topics! After that, I actually felt better in school because I knew I had someone to attend, talk to.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. Essay! “What are some of the ways that you try to steck-vaughn, build positive relationships with your students, or things that you would like to education, try in the future to improve your relationships with your students? Please illustrate your answer with examples from distance learning writing your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to essay, reach out to students, for how to best instance situations when students are struggling academically, not participating in essay education class, or are getting in essay trouble.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “Answer their questions thoughtfully and essay topics respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been.” “Greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what occurred the attend law school essay, day before.” “After school one day, a student approaches you and essay tells you that he felt like he was unfairly disciplined for essay chewing gum in class. Essay Education Topics! Earlier that week, you saw the graduate essays, student chewing something in class after you had warned him not to chew gum at school. Education! You sent the student to the office for ged essay ged series disrupting the class.

Now he tells you that he feels that he was not treated fairly. How would you respond to this student? For example: Listen to essay topics, the student and make sure he knows you care about essay about my dream, his feelings. Essay! Explain to essay issues, him why you had to essay education topics, enforce the distance learning creative, rule.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “In this situation I would ask the student to sit down and we would have a conversation both sitting down. I would ask him why exactly he felt he was unfairly treated. Essay! I would repeat this back to on global, him and essay education say I was sorry he felt this way. I would remind him I did warn him earlier in the week and issues ask if he remembered this.

I would end the essay, conversation with a positive note such as: I am sorry you became frustrated with receiving detention but know that I notice how hard you have been working in here. Ged Essay Ged Series! Keep up that positive work habit.” Control Session 1: Sample Materials. Control session 1: Control article (excerpt). Education! “Students engage more with lessons when they are presented in computer formats that they use regularly. Writing Uk! Research suggests that most teachers use some forms of education topics, technology to creative, improve students’ experience in class and to facilitate learning. Many teachers believe that showing the details of materials in a presentation or allowing students to essay education topics, research a subject themselves supports their understanding.

Technology can also help to improve communication with students and parents. Samuel Barber! Some small changes in education the way technology is used in the classroom can prove to be very useful to essay contest students 2012, keep students interested and topics help them to learn class materials.” Control session 1: Sample student stories. Application! “I liked when the teacher used the essay, projector in how to write best essay my class. Education Topics! It was more fun than just a lecture. The work was more clear and I think my teacher made more sense. It was easier to graduate essays, focus in essay topics class.

And being able to email my homework to my teachers is distance learning creative uk great. Essay Education! I think it saves everyone a lot of time. It also helps me keep track of distance creative writing, my stuff for when tests come around.” “We get to search the essay education topics, net to get information for essay about destination homework. Essay Education Topics! We also get to see images about the barber essay, subjects we discuss in class. It helps. Essay! I can view videos, slideshows, and other media to distance writing uk, help me understand everything. Topics! And one of graduate application, my teachers has a website which helps a lot.

I can just go to education topics, her webpage and see a calendar for law school homework and check my grades. Essay Education Topics! Of course we use email a lot too.” Control session 1: Sample writing prompts and on global teacher responses. Essay Topics! “What are some of the ways that you try to use technology in your classes or things that you would like to try in on global issues the future to make more use of essay topics, technology? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and essay students 2012 of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Essay Education! Consider especially circumstances when it is school application most important to keep students interested, for instance when students spend a lot of time on the internet or students have a hard time understanding difficult lessons.” The following is topics a sample participating teacher response: “I use technology every day to high students 2012, plan, teach, and to essay education topics, keep students motivated and my dream destination engaged. Teacher planning: 1. Lesson plans, 2. Education! Power Point presentations, 3. Samuel! Document camera/overhead projector. Student Engagement: 1. Education! Interactive websites, 2. Homework tutorials on internet, 3. About My Dream Destination! Online textbook, 4. Essay Education Topics! Educational websites like Khan Academy IXL Math Discovery Education Brain Pop.” “One day, you are teaching students about measuring lengths and solving proportions. You want to show visual examples and best essay give students the opportunity to exercise with the new materials.

Also, you want to assign a homework assignment that students should return within the essay education topics, next couple of days. What do you do?” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “After explaining concepts with my document camera and essay drawings I would have students use computers to essay, design their own related math problems and my dream destination then require each student to explain its solution. Students could email the completed assignment to me and use web research as well as examples from the internet for the project. Additionally I could have students present their findings using PowerPoint.” Empathic-Mindset Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Response. “‘When I was a child, I remember worrying about how I would be treated by teachers at essay, my school. But I will always remember Ms. McBride, who treated me with respect and attend essay trust. She showed me that teachers could make all the difference in essay topics how students feel about school. Now, I make a point of essay about, treating my students with respect and I find that they respect me more in essay return.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is essay my dream destination doing in essay your own interactions with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I am always doing this with my students.

I do not feel like students should automatically respect me because I’m their teacher. I feel I need to essay high school 2012, earn my students’ respect and essay education trust. Distance Writing Uk! I know many of them have had poor experiences with past teachers so I need to education, prove to my students that I am there for ged essay them and essay education will not let them fail.” “Respect is the how to write best scholarship, most important thing in education topics creating positive relationships with people, especially students. Essay On Global Issues! You cannot demand it; you can only expect it in return for respect you give to others. It is essay also extremely important to continue to essay my dream, give respect to your students despite the essay education topics, lack of essay school, respect some of them may give you. This allows for a conversation with them about topics, how you treat them on a daily basis and ask them to look at how they treat you. Overall respect runs my classroom. I remind students who disrupt in some way that they are showing disrespect to how to best scholarship essay, another individual.” Control Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Responses. Education! “‘When I was a child, I remember having to stay after school to get extra help and essay about my dream destination lessons were only taught on essay education topics chalk boards. Samuel Barber Essay! But now technology allows us to topics, teach students more effectively. Graduate School Application! For example, I can contact students outside of essay education, class through email.

Now, I also use web-based math games to enhance their learning.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in samuel barber your own use of technology with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I use web-based math games to enhance their learning. Essay! I can refer them to specific sites that will help with the skill we are working on attend essay in class. Essay Education Topics! I have also used online assessments to help me see where the ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, students currently are as far as knowledge of essay, a math topic.” “I use edmodo to communicate the homework with my students as well as the school website to post the about destination, homeworks.” During session 1, all students completed randomized materials. Education! These focused on the importance of application, understanding teachers’ perspectives about essay topics, disciplinary action or on distance writing uk practicing good study skills.

There was no effect of student condition on essay suspension rates (OR = 1.43, z = 1.70, P = 0.09) and creative writing uk no interaction with teacher condition (OR = 1.03, z 1). Education Topics! The effect of the distance learning creative writing uk, empathic-mindset intervention on education suspension rates remained significant controlling for distance learning creative uk student condition (OR = 2.23, z = –3.02, P = 0.003). In session 2, students completed a series of topics, measures assessing broad perception of the how to write scholarship, school climate (17). Essay Education Topics! These included six items assessing trust in school (e.g., “Teachers at my school give out fair grades” and graduate application “Students in my racial group are treated fairly by essay topics, the teachers and creative writing other adults at [school name] Middle School”) (1, very much disagree; 6, very much agree) (? = 0.80). Education Topics! There was no effect of the condition on an average of the assessed measures, t (1,446) 1. For the purpose of the contest school, present study, we focused on the one item that directly assessed the essay, critical construct of respect: the extent to which students reported feeling respected by ged essay, teachers (“Teachers and education topics other adults at my dream destination, my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree).

Supplementary Analyses of essay education topics, Student Suspension Rates. The primary analyses focused on essay about destination student suspension rates that arose from essay misbehavior across school settings. Essay High School! Could the essay education topics, reduction in student suspension rates have arisen from on global issues a change only in essay math class where the teacher was randomized to condition, for how to best scholarship essay instance as a result of improved behavior or reduced discipline restricted to this class? To address this question, we examined data from the education, only school that identified the ged essay, faculty member who referred a student for essay a given suspension: school 2 (Table S1), the ged essay steck-vaughn, second largest school in the study, accounting for essay 33% of the full student sample. Samuel Barber! In this school, students whose math teacher was treated versus not were 55% less likely to be suspended from education any class (treatment, 5.4%; control, 12.1%; OR = 0.41, logit = –0.88, z = –2.10, P = 0.035), controlling for steck-vaughn demographics (OR = 0.50, logit = –0.69, z = –2.38, P = 0.017). Education Topics! This effect was not due to a change only in attend law school math class. Only 7.4% of suspensions were referred by education, math teachers. Barber Essay! Furthermore, all students referred for suspension by a math teacher were also referred for suspension by essay education topics, other faculty. Thus, running the analysis in essays school 2 even excluding suspensions referred by math teachers yields an topics identical reduction in suspension rates.

This analysis suggests that, at least in this school, the intervention led to a broad improvement in essay student behavior across diverse school contexts, not to either an education improvement in behavior restricted to math class or to more permissive discipline practices among treated math teachers. All ethical protocols, including informed consent from all participants, were followed in law school conducting the topics, three experiments, and approval was obtained from essay contest 2012 Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board and essay education a principal at ged essay ged series, each school (experiment 3). A total of 39 K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y; M age = 41; 73% male; 92% White, 3% Asian, 8% Black, 3% unknown) recruited from the education topics, websites of school districts across the country took part and essay contest high 2012 were randomized to a two-cell (punitive mindset vs. Essay! empathic mindset) design. Contest! All teachers read that “misbehavior can disrupt the flow of the class and distract other students … teachers can work best when students behave properly and essay education topics pay attention in class.” Next, teachers in graduate the empathic-mindset condition read the following: “Good teacher–student relationships help students learn how to essay education, appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … [they] help students understand self-control at destination, the time of essay topics, a disruption, which can improve interactions with the student that day.” Teachers in about the punitive-mindset condition read the topics, following: “Consequences lead students to graduate school application, appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … punishment allows teachers to take control of the class at essay topics, the time of a disruption, which can help to get the class back on my dream track that day.” Teachers then read about three separate misbehaviors drawn from middle-school referral records (order counterbalanced) (11). After each incident, teachers described how they would respond to the incident: – “Darnell is consistently disrupting the education, class environment by strolling around the classroom at random intervals, getting tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class, throwing items away constantly; in general, Darnell circulates around the room and graduate school application essays up and down the education topics, rows to see what other students are doing, the students have eyes on him, and ged series he disrupts the flow of the lecture or activity the education topics, class was participating in.” – “Darnell is samuel barber sleeping in class. Topics! You tell him to pick his head up and graduate school application get to education, work. He only picks his head up. He chooses to ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, rest it on topics his hand and about continue to essay topics, sleep.

So you ask him one more time, and again, Darnell refuses to my dream, do work. You ask him to leave class and essay topics go to application essays, the office to essay, tell them that he won’t do his work and law school chose to sleep instead. Essay Education! He refuses to do this as well.” – “Darnell is sitting in the back of the classroom. Samuel! He is essay topics not paying attention to contest students 2012, the lessons that you are teaching in class. Education Topics! Instead, Darnell is talking to other students. When you ask him to high school students 2012, pay attention, he starts passing notes with a nearby student.” Coding teacher responses from essay education pilot study. Two coders blind to about my dream, the condition reviewed teachers’ responses and recorded whether or not each disciplinary action involved ( i ) each of education topics, three punitive responses: ( a ) assigning detention, ( b ) threatening to samuel barber essay, punish the education, student, or ( c ) involving an administrator (e.g., principal); and ( ii ) each of essay, two empathic responses: ( d ) talking with the education, student about why he or she was misbehaving or ( e ) rearranging the classroom to accommodate the student (for sample responses, see Table 1). Samuel! There was moderate agreement among raters ( ?s = 0.54–0.81; see Table S2).

Thus, we averaged the two judges’ ratings of topics, each response category. Samuel Barber! We then averaged across the three incidents to essay, provide the on global, likelihood the student received a given response per essay disciplinary incident. Best Essay! Finally, we summed the likelihood of the three punitive responses and the two empathic responses to essay education topics, provide the on global issues, average number of punitive and essay topics empathic responses a student received per ged essay steck-vaughn ged series incident. Education Topics! We then submitted the data to attend essay, t tests (see Table 2). Topics! Interrater reliability (experiment 1) To examine how students would respond to teachers who used an empathic compared with a punitive approach to how to, discipline, we asked college students ( n = 302; 51% female; 48% White, 13% Black, 13% Asian, 19% Latino, 6% Other, 1% unknown) to topics, imagine having committed a single infraction as a middle-school student and school essays having received either an essay topics empathic or a punitive teacher response, based on the responses provided in attend law school essay experiment 1. The infraction and teacher responses by condition were as follows: (For the punitive condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Essay Education Topics! Smith assigned 1 day of detention to learning writing, you and education threatens to tell the how to best scholarship essay, principal about your misbehavior. Education! Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the school application, room.

Mrs. Essay! Smith has the principal talk to you about your misbehavior.” (For the empathic-discipline condition) “You leave your seat to graduate essays, get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith asks you why you are moving around the class so much. Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the essay education, room. Mrs. Smith rearranges the room so that the wastebasket and tissue box are closer to samuel barber, your desk.” Students completed six items assessing the essay, extent to which they respected the samuel barber, teacher: “I think Mrs. Essay Education Topics! Smith deserves my respect”; “I think Mrs.

Smith is a fair teacher”; and “I get along with Mrs. Smith” (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree); and “Mrs. Smith cared about my perspective”; “I have a quality relationship with Mrs. Smith”; and “Mrs. Ged Essay Steck-vaughn Ged Series! Smith is biased against me” (reverse-coded) (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.85). Next, participants completed two items assessing their motivation to behave well in essay class in school application the future: “It is education important to me that I follow rules in essay contest school students 2012 this class” and “I want to education topics, behave in graduate school application this class” (1, not at essay topics, all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.83). We recruited all math faculty at three participating middle schools and, at the request of the write scholarship essay, principals, 67% and 50% of essay topics, math faculty at the remaining two schools (34 in total). Graduate School Application Essays! Three recruited teachers did not begin the module and thus were not assigned to essay education, a condition or exposed to experimental materials, leaving a sample of ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, 31 teachers (77% female; 39% sixth grade, 29% seventh grade, 32% eighth grade). Education! This represents a teacher participation rate of 91.12% and 83.4% of all math faculty at the five schools. Schools provided data for 2,069 students. Data from essay on global issues 387 students were not included in the analyses: 172 were not taught by a teacher randomized to a condition, and 215 could not be matched to essay education, school discipline records for the year before or the year of the intervention (they likely transferred to or from the school district within the ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, 2-y period).

The lack of education, matches to essay contest high school students 2012, discipline records did not differ by teachers’ condition assignment (? 2 1.75, nonsignificant). All remaining students were retained in essay topics the primary analysis ( n = 1,682) (see Table S1). Learning! For demographic variables, 20% of students reported a race/ethnicity that did not fall into one of the primary categories (i.e., they reported being multiracial or did not report their race/ethnicity). They were treated as a category in topics analyses including student race. Three students did not report their gender.

They were omitted from attend essay analyses including student gender. Thus, 1,679 students were included in essay analyses controlling for issues student race, student gender, and prior suspension status. A total of essay education topics, 233 students did not complete the scholarship essay, follow-up survey assessing respect perceived from teachers (13.85% of education topics, participating students). Essay Contest Students 2012! This attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Analyses of this outcome omit these students, leaving a sample of topics, 1,449 students. My Dream! This approach to essay education topics, missing data maximizes the ged essay steck-vaughn, transparency of our analyses and essay education keeps it as close as possible to our experimental design. Teachers in write scholarship each condition completed two online sessions (a 45-min session in essay late Fall and samuel a 25-min session in early Winter) at education, their convenience within a 2-wk period. In the first session, teachers read an essay introduction to essay education, the activity, an article including stories from graduate school essays students describing their experience in topics school and scholarship essay relationships with teachers, and essay education topics responded to graduate essays, several writing prompts. Essay Education! In the second session, teachers in graduate school essays both conditions read another article about the same topic that included a story from a teacher’s perspective.

They also responded to topics, several additional writing prompts (see SI Experiment 3 for attend details). Essay! We thank C. On Global Issues! Dweck, J. Education! Zaki, the essay high school, Dweck–Walton laboratory, and essay topics the Race and law school essay Social Inequality Lab for feedback; the essay topics, participating school districts, administrators, and teachers for their time and attend essay effort; the New Teacher Center for facilitating this project; and the Project for essay Education Research That Scales (PERTS) for school technical and education topics logistical support.

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Let’s Talk To An Inspirational Young Canadian Woman, Paula Orecklin, About CRPS, Sativex, Physiotherapy and Neuroplasticity. Featured Image provided by Paula Orecklin. Sativex is a cannabis-based mouth spray that is used for nerve pain relief in various painful conditions including cancer, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). It may also reduce spasticity, muscle spasms and sleep disturbances in MS patients (similar to the benefits of medical cannabis). For more on education Sativex, please see my blog post called ‘Medical Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) And Nerve Pain’. You may remember Paula Orecklin from my older blog post called ‘CRPS Video On CRPS By PARC’ (26/10/14). I recently invited Paula to share more of essay issues, her inspiring story including her challenges with severe chronic pain and her positive experiences with Sativex, physiotherapy and education neuroplasticity work.

Paula immediately replied: “I like being able to do something positive with all of this pain. If this can help other patients, I’m all over distance creative writing it. Sharing my story, talking to other people…I have to make something good out of all of topics, this pain, you know? And I do have a lot of graduate application, experience, I guess.” Paula Orecklin (29) from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, has complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that involves constant, severe pain in her right knee and lower right leg as a result of twisting her right ankle back in essay topics, 2001 when she was only 13 years old. Thereafter, Paula couldn’t even put her right foot to the floor without triggering one vicious blast of pain after another, leaving her bedridden and essay high school literally screaming in essay, bed for the next 2 weeks. Distance Creative! Following this tragic and essay life-altering event, Paula had to ged essay ged series, resort to crutches (and later on, canes) for essay topics mobility and due to excess pain. She was wheelchair-dependent for a few months during 2004 – 2005 (caused by steck-vaughn ged series ‘blowing out her left knee’) and also for topics 3 years from 2013 to 2015 (due to unbearable pain leading to monthly ER visits for essay half a year). Quoting from Paula’s 2013 YouTube (pre-Sativex treatment): ‘… Every single second, I am in pain, from my knee down to my toes. Essay Education! On my right leg, all there is is pain…there is always solid pain from my knee down. High Students! On top of essay topics, that pain, I have other kinds, all different forms [of pain]…stabbing, shooting, burning, visceral, aching, throbbing …This is with all of my medications…’

See YouTube called ‘Paula Orecklin – UNE Patient Case Study – April 4, 2013’: Following 3 years in a wheelchair due to severe pain, Paula was offered Sativex for essay the first time in 2015. In 2016, thanks to Sativex (and other medications), the education support of a fantastic physiotherapist and neuroplasticity work with an excellent pain psychologist, Paula was finally able to trade in her wheelchair and crutches for walking canes! Image provided by Paula Orecklin. However, despite Sativex, Paula still has constant, severe pain every single second of her life . In her words: ‘ [CRPS] still has all sorts of horrible kinds of essay, pain [despite Sativex]. I can be doing well and suddenly ‘a giant poker’ has been stabbed through my leg. Essay Education Topics! I was at a meeting on Saturday and in the middle of it, my foot set on fire. I’m always in distance learning, pain and then on top of that, there are all sorts of different kinds of pain that come on extraordinarily suddenly. What I said in the video [ 3 – 4 years ago] is exactly what [still] happens today.’ Thus, while Sativex does not eliminate Paula’s base level of constant and severe pain nor her initial sudden pain attacks from occurring, it can block the repetitive flare cycles.

By preventing these ongoing vicious pain cycles in 5 minutes, Sativex enabled Paula to finally undergo physiotherapy to essay topics, improve her function and mobility. In Paula’s words: “…Sativex is good at keeping the huge flare cycles down… I’m doing better functionally, so much better. Samuel! But it doesn’t really work on my constant level of topics, pain.” Before Sativex, Paula suffered from out-of-control pain levels due to barber, sudden and repetitive waves of essay education, pain spikes that would combine with her initial pain spike. One pain spike would lead to another pain spike, and on graduate school and on essay education topics it went. Graduate Essays! This vicious and ongoing pain spike cycle often led to extremely high pain levels until finally her other medications kicked in. Paula started using Sativex sublingual mouth spray 2 years ago. While it ‘tastes pretty disgusting, like spraying mosquito repellent into your mouth’ , Paula said that she was doing very well as Sativex helps her manage her pain levels better. Being a mouth spray, Sativex has the advantage of gaining faster access directly into the blood capillaries via diffusion through the tissues under the tongue. Paula has a prescription for a refill bottle of essay education, Sativex every 8 days. Essay! Sativex is not covered by education public healthcare where Paula lives in Manitoba, and at CDN256.05 a bottle, Sativex is not cheap.

Even though Paula’s private insurance helps defray most of the cost, Paula is still left out-of-pocket CDN60 per bottle. Using up to 12 sprays a day (and even up to contest school students, 15 sprays on education very painful days), a bottle of scholarship essay, 90 sprays can go very quickly. Despite its costs, Paula finds Sativex’s ability to block the repetitive flare cycles worthwhile. Topics! For the first time in her life, Paula has finally found a way to stop the vicious and essay on global issues ongoing cycles of essay education topics, pain spikes before they even start. This enables Paula to contest school students, do physiotherapy and education neuroplasticity training despite ongoing, unrelenting and severe pain. For example, she is now able walk between 1 to 2.4 miles with the steck-vaughn ged series aid of 2 walking canes. Paula does not have any side effects from Sativex other than feeling ‘fuzzy everywhere’ on ‘really bad days’ when more than 9 – 10 sprays and increased hydromorph IR are required. While Paula has tried medical marijuana (medical cannabis), she found it ineffective against her painful flare-ups. In contrast, Sativex is essay, able to stop her pain flares in 5 minutes hence preventing a vicious circle of painful flare-ups.

Furthermore, because Sativex looks like a regular inhaler, it is easier for samuel essay Paula to be seen using Sativex than, say, medical marijuana. Topics! In other words, Sativex is not associated with the graduate school application social stigma associated with using medical marijuana for pain management. “ [I’ve gone from being] forced … to leave university, to carrying the Olympic torch [see photo below] , to education topics, helping found a local CRPS support group, to creating my own Disability holiday….that after 15 years I …still [attend]. I’m going to celebrate it again this March…after 16 years I’m actually going somewhere now. I’ve managed to essay high students, make as much of a life out of my circumstances as I can.” Image provided by Paula Orecklin. On behalf of all Canadians with chronic pain, Paula was formally honoured and selected to be an Olympic torchbearer for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games.

Paula had to practice walking and holding up one of essay topics, her old crutches (in lieu of the creative writing uk Olympic torch) for 6 – 7 months beforehand. One very early morning on a cold wintry day at essay education topics -30C in January 2010 in Virden, Manitoba, Paula successfully fulfilled her pledge to carry the Olympic torch for 500 meters without mobility aids! Needless to ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, say, being chosen as an Olympic torchbearer for topics the 2010 Winter Olympics to essay contest high, represent all Canadians living with chronic pain was one of essay education, Paula’s proudest achievements. Thanks to barber essay, a multi-disciplinary approach to essay education, CRPS that involved: Sativex treatment; Hydromorph IR and other conventional pain medication; Physiotherapy; Neuroplasticity work (with her pain psychologist); and write Various other pain strategies, Sativex made a huge difference to education, Paula’s quality of life by opening the door for samuel essay the first time to physiotherapy, regular exercise and neuroplasticity work, leading to a dramatic improvement in her CRPS symptoms including repetitive painful flares. In her own words: ‘I’ve found in essay education, the past few months that not only application essays have I been able to do more, be out and see people, exercise and still not fall apart, but I’ve also been increasing my tolerance to everything. I’ve actually been using less breakthrough medication, both Sativex and essay education topics my hydromorph IR. Ged Essay Ged Series! I’m genuinely doing better.

I think I’m down to about a bottle every 13 days right now.’ ‘Without Sativex, I would never have been able to get to where I am today. The neuroplasticity would have helped with my own depression due to pain and my understanding of essay, pain and just generally improved my mental state. But no real improvement physically would have been possible without Sativex.’ ‘I’m doing better than I have in a very long time. Essay High Students 2012! Sativex is essay education, absolutely critical to write, this upswing. Essay! With Sativex, I can give myself medication with every flare of pain. It kicks in in only 5 minutes. Graduate Application! The pain doesn’t have a chance to build on itself but is education, cut down quickly. Distance Creative Uk! I can also give myself another spray in 5 minutes if the pain keeps getting worse or doesn’t go down enough. I can take up to essay education, 12 sprays a day and there aren’t really any side effects.

I can get a kind of drugged feeling, but it’s not a high nor is it particularly strong. I have to be careful to spray under different parts of my tongue (ie sometimes my tongue’s left side, sometimes up front in the middle, sometimes on the right) so I don’t get wounds under my tongue. However I’ve never had a single one develop. It’ll sting a little when I’ve used a ton of sprays in one spot, but that’s just a reminder to graduate application essays, be sure to move it around. And this might be of education, clinical significance since my skin is very delicate and essay on global issues develops wounds from my CRPS. …. I mean, the drug is education topics, no magical cure, but it’s been absolutely essential to creative, my progress. Education! Without it, I might have gotten some psychological benefit from the neuroplasticity, but I definitely couldn’t be able to move any better.

I’d never have ever been in a place where I could work with my physiotherapist. Before Sativex, I was in my wheelchair for nearly everything. I was finally able to walk again because of ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, [Sativex].’ ‘I’ve been working with an amazing physiotherapist since this spring. I was finally able to start walking, but was doing it so unevenly I was hurting my good side’s hip. Education Topics! She’s made a big impact on write getting me moving.’ ‘…I just came home from the gym, did really well … I was powering around the track, listening to music, just … moving.

And that kind of feels like a medical miracle. I was in such horrible shape for so long, and it just feels so good. And painful of education topics, course, but that’s just a given.’ ‘I’m doing better now than I have in essay high school students 2012, so many years … I’ve never in my life been able to have sustained progress like this. Essay! I’m still disabled, and there are so many things I still can’t do, but that’s not really what I’m concerned with right now. I’m just happy to see where I am now.’ ‘Sativex has been really important in essay high, my life over the past two years, but I just don’t want it to come off like it’s a … well, miracle. It isn’t. Essay! It’s made a massive impact on my life, but I’d say that my massive improvement over the past year is only a third down to the spray.’

Paula added, ‘None of samuel barber essay, anything would have been possible without hydromorphone IR, nor the education topics rest of my medications. Nothing would be possible without my pain specialist at the pain clinic. It really has been a team effort, and that’s not even counting my other physicians, or the essential support network I have. My parents support me 100%, and that’s both emotional and essay school financial. My mother, in particular, is essay education topics, my caregiver and is a huge part of my life. I’m very lucky to how to write best essay, have friends who understand and topics care too. My best friend’s support over the years has meant so much to distance learning writing, me too.’ ‘Now none of those other things helps in topics, the same ways Sativex does. Without it, I wouldn’t be able to move forward and make sustained progress for what is literally the first time in samuel barber, my life since hurting my leg. I’d never managed to go forward at all, ever; plateauing was all I could hope for. Essay! But I still feel like all of essay, those other things are coming together to really help me in essay topics, way that Sativex alone couldn’t. In fact, what’s really amazing is that I’m actually not using as much Sativex as I used to.

Everything’s coming together much better than I ever could have expected. Barber! My leg is essay, actually dealing with things better, not needing the same amount of as-needed medications. For the first time too, I’m actually finding other non-medicinal things like heat packs are actually helping. Distance Creative Writing Uk! Before, it was just way worse when I didn’t have them, but it didn’t lower the pain exactly. So you can say it is kind of a holistic thing – but one that needed Sativex to open the door to it, if that makes sense…’ Having said all of the above, Paula emphasized: ‘[I am] actually never without pain … Sativex helps to stop the vicious circle of escalating pain cycles in 5 minutes.’ ‘…I’m still in essay education, rough shape. But when that rough shape is so much better than the write rougher shape I was in [before Sativex]… ’ ‘[CRPS] is education, still incredibly disabling. But when you start so low, every few inches up mak es a big difference. ’ Paula’s positive experience with Sativex may offer hope and inspiration to other pain patients to also add Sativex into their overall pain management therapy. Thank you, Paula, for steck-vaughn sharing your beautiful story with us! Despite living with constant, severe pain, your strength and topics inner beauty never cease to graduate application, amaze me! People like you are the education inspiration and main driving force behind this blog.

With positive thoughts coming your way from everywhere and creative writing everyone, Blogger, Pain Matters. Conversations Between Colin Froy, A British Foot Nerve Pain Patient (1952-2013), His Pain Team And The Pain Researchers. Featured Image taken from The Pain Detective (Video), courtesy of education topics, Mosaic. Dear Pain Matters readers, So what is it really like to have nerve pain??

The best way to find out writing, is to actually talk to a patient who suffers from nerve pain. And that is exactly what the excellent video called ‘ The Pain Detective ‘ (by Barry Gibb, film maker) did. Colin Froy, one of the millions of nerve pain sufferers in the world and a policeman who retired in 2011, was diagnosed with myeloma type cancer in the blood (light chain deposition) in 2004. He received chemotherapy for 6 months including thalidomide drug treatment. Essay Education Topics! Unfortunately, the uk latter led to ‘tingling toes syndrome’ . The term ‘tingling toes’ does not do justice to the severity of essay education, Colin’s nerve pain. This term drastically understated the intensity of Colin’s thalidomide-induced nerve pain in his toes from barber, 2004 until his passing in 2013. Essay! In Colin’s words: ‘… the side-effects of graduate application essays, thalidomide, they call it tingly toes.

Because tingly toes, you think, you know, you get sort of tingle and it goes away, but it’s not like that [laughs], it’s painful toes. I mean, the nerve endings are all shot to pieces, like a dead tree. It gets worse and worse, and essay topics you just can’t walk as far as you used to. Write Scholarship! Now, if I’m lying in bed sometimes, I get this sensation as if someone’s just pushing a needle through the toes, and it lasts for four or five seconds and then it’s gone…’ (Above quoted from ‘The Pain Detective Transcript’ : The video added that the economic cost of pain in essay topics, the USA alone is around USD635 billion per application essays, year, more than the costs of education, cancer and cardiovascular disease combined. In fact, pain is the Number One Reason why people see their GP. Without further ado, I urge readers to distance writing uk, simply watch the 30-minute video (and also read the narrative) that presents many interesting, lively and heart-warming conversations between Colin Froy (1952 – 2013), his caring pain management team and essay a talented pool of pain researchers who are passionate about essay contest high school students 2012, their goal to ease nerve pain and suffering (see video link and references, below). Images taken from The Pain Detective (Video), courtesy of Mosaic. Despite his unrelenting severe nerve pain, Colin had a positive outlook on life, where ‘his glass was always half full’ instead of essay education, ‘half empty’. Although his nerve pain was enduring until his final days in 2013, his sense of humour and warm smile will always be endearing . May his message, and that of others with chronic pain, reach our collective heart and soul so that all this pain and school application essays suffering is not in vain. Pain Matters Blogger.

VIDEO LINK AND REFERENCES. (1) Gibb, Barry J. The Pain Detective (Video) – On The Hunt For New Ways To Treat Pain. Education! Mosaic – The Science of Life (24 June 2014). (2) Gibb, Barry J. The Pain Detective Transcript. How To Write Best Essay! Mosaic – The Science of Life (24 June 2014). (3) Gibb, Barry J. Essay Education Topics! Making The Pain Detective. Mosaic – The Science of Life (24 June 2014). Patching up Pain with a Lidocaine 5% Patch. Dear Pain Matters readers, Treatment via a lidocaine 5% patch may offer significant pain relief for patients including cancer patients with focal nerve pain.

Specifically, patients with severe and localised nerve pain including one of the following painful conditions may benefit from a lidocaine 5% patch that topically delivers lidocaine: Postherpetic neuralgia and herpes zoster (shingles); Non-diabetic and diabetic peripheral neuropathy; Trigeminal (orofacial) neuropathic pain; Erythromelalgia; Chronic low back pain (Hines et al, 2002); Post-surgical neuropathic pain (e.g. Ged Series! following surgery for cancer or otherwise); and Neuropathic pain directly attributable to cancer. Lidocaine works by topics blocking sodium channels including Nav1.7 that underlie many nerve pain conditions (and other mechanisms). Creative Writing Uk! The release of very small amounts of lidocaine transdermally via the patch ensures that motor and cardiac functions remain unaffected. While topical lidocaine patches leads to pain relief in 29%-80% of treated patients, likely via small-fiber block, it is not clear why lidocaine patches may work better in essay education, some patients than in others (Krumova et al, 2012). The topical lidocaine patch, measuring 10 cm X 14 cm, should only essay be applied on top of unbroken skin and where the pain is the education greatest. Patches should only graduate essays be used by patients who are not allergic to essay education topics, local anaesthetics including lidocaine and essay on global issues who are not sensitive to the adhesive material itself. The recommended maximum daily dose is 3 patches worn simultaneously for 12 hours at a time.

Since the education lidocaine patch can only be worn for on global 12 hours at a time each day, other pain medications may be necessary, especially during sleep. A Young Patient With Episodic Erythromelalgia In Both Feet. A 15-year old Caucasian girl who suffered disabling pain during episodes of essay, erythromelalgia in both feet derived complete pain relief almost immediately after applying lidocaine 5% patches to the top of samuel barber, both of her feet, both at rest and education during almost normal levels of activity. Post-lidocaine patch treatment, the young patient was able to graduate school application, run around the essay topics track at essay school, play soccer, return to her physical education class, march in the school band and walk around the shopping mall for essay almost an hour. As long as she did not overdo her activities, she was able to obtain 100% relief during the 12 hours of lidocaine patch use, plus another 2-3 hours after patch removal. The patient slept without the patches. Whilst offering complete local pain relief and no side effects, the lidocaine patch was unable to prevent the essay other symptoms of erythromelalgia from occurring including bright red skin and education over-heated feet following physical exertion. (Davis Sandroni, 2002, including both images). Two (2) Patients With Neuropathic Pain Syndrome. A 74-Year Old Female Patient With Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

Despite prompt treatment for a herpes zoster skin rash, a 74-year old woman developed stabbing and burning pain in her rash-affected area. The patient was offered 2 lidocaine patches daily to cover the graduate school application painful region. Within 4 weeks treatment, the patient obtained 75% relief from education topics, pain caused by contest 2012 her herpes zoster skin rash. Most of her systemic pain medications were stopped. A 56-Year Old Male Patient With Severe Neuropathic Pain Syndrome Following Microsurgery For A Neuroma in Right Foot. A 56-year old man suffered severe nerve pain shortly after microsurgery to his right foot due to an interdigital neuroma.

His painful symptoms included severe burning pain, mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, together with other symptoms. As a result, he could no longer work, was unable to wear socks and shoes (only sandals) and withdrew from his family and friends. After applying half of a lidocaine 5% patch daily onto his painful skin region, the essay patient reported positive results. After 8 weeks of lidocaine patch treatment, the patient enjoyed an 80% reduction in overall pain levels and consequently returned to work. There were no side effects and the patients was able to graduate school essays, stop all other analgesics (Hans et al, 2010). Trigeminal (Orofacial) Neuropathic Pain And Lidocaine Patch Treatment. A British study revealed that lidocaine 5% patch treatment led to essay education, improved pain levels in 12 of 14 trigeminal pain patients including oral surgery patients. Nine (9) of the 12 patients were able to steck-vaughn ged series, reduce or stop their intake of other pain medications. Education! Given that the majority (12/14) patients with trigeminal nerve pain benefited from lidocaine 5% patch treatment, further studies are warranted (Khawaja et al, 2013). Cancer Patients And Lidocaine Patch Treatment.

A large Australian study in a comprehensive cancer centre revealed that lidocaine 5% patch treatment had a ‘potent analgesic effect’ in 24 of 95 (25%) patients while another 23 patients (24%) reported a ‘partial effect’. Given that almost half (47/95, or 49%) of all cancer patients with nerve pain benefited from lidocaine 5% patch treatment, further research is warranted (Fleming and distance learning writing uk O’Connor, 2009). Current Study Involving Lidocaine Patch for education topics Lower Limb Amputation Pain. A Belgium-based trial is samuel barber essay, currently recruiting up to 20 patients with pain following above- or below-knee amputation to assess the effectiveness of lidocaine patch treatment for peripherally-mediated phantom limb pain and/or stump scar hyperalgesia (Hatem, 2016). Stay tuned for essay education topics updates… While lidocaine 5% patch treatment is expensive and how to scholarship essay there is a small risk of a skin rash, many patients with focal nerve pain obtain significant pain relief from the lidocaine 5% patch, a targeted peripheral analgesic that is essay, non-addictive and graduate school application safe for essay education topics long-term use. Now that’s a good way to on global, patch up pain! Blogger, Pain Matters. (1) Davis, Mark D P; Sandroni, Paola.

Lidocaine Patch for Pain of Erythromelalgia; Arch Dermatol. Jan 2002;138(1):17-19. (2) Fleming JA, O’Connor BD. Use of lidocaine patches for neuropathic pain in a comprehensive cancer centre. (Utilisation des timbres de lidocai?ne pour la douleur neuropathique dans un centre d’oncologie) Pain Research Management : The Journal of the Canadian Pain Society. 2009;14(5):381-388. (3) Hans G, Robert D, Verhulst J, Vercauteren M. Lidocaine 5% patch for localized neuropathic pain: progress for education topics the patient, a new approach for the physician. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2010;2:65-70. (4) Hines R, Keaney D, Moskowitz MH, Prakken S. Use of on global issues, Lidocaine Patch 5% for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Report of Four Cases.

Pain Med 2002; 3 (4): 361-365. (5) Khawaja N, Yilmaz Z, Renton T. Case studies illustrating the management of trigeminal neuropathic pain using topical 5% lidocaine plasters. Essay Education Topics! British Journal of Pain. 2013;7(2):107-113. (6) Hatem, Samar; A Trial of Lidocaine Patch for Lower Limb Amputation Pain (Trial ongoing since 2016); Brugmann University Hospital. (7) Krumova EK1, Zeller M, Westermann A, Maier C. Lidocaine patch (5%) produces a selective, but incomplete block of A? and graduate school application C fibers. Pain.

2012 Feb;153(2):273-80. (8) Devers A, Galer BS. Topical lidocaine patch relieves a variety of neuropathic pain conditions: an essay education open-label study. Clin J Pain. 2000 Sep;16(3):205-8. (9) Many Other Lidocaine Patch/Pain Studies Can Be Found Here: Medical Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) and Nerve Pain. Source of samuel essay, Featured Image: Dear Pain Matters blog readers, Cannabis has been used for essay topics medicinal benefits including pain relief by many cultures for hundreds of years or more. While some patients smoke cannabis for essay issues medicinal purposes, others may prefer to make cannabis tea or bake cannabis cookies.

Is Medicinal Marijuana Effective for Nerve Pain?: The use of marijuana for chronic pain relief is not new. Many patients attest to its ability to relieve pain, while many physicians acknowledge its efficacy in patients with intractable pain who were otherwise left with few other options. According to education topics, Mark Ware, Pain Clinician, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, endogenous cannabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors presynaptically, blocking the release of neurotransmitters in pain-producing pathways, resulting in how to write essay, less pain. As agonists, synthetic (e.g. Education Topics! nabilone – see earlier Blog Post, referenced below) and plant-derived cannabinoids (i.e. derived from marijuana) bind with these same cannabinoid receptors, leading to reduced pain. Sativex (Nabiximols), a cannabis-based mouth spray, was approved in the UK as adjunctive treatment for relief of high school students, neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Some trials showed that Sativex significantly reduced neuropathic pain, spasticity, muscle spasms and sleep disturbances in some MS patients. Care must be taken to topics, manage adverse effects including dizziness, sleepiness, fatigue, dry mouth and samuel drowsiness. The long-term effects including risk of essay education topics, tolerance are unknown (Perras, 2005). Sativex (Nabiximols) is essay, approved in education, Canada for the treatment of nerve pain and spasticity in MS as well as cancer pain. Smokeless Delivery Systems Including Vaporizers and Cannabis Inhalers:

Due to the risk of lung damage that may be caused by smoking medicinal cannabis, smokeless delivery systems including vaporizers (and soon, cannabis inhalers) may be useful. Vaporizers can avoid possible lung damage as they can be used to heat the medicinal cannabis herb sufficiently without burning it nor creating smoke. Vaporized cannabis has analgesic efficacy at low dose with minimal and well-tolerated psychoactive effects (Wilsey et al, 2013). Research into cannabis inhalers is currently being done that uses cannabis processed into granules. This device ensures that dosages are better controlled and that blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) delivery levels remain well below ‘recreational levels’ (i.e. that can lead to a ‘high’). This particular study involving 8 patients with chronic nerve pain showed a 45% reduction in samuel barber essay, pain intensity, 20 minutes post-inhalation (that returned to baseline within 90 minutes). Essay Education! The only adverse effect was lightheadedness that lasted 15-30 minutes and distance learning creative uk that did not require intervention (Eisenberg et al, 2014). Is Medicinal Marijuana Legal?: Please check with local authorities including local physicians regarding the legalities of medical marijuana.

In Australia , marijuana is topics, legal in most states and territories for certain medical conditions and only if prescribed by a doctor. In the samuel essay US , the sale and essay education possession of cannabis was recently decriminalized for high school students both medical and recreational users who are of legal age in 5 states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington and Washington DC). Essay Education! However, marijuana possession or use (medical or otherwise) is still illegal and steck-vaughn ged series considered a federal crime under federal law in essay topics, the US . In Canada , medical marijuana use is legal as long as the application patient has a licence for this. As of 24 August 2016, medical marijuana patients can grow their own ‘limited amount’. Medical marijuana via doctor’s prescription was legalized in March 2017 in Germany . The Federal Health Minister, Hermann Grohe, stated: ‘Our goal is that seriously ill people are looked after to the best of essay education, our ability.’ Grohe added that health insurance companies should cover the barber costs of medical marijuana in cases where treatment alternatives do not exist.

In Switzerland , marijuana is legal since 2016 as long as the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) component is topics, less than 1%. How To Write Essay! Legally restricting THC in cannabis to very low levels will ensure that a recreational ‘high’ will not occur (as opposed to THC-rich cannabis that can cause a recreational ‘high’). Thus, THC-poor cannabis is essay, legal in Switzerland. On the other hand, the cannibinoid (CBD) component of marijuana (aka CBD-Cannabis) is legal as it does not lead to a recreational ‘high’. Distance Learning Writing Uk! Importantly, it may offer pain relief, reduced nausea and essay topics other medical benefits. Medical cannabis is legal in other countries including Uruguay , Israel and write best scholarship essay Jamaica . Medical marijuana may offer pain relief today to patients with severe, intractable pain where other pain treatments have failed. Quoting Mark Ware: [The pharmaceutical approach is] “promising, highly protected with patents, and highly financially rewarding [and] will take 5 to 10 years. We have patients struggling now and need to figure out education topics, how to distance uk, use this [medical marijuana] today.”

Source of photo: Is Medicinal Marijuana Effective for Nerve Pain? (1a) Treating Neuropathic Pain With Cannabis: Pro and Con. Debate-Style Session at World Congress on essay education Pain Focuses on Safety, Efficacy of Marijuana for Neuropathic Pain. Pain Research Forum (22 Dec 2014)

Attachment (Slides by issues Mark Ware): (1b) Researchers Urge Medical Marijuana Over Opioids to education, Treat Neuropathic Pain. (2a) State Medical Marijuana Laws. 20 July 20 2016. (2b) Medical Marijuana Patients Can Grow ‘Limited Amount’ of ged essay, Cannabis at Home Under New Laws – Change Comes After Federal Court Said Old Rules Were Unconstitutional. CBC News (11 August 2016) (2c) Medical Marijuana Easier to Grow at Home With New Rules – Some Doctors Say Medical Cannabis is Safer than Opiates, While Others Say It’s Too Unpredictable. CBC News (25 Aug 25 2016) (2d) Senate passes medicinal cannabis legislation. Sydney Morning Herald (24 February 2016) (2e) Germany to Legalize Medicinal Marijuana by 2017. (2f) Schmerztherapie – Hype um vermeintliche Wunderarznei: Was Cannabis kann – und was nicht. Sabine Dobel, Gisela Gross. Stern (3 June 2017) This article also includes the following 2-minute video (also in German): (2g) Swiss cannabis entrepreneurs develop craving for low-potency pot.

Marina Depetris, John Miller. Reuters (22 March 2017). (2h) Kiffen light – so wirkt das legale Cannabis aus der Schweiz. Stern (17 May 2017) (3) Wilsey B, Marcotte TD, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. The Journal of Pain (2013);14(2):136-148. Sativex for the Management of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms. Issues Emerg Health Technol. 2005 Sep;(72):1-4. (5) Eisenberg E, Ogintz M, Almog S.

The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and education topics Ease of Use of essay, a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study. Journal Of Pain Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy (2014); 28(3) Successful Treatment of Primary Erythromelalgia with Ziconotide (Prialt) Dear Pain Matters blog readers, Here is an interesting case: Primary Erythromelalgia Treated with Intrathecal Ziconotide: A 31-year old woman suffered from primary erythromelalgia for most of her life. Symptoms included: Painful reddish skin and essay swelling in both feet and lower legs; Loss of vision in right eye and severely impaired vision in left eye (due to steck-vaughn, bilateral congenital glaucoma, exophthalmos/abnormally protruding eyeballs and megalocornea); Constant erythema and excessively warm lower legs; Severe pain including: Intense burning throughout both the lower legs; Allodynia near the essay education perimalleolar regions in how to, both ankles; and Hyperalgesia in bilateral gastrocnemius and instep (arched part of feet). Physical examination confirmed warmer skin temperatures in the lower legs, very strong burning pain (10/10, when lying very still) and swollen ankles.

The skin on her feet was thickened, red and ulcerated, due to her habit of topics, immersing her feet in cold water as often as possible (as part of self-medication). Creative! Refer to (a) in education, first photo. After trying ‘almost everything’, a decision was made to trial and implant an intrathecal pump drug delivery system in March 2010. A low titration schedule from 0.3 mcg/die to high students 2012, 1.2 mcg/die of ziconotide was commenced. Education Topics! This resulted in complete resolution of both allodynia and hyperalgesia. Dosage was increased to 1.8 mcg/die.

It is noteworthy that the contest students severe swelling and oedema in both lower legs and feet was significantly improved after 1 week of ziconotide treatment. Refer to (b) in first photo. Source: Russo et al, 2015. In April 2013, the patient presented 4 days late for education topics pump recharging. This delay resulted in both legs and feet being swollen with burning pain. Refer to (a) in below photo. Following (4-day-delayed) refill, her legs and essay contest school feet were no longer swollen 2 days later, and there was nil burning pain 1 week later. Refer to (b) in essay, below photo.

Source: Russo et al, 2015. The woman no longer had to immerse her feet in cold water resulting in steck-vaughn ged series, improved skin appearance. Education Topics! She was able to rest in creative writing, a bed now (instead of staying up in a chair for essay education months). Overall, ongoing intrathecal ziconotide treatment offered an improved quality of life for how to essay the patient. Long-term use of essay, intrathecal ziconotide does not lead to addiction or tolerance. Ziconotide exerts its analgesic effects by potently and selectively blocking neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels at how to write best scholarship essay the presynaptic level, hence inhibiting neurotransmitter release. It is topics, promising to see that severe pain including burning pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, as well as swelling, redness and excessive warmth of ged essay steck-vaughn ged series, lower legs and feet in patients with primary erythromelalgia may be managed by intrathecal ziconotide treatment in some cases. Russo R, Caroleo MC, Cione E, Perri M, Paparo MT, Russo A.

Dual Effect of Ziconotide in topics, Primary Erythromelalgia. Case Reports in Medicine (2015); Volume 2015, Article ID 592170, 4 pages. Ziconotide (Prialt) and scholarship Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – 2 Successful Cases. Dear Pain Matters blog readers, Almost 2 years ago, I wrote a Blog Post called:

Ziconotide (Prialt) for Nerve Pain Including CRPS? Quoting from essay topics, my older Blog Post: “….Ziconotide for samuel essay 7 CRPS Patients ….. 2 patients had complete pain relief and as such, discontinued Ziconotide treatment altogether…… (Kapural et al, 2009).” I find it fascinating that intrathecal (IT) ziconotide treatment resulted in essay topics, complete pain relief for these 2 patients. It is worthwhile elaborating further on these 2 former CRPS1 patients here: A male patient (Patient # 1, 16 years old, male) had CRPS1 in both of his legs following an Achilles tendon tear 2 years earlier. He suffered burning pain, hypersensitivity to touch/temperature changes and ged essay steck-vaughn loss of proprioception in both feet. Pain management treatments including lumbar sympathetic blockade and education various oral medications were unsuccessful. Samuel Essay! The patient used a wheelchair for essay education topics mobility. During a ziconotide trial, dosages were titrated from 2.4 mcg/d to 24 mcg/d over high school 3 months.

His VAS score reduced from 100 mm to 40 mm by the 4th month of the ziconotide trial, and he was able to upgrade from a wheelchair to essay education topics, a cane for mobility. The patient underwent IT pump implantation, and dosages were titrated from 5 mcg/d to 7.5 mcg/d over a 7 month period (with some side effects that were treated). During the 2nd year, ziconotide dosage was reduced to 4.5 mcg/d. The patient was finally pain-free , and essay he was able to essay, resume normal activities. By the samuel barber 3rd year, ziconotide dosage was further reduced to 1.2 mcg/d, and he stopped taking oral medications altogether. The patient continued ziconotide treatment (ranging from 1.2 to 1.4 mcg/d) for another 4 years, and this enabled him to be pain-free and active. Post-7 years ziconotide treatment, during which he remained pain-free, (quoting from page 299) ‘his IT pump was filled with normal saline in preparation for an explanation’ (Kapural et al, 2009).

A female patient (Patient # 2, 32 years old, female) had CRPS1 in both of education, her legs due to a fall 5 years earlier. The patient suffered burning pain and hypersensitivity to touch/temperature changes, and issues she preferred to essay topics, use a wheelchair for mobility. Pain management treatments had failed her completely including multiple oral medications, lumbar sympathetic blockade and spinal cord stimulator, SCS (VAS score, 100 mm). Following a successful ziconotide trial, she agreed to IT pump implantation. Distance Learning Writing! Dosages were gradually titrated upwards from 10 mcg/d to 145.5 mcg/d over 2 years, with no adverse events. The patient continued at essay education topics this dosage of 145.5 mcg/d for another 6 years. After 8 years of ziconotide treatment, the IT pump no longer worked.

While waiting for a new IT pump, the patient noticed that she no longer had any pain . As such, she stopped taking systemic opioid medication. She was also able to essay on global, walk without an essay topics assistive device. Her defective IT pump and SCS were surgically removed one month later. A year following removal of her IT pump and SCS, the patient remained pain free (VAS score, 0 mm) and had returned to essay on global issues, college (Kapural et al, 2009). Ziconotide treatment (via a spinally-implanted pump) can offer significant pain relief, and essay education may even, at appropriate dosages, lead to full recovery from CRPS1 for selected CRPS patients.

It is paramount that ziconotide be titrated to avoid serious side effects. Learning Creative! The importance of correct dosage was discussed at great length in an earlier Blog Post: PS For those of you who want to learn more about cone snails (that inspired medical research into ziconotide), here is a 2 – 3 minute YouTube called ‘Killer Cone Snails’. NB If you find aggressive animal behaviour disturbing, please refrain from watching this YouTube: (1) Kapural L, Lokey K, Leong MS, Fiekowsky S, Stanton-Hicks M, Sapienza-Crawford AJ, Webster LR (2009) Intrathecal Ziconotide for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Seven Case Reports. Pain Practice (2009), 9: 296–303. More on Intrathecal Delivery of Ziconotide – Snail Venom Yields Potent Painkiller, But Delivering The Drug Is Tricky. Ziconotide (Prialt) User Reviews – The Fine Line Between Maximizing Pain Relief and Minimizing Severe Adverse Effects.

Source of Featured Image: Dear Pain Matters blog readers, Many nerve pain sufferers say they have tried EVERYTHING, to no avail. The good news is that some patients with severe, intractable nerve pain obtain pain relief following Ziconotide (Prialt) treatment (while, sadly, others don’t). Ziconotide (Prialt) is synthesized based on education the venom of graduate school, a marine snail called Conus magus . For further details on Ziconotide (Prialt), please refer to literature including a paper by McGivern (2007). You are also welcome to go to my earlier blog post, here: An internet site called ‘Prialt User Reviews’ offers a collection of patient reviews: The ‘Prialt User Reviews’ show that Prialt treatment may be a ‘hit-or-miss’ treatment for essay education topics many patients with severe nerve pain. Thus, while some severe nerve pain sufferers obtained significant pain relief from Prialt (that outweighed its side effects), many others were worse off due to graduate school application essays, Prialt’s severe side effects.

A patient with low back pain commented: “I did not realise how much this new drug helped me until I had to come off of essay, it for issues a short period of education topics, time.” Another pain patient wrote: “I developed a BAD reaction to essay, this med, even though it worked great for my pain . Now I have all kinds of allergies and essay having trouble finding a med that is as effective without side effects. Steck-vaughn! “ A pain patient with 2 spinal operations wrote: “Since I’ve had the essay pump, the how to write best scholarship essay pain is no longer in my legs. Education! I will be ever thankful to that little snail and its ooze. God bless researchers.” A patient with chronic pain for over 10 years had a positive experience with Prialt. In her own words, “…since I have been on these meds, things have turned around for the good….I thank God every day that I have my life back….” Another pain patient stated: “This for me has been a “life changing” positive experience. I have been on the drug well over writing uk six years with NO side effects whatsoever….This has changed my life for essay the better as I am now able to do volunteer work …I had my occipital nerves sectioned as well as steroid-induced osteoporosis, so totally endorse this drug for neuropathic pain.”

A cancer survivor with chronic pain stated: “My pain was due to essay contest students 2012, cancer which is now in essay education, remission. My first pain clinic pushed me too hard to increase Prialt and side effects were bad! I heard music and it felt like my teeth were melting! I kept reducing my Prialt until it was mixed w/a narcotic and that combination made my pain level from a constant 9 … to a livable 5-7! This is the barber lowest my pain level has been in 9 yrs! … I am finally pleased with my Prialt and my Life.

After 8 years of essay, trying different combinations and Prialt Levels and 1 pump reposition and 1 pump replacement, I am finally able to Live. I can meet my husband for lunch most days ….Yes, it took several years to get the level just right and the side effects lower, but it was totally worth it to finally have a more normal and happy life!” A patient with CRPS (RSD) for 8 years stated that Prialt is the ‘ best at relieving pain BUT it’s not worth the how to write side effects I get….several bad experiences and I always stuck it out since the relief was so good . It’s no longer worth it. I have no life, hardly leave the education house and high school 2012 spend most of the time talking to myself’. A former user said “ This medicine did help my nerve pain (moderately) but the essay education memory loss is essay issues, horrible. I lost 50 lbs in 6 months. I can’t concentrate well, agitated, no motivation, have extreme anxiety……I started having a pungent perfumey-like smell constantly, which started to become an obsession…..led up to a full blown manic episode …no sleep….thoughts of not wanting to live anymore….border-line psychosis….I’ve been off this medication for essay education over 2 weeks now but still suffer from some of these side effects…..” A pain patient who unsuccessfully underwent a Prialt trial wrote: “… I started an IT pump trial with Prialt…..and the med was increased slowly (started out with about 4 mcg/day. Increased eventually to essay, about 7 mcg/day).

With the first increase, my pain improved (decreased). With each successive increase of Prialt, my pain increased and so did side effects. I became extremely dizzy, nauseated (with vomiting), confused, lethargic, my vision blurred, and I was unable to do anything but lie in bed and wonder what Prialt was doing to my brain…..” I find it very interesting that nerve pain levels did improve in several patients following Prialt treatment , despite severe side effects (see above). Is it possible that the topics intrathecally-administered (spinally-administered) dosages were simply too high for those who suffered severe side effects, post-Prialt treatment?

Would nerve pain patients benefit from lower Prialt dosages for longer periods (before deciding to school application, increase dosages) ? Consider this example: A 59-year old female with severe pain due to essay, chronic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) pain underwent a single-shot trial of intrathecal ziconotide. How To Best Scholarship! To reduce any adverse effects, the ziconotide dosage was intentionally kept very low, at only 1 mcg. Topics! The patient’s TN pain levels dropped from ‘9’ to ‘6’ (that, unfortunately, returned to her original pain levels of samuel barber essay, ‘9’, 4 hours-post-ziconotide). As such, 1 mcg/day ziconotide was added to education topics, her intrathecal combination of morphine and clonidine. At this low dosage, the patient reported significant relief from graduate, TN, and (importantly!) no side effects (Michiels et al, 2011) . According to Webster (2005), to minimise adverse effects while also maximising pain relief, initial dosages must be very low and titrated very slowly . Thus, for many patients, there is a fine balance between minimal adverse effects and maximal pain relief (Webster, 2005). Ongoing studies are warranted to ascertain why Prialt treatment offers pain relief (with minimal side effects) for some nerve pain patients, but not for others. Many patients had to essay, stop using Prialt due to extreme, horrific, and application intolerable side effects that included severe mental impairment, psychosis, personality changes, memory loss, hallucinations, minor to severe swelling of topics, joints, tremors, paranoia, pain, bad mood swings, problems with sleeping, hearing loud music 24/7, confusion, anxiety attacks, depression, suicide risk, severe sinus infection, slurring speech, severe neurological symptoms, vision problems, severe weight loss, burning skin/electric shock sensations and allergies. NB It is scholarship, not clear whether some of the aforementioned side effects were solely caused by Prialt and/or due to essay, other unknown factors. Further studies of Prialt’s side effects are warranted.

Many studies into other novel drugs are underway (more later). Wishing all pain patients less suffering and more hope. PS Please read the entire Prialt Patient Information Including Side Effects sheet before deciding to use Prialt. “Patient Comments are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment…..” PPS It is important to note that not all Prialt users will offer feedback (positive or otherwise). Furthermore, human nature tends to ged essay steck-vaughn, focus on the negative, rather than on the positive. Topics! It is possible that many who obtain pain relief from Prialt choose not to how to write essay, post comments, while others who suffered severe side effects due to Prialt may offer feedback (to help others). (1) McGivern; Ziconotide: a review of its pharmacology and use in the treatment of pain; Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat . Essay Education! 2007; 3(1): 69–85. (2) RxList – The Internet Drug Index. Prialt User Reviews.

(3) For more information on Prialt, please refer to: (4) Michiels et al ; Trigeminal neuralgia relief with intrathecal ziconotide; Clin J Pain 2011; 27:352-354. (5) Webster; Ziconotide in samuel, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (2005) Nabilone for Chronic Pain Including Nerve Pain (eg CRPS) Dear Pain Matters blog readers, Dr Mark Ware, McGill University in Montreal, reported that Nabilone (‘Cesamet’), an oral synthetic cannabinoid, may offer some pain relief in essay education, both cancer and non cancer pain. Specifically, Nabilone may help alleviate painful symptoms in patients with: – Nerve pain (e.g. Steck-vaughn Ged Series! complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS); – Other chronic non cancer pain (eg postoperative or traumatic pain, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, interstitial cystitis, HIV-associated myopathy, post-polio syndrome, idiopathic inguinal pain, and essay education chronic headaches); and.

Dr May Ong-Lam reported that in 10 patients with refractory CRPS, Nabilone treatment resulted in graduate essays, up to essay education topics, 60% pain reduction . Opioids and other pain medication were no longer required by 7 patients following Nabilone therapy. Improved quality of how to write essay, life and better sleep resulted. Nabilone treatment resulted in improved physical ability including the ability to bear weight, resume work, and education topics perform housework. There were few side effects, and patients did not develop tolerance to Nabilone. Prior to on global, Nabilone treatment , and despite receiving many different pain medications, these 10 CRPS patients suffered burning pain , allodynia , autonomic nervous system changes , and physical disability . Pre -Nabilone, all 10 CRPS patients ranked CRPS pain as 10 out of essay education, 10 (on 10-point visual analog scale; VAS). Importantly, post -Nabilone therapy, overall pain decreased to 3 – 6 (on VAS) in learning creative writing, all 10 CRPS patients. Fibromyalgia patients reported that Nabilone offered significant benefits in pain relief and functional improvement. A cancer pain study reported that pain scores in essay topics, Nabilone-treated cancer patients were significantly reduced , compared to those who were not treated with Nabilone.

Other improvements in Nabilone-treated cancer patients included reduced nausea, less anxiety/overall distress, and slight improvement in appetite. Nabilone-treated cancer patients were also able to reduce (or discontinue) dosages of other drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, tricyclic antidepressants, and gabapentin. A cannabis extract may be used to treat refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis . Cannabinoid agonists (including Nabilone) activate cannabinoid receptor types CB1 and CB2. Activation of CB2 leads to anti-inflammatory effects including reduction of TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation, monocyte migration and on global adhesion. This may partly explain why cannabis and cannabinoids are able to reduce pain including nerve pain (CRPS, multiple sclerosis). For more posts on medical cannabis (aka medical marijuana) as well as cannabis-based pain medication (eg Sativex), please see: Wishing less pain to education topics, all pain patients, (1) Mark A. Ware; Cannabinoids in Pain Management: An Update from the 2009 Canadian Pain Society Meeting, Quebec QC. (2) Berlach, Shir, Ware. Experience with the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in chronic noncancer pain . Steck-vaughn! Pain Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;7(1):25-9.

(3) David Wild; Refractory CRPS Patients Discontinue Opiates With Cannabinoid Treatment (A Study by May Ong-Lam, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor, Dept of topics, Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver); Pharmacy Practice News (8 Feb, 2011). (4) Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D; Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia . J Pain 2008;9(2):164-173. (5) Maida et al , 2008. Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management : a prospective observational study using propensity scoring. J Support Oncol.

2008 Mar;6(3):119-24. (6) Grotenhermen, Muller-Vahl; The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids ; Dtsch Arztebl Int (2012 July);109(29-30):495-501. (7) Rajesh et al ; CB2-receptor stimulation attenuates TNF-alpha-inducedCB2-receptor stimulation attenuates TNF-alpha-induced human endothelial cell activation, transendothelial migration of contest high 2012, monocytes, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion; Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol (2007 Oct);293(4):H2210-8.

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african mask essay by education topics, Manuel Jordan. Samuel Barber! Birmingham Museum of Art, Museum purchase, 1998.6. Facial features and scarification details, including masoji, or tears, below the eyes, are balanced and well. proportioned in this example. The clay-packed wig is essay education, reminiscent of essay contest 2012 those favored by women in areas of. Angola and the Democratic Republic of the essay education topics, Congo a few decades ago . Photo: Dick Beaulieux. interpreter he provided the following explanation: Often a lot of smoke comes from a kitchen, but on inspection. there are no more than one or two pieces of firewood; one must not be deceived by imposing external. appearances, for in reality there may be little substance behind them. (Luvale), Lunda, and graduate school essays, other related peoples of Angola, the education, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zambia has. greatly increased, thanks to the efforts of distance learning scholars such as Hermann Baumann (1935), Jose Redinha (1965, 1974), Charles M. N. White (1961), Marie-Louise Bastin (1961, 1982), Victor Turner (1967), Gerhard Kubik. (1971), and Manuel L. Rodrigues de Areia (1985) . Recent field work pursued by anthropologists and art. historians including Filip de Boek (1991), Manuela Palmeirim (1994), Elisabeth Cameron (1995), Boris Wastiau. (1997), Sonia Silva (1998), and education topics, this author (Jordan 1996) has added to the body of knowledge established in. previous generations.

All of school application us have benefited from the rich accounts provided by explorers and essay topics, ethnographers. such as Hermenegildo Capelo and Robert Ivens (1881), Serpa Pinto (1881), Verney L. Cameron (1877), Henrique A. Dias de Carvalho (1890), Fonseca Cardoso (1919), Dugald Campbell (1922), and others who. traversed the lands of these central African peoples more than one hundred years ago. that range in focus from the economy of the region to its ritual practices and cos-mological views. However, in. many ways the study of its arts is in its infancy. To return to the proverb at the beginning of this essay, in terms. of Chokwe and write best essay, related peoples, the only pieces of fire¬wood in the art historical kitchen were placed there by. one dedicated scholar, Marie-Louise Bastin, whose oeuvre remains the education topics, main source for graduate school application essays any consideration of. Chokwe art. Her postulated styles of Chokwe sculpture (Bastin 1976,1982) and topics, the sculpture of the Lwena, Songo, Ovimbundu, Ngangela, and others (Bastin 1971) have given us a solid basis for attributing to these. peoples countless works of art in private and museum collections.4 Bastin's numerous scholarly contributions. provide a core theoretical (art historical) model that invites further analysis. These arts are so diverse and. complex that even some of the more well-known forms remain vastly understudied or misunderstood.5.

To illustrate this point, this article will focus on Pwo (woman), a popular ancestral mask character, or akishi, for Chokwe, Lwena (known as Luvale in areas of western Zambia), Lunda, and their neighbors.6 Pwo is a. familiar face in most museum and private collections ( Fig. 1 ). Pwo mask. Chokwe, early 20th century. Wood, fibers, metal, shell, pigment; 25.4cm (10). Essay On Global Issues! The University of Iowa Museum of Art, Stanley Collection, 1986.545. orbits, filed teeth, and C-shaped ears. Its fine coiffure is partially carved in wood as an extension of the. mask. The metal tacks and shell are meant to beautify and honor the female ancestor represented.

Pwo mask. Chokwe, late 19th/early 20th century, field collected by Frobenius. Wood, clay, fibers, metal, pigment, fur, snakeskin, and essay education, other materials; 21cm (8.3). Collection of Mr.

Helmut F. Stern. displays an unusual version of the chinge-lyengelye cross motif, a scarification design commonly interpreted in. the literature as a version of the imported Portuguese Cross of the Order of Christ. Cross motifs have been. found in rock engravings and paintings in Angolan archaeological sites. Ged Essay Steck-vaughn! describes their Pwo masks ( Figs. 2 ): eyelids are prolonged down to essay education topics the center of the concave eye-sockets. Sometimes the samuel, eyes are globular and. have horizontal slits. Occasionally the forehead has a carved head-band. The ears are nearly always curved or. else semi-circular with the tragus shown. The traditional scarifications are usually engraved, cut away, incrusted. or carved in relief. framing filed triangular teeth.

Bastin's close observation of numerous Pwo mask examples at the Museu do. Dundo in Angola, as illustrated in her book Art decoratif tshokwe (1961), helped her reaffirm what she called. Chokwe traditional canons that reflect the collective concept of ancestral spirits (Bastin 1982:90). The study. of art styles found in a Portuguese-sponsored museum located in essay, Chokwe territory brings forth several issues. Samuel Essay! that are relevant to this contemplation of Pwo masks. Sala da Crenca Animista, or Room of Animist Belief. They are part of a collection that in the 1950s included. 110 wooden masks, including numerous Pwo examples, and 67 fiber-and-resin masks of various types (Porto. 1999:104-5). The masks illustrated in this photograph confirm the general accuracy of Bastin's description of. this style for the Chokwe: all of them share similarities in the stylization of the eyes, in the formal treatment of. the mouth, nose, and ears, and, in essay education, most cases, in facial scarification details. Thirty Pwo masks on display at the Museu do Dundo. From Fontinha 1997:29, fig.

49. Dundo is a town in northeastern Angola near the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Chokwe and other related peoples share similar mask-making traditions on write both sides of the. others exhibit varying degrees of stylization, particularly in the eyes and essay, mouth as well as in samuel barber essay, the overall. contours of the face, which may be oval, angular, or elongated. Even if one allows for individual artistic. creativity as an influence in this variation (Bastin 1982:90), the fact remains that not all the masks in the Dundo. photograph are purely Chokwe. In fact, some are catalogued as Shinji (western neighbors of the Chokwe in. northeastern Angola), and others are similar to masks documented among the Songo in central Angola, though they may not necessarily carry that attribution (Jordan et al. Topics! 1998: fig.

60). A couple of other masks in. the photograph show Upper Zambezi stylistic tendencies: they suggest a transitional style between. stereotypical Chokwe and Lwena/Luvale styles, an exchange of influences acknowledged by Jose Redinha. (1965:36-37), who collected most of the Museu do Dundo's pieces ( Fig. 4 ). Pwo mask. Lwena or Luvale, early 20th century.

Wood, fiber, pigment; 20.3cm (8). Private U.S. Essay On Global! collection. Probably of Lwena manufacture, this mask combines Chokwe and Lwena stylistic. tendencies. This style of Pwo, with its particular treatment of the hair, is favored in. areas of western and northwestern Zambia, where the topics, Lwena are known as Luvale. of ged series its lines, a tendency toward naturalism, and a taste for education topics round and essay, full forms (1969:49). Lwena Pwo masks. sometimes incorporate tall, rounded coiffures ( Figs. Essay Education Topics! 5-7 ). Ged Series! Although not shown in the Dundo photograph, at least. a couple of Pwo examples in the museum accurately fit the Lwena style description (Bastin 1961: figs. 261, 262). However, a large number of Dundo masks depart from an essentially Chokwe stylistic canon and inconclusively. hint at other attributions.

Pwo mask. Lwena or Luvale, early 20th century. Wood, metal, string, pig¬ment; 27.9cm (11). The. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The John R. Van Derlip Fund, 89.15. represented.

Pwo, or woman, is a generic term for essay such masks, but specific masked ancestral spirits. may be addressed using the actual name of the distance, woman/ancestor meant to be honored by the community. or by education topics, the family hosting an initiation camp. Distance Creative Writing! Pwevo/Pwo mask. Luvale or Luchazi, mid-20th century. Topics! Wood, fibers, pigment; 20.3cm (8). Private U.S. collection. Luvale and creative writing uk, Luchazi mask-carving styles are closely related. In the essay, case of masks such as this one, it is.

almost impossible to write best scholarship essay make a distinction. Pwo mask. Lwena, early 20th century. Wood, feathers, fiber, metal, leather, pigment; 31.1cm (12.3). Private European collection. toward naturalism, and a taste for round, full forms. In 1997 I showed a photo of this mask to various. Zambian friends (Luvale, Lunda, and Chokwe), who said the mask represented a female chief. Its. Education Topics! elaborate coiffure, feathered headdress, and essay, overall elegance were key to this interpretation. Baumann; both men pursued independent collecting campaigns through parts of central, eastern, and. Essay Topics! northeastern Angola from the 1930s to the 1950s (Areia 1995:11-18).14 To some extent the stylistic variation. evident in ged essay ged series, the photograph may be attributed to a combination of elements, but it most probably reflects a. sampling of styles and substyles favored in different areas.

Because Bastin gained access to the Dundo. collection in the 1950s, when all these Pwo masks were in education topics, the context of a Chokwe stronghold, she never. approached the pieces in their diversity but rather saw them through the eyes of samuel barber essay local Chokwe informants. Education Topics! As. Steck-vaughn! familiar as these masks may seem, we still do not have a grasp on the stylistic complexities of the essay education topics, region, a. problem compounded by the lack of documentation for these and many other collected masks. performer wears a face mask (identified as Pwo in Bastin 1982:90) that does not clearly fit within the described. canons of ged essay steck-vaughn ged series a Chokwe style. Its subtly conceived anthropomorphic face has open, round eyes and mouth and is. devoid of scarification details. This mask actually has more in common with Lwena/Luvale and Luchazi. Education Topics! examples documented in eastern Angola and western and northwestern Zambia ( Fig. 9 ; see also Jordan et al. 1998: figs. Scholarship Essay! 64, 66, 67; Felix Jordan 1998) than it does with most of the masks collected for the Dundo. museum and attributed to the Chokwe.

This illustration of an Angolan Pwo performer was published by Portuguese explorer Henrique. Carvalho (1890:245). The mask is similar to examples found among Lwena and Luchazi in Angola. south and east of the town of Mexico in Angola and in areas of western and northwestern Zambia. Essay Education Topics! Pwevo/Pwo mask. Luchazi, early 20th century.

Wood, fibers, pigment; 20.3cm (8). Molly and Walter Bareiss Family Collection. rounded facial contours and open eyes and mouth. Distance Writing! Elements of a Chokwe Pwo carving style are still evident, but the treatment of forms reflects a different aesthetic. The style is essay topics, less idiosyncratic but equally expressive. stylistic approaches or trends in the manufacture of Pwo masks were established in Angola. Graduate School! In addition to essay education the. more elaborate tendency that remains close to Bastin's definition of a Chokwe style, as seen in the most of. the masks in the Dundo collection, there was a more minimalistic but equally refined and expressive style. The. latter is depicted in Carvalho's illustration and found in numerous Pwo examples collected in eastern and. southeastern Angola, as well as in essay on global issues, western and northwestern Zambia. Efforts to distinguish Congolese. Education Topics! (D.R.C.), Angolan, and Zambian Pwo styles are beside the point.

People, like good ideas, cross all. boundaries, and similar Pwo styles are commonly found on learning writing both sides of the political borders of this region. lies north and northeast of Muzamba, the Chokwe country of origin in northeastern Angola (Bastin. 1982:246), where Chokwe and their Minungu, Songo, and Shinji neighbors continue to create versions of Pwo. that depart from a Chokwe stylistic canon (Felix 1997:105-11). The second is south and east/southeast of. Mexico (in central-eastern Angola), where the Lwena/Luvale and Luchazi probably sowed their own stylistic. seeds that may have developed separately or in combination with the essay education, often distinct and subtle southern styles. Steck-vaughn! of the southern Lunda, Mbunda, Mbwela, and Ngangela ( Fig. 10 ; Felix Jordan 1998; Kubik 1993:25, 98-99). Pwevo/Pwo mask.

Luchazi, mid-20th century. Wood, fibers, beads, pigment; 17cm (6.8). Private European collection. photographed in the field in 1971 (Kubik 1993), it wore a different coiffure and beaded hair decorations. Pwo/Pwevo hair and hair ornaments are often replaced. Wooden masks are well kept and sometimes. inherited through generations. without concrete field documentation such an exercise would remain highly speculative. in topics, all these neighboring areas, and commissioning masks from one carver in one or another style is not. uncommon (Felix Jordan 1998). In the case of the Dundo museum collection, it is also significant that the essay contest high school students, Pwo. masks were available to performers who wore them in dances held in the context of a Dundo cultural village, where Portuguese and other European visitors constituted the main audience (see Areia 1995; Porto 1999). Most important, a number of carvers in museum-sponsored crafts workshops created wooden sculptures, including various versions of Pwo masks, inspired by pieces in essay education, the Dundo collection that had been collected in. widely dispersed regions of Angola (Areia 1995:174-75).21 In that context, the institution became a new source. for the ged essay, imitation of stylistic canons, a development that must have affected the natural flow of ideas; masks. created in and around the town may reflect styles more common in other areas of Angola.

In many ways the. Museu do Dundo was a supermarket of regional art forms divorced from most of their original cultural framework. made from pitch or tar over a framework of bent branches to which facial details are applied in bands of white. and red cloth or paper. to such types, probably because the education, collectors for the Dundo museum were not interested in masks made from. ephemeral materials. That led her to note that very few Pwo masks in resin are known, although she provided. an accurate description of the type: . the features are standardized but less pronounced. A sort of rectangular. domino in red cloth normally covers the eyes and nose.

The mouth is essay on global issues, small (1982:90). That description. generally applies to essay education such masks representing male and contest students, female characters. Even today they far outnumber. similar characters in wood. shortcomings in the established canon. These are easily matched by education, those in essay contest high school 2012, the documented descriptions of. the context for akishi masquerades and their attributed meaning or meanings. dismissed by scholars, who usually treat the subject as peripheral to what they deem to topics be more important ritual. processes or symbolic structures. C. M. N. Graduate Essays! White (1948:13) most clearly expresses his lack of education interest in essay school students 2012, what he. seems to see as evidence of the essay education topics, degeneration of the culture of a distant past. White comments on Lunda and. Luvale masquerades in Zambia: dancers who vary from tribe to tribe. Distance Learning Creative Writing Uk! It is impossible to describe them in essay, any detail here, and it must suffice to. say that they usually wear fiber costumes covering the whole body and have distinctive head-dresses, often. very elaborate. To some extent they have to-day degenerated to become itinerant clowns and lost their original. status, and this particularly refers to essay on global the mwana-pwevo. an alternative view, documenting how akishi (makishi in Zambia) masquerades represent aspects of the shared. cosmologies of Chokwe, Lunda, Lwena/Luvale, and essay topics, related peoples.

Within a large repertoire of essay issues mask character. Essay Topics! types, Pwo (Pwevo in essay contest high school, Zambia)#8212;the woman or female ancestor#8212;and Mwana Pwo (Mwana Pwevo in Zambia; Fig. Essay Education Topics! 11 )#8212;the young woman#8212;actually perform a crucial role in transmitting culturally relevant information, mainly in the context of the mukanda male initiation. The woman and high school 2012, young woman masks represent ideal. and comparable models for a fulfilled versus a potential woman (Cameron 1998a, 1998b; Jordan 1998). Such associative elements are further developed by these peoples' creation of other female mask types, including an immature woman, a mother, an essay old woman (Fig. 12), and a female chief (Jordan 1998; Felix A Luvale Mwana Pwevo (young woman) mask performing during con-'irmatory ceremonies honoring. Luvale Paramount Chief Ndungu. Distance Creative Uk! Zambia, 1997. Photo Manuel Jordan. masks share the essay education topics, positive influences of the ancestral spirits with the community and show contrasting or. comparable social and moral values. Pwo/Pwevo mask with partial costume, mid-20th century. Luchazi or Luvale.

Wood, fibers, pigment. Private European collection. but none were identified and on global issues, illustrated as such until recently. Zambian field consultants identified this Luvale. or Luchazi mask (retaining part of its original body covering) as an old woman, called Kashinakaji. royal lineages) is based on the recent field documentation of one Chokwe fiber-and-resin mask representing. Lweji, the essay topics, first Lunda female chief (Jordan 1993:50, 2000:90), together with the field identification (based on. Steck-vaughn! photographs of specific masks) of various Pwo-related masks with exceptionally elaborate coiffures (Figs. 7,13), Some of the hairstyles include consecutive arched diadems that resemble the crowns worn by male and female. chiefs in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zambia (Jordan et al. 1998: fig. 65; Felix Jordan. precepts and serve to present and represent principles of social and political organization, history, philosophy, religion, and morality (Jordan 1998:67). These principles are shared but also distinct in that they may respond to. local interpretations of broader regional or overarching cultural models.

Further studies of regional art styles and. types will probably better reflect these peoples' sociocultural and political complexities, because intended modes. of representation give shape to defined (shared or distinct) values or norms. Pwo/Pwevo mask. Luvale, early 20th century. Wood, pigment; 21.6cm (8.5). Private European collection. consecutive arched elements above the forehead that resemble the crowns worn by male. and female chiefs.

This version of a mature and accomplished woman was created to essay topics honor.

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Protects skin from the harsh environment. Leaves the skin firm and smooth. Primary ingredients: A powerful marine osmoregulator extracted from green seaweed and education, Chondrus crispus extract maintain an in-depth long-term hydration rate of the epidermis. Carraghenans work on the skins surface with the skins natural proteins to create a protective film. Vegetable oil from Karite butter increases cell regeneration and insures suppleness. Use: Apply daily on high school students 2012 dried skin all over topics the body with a soft circular motion. Super firming gel (algae firming gel) Purpose: A firming and essay contest school 2012, toning effect on the skin combined with a lipolytic action to education, support the acceleration of the elimination of fat cells. Primary ingredients: Laminaria Digitata extract provides the lipolitic properties. Pelvetia Canaliculata improves blood circulation.

Use: Gently massage the gel into belly, hips, and buttocks. For legs and thighs apply with an essay on global issues, upward motion. Tensing and essay, regenerating cream. Purpose: Smoothes and tenses the epidermis. Prevents dehydration of learning uk dry skin areas. Re-enforces cutaneous elasticity. Creates an instant lifting effect.

Primary ingredients: Algae oil from Laminaria digitata is rich in vitamin A to education, protect from free radicals and aid in fiber regeneration, vitamin E which promotes hydration, vitamin C to graduate essays, speed up the healing process and vitamin F (from the Omega 6 family) to education topics, promote suppleness and nourish the skin. Use: In morning and evening apply a small amount of the distance creative writing, active serum on arms, tummy, legs, bust and/or buttocks. Slightly massage until fully absorbed into essay education topics, the skin. Sparkling sea pebbles. Purpose: Relaxes and soothes the skin. Graduate Essays. Re-mineralizes the skin by providing trace elements and minerals required for the body's natural balance. Delicately perfumes the skin. Primary ingredients: Atomized sea water extracted from the Gulf Stream is combined with Patchouli (anti-inflammatory), lemon zest and mint (invigorating) and essay education, essential oils for aromatheraputic benefit.

Skin type: Hypoallergenic for all skin types. Use: After stepping into the bath place the pebble in the small of the back to benefit from the Jacuzzi effect. It can also be used for a very relaxing footbath. Soothing after-sun gel. Purpose: Quickly calms the epidermis after sun exposure. Instantly stops the heat sensation. Rehydrates the learning uk, epidermis. Primary ingredients: Enteromorpha compressa extract and green algae create a soothing and hydrating action. This combination of ingredients has a peptide action that has been proven excellent in fighting problems caused by over-exposure to the sun (tightening, stinging, itching and heat sensation). It also reduces the intensity and duration of sunburn.

Codium tomentosum extract is a powerful marine osmoregulator that helps in maintaining the epidermis hydration rate at the optimal level. Use: Apply generously on face and body. Within two hours of applying after-sun gel apply the hydrating milk to preserve and education topics, enhance the skins beauty. Sun care hydrating milk (SPF 8) Purpose: Protect the skin from the essay high, suns harmful rays.

Ensure a uniform tan. Soften and smooth skin. Preserve the epidermis hydration. Primary ingredients: A mix of topics three algae extracts to obtain protection against how to write best UVA and UVB rays while still allowing the skin to tan. A vegetable oil cocktail, rich in vitamins A and E to reinforce the skins hydration capacity and nutrients to essay topics, ensure the application essays, skins suppleness. Glycerin provides a natural dampener to soften and smooth the skin. Use: Apply in an even layer all over the body. Renew application frequently during extended periods of sun exposure. Anti-aging protective sun cream (SPF 12) Purpose: Ensure a safe and rapid suntan. Preserve epidermal hydration.

Fight against premature aging of the essay topics, skin caused by the sun. Primary ingredients: Chritmum Maritimum and Phaeodactylum Tricornotum phylo plankton combine to create a natural synergy rich in the essential fatty acids EPA/DHA. This ensures cellular regeneration and the formation of ceramids that are essential to the balance of the hydrolipidic film. How To Write Best Scholarship Essay. Oil of essay Karite butter ensures the skin will maintain a supple texture and appearance. Palm oil (nourishing and softening), liquorice extract (anti-inflammatory) and a insaponifiable of Soya and how to write best, Avocado extract aide in maintaining the skins fiber and give the cream its total care capacity.

Use: During or before sun exposure. Apply frequently during extended periods of exposure to the sun. Our pricing strategy for this range is to position our products with a shelf price that is in the mid to lower quadrant of high-quality products and brands. We have accomplished this by making careful market comparisons and adjusting our packaging size. Our initial apparel launch will be very tight and well focused. Essay Topics. The range will include seven styles. Three of the styles will be offered in three colors with the remaining four offered in black.

Sizing will be S-M-L in all items. The total number of stock keeping units will be 39. This creates a very manageable and understandable assortment. Each of the bodies has been inspired by proven silhouettes and then improved upon. Long sleeve poly pique V-neck. Fabric: High tech poly blend specially designed to keep the wearer dry even during the most strenuous activity. Activity: Medium to essay on global, high activity workout. Colors: Three (Black, plus two seasonal fashion colors) Suggested Retail: $78.

Long sleeve poly pique mock. Fabric: High tech poly blend specially designed to keep the wearer dry even during the most strenuous activity. Activity: Medium to high activity workout. Colors: Three (Black, plus two seasonal fashion colors) Suggested Retail: $78.

Lycra jacket - hip length. Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Wear to and from the gym. Suggested Retail: $128. Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Special loose fit designed for yoga. Also excellent fit for essay education topics, the over 40 woman who no longer wants to learning uk, wear tights to education, the gym. Suggested Retail: $98. Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Heavy aerobic exercise where a looser fit would be impractical.

Suggested Retail: $98. Fabric: Mid weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Heavy aerobic exercise. Suggested Retail: $68. Lycra long sleeve crew top. Fabric: Lightweight, breathable stretch sport Lycra designed to wick moisture away from the body. Activity: Post workout top designed to keep muscles warm and loose. Suggested Retail: $88. Rib cotton crew. Fabric: Lightweight ribbed cotton. Activity: To and how to best scholarship essay, from the gym.

Colors: Black and two seasonal colors. Suggested Retail: $38. Bluespa will occupy a unique market position. Education Topics. No other brand offers a specialty line that includes skin care, cosmetics, fitness apparel and steck-vaughn ged series, accessories. Education Topics. However, within each category significant brands do exist. Essays. Quality and price vary widely within each group. Bluespa will be positioned as a quality brand. We have eliminated the drugstore and discount brands from this comparison. In the skin care and cosmetics category the competition can be divided into three groups: Commercial--i.e.

MAC, Origins, Philosophy, Erno Laslo and Shesheido; Clinical--i.e. Essay. Kiehl's, Clinique, Clarins and Dr. Contest High School Students. Hauscha; Spa--private label brands associated with spas. The commercial brands are primarily sold through department stores. They vary widely in quality from Origins to Shesheido. They also vary widely in price. Their major advantage is their financial strength and their department store relationships. The clinical brands are perceived to be authentic. Education Topics. Their image is based upon graduate application essays, the perception of treatment qualities verses purely cosmetic benefits. Education Topics. These brands are sold through their own retail outlets, specialty stores, department stores and/or health food stores.

Kiehl's is perceived as one of the most authentic of the clinical brand. The spa brands are sold almost exclusively at the spas they are associated with. This close affiliation provides a validation for the products but limits their ability to achieve wide market distribution. Bliss and Aveda are notable exceptions. These two brands have achieved wide market distribution and brand recognition. In fitness apparel and accessories the female customer has been grossly overlooked.

Reebok and Avia had the distance writing, best chance of capturing her at one time. However Reebok abandoned her to try to become a legitimate sports brand and acquired Avia. Avia has since been sold and has all but disappeared. Essay Education. Meanwhile the big two brands (Nike and Adidas) have ignored her. Recently Nike announced the formation of a women's division as a separate business unit. While this offers the possibility of a major competitor in the women's fitness category, it also highlights the opportunity. Puma is the only brand that has developed a line of fitness apparel focused specifically at this consumer. Their Nuala line has been developed with Christy Turlington. They have positioned this line to contest 2012, sell through women's specialty stores rather than traditional sport retailers. Early sales have been exceptional, further highlighting the potential within this category. Bluespa will develop our market position by combining a retail strategy that includes a day spa with a wholesale distribution strategy.

Bluespa will acquire the validity afforded the spa brands and access to broad distribution. Bluespa skin care and cosmetic products will offer therapeutic benefits to education, the user based upon the principles of Thalasso therapy in samuel, our water line and Botanical treatments in topics, our earth line. Our color cosmetics will be mineral based and provide the user with esthetic benefits while nourishing the samuel barber, skin. In addition to providing retail appropriate packaging we will develop bulk sizes for distribution within the spa trade. Most day spas use generic products and do not have the education topics, ability to essay, develop a private label line. The apparel and essay, accessory lines will combine the newest in technical fabrics with fit specifications that allow the wearer full range of movement.

We have developed affiliations with select yoga and fitness facilities for our apparel. All of our products will be positioned at the quality conscious consumer. Our marketing campaign and PR positioning will reinforce the Bluespa image. Our message will be to identify the benefits of distance learning writing uk our products and to develop an image that makes Bluespa products highly desirable. Meanwhile, our pricing strategy will be to essay topics, maintain retail price points in the lower quadrant of the top quality brands. A detailed comparison of our pricing as it relates to our target market is in the appendix. Our skin care creams and lotions are manufactured in three OEM facilities. Two are in ged essay, France, one is in Southern California. Our primary facility is essay education topics, located in Brittany, on ged essay steck-vaughn ged series the north coast of France. They are considered one of the top algae specialists in the world.

They process in excess of 500,000 tons of algae per topics, year (30% of the school application essays, current dry weight production world wide) for both agrochemical and cosmetic use. Founded in essay, 1957, the company has grown to $300,000,000 in annual sales with 300 employees. Our partnership gives us access to the following critical resources: The ability to issues, produce both small run (10 kg) and topics, large volume (10,000 kg per day) of creams and lotions. An innovative RD department with a strong technical background. An experienced quality control department. Barber. Managed compliance with Government rules and regulations.

Our laboratories in France for marine biotechnology will work with us in developing and producing Bluespa's signature range of products from the sea. Our second facility is located in the South of France. This region produces some of the finest essential oils and herbal compounds in the world. The facility gives us access to the latest developments in essay topics, aromatherapy, skin care, fragrances and on global, essential oils. Our third factory is located in southern California. Biomedics is a small lab specialized in reverse engineering and small run production.

We will utilize this resource to develop and test items in our own stores. Packaging for the skin care products is essay topics, being purchased from Luxepack. Ged Essay Steck-vaughn Ged Series. They manufacture in essay, Europe and have distributors in the United States. Essay High School Students 2012. This combination allows us to have access to the needed packaging at each of essay our production facilities without the need to purchase or warehouse large quantities. We have selected packaging from Luxepack stock production and developed multi-use parameters for various packages. This strategy will enable us to have only five different containers over the entire range. Essay On Global. We will label each product with a self-adhesive label rather than screen-printing the packages, further leveraging the essay, cost and efficiency of the packaging.

Labels will be printed and applied at each production facility from digitized art produced by our graphic director in graduate school application, Portland. This will provide us with complete creative control while allowing us to essay education, maximize efficiency at the factories. Our apparel manufacturing is being managed through a contract facility in Portland, Oregon. AMG currently operates a 50,000 square foot facility for the production of high quality sports apparel from technical fabrics. They have complete pattern making and sewing facilities for cut and sew products as well as knit goods.

The availability of their technical knowledge and production capability provides Bluespa with significant flexibility in developing our assortments and samuel barber essay, managing inventory demands. During the early phases of essay topics development AMG will also handle fulfillment of on global apparel orders. Pricing structure - skin care. The pricing for skin care products is a bit more complex than for apparel. Since we are purchasing all the education, components separately and collecting them centrally we must include all of the individual costs in the process to determine landed cost. The table associated with this subject defines these individual segments. Pricing structure - apparel. Our apparel pricing structure positions Bluespa as a quality brand. We will attempt to provide the retailer with a margin opportunity above 50% for branded apparel. Our price points will compare well with Nike, Nuala and other quality sport brands. We will be very well priced in comparison to graduate application, Prada sport, Polo sport and the other designer brands venturing into education topics, this area.

A corner stone of our strategy is the creation of how to write best scholarship sustainable growth through a combination of new product launches and replenish-able basics. Essay Topics. In skin care our first five launches will consist of added ranges to the line. Contest High. Bluespa's product line is based on five elements of the universe. Essay Education. Its character, properties and related color(s), will define these elements. Body care products will be scented with essential oils that are known to create or improve the related character. All body and samuel barber, bath products, except after sun care, will ultimately be offered in five ranges.

Sun care will only be offered in balancing, calming and soothing. Because face creams and lotions are meant to rebalance and moisturize the skin, face care will be unscented and will only essay education be offered in the Water range. Our skin care launches will occur at four-month intervals starting in distance creative writing, August of essay 2001 with Water. Followed by the Earth range in the spring of graduate school application 2002, Air in mid 2002, Fire in August 2002 and Metal in spring of 2003. The colors associated with each range will allow us to create a line of cosmetics that works for all skin tones and an apparel assortment that covers the education, basics and can respond to color trends. The initial apparel launch will be August 2001. Our cosmetic launch will occur in spring 2002. Samuel Barber Essay. These dates are for wholesale. Our retail stores will have the respective groups available by Spring 2001. Future products will be tested in education topics, our retail stores four to six months prior to their wholesale launch.

In addition we will develop product that is intended only for samuel, our retail stores (i.e. Essay Education. brushes and sponges). As our capabilities grow we may add these products to the wholesale line as well. Bluespa is launching a brand. The successful execution of this strategy will provide us with the ability to transcend into other categories in the future, as long as we define our image and stay true to the base precepts. (Much like Ralph Lauren has done with his tie business.) For example, properly executed these five precepts can be applied to home products. We believe our ability to create new product opportunities and growth will only be limited by our imagination and our ability to attract talented people who understand the concept of branding. Your business plan can look as polished and professional as this sample plan. It's fast and easy, with LivePlan. Business planning has never been easier. With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into a great plan for success. You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for FREE. Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to school students 2012, help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses.

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How to essay education Email Your Resume to Get More Job Offers (Examples) Figuring out how to email a resume sounds like child's play. It's like sending any other email, right? If you're emailing a resume in uk reply to essay education topics a random job offer and clicking send without a second thought, you are doing it wrong. If you want to know how to send a resume that will result in an interview, then you have to start thinking about essay contest school personalization . The best way to get the essay education, interview is to how to scholarship essay take a targeted, personal approach from the beginning. Because wouldn’t it be nice if you could figure out how to email your resume to essay topics a real person who cared? Impossible? No way. In this article, I will show you the three-step process behind emailing a resume: How to establish contact with the right person when emailing a resume. How to find email addresses and what to write in an email with your resume attached.

How to clean up your online presence before emailing a resume. Want to creative save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. Essay Topics. See templates and learning creative writing create your resume here. Almost No One Makes a Personal Connection, But It Works So Well. If you apply to essay topics a large company, your resume could end up in oblivion among an ged essay ged series, average of 250+ other identical resumes . And if you’re applying online, there is a good chance that your resume will end up being processed by Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. That means R2D2 will scan your resume for keywords before it ever falls into human hands. The good news is that if you take a moment to think about essay education how to email a resume to an employer, you can avoid both the bots and samuel the curse of the general inbox. And the answer is simple:

Send your resume directly to topics the hiring manager. But it's not that simple. Let’s say you are among the 80% of Americans that start their job search by visiting job boards or the 70% who apply via social media. Online job offers don’t always reveal who is going to read your resume. Even though (81%) of job seekers say that they want to know, it just isn’t there.

And that’s a shame because you are much more likely to how to scholarship get hired if the hiring manager knows of you beforehand. So, how do you get in touch with a hiring manager? Pro Tip: If you've always wanted to work somewhere, don't wait for open positions or haunt the education, job boards. Reach out now by emailing a resume. Position yourself now so you'll be in the right place later . Want to know what kind of keywords will please both the bots and human recruiters? Don't know where to put skills on distance creative, a resume? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) How to Get in essay education Touch With a Hiring Manager.

I’m sure you’ve heard about how to write scholarship essay six degrees of essay education, separation. The idea that you are only separated from Brad Pitt, The Queen of England, and Honey Boo Boo by six other people? Well, that’s why networking is important. You may not know the ged essay ged series, hiring manager, but you may know someone who does . Reach out to friends, alumni, and former colleagues to essay see if they can put you in touch with the right person. Realize that you've never networked and turn on Netflix. Networking is a lifelong process. School Essays. If you’re just starting, you may not have any connections. Essay Topics. That’s okay.

You can still reach out to hiring managers in a personal way once you know how to email a resume. Even if you're using job boards. In the meantime, focus on making contact with people who work for companies that interest you. How To Write. This brilliant guide will show you how to make connections in any company. Pro Tip: Keep in mind that many companies offer referral bonuses to employees that bring in a candidate. If you’re applying to a company where you know people, you should ask your friend to check if they have such a program. Not sure how to essay make a resume that will attract the attention of ged essay ged series, a hiring manager? We've got you covered.

Read our guide: How To Make A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” How to essay education Find (Almost) Anyone’s Email Address. Okay, let’s say that you can’t find any person who could connect you with a hiring manager. Or you found a great job offer, but there is no contact information. Now, what? First, you’ll need to graduate school do some research to find the internal recruiters or HR personnel responsible for processing resumes where you want to work.

Start with the company’s website to education topics find the name of the hiring manager and move to LinkedIn to see if you can find their email address. If you are trying to find out samuel barber essay, how to email a resume to a hiring manager responsible for a particular job offer, LinkedIn is essay topics, your best bet. Write Best Essay. In-house recruiters often post positions they are currently trying to fill on their LinkedIn profiles. In either situation, you are trying to essay education topics find the samuel essay, name of the education, hiring manager and their email address. While finding a name is easy, finding an email address can be hard. Start by ged essay, using an app called Email Hunter . Once you've found a promising LinkedIn profile, click on the app and it will generate an email address for essay topics, you.

If that doesn't work, you can try the old school way and use Google. Start your search with the company’s email domain: The search may not lead you to the hiring manager’s personal email address, but what it can do is show you what formula the company uses for all of its email addresses. See, most companies use the school application, same formula: If you can find that formula, all you need to do is plug in the hiring manager’s name. Let’s say you can’t find the address formula either.

You’ve simply got the names of the company and education topics the hiring manager. You’ve still got enough information. Here is an contest high school 2012, Email Permutator that automatically generates all possible combinations of the essay, hiring manager’s name and the company’s domain. Pro Tip: If you’ve used the permutator, you might want to verify the scholarship essay, addresses to see if they're active. Run them through a free email verification tool like MailTester . Education. MailTester isn’t flawless, but it’s a good way to steck-vaughn lower your bounce rate. Here’s How to Connect with Hiring Managers on LinkedIn. Now, armed with a name and essay education topics an email address you can send a personalized resume email. Note, not all hiring managers will appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes.

Which is why you will want to start the process by sending the hiring manager an invite via LinkedIn. By making a connection on steck-vaughn ged series, LinkedIn first, the hiring manager has the chance to become familiar with you . Education. Otherwise, emailing a resume may come across as unprofessional soliciting. On Global. They may also disregard your email as spam. Julie Dossett, Communications Lead at topics, LinkedIn Canada, says : First, you will need to tell LinkedIn how you know them. You’ve got three choices. If you’re sure about their email, choose “ other .” Otherwise, choose “ we’ve done business together .” It’s safe as long as it’s plausible. You can also select “ I don’t know so-and-so .” Keep in mind that if the hiring manager ignores your invite, you will not be able to send another in how to essay the future. As for the message, LinkedIn invitation messages are only topics 300 characters , which is slightly longer than two tweets, so, you don’t have much space. You need to write a message that has a purpose and essay issues is personal. The templates above let the essay, hiring manager know who you are, how you found them, and why you want to add them.

Also, show them that you pay attention to essay what’s happening in essay topics your field. Once you’ve made initial contact with them, you can move on ged series, to figuring out essay, how to email a resume. Pro Tip: If you’re engaging with the company via social media (LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook), it will show the hiring manager that you have an active interest in the company. How to Email a Resume to Attract a Hiring Manager’s Attention. Okay, so you’ve gotten the hiring manager’s attention on LinkedIn. But before you jump to steck-vaughn emailing a resume, you’ve got to create an email that’s going to get opened. Start with an attention-grabbing subject headline . Essay Education. Remember, a typical inbox reveals about 60 characters of an email's subject line. And that gets reduced to school application essays only 25 to 30 characters via mobile. Try opening with a solution:

Subject: I can boost XYZ’s growth. If you don’t feel comfortable offering such an ambitious solution, you can start by essay education topics, pitching yourself. Subject: Award-winning HR Director Interested in XYZ. The more you personalize your message, the better. Consider adding achievements , skills, details about how you fit in barber essay with the company’s culture, knowledge of their competition, and knowledge of their brand. Use a natural and topics likable style. More companies are hiring based on essay on global issues, personality , so don’t be afraid to show who you are. Of course, keep in mind that some companies will appreciate a more formal tone than others.

It's up to you to essay decide what level of formality to students use when considering how to email your resume. Also, notice where the candidate wrote “ our possibilities ,” it displays a level of solidarity with the employer and essay education what they do . Of course, emailing a resume this personable is only possible if you research the company beforehand. At the end, you can add a postscript. Adding a postscript to an email allows you to emphasize particular information, like a certification or achievement. Also, don't forget to include one of the following phrases: Please find my CV attached. On Global Issues. Please find my resume attached.

Please find my CV attached for your consideration. Please find my resume attached for your consideration. It is also important to mention referrals at this point if relevant. Pro Tip: Save your files using your name - “ Han Solo Resume. ” That's how your resume remains easy to essay education topics find among others with similar file names. Have you considered saving your resume as a PDF? Sending your resume as a PDF guarantees that you formatting won't glitch. Essay On Global. Want to know more? Read our guide: Word Vs PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format?

What Comes Next? Secret Ways to Track Your Resume. Okay, so you’ve finally gotten to the point in the emailing a resume process where you’ve clicked send. Now, what? Somewhere, either in your cover letter or in the email, you’ve probably written that you will contact the hiring manager within a given amount of essay, time. But, how do you know if the hiring manager has read your email? It might be a bit awkward if you make that call and they haven’t read your email yet.

Mixmax is an online tool with email tracking capabilities. Essay Students 2012. If you download a free trial version, you will be able to see if a hiring manager has opened your email. It’s a small thing, but it will help you keep tabs on your resume. Pro Tip: You can set up reminders in education topics Mixmax that will automatically alert you to the fact that you have not received a reply after emailing a resume. Mixmax will also tell you if the receiver clicked on and downloaded your resume. Having this knowledge allows you to know when and application if you should send a follow-up email. If your campaign isn't working, it's time to essay topics find an alternative email address and try again. How to samuel barber essay Clean Up Your Online Image.

After figuring out how to email a resume to an employer, you need to check your general online presence and do some housekeeping. That's because there could be things lurking on the Internet that you didn't know where out there. And you may not have had anything to education topics do with putting them there in the first place. Type your name into Google and other search enginges to see what comes up in the results. Set all your social media profiles to private and assume hiring manager's won't find you. Most of you will find nothing more than links to ged essay your social media profiles. As long as you’ve updated your LinkedIn profile to match your resume , and checked to see what content can be seen by the public on education, your Facebook and Twitter profiles, you should be good to go. Just make sure no unprofessional content is creative writing uk, visible to essay the general public. If you happen to have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not show up in the results at essay on global issues, all. On the education topics, other hand, some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent.

If you find embarrassing content about on global yourself on a particular web page, Google suggests that the best solution is to contact the webmaster (owner) and ask them to remove the content. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of essay education, 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Would you rather apply for 50 random positions and end up with a mediocre job? Or would you rather pinpoint 10 positions and spend 10 minutes figuring out essay, how to send a resume that will result in a job that interests you? Choosing the education topics, second option means taking the time to do research, tailor your resume , and contact a hiring manager. At the distance learning creative writing, same time, until you take the education, time to think about how to email a resume and personalize your approach , a girl is no one. And a man will not hire a girl who is samuel barber, no one.

Besides making yourself known to a hiring manager, taking a personal approach to emailing a resume also makes a lasting impression. The hiring manager is education topics, going to write best scholarship essay know that you have what it takes to get where you want to be. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.