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The seas have also been associated with the essay 2013, sin and the sinful will of man, Isaiah 57:20-21 , James 1:6-8 , Jude 11-12. Revelation 21:2 , John sees the gre, new Jerusalem coming down from heaven, but note that it does not say that it comes to reside on earth. What he does describe in this verse is the papers, beauty of the issue gre, holy city, and prepared as a bride, which is related in many ways throughout scripture to the church. The entire Christian experience, including this event, parallel the Jewish marriage customs: John the Baptist was witness that Christ was the bridegroom and he was the a conclusion for a literary, friend of the bridegroom, John 3:26-29 . It being associated with the essay gre, Bride of Christ, Revelation 19:6-9 That it is the four essays, dwelling place of the gre, Bride, which is what occurs in the customary Jewish wedding. Here Christ has prepared a place for the bride after he had returned for her, John 14:1-4 , which occurred at the rapture of the you write a conclusion literary analysis, church, 1Thessalonians 4:15-18 The church as the dwelling in which the Spirit of the Lord lives, Ephesians 2:19-22 The church which is the body of issue gre Christ, is married to Him, Romans 7:4 The mystery of the church is equated to the relationship between a husband and wife, Ephesians 5:29-33 The church is the wild branch that was grafted into the olive tree, Romans 11:13-29 Paul spoke of the research papers, (new) Jerusalem that is essay gre above and free, Galatians 4:25-27 , Hebrews 12:22-24 . All of these passages demonstrate that the beauty of the city that John describes is more than a mere object of affection, but is in four fact the gre, abode of research on tomatoes His wife. Revelation 21:3 , John hears a loud voice from the throne, which is God's voice, announcing three very important and unique relationships; that the dwelling of God is now with man, that God will now live with them, and that we are to be His people and issue gre, He our God. Can I Buy A Statement! The Lord first walked in the garden with Adam and Eve before sin entered into the world, Genesis 3:8-9 , but sin separated man from God, which only the blood of Jesus on the cross could settle once and for essay gre all, Romans 3:20-26 , Hebrews 9:27-2 8 . The Lord had redeemed the children of Israel from Egypt, but because of the sin of Israel the Lord told Moses at the base of Mount Sinai that he would not go with them along the way to the promised land, as He might destroy them, Exodus 33:1-6 . The Lord did met with Moses in a tent outside of the camp while the tabernacle was being constructed, Exodus 33:7 . With the tabernacle, the Lord promised to have His dwelling place among them, Leviticus 26:11-13 . However, there was always the wall of separation between the holy of essay holies from the holy place, until the Lord came to redeem all mankind on issue, the cross, Hebrews 9:11-28 . Today, during the bishop, church age, we are the temple of the issue essay, living God, 2Corinthians 6:16-18 . Paul also wrote in an earlier letter to the Corinthians that our works were to how do literary be tested, and if we have done well for the kingdom of God.
Those whom have done will receive rewards, whereas those who did not would suffer loss, though not their salvation. Gre! Within this context Paul again reiterates that we are the temple of God and how do a conclusion, that we are to be holy, 1Corinthians 3:16-17 . Then again, Paul points to this separation from the world where in essay a latter chapter in this same book that as the a conclusion essay, temple of God, we are to flee sexual immorality. For we are bought with a price and we are to glorify God in issue gre our body and vcu college, spirit, which belong to God, 1Corinthians 6:19-20 . Christ spoke through the prophet Ezekiel that He would dwell among His people Israel, Ezekiel 37:24-28 . During that 1,000 year reign of Christ, He is dwelling in His temple immediately north of the issue essay gre, city Jerusalem. At that time, all promises made to His people will be fulfilled. In these past examples in the Old Testament, the church age, and the millennial reign of Christ, the population consists of those who believe in God and follow His ways, and those who choose not to follow Him. However, in eternity future, the permanent and eternal separation between the righteous and the wicked have occurred at the great white throne judgment, and now the fullness of God is among mankind in the new heaven and new earth, which will consist of only elizabeth bishop questions those whose names are written in issue essay the Lamb's book of essays travels life, Revelation 21:27 . Revelation 21:4-5 , John hears the loud voice of the Lord from the throne describing aspects of this new environment that He prepared for eternity future. In the new heaven and new earth there is: no more tears no more death, because it was cast into the lake of fire, Revelation 20:14 no more mourning no more crying no more pain. The old order of things has passed away. All that we knew in the world that we grew up in are no more.
God affirms to essay John that all things are new, and essays gullivers, further tells him to write everything down. Revelation 21:6 , God now proclaims that “it is done…” The first time a similar phrase was used occurred during the Lord’s priestly prayer the night before His crucifixion; He said that He had finished the work that the Father had given Him, John 17:1-5 . Issue Essay! The second occurrence of this statement in a public declaration was by the Lord when He was on the cross when all of the work to vcu college essay redeem all mankind occurred, John 19:28-30 , and issue, Matthew 27:50 . The third statement will occur upon the completion of the world’s judgment with the caltech essay 2013, pouring out of the seventh bowl, Revelation 16:17-18 . There is nothing that will not have been fulfilled among all of the covenants and promises that the issue gre, Lord had made, beginning in the garden of Eden to the completion of throwing death and Hades into the lake of fire, Revelation 21:6 . It is done fulfills what was promised to the Lord by the Father, wherein after the cross, Jesus sat down at the right hand of you write a conclusion analysis essay God waiting for issue gre His enemies to be made His footstool, Hebrews 10:11-14 . The promise was made to Christ concerning His enemies by the Father, Psalms 110:1 , Hebrews 1:10-12 . What is done is four gullivers all the work God had done to restore mankind to Himself since his fall in the garden of issue Eden, to include the very end when the earth and heavens are burnt with fire, Colossians 1:12-20 . The Lord also reiterates His title as the Alpha and research papers, Omega, which He first revealed to John when He revealed His glorified nature at the beginning of the issue, book of Revelation, Revelation 1:8 . He revealed Himself to the churches, Revelation, 1:11 and in the context of eternity future, Revelation 21:6 , Revelation 22:13 . Jesus Christ is the only name under heaven by which man can be saved, Acts 4:10-12 . Christ is the author of our salvation, Hebrews 5:8-10 , the author and finisher of our faith, Hebrews 12:1-3 . Elizabeth Bishop! The summation of this salvation is issue essay gre that no one who is thirsty will be refused to where can i buy a drink of the water of life, Psalm 36:9 , John 4:10-14 . In Revelation 21:7 , John writes that … he that overcomes … will be His son, Galatians 4:4-7 . They will inherit all that the Lord has in store for His own in eternity future because they overcame the world, 1John 5:4-5 . He writes to all the churches, with a note to those whom overcome: Revelation 2:7 (Ephesus), be given the essay, right to eat from the tree of life Revelation 2: 11 (Smyrna), will not be hurt by the second death Revelation 2: 17 (Pergamum), give some of the hidden manna, and a white stone with a new name written on it Revelation 2: 26 (Thyatira), will have authority over the nations Revelation 3: 5 (Sardis), be dressed in white, and will never be blotted out of the book of life, and will be acknowledged before the Father Revelation 3: 12 (Philadelphia), will have a pillar in God’s temple Revelation 3: 21 (to all), will have the right to sit with Christ on His throne. In contrast to overcomers, He lists those who will not be part of his new kingdom, but have their part in the lake of fire. That is those who are: Fearful (not having faith In Christ) Unbelieving (not accepting Christ and bishop essay questions, the salvation He offers) Abominable (not living the issue, life of Christ) Murderers (Christ said that even thoughts of such things are a witness against us) Fornicators (Christ said that even lusting after another woman is a witness against us) Sorcerers (drug abuse, horoscopes, fortune telling and the sort, are all a form of demon worship, and is against God) Idolaters (letting anything come between us and the worship of Christ) All liars (we must always watch our way, for so much evil starts with a lie) Those in the above list are also mentioned as partaking of the second death. This is not an indication that sinners will also occupy the new heaven and new earth, but rather, who will not. For it specifically addresses them as being part of the second death, Luke 21:34-36 . Revelation 21:8 , the Lord then lists those who will not take part of this new world and heavens.
Their part is in the lake of fire of burning sulfur, which is again is equated to the second death. Bishop Questions! Anyone in either the presence of the Lord, or in the lake of fire, are there eternally. Revelation 21:9-10 , an angel associated with the group of seven that poured out the essay, bowl judgments onto the world now guides John to show him the bride, the wife of the Lamb, which is the place of her dwelling. John is taken in supplement essay the spirit to issue essay another location, a great, high mountain, to witness the descending of the holy city, Jerusalem, coming out of heaven. Recall that up until now, we have either seen God’s throne area or the temple which Moses modeled after the earthly tabernacle. Revelation 21:11-14 , the new city is caltech supplement essay seen by John to shine brilliantly like the glory of God, and issue gre, with the quality of a very precious jewel. The city had a high wall with 12 gates with an angel at each gate On each gate was written the names of the 12 tribes of Israel The order of the names are not given as it was for the holy city during the millennial reign of Christ There are three gates on each side of the city, north, south, east, and west The city had 12 foundations named after the how do analysis, 12 apostles of the Lamb. The twelve disciples make up the 12 whose names appear on the foundations of the holy city. 11 of the apostles are listed in Acts 1:12 -13 : Peter, John, James, and Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James son of issue essay gre Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James.
There is some debate who the vcu college essay, 12th disciple is. Recall in Acts 1:26 that after casting lots over two men who fit the conditions the 11 disciples set as to issue essay who could be qualified to can i buy a personal statement be an apostle, the lot fell upon Matthias. Unfortunately, this was done prior to the power of Holy Spirit falling upon all the disciples in issue gre the upper room on the day of Pentecost. So some argue that this was not of God. One reason for this position is that after the can i buy a, lottery, nothing is ever heard of Matthias again.
God’s man may well have been Saul of Tarsus, later going by the name of Paul. Saul was blinded by the Lord on the road to Damascus. Upon his healing, the Lord revealed to Paul many mysteries that were kept from the other 11. Revelation 21:15-21 , the angel now displays a measuring reed of gold, and measures the city, which is issue essay laid out like a square, and is arguably a cube. However, some argue that it is a four-sided pyramid. In US measurements, the footprint of the new Jerusalem is about 1,500 miles square, and could cover the entire eastern half of the United States. It is difficult to four be dogmatic about the following, so this is only an opinion. It does appear that the holy city is above the earth so that the light from God can shine upon gre, the world, and there will be no night in the city, as drawn in papers the figure to the right, which is based on a NASA image. Whether or not earth will experience an evening is not known, but with the sunlight and issue gre, light from the New Jerusalem, the notion of a nearly equal division of night and day will probably not occur on a regular basis, as shown in a satellite view provided by NASA of the earth and moon in the figure above left. Essays Travels! This may indicate that light, and other physical properties may be different than what we observe today. If one were to envelop the holy city in issue essay gre a crystal, hollow sphere, the size of the sphere would have to be about essay 2% larger than our moon’s diameter.
The moon’s diameter is about 2,159 miles and if there were a sphere enclosing the holy city would be about essay 2,598 miles, as shown in statement the two figures. Revelation 21:22-27 , John continues to issue remark on what he sees. Of note, is that there was no temple in the city. Recall that during the tribulation years, John reported seeing the temple of God in the area of His throne, and John could see into the holy of essays travels holies. He was quite familiar with what the temple looked like, so its absence would be obvious to him.
Instead, the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple and are with mankind. Unlike times past and the future through the millennium, the temple was the central focus of the Jewish people, where they provided sacrifices to the Lord. In the new heaven, new earth, and new Jerusalem, there are no sacrifices that are either observed by John or recorded to occur. John also observes that the issue gre, city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives the light and the Lamb is the lamp, Isaiah 60:11 , Isaiah 60:17-22 . As a result: The nations of the earth will walk by its light The kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. The gates to the city will never be shut, for caltech supplement essay 2013 there is never any night Nothing impure will ever enter into it Only those whose name written in issue gre the Lamb’s book of elizabeth life will enter into issue essay gre, the city, which are all who are alive in God’s presence, everyone else is in how do for a literary analysis the lake of fire. In Revelation 20 the 2nd resurrection was associated with the issue essay gre, second death of those who elected to not believe in the Lord Jesus Christ.
There was no mention of a 3rd resurrection. Vcu College Essay! However, based on Paul's writing to issue the Corinthians, 1Corinthians 15:50 , the flesh is not able to inherit the kingdom of God. Nowhere is the status of the surviving tribulation saints given with respect to their transformation into their eternal bodies. Neither is there any mention of what will occur to caltech supplement essay 2013 those born during the Lord's millennial reign, and who chose to believe in gre the Lord Jesus Christ. There are examples in scripture to suggest what may happen, such as with the translation of Enoch, or Elijah being taking up, or to you write for a literary be raptured as those living during the end of the church age will experience. Regardless, they will all have new eternal bodies.
A possible construct of the groups of saints during eternity future may be the Church, who made up of Jews and Gentiles in their resurrected bodies and are in the holy city with Christ, the issue gre, groom. Essays! The Old Testament saints in their resurrected bodies could be on earth enjoying all of the fulfilled promises of God to them and sharing the world with those who lived through the millennium. The whole economy of living during this time for the saints is essay so foreign to what we know today, one can only where can i buy a personal imagine what it will be like.
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14 Skills and issue essay, Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on statement, your Resume. Essay? Deals with acting in elizabeth bishop essay, a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on issue gre, your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and questions, committed to professionalism. Gre? Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and vcu college essay, optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of issue essay gre, a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and essay, will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on issue gre, your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks.
5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to essays travels describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. Issue Essay? How to how do a conclusion for a essay describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and issue essay, upbeat, positive attitude.
Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to supplement describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is gre, committed to caltech supplement achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. Issue? While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on where personal, your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to essay learn a new skill or technique.
Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an a conclusion for a analysis openness to issue essay grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to caltech supplement meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about essay, whether leadership is caltech 2013, something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to issue essay gre take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and elizabeth bishop essay questions, coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the issue essay gre, ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and elizabeth questions, assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the issue gre, Career Development Center at Binghamton University.
Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Elizabeth Essay Questions? Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in gre, Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of vcu college, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and issue gre, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and how do a conclusion for a literary, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.
He is gre, publisher of elizabeth questions, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for issue essay gre, more than 15 years. Research Papers? Visit his personal Website or reach him by issue gre email at caltech essay, [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from issue gre Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by how do you write analysis e-mail at [email protected]intcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related.
You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and issue gre, resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for where personal statement, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.
Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of issue essay gre, Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to four travels the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on issue, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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essay on iran Tehran's iconic Azadi tower. A new president may take his country in a new direction. Suzanne Maloney is an expert on Iranian politics, energy and economic reform in the Middle East, and gre, U.S. policy toward the elizabeth bishop region. Prior to her position as a senior fellow with the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, she was a member of the State Department’s policy planning staff; a Middle East advisor at ExxonMobil Corporation; and director of essay, a Council on Foreign Relations task force on America’s Iran policy. Author of Iran’s Long Reach and contributor to such works as Which Path to Persia? Options for a New American Strategy toward Iran , she is can i buy a personal also founder and essay gre, editor of [email protected], an insightful blog about politics in and policy concerning Iran.
The sycamore trees that line the northern stretches of Vali Asr Avenue in Tehran arch overhead like a canopy. In the winter, their snowy branches frame a view of the elizabeth bishop essay Alborz Mountains where Tehranis escape to hike or ski. On a summer day, the leaves filter the sun and essay, smog in the affluent northern neighborhoods, and you can watch the temperature rise by ten degrees as you inch your way southward in the city's infamous traffic toward the heart of old Tehran. Vali Asr is said to be the longest street in the Middle East; and sometimes it feels like the only straight path in a nation whose course has been highly unpredictable and intensely complicated ever since the 1979 revolution which ousted the secular, pro-American shah and installed a theocracy led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was on Vali Asr, 18 years later, that young Iranians erupted in joy in the largest spontaneous public demonstrations the essay capital had seen since the gre revolution.
The immediate cause for a conclusion for a essay celebration in 1997 was the essay national team's World Cup qualification, but for many it was a belated response to the recent election of research on tomatoes, a president who promised reform. Mohammad Khatami's victory represented a moment when the country appeared on the cusp of change again. Issue Essay? His promises went largely unfulfilled, however, doomed by the intractability of the defenders of 2013, Iran's religious orthodoxy—among them the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Hassan Rouhani is the seventh president of the Islamic Republic of issue essay gre, Iran, having assumed that office in August 2013. Born Hassan Fereidoun in 1948 in northern Iran, he attended seminary in Qom and the University of Tehran, and elizabeth essay, later earned a doctorate from Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland. Rouhani was active in Iran's Islamic opposition from an early age and by the revolution was part of Ayatollah Khomeini's inner circle. He served five terms in issue essay, parliament and in other senior leadership positions throughout his career, and led Iran's nuclear negotiations until 2005. His presidential candidacy received the support of former presidents Khatami and Rafsanjani.
Yet, on the eve of another election in 2009, Iranians returned to Vali Asr in another powerful display of the will of the people. Tens of thousands of Iranians linked arms in a human chain that stretched the caltech essay 2013 full 12 miles of Vali Asr to express their support of reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi. Less than a week later, however, huge crowds gathered there again, this time to issue gre denounce the apparently rigged victory of the incumbent, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a man infamous for his bigotry and provocative policies. The protestors' initial chants of where is my vote? met with police batons and bullets. The violence that ended the travels demonstrations, and essay, the show trials and other Stalinist tactics that followed, suggested that the theocracy no longer saw the need for even the where can i personal fig leaf of semi-orchestrated elections, and instead had devolved to gre a more naked authoritarianism. With the caltech essay 2013 rapid smashing of the issue gre opposition, Iran became more of a pariah state than ever, its streets gone silent. This episode appeared to extinguish the Islamic Republic's copious capacity for reinvention. Research Papers? But something happened along the way to gre the latest election, in June 2013: Iran's political narrative once again defied expectations. A brief and papers, unprecedentedly outspoken campaign gave voice to criticisms of the issue regime that might once have landed some of the candidates in jail. In the end, it was the candidate who appealed most forcefully for a new path who won the presidency, with a resounding majority. In the aftermath of the vote, throngs of Iranians once again poured onto Vali Asr for where can i buy a personal statement spur-of-the-moment street parties.
They celebrated not so much the victor, veteran cleric turned politician Hassan Rouhani, but the possibility that his election signified a pivot away from the issue gre regime's disastrous course of recent years. Even if this proves true—even if Tehran is stepping back from the vcu college brink of its ruinous battle with much of the rest of the world—there is no guarantee that Rouhani's election will put an end to the uncertainty that has enveloped Iranian politics for issue essay more than three decades, or lessen the antagonism between the Iranian leadership and the West. Caltech Essay 2013? Rouhani campaigned on a slogan of essay, hope and essays gullivers travels, prudence, two commodities that have been in short supply since the issue gre 1979 revolution. Buy A Statement? Delivering on that promise may prove the toughest course the Islamic Republic has yet had to navigate. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of issue gre, Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the elizabeth bishop questions 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965.
Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965. Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. From the Reign of the Shahs to an Enduring Revolution. Vali Asr was constructed after Persia's crumbling Qajar dynasty gave way in issue gre, 1925 to an army-installed monarchy. Its original name, Pahlavi Avenue, honored the new self-proclaimed shah , or king, Reza Shah Pahlavi, who commissioned it. Vcu College Essay? The broad boulevard became the issue central thoroughfare in Iran's capital, linking the how do for a analysis royal palaces and state institutions with the train station that was the gre anchor of the shah's industrialization effort. Over the next half-century, the country was transformed, both by the rapid modernization program, and by the regime's official embrace of the West. Much of this transformation came under the reign of the where can i statement second Pahlavi shah, Mohammad Reza, who was heir to his father's ambitions but not his leadership skills. His initial years at issue essay the helm of the state proved rocky. In 1953, the shah briefly abandoned his throne in a showdown with rivals who campaigned to nationalize Iran's oil industry.
The leader of this movement, Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, was ousted in a coup orchestrated by Washington and London, after which the monarchy was reinstated and where buy a, reinforced. But for many Iranians, Mossadegh remains a national icon, and resentment over the role played by foreign powers in removing an elected Iranian leader persists to this day. Mohammad Reza Shah eventually found his footing, thanks in part to increasing American support. Washington appreciated the value of issue gre, a reliable, energy-rich ally as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East, and the shah hungered for validation and influence. But American-Iranian relations were tempestuous from the start—a peculiar stew of admiration and supplement 2013, resentment on both sides.
Throughout the 1960s and '70s, however, it was a relationship that seemed to essay serve both countries exceptionally well. Iran in essays gullivers travels, this era became a swaggering state, a country of boundless opportunity. While courting superpowers both east and west, Tehran helped to orchestrate the historic transformation of the global oil industry, which transferred control—and profits—of the world's energy resources to the states that owned them. Fuelled by grandiose ambitions and revulsion toward traditionalism, the shah channeled his vast oil profits into a mad dash for modernity. Along the way, Iran made much progress. Most important—and often overlooked in essay gre, the post-revolutionary demonization of the monarchy—millions of Iranians achieved a middle-class existence. The country became an international hotspot: Western bankers jostled for Iranian petrodollars; Harvard Business School opened a campus; tourists from where can i personal statement, around the world flocked to see the essay ruins of ancient Persia; diplomats clamored for a Tehran posting. But amid this rapid development, something was lost. Iranian society was in flux: its economy was simultaneously expanding and imploding, its religion and customs were under siege, its traditional channels of vcu college, influence eroding under the pressure of a state determined to assert its dominance. Intellectuals wrote dark parables about a nation so intoxicated with the West that it had lost its identity.
Even as the essay gre shah was pouring money into his notion of an ideal society, pockets of opposition were developing. Eventually, Pahlavi Avenue and Tehran's city center became the locus of another mode of change, this time driven from the streets of Iran rather than from its palaces. Over the supplement essay 2013 course of 1978, protestors gathered here in ever-expanding numbers to vent their frustrations with a political system in which power was concentrated in essay gre, the hands of a single man. The upheaval on the streets culminated the following year in the shah’s ouster at gullivers travels the hands of an inchoate coalition of issue, leftists, liberals and Shi’a Muslim clerics. Among the protestors there was little consensus on what ought to literary essay replace the monarchy, but they coalesced around Ruhollah Khomeini, a revered ayatollah who had been exiled in 1964 for gre protesting the shah’s reforms.
The shah was dumbfounded that his subjects would spurn his magnificent achievements. “The nation I had led to the threshold of progress, power, and self-confidence lay torn and bleeding,” he wrote in his memoirs, while he himself had been supplanted by a “worn, fanatic old man [who] was repeatedly telling the Iranian people how mean, miserable, and poverty-stricken they were”—a man who represented the very forces of traditionalism he had sought to eliminate. The shah's disbelief was echoed by much of the rest of the world. Essays Gullivers Travels? Religious radicalism is painfully familiar today; in 1979, however, Iran's upheaval scuttled the long-held assumption that economic development led inexorably to secularization and issue, liberalization. The fall of Iran's monarchy proved to be the first of what would be numerous salvos in a worldwide, multi-generational struggle over the rightful role of Islam in political life. Immediately after the revolution, Iran's new leaders began re-casting the country to buy a personal suit their aspirations. Even the street names were not safe. Issue Essay Gre? The capital of an Islamic Republic could not host a Roosevelt Avenue or other streets with names lionizing Western allies. And certainly its main drag could not pay tribute to the reviled monarch who had just been overthrown.
Pahlavi Avenue was renamed multiple times, consistent with the shifting fortunes in the skirmish for post-revolutionary authority. The revolutionaries finally settled on Vali Asr, a tribute to the 12th Imam, who disappeared in the ninth century and whose return is awaited as a signal of world salvation. For Shi'a Muslims, the phrase Vali Asr symbolizes hope in a just future; for research on tomatoes Iranians, the revolution has brought anything but. The revolutionary state jettisoned many other vestiges of monarchical Iran. Gone were the bars and the discos, the issue Western tourists and businessmen, the short skirts and bikinis, and any other hints of vcu college, secularism. Hijab , or modest Islamic dress, quickly went from fashion statement to fiercely-enforced legal requirement. Anti-American protests, which culminated in the November 1979 seizure of the U.S. Embassy and issue gre, the 14-month hostage crisis, eviscerated all traces of the pre-revolutionary romance with the West. Dramatic as these changes were, perhaps the most amazing aspect of Iran's post-revolutionary order has been its sheer endurance.
The Islamic Republic has survived every calamity short of the plague: an invasion and research papers on tomatoes, a brutish war; internal insurgencies; the death of its charismatic founder; catastrophes both natural and man-made; and recently an almost wholesale amputation from the international financial system thanks to economic sanctions. Issue Essay Gre? Yet somehow the how do a conclusion for a literary Islamic Republic is issue essay gre still standing. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against the shah. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against the shah. A Ceremonial Presidency Evolves in the Islamic Republic. Out of the revolutionary chaos, a new system of government evolved. A hastily-organized referendum endorsed the a conclusion for a literary analysis vague notion of an Islamic Republic. In the contentious debate over a new constitution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his partisans pressed to accord ultimate power to an unelected supreme leader, a post assumed—naturally—by Khomeini himself. Endowing the head of government with a divine mandate upended centuries of Shi'a theology and unnerved many of Iran's senior clerics. But the essay gre imam's thundering insistence overrode every objection. Presidents of the Islamic Republic of elizabeth questions, Iran.
These transformations might suggest that the gre revolution changed everything about essays gullivers travels, Iran, but it left much intact as well, including Iran's century-old parliament, an assortment of other elective offices, and a constitution that bears some resemblance to one developed during a proto-democratic uprising 60 years earlier. Many of the monarchy's policies and organizations were simply repurposed with an Islamic bent. The tensions and contradictions that characterize the Islamic Republic today reflect the uneasy bargain negotiated among the essay gre disparate interests that joined forces to oust the shah. It seems fitting that the presidency provoked real debate among the vcu college essay framers of the new system from the start. During the essay years that followed, as the regime's partisans jostled for power, this office would serve, variously, as the center of vcu college, gravity for Iran's democratic aspirations, as a tangible symbol of the issue essay revolution's republican intentions and, for the revolutionary elites, as an advantageous perch for influence peddling.
However, during the first decade after the revolution, the elizabeth essay questions presidency remained largely ceremonial. Policy was shaped primarily by Khomeini, along with the parliament and the prime minister. Iran's dominant political and religious authority is the supreme leader, a position designed by essay gre the revolution's driving force, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Following Khomeini's 1989 death, mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei was selected to succeed him after serving two terms as president. Like other Iranian leaders, Khamenei was trained in seminaries and actively opposed the shah. He was wounded in a 1981 terrorist attack that cost the use of his right arm. As supreme leader, he has steadily expanded the authority of the a conclusion for a office. He endorsed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's disputed re-election of 2009, describing the opposition as seditionists and influenced by Western conspiracies. Early occupants of the presidency proved unlucky: Iran's first post-revolutionary president broke with the regime and had to flee for his life; his replacement was killed in a terrorist attack. On the third try, in August 1981, Iranians elected mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei as president.
The position would serve him far better than his predecessors, eventually launching him into issue essay gre the exalted status of supreme leader, successor to Khomeini. Khamenei's two terms as president coincided with a desperate time for the fledgling theocracy, when the country was consumed by the sacred defense it was forced to mount to fend off the September 1980 invasion by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The war presented Tehran with an existential crisis, exacerbated by the country's isolation and by vcu college the turmoil and issue essay, purges that had devastated the four essays military establishment. Issue Essay Gre? For all its hazards, however, the conflict had an upside for caltech supplement essay Khomeini. An economy disrupted by revolution experienced a short-term boost thanks to the demands of wartime production, and Iranians rallied around a regime that for many bore little resemblance to their revolutionary aspirations.
Amid the sufferings of war, the new state's authority was strengthened, the achievements of the issue gre revolution consolidated. And when Iraq's invasion was successfully repulsed, the ayatollahs went on bishop essay the offensive. Spurning a 1982 ceasefire proposal that promised billions in reparations from the Gulf states, Khomeini continued the conflict for six more years in gre, an increasingly futile effort to topple Saddam. Millions of Iranians were killed, wounded or displaced; key ports were destroyed; vital oil export routes and four essays, facilities were disrupted; and the economy and issue essay gre, the war effort were severely constrained by sanctions. Jean-Claude Delmas/AFP/Getty Images. Brookings Senior Fellow Bruce Riedel calls the Iran-Iraq War devastating. Khomeini finally conceded the war's failure in 1988. The decision to vcu college accept a cease-fire with Saddam, which he famously compared to drinking from a poisoned chalice, contravened his frequent invocations of issue gre, victory at any cost, and came over the objections of his own commanders as well as many of the regime's radicals. But Iran had little alternative: challenges from the opposition and on the streets were mounting; its economy was near collapse; and Tehran lacked the four essays money or materials necessary to achieve a decisive military victory. For many, however, the wounds of the conflict remain raw, and bitterness over international indifference toward Tehran's suffering and complicity in Saddam's crimes still rankles.
The politician tapped to bring the war to a satisfactory conclusion was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, then-speaker of the parliament and a cleric who was especially close to Khomeini. Issue Essay Gre? Rafsanjani was made acting commander-in-chief in mid-1988, and he ended the war expeditiously and without remorse. Then, when Khomeini died in 1989, Rafsanjani played a central role in boosting his revolutionary comrade Khamenei into essay the post of issue gre, supreme leader, while he himself moved seamlessly into the newly expanded presidency. Ayatollah Rafsanjani has been one of the elizabeth essay questions key figures in Iran for the past half century. He studied theology in issue essay, Qom where he became a follower of Ayatollah Khomeini and essay, was a member of Iran's Revolutionary Council. He has served as speaker of the Majlis, Iran's parliament; commander-in-chief of the armed forces during the final months of the issue gre Iraq war; president for two terms; and chairman of the Expediency Council, a powerful state institution.
During and after his presidential terms, he was considered a centrist with pragmatic tendencies. Although disqualified from running in the 2013 presidential election, he backed the eventual winner, Hassan Rouhani. BBC News has called him the richest man in Iran. Rafsanjani's presidency proved decisive for Iran. He came into office determined to enact an ambitious reconstruction program, and his efforts to elizabeth essay undertake an issue essay gre economic and diplomatic rehabilitation of his country were hard-fought, if not wholly successful. But his policies sparked waves of resistance—first, from papers on tomatoes, a liberalizing reform movement and then, in counter-reaction, from a new generation of essay, hardliners. Both movements imploded of their own volition, leaving in their wake a country ripe for Rafsanjani-style moderation and pragmatism—which in can i personal statement, turn would later lead to a strange kind of essay gre, comeback for the Islamic Republic's most storied politician. Supporters of nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally.
Supporters of nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to vcu college a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally. The 2013 Presidential Election: 686 Applicants, Only Eight Contenders. In 2013, nearly a quarter century after Rafsanjani's first election to the presidency—literally a lifetime in a country where two-thirds of the population is below the age of issue essay, 30—the possibility of his return to the office loomed large as the latest ballot approached. He had already served two terms, from 1989 to 1997, and had sought a third in 2005, in a tight race against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, then mayor of Tehran. He lost that contest in a run-off, a defeat that stung the establishment and catapulted the little-known Ahmadinejad into the limelight. How Do For A Analysis Essay? Ahmadinejad's presidency reversed the issue gre trajectory of essay 2013, Iran's post-war path of moderation, and put the revolution back on a collision course with the international community. This time around, after months of public vacillation, Rafsanjani arrived to register his candidacy at the last possible moment, creating a perfectly orchestrated election surprise. His dramatic bid captivated an Iranian political establishment that had been in a state of suspended animation for four years, ever since the massive street protests that erupted after Ahmadinejad's dubious 2009 reelection. Issue? Not that Rafsanjani's candidacy was universally welcomed. Over the can i years, the disappointments of his tenure and his reputation for issue essay gre opportunism and corruption had eroded public support, perhaps accounting for the failure of his last two campaigns (a 2000 bid for the parliament as well as the 2005 presidential race).
But he remains a heavyweight. And after the havoc wrought by Ahmadinejad, the prospective candidacy of a politician still considered a man of action and substance buoyed hopes for a better future. Iranian elections adhere to an idiosyncratic set of procedures. While anyone can toss a hat into the ring, a clerical oversight body—the Council of vcu college essay, Guardians—determines who is permitted to run. The eligibility criteria are vague enough to issue gre enable the regime to cull all but a few hand-picked insiders. For A Analysis Essay? In a bizarre turn of issue essay, events, the Guardians rejected Rafsanjani's bid for another go at the office he had held for eight years. However absurd the Islamic Republic's vetting process has been in the past—and more than two dozen elections over the course of 34 years have provided abundant fodder for ridicule—the ruling that one of the regime's founders was unfit to run for can i buy a the presidency carried the farce to issue essay a new level.
Rafsanjani's failed bid remains one of the more curious factors in an astonishing election. Perhaps it was simply textbook political theater from the regime's most skilled showman, his snubbing meant to reinforce the need for a return to realism, thus improving the prospects for the candidate closest to his own views and experience—Hassan Rouhani. The sixth president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad earned a reputation as an unpredictable hardliner who reversed the liberalization promoted by his predecessor, reformist Mohammed Khatami. Prior to his 2005 election, Ahmadinejad served as mayor of Tehran and a provincial governor. His comments denying the Holocaust and raising doubts about al Qaeda's role in the 9/11 attacks, plus his contested 2009 re-election victory, created fierce opposition at home and abroad.
After his presidency, Ayatollah Khamenei appointed him to the Expediency Council, where he now serves alongside such notables as Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hassan Rouhani, Ali Akbar Velayati and Mohammed Reza Aref. As Rafsanjani's understudy, Rouhani is a quintessential creation of Iran's post-revolutionary order. He trained in the seminary and, like many young Iranian clerics in the 1960s, became active in the opposition to how do you write a conclusion for a analysis essay the shah, which led to repeated arrests. Having become part of Khomeini's inner circle during the ayatollah's final months in exile, he has held influential positions throughout the post-revolutionary period. But it was his role as a nuclear negotiator, an extension of his 16-year tenure as the secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, that hurtled Rouhani into the eye of the hurricane, and brought him to the attention of the world, which had hitherto taken little notice of him.
Representing Iran in talks with Europe from 2003 to issue gre 2005—an effort by the Iranian regime to stave off reprisals over its just-disclosed nuclear program—Rouhani helped hammer out an vcu college agreement that suspended Iran's most worrisome nuclear activities. Issue? To date it remains Iran's most significant concession on the nuclear issue, and it earned Rouhani the nickname the sheikh of diplomacy for his role in defusing a mounting clash with the where can i buy a West. Yet as the essay sense of threat receded, and few of the incentives promised by elizabeth bishop essay European negotiators for Iranian cooperation materialized, Tehran quickly soured on the deal. Having only warily endorsed the 2003 suspension, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei quashed it less than two years later, resuming the nuclear program and championing defiance in tune with Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Rouhani resigned his responsibility for the nuclear portfolio, and emerged as the whipping boy for Iran's ascendant hardliners. In their eyes, Rouhani's diplomacy represented a surrender to issue gre the rapacious West, exchanging diamonds for peanuts, conceding Iran's resources and vcu college essay, its influence as irresponsibly as the monarchy had. While Rouhani remained a senior functionary in the Iranian system during the Ahmadinejad presidency, he was mostly sidelined to a government think tank. Issue Essay? From there, he inveighed in surprisingly frank tones against how do you write essay Ahmadinejad's ideologically-driven excesses. Sometimes he even appeared to be serving as an informal spokesman for Iran's embattled realists, most of whom had been shunted aside in issue essay gre, the wake of Ahmadinejad's giddy arrival on the scene. During this period he also wrote one of the only truly interesting memoirs of recent Iranian political history, divulging new details about the nuclear program, sharing insider gossip and dispensing the bishop blunt truths that are his hallmark. Rouhani held a strange sinecure on the fringes of official respectability and relevance in these years, publicly excoriated by Khamenei for issue essay the nuclear negotiations he had led, yet somehow retaining his close bond with the supreme leader.
So it was perhaps not surprising that out of 686 applicants, Rouhani was one of the eight candidates —all of them men of the system, and most of an unabashedly conservative bent— to receive the nod from the Council of Guardians. The slate elicited little excitement and, after the short-lived commotion over Rafsanjani, many observers anticipated an anodyne campaign, a display of essay, mindless deference to issue the regime's ideological strictures. Expectations reverted to what had become the bishop essay conventional wisdom ever since Ahmadinejad's contested reelection: that Khamenei preferred, indeed required, an essay gre unquestioning acolyte in the presidency. This would explain his elevation and assiduous defense of questions, Ahmadinejad, his endorsement of the 2009 electoral fraud, and the earlier backlash against the reformist Khatami. Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images. Like so many widely held perceptions of Iran, however, the gre assumption that Ahmadinejad had ever been merely a pliant errand boy for Iran's hardliners misses the supplement essay 2013 mark. That may have been the intention, but Ahmadinejad eclipsed these expectations and the presidency's limited powers, overturning the revolutionary state's protocols and issue essay gre, alarming the establishment. Late in essay, his second term, after he had overstepped one time too often by attempting to fire the essay intelligence minister over the supreme leader's objections, Khamenei reined him in—which only reinforced presumptions that the supreme leader would not make the same mistake again. This time he would anoint a trusted subordinate who would pose no challenge to his own primacy. Khamenei's public protestations that he had no favored candidate elicited practically audible derision. How Do A Conclusion For A Literary Analysis Essay? Everything he had said in the run-up to the race spoke volumes to the contrary.
The supreme leader framed the parameters governing the gre election in unambiguous fashion: the ballot must be a pro-regime epic; candidates must avoid any hint of concessions to [Iran's] enemies; and any repeat of the vcu college essay mass unrest that erupted four years earlier would not be tolerated. Given these criteria, Iran's incumbent nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili seemed spot-on for consecration. Issue? His piety was well-established, he had spent several years working in Khamenei's office, and since 2007 he had led Iran's nuclear negotiations, where he had transformed obfuscation into an art form, stonewalling his adversaries as he defended Tehran's determination to research retain its nuclear prerogatives. His service in the war against issue essay Iraq, in which he had lost his right leg, only underscored the depth of his commitment to the Islamic Republic. Jalili's main competition looked to come from another next-generation conservative, Tehran mayor Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. A precocious hero in the Iran-Iraq war, Qalibaf had two main assets in the race.
First, he had impeccable credentials on Khamenei's highest priority: regime stability. In 1999, Qalibaf signed an unprecedented letter by senior military commanders publicly rebuking then-President Khatami over his handling of student protests; Qalibaf even boasted of his own role in cracking skulls during the quashing of those demonstrations. Second, his position as mayor of papers on tomatoes, Tehran bestowed upon him a built-in popular base and a reputation for results on quality-of-life issues. The other candidates represented an issue gre array of interest groups and political tendencies. That their number included a representative of Iran's beleaguered reformist front, respected technocrat Mohammad Reza Aref, seemed a small but hopeful sign. The inclusion of a credible reformist candidate signaled the rehabilitation of the faction, as well as an acknowledgment that the wholesale domination of Iran's conservatives and hardliners has been neither successful nor sustainable. Ahmadinejad played an outsized if unintentional role in advancing this realization.
Outside Iran, the you write for a literary former president is best known for his Holocaust denial and issue, anti-Israeli invective, his unsettling messianism and his wild-eyed ruminations. Elizabeth Bishop Questions? Within Iran's establishment, such rhetoric was not necessarily unwelcome. But his proclivity for issue essay chaos and caltech, crisis was, and issue essay gre, it alienated even the a conclusion essay hardliners who had backed him. Thanks to issue gre skyrocketing oil prices, Ahmadinejad had assumed office during a period of unprecedented prosperity in Iran. Yet the economy cratered under his volatile stewardship, and many of the modest improvements in the social and political atmosphere effected during the Khatami presidency were also undone. Gullivers? The fallout from his reckless rhetoric and policies, particularly as it affected people's pocketbooks, cost him much of his initial public support and made him persona non grata within the establishment. For that reason, the campaign to succeed Ahmadinejad was characterized by an almost palpable determination to repudiate him. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on state television, one week prior to gre the election. (L to four essays R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for issue a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on state television, one week prior to the election. (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images.
An Inconceivable Twist in the Presidential Campaign. A funny thing happened on the way to supplement essay the conservative cakewalk in Iran: a supposed sleeper of a presidential campaign got interesting. Rouhani himself had much to do with sending the anticipated narrative off the rails. Essay? This was a surprise. By virtue of his long-standing association with the regime, he was expected to toe the official line. Yet Rouhani's every move along Iran's short campaign trail seemed calculated to shake things up. Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images.
It is difficult to pinpoint precisely when it became clear that Rouhani did not intend to run a cautious campaign. Was it his appeal for the release of political prisoners, including detained reformist leaders Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, which he made even before his candidacy was approved? Was it his adoption of the symbol of a big key that would unlock big problems for Iran? Or was it his decision to color-code his campaign with purple, a tactic that seemed perilously reminiscent of the green wave of support for Mousavi that the can i personal regime had rolled back with such force in the previous election? It might have been an appearance on state television when Rouhani upbraided an issue essay gre interviewer for misrepresenting his record on the nuclear issue and instructed him to re-read his memoir to essays get his facts right. He sparred just as aggressively with the Jalili campaign, whose staff included several members of the incumbent negotiating team. Gre? For Rouhani to have broached this discussion, knowing how obsessed the leadership is with retaining its nuclear infrastructure and papers on tomatoes, presenting a united front to the world, was a particularly daring move. And dispensing with protocol and the state broadcasters, Rouhani released his campaign video straight to YouTube, where its emphasis on his close ties with Iran's leadership and issue, his own achievements alternated with poetic appeals for a new spring after a long, cold winter. One of the biggest surprises came 10 days before the ballot, when Rouhani travelled to Iran's historic capital of Isfahan to stump for votes. While there, he joined the elizabeth essay mourning procession for a dissident cleric who had penned a public letter a decade earlier that condemned the regime for deviation, abuse and lawlessness and described its leadership as henchmen of tyranny. It did not seem to bother Rouhani that the issue essay gre chants of support for his campaign were interspersed with denunciations of Khamenei and the theocratic system.
Amazingly, no formal recriminations against a conclusion for a literary analysis the candidate were issued afterward. In the end, however, while Rouhani's boundary-bashing may have set the gre stage, it was a televised debate among all the candidates that really broke the presidential race wide open. The fact that the debates were held at all raised eyebrows. Ahmadinejad's deft and dangerous exploitation of the 2009 debates—when he wielded intelligence files on television as a prop to accuse his rivals of caltech supplement, corruption and nepotism—had sparked an uproar. Many expected that the regime would simply dispense with debates. Instead, state television organized three lengthy debates, culminating in a four-and-a-half hour foreign policy fisticuffs that laid bare Iran's deep strategic divide over nuclear diplomacy and gre, the regime's approach to the world. Rouhani, who had mounted a pugnacious defense of his own nuclear record while on 2013 the campaign trail, stayed true to form during the debate, disparaging Jalili as an issue essay unsophisticated puritan whose only negotiating skill was verbosity. And his zinger—that Iran needs working factories as much as it needs spinning centrifuges—was considered catchy enough that his campaign tweeted a variation on it within moments of his having uttered it. However, the most powerful deviations from the official narrative were voiced not by vcu college Rouhani but by issue gre other conservatives.
Several questioned why Jalili, the presumptive front-runner, had not secured a deal in talks with the West, and challenged the sense of how do a conclusion for a literary, resistance on the nuclear issue if it came at the cost of keeping Iran's population hungry. Gre? Ali Akbar Velayati, the long-time foreign minister who owes his entire career in politics to essay his close relationship to Khamenei, delivered the most devastating blows. He lectured Jalili on the difference between diplomacy and philosophy: diplomacy, he noted archly, is intended to obtain results and lessen sanctions. We can't expect everything and give nothing, Velayati scolded his younger nemesis, adding that Jalili's handling of the latest round of talks definitely shows that you do not really want to make any progress on the issue. The more conservative candidates fought back, with Qalibaf scorning Velayati for gre sipping coffee with the French president even as Baghdad strafed Iranian troops via fighter jets provided by Paris. For the hardliners, diplomacy is of dubious value in safeguarding Iran's revolution from international antagonism. Jalili took pains to underscore that he was merely implementing Khamenei's mandate at a conclusion for a the negotiating table, a defense eerily reminiscent of that previously offered by Rouhani himself.
In the essay gre context of the election, however, Jalili's insistence that he was following orders only essays gullivers travels made the attacks on him seem that much more of a mutiny against the unpopular establishment. The debate was far more significant than simply another sharp-elbowed display by issue essay an elite known for its quarrelsomeness. The suddenly candid discourse on such a sensitive subject betrays the Iranian establishment’s awareness of the regime's increasing vulnerability. Nothing like this had ever happened before, and certainly not on elizabeth bishop essay live state television, with approximately two-thirds of the issue essay country watching. In Tehran’s public rhetoric, the nuclear program represents the nation’s glory as well as its capacity to withstand the “bullying” of the West.
Any deviation from the official line is considered disloyal as well as dangerous, and unlike almost every other issue, where repression has failed to staunch freewheeling debate, the nuclear program had remained sacrosanct. So the airing of a frank, in-depth discussion of the nuclear issue one week before the vote seemed an inconceivable twist in the campaign. The nuclear debate served as the writing on the wall. It was an intervention, initiated by some of the on tomatoes regime's most stalwart supporters, intended to gre rescue the system by research on tomatoes conceding its precariousness and appealing for pragmatism to issue essay rescue it. And it was an acknowledgement that the sanctions-induced miseries of the can i buy a Iranian public could no longer be assuaged with the nuclear pageantry of the Ahmadinejad era, or even the formerly reliable appeals to issue the system's unique blend of elizabeth bishop essay questions, religion and nationalism. As the campaign entered its final week, the conventional wisdom about the inevitability of a conservative victory was obliterated, almost as if a spell had been broken. Two final developments sealed the election's outcome.
Working on the sidelines, Rafsanjani hammered out issue gre, a painstaking truce with the reform faction, headed by former president Khatami, which eased the departure of the only real reformist in research, the race, Mohammad Reza Aref. Essay? This bargain represented a dramatic shift in Iran's internal power struggles. After more than a decade of rivalry and, at times, bare-fisted animosity, the regime's liberalizing reformers aligned with its more conservative realists. The compact proved key to consolidating a wide swath of Iranian public opinion behind Rouhani. Meanwhile, despite similar machinations, the conservatives failed to coalesce around a single candidate. Ill-suited to the new environment of truth-telling on the nuclear issue, the campaigns of both Jalili and supplement essay 2013, Qalibaf appeared to falter as the issue gre race drew to a close. Four Travels? To generate a conservative victory at this stage would have required blatant manipulation of the vote, a risk that the issue gre regime may not have been willing to take, particularly with many of its neighbors in an unprecedented state of upheaval. In the final days of the campaign, Vali Asr Avenue and other Iranian streets were plastered with flashy campaign paraphernalia, not just for the presidential contenders but also for the 300,000 candidates running for local positions.
A country whose democratic aspirations had been beaten back only four years before risked hoping again, and returned to the polls in blockbuster numbers. And this time Iranians opted to turn the big key. Rouhani took the bishop essay presidency in the first ballot with an unexpectedly strong plurality. Tehranis, their expectations tempered by bitter experience, waited for the formal declaration, after a protracted and gre, suspenseful night of vote-counting, before erupting into mass celebrations—once again on essay Vali Asr. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in essay, 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. A Lack of Trust on the Nuclear Issue. Like so much about Iran, the you write a conclusion literary essay election provokes divergent interpretations.
Did an ossifying regime accede to overwhelming public demand for more responsible leadership, or did the essay gre revolution's hard-nosed stalwarts orchestrate a shift in its center of gravity away from its bellicose extremes? The truth likely lies somewhere in the middle; in caltech supplement, other words, the election was another untidy improvisation by a regime that is acutely aware of its own vulnerabilities and has made an art form of gre, survival under the gullivers most inauspicious circumstances. How close is Iran to having nuclear weapons and what can America do about it? For a usual suspect, Iran's new president is an gre unusual character. Beyond his seminary studies, he also received a degree from Tehran University and pursued a doctorate in constitutional law at Glasgow Caledonian University, even as he climbed the ranks of the bureaucracy in personal statement, a theocracy that had little use for issue essay gre European credentials. When much of the Iranian elite did little more than grumble about Ahmadinejad's provocative policies, Rouhani boldly denounced his recklessness and highlighted the supplement essay 2013 costs to the economy. Like his mentor Rafsanjani a quarter-century ago, Rouhani appears to essay gre have been tapped to effect a turnaround—to staunch a crisis and salvage the revolution from essays gullivers travels, its own failings.
But his past political affiliations lie closer to Iran's traditional conservatives than to the leftists who spearheaded the reform movement 15 years ago. In seeking to transcend the trap of essay, partisanship, however, he argues that he represents the reasonable faction, which he describes as being made up of all those Iranian politicians who are interested first and foremost in problem-solving. This is a moment of tremendous opportunity for essay Washington, although it offers no easy answers. Gre? In fact, Rouhani's very moderation may make things harder by eroding international support for sanctions and in research, turn stiffening the issue essay spines of Iran's hardliners. Khamenei still holds all the cards in research papers, Iran, and the nuclear issue is not a presidential prerogative. For some in Washington, where distrust of self-proclaimed Iranian moderates runs deep, the new president's appeal for the middle ground is a dangerous deception. And turmoil elsewhere in the region, particularly in Syria where Washington and Tehran are backing opposing sides, may put a nuclear deal even further out of reach. Moreover, the presumption that Rouhani will drive an easier bargain may be overly optimistic. The Europeans who sat across the table from him during his time as Iran's nuclear negotiator remember him as a tough customer. And his recent track record underscores the gre difficulty of expecting too much from caltech 2013, Rouhani on the nuclear issue.
The only recent progress on this issue came in 2009, with a tentative agreement to export much of Iran's enriched uranium in exchange for Western-supplied fuel rods for its medical research reactor. Ironically, the primary Iranian proponent of this arrangement was Ahmadinejad, whereas Rouhani played a vocal role in scuttling the deal, which he described as illegal, a mistake, and a Western attempt to deprive Iran of issue, its uranium stockpile. These criticisms helped persuade Khamenei to back away from an initial acceptance of the agreement, sending Iran further down a path of international isolation and gullivers travels, pressure. On the merits, the nuclear crisis need not be intractable. Essay? Washington could tolerate some low-level enrichment in Iran, so long as its scope is capped and gullivers travels, an inspection regime to ensure absolute transparency is implemented. Rouhani's repeated references to transparency signal that Tehran may be willing to accept additional oversight. With regard to Iran's repeated insistence that the West acknowledge its self-described legitimate rights to the full fuel cycle under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), some diplomatic sophistry and issue gre, rhetorical creativity should be able to facilitate a mutually acceptable formulation. Still, the substantive disagreements that have thus far stymied any breakthroughs will not disappear with a more pragmatic Iranian negotiating team.
It will be an uphill battle to persuade Tehran to put strong enough limits on the size and scope of its nuclear program in sufficient fashion to vcu college reassure the international community. Iranians argue that negotiations should execute a reciprocal—and equivalent—exchange. However, Washington and issue gre, its European partners see grounds for no such equivalence. For them, Iran is the transgressor, having concealed its nuclear activities for 18 years and having failed for more than a decade since their revelation to fully adhere to NPT safeguards obligations or satisfy U.N. Security Council demands. Washington and its partners expect any deal will begin with tangible Iranian concessions. Can I Buy A Statement? The efficacy of the issue essay sanctions program has only exacerbated this disconnect. With Iran having paid such a high price for its nuclear ambitions, Iranian officials may now demand a commensurately large reward in exchange for papers on tomatoes constraining the issue gre program.
Could this be the year for vcu college essay an engagement with Iran that 'is honest and gre, grounded in mutual respect'? The fundamental obstacle to real progress is the lack of trust between the two sides—validated by their respective historical narratives and exacerbated by buy a statement their contentious domestic politics. Can the international community trust Tehran to adhere to any commitments it may make? And can Iran's isolated, ideological leadership trust the world sufficiently to dare to compromise? Both Iran and America now have presidents who campaigned on essay gre the idea of research, hope, but as Iran's nuclear program continues to advance, it will take more than hope to build confidence in each other. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an issue open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and improving the sanctions-battered economy. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. Essay Questions? President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the essay gre outside world and personal statement, improving the sanctions-battered economy.
Rouhani, The West and essay, the Road Ahead. Three decades of papers on tomatoes, rule by a revolutionary Islamic regime has generated a political reality that in many ways fails to conform to the ideological imperatives of issue essay, its founders—or, for that matter, to the one-dimensional depiction that has become entrenched in the Western imagination. Iran remains a place of can i buy a personal statement, jarring contradictions. It is at once an autocratic system, governed by the whims of a ruler who claims a divine mandate, and at the same time a fractious country shaped by factional competition and the institutions of representative rule. Essay Gre? Oddly enough, the where can i secret to the Iranian regime's survival may lie in this very volatility. The dual and dueling institutions of the Islamic Republic are in issue essay, its DNA, inciting the power struggles that ultimately determine Tehran's decisions.
These struggles have proved an effective mechanism for channeling competition, and, through carefully controlled but not always pre-ordained elections, generating some sense of buy-in among Iran's citizens. The Islamic Republic's unpredictability belies an unsteady but persistent stability. When the caltech supplement essay 2013 devastating sanctions that were the byproduct of the nuclear crisis threatened this equilibrium, the system stepped in to right itself again, and there is issue essay now reason to hope that the crisis can be managed to the satisfaction of you write for a literary analysis essay, both Iran and the West. But, there is essay also reason to worry that this self-correction will not happen. We expect revolutions to diminish in fervor, to modulate fiery tenor and rationalize unconventional policies, once the chaos and violence that accompanies any sudden change has subsided. The Iranian Revolution has not followed this model. Despite substantive changes during its 34-year history, the Islamic Republic has yet to fully embrace the moderation that should herald the twilight of the where buy a personal revolution. It is still too soon to say if Rouhani's election will be the harbinger of a durable Thermidor for issue essay gre Iran's theocracy. Fars News Agency. The new president's initial steps have given reason for tempered optimism. Though his cabinet nods have largely bypassed Iran's best-known reformists, he has appointed Mohammad Javad Zarif, a much-admired diplomat with an essays gullivers unusually rich Washington rolodex, as foreign minister and apparently tasked him with responsibility for the nuclear talks.
And he has put in place what amounts to an Islamic Republic dream team on the economy—a slate of ministers with considerable technocratic credentials, substantial experience, and real commitment to market-based reforms and foreign investment. Perhaps most important, even in his earliest official moves, President Rouhani has reinforced the perception that his election is intended to gre serve as a conduit for resolving the nuclear standoff. He invited former European Union foreign policy chief Javier Solana—who negotiated with Tehran for vcu college essay years on the nuclear issue—to attend his inauguration, and he has continued to advocate negotiations with Washington on essay the basis that diplomacy can produce a worthwhile resolution to the crisis. Anticipating how Iran's story will unfold from here is impossible. Its peaceful, popular revolution begat a vicious theocracy; since then, each triumph for one of the regime's rival factions has only foreshadowed a subsequent reversal.
The half-life of essays gullivers travels, predictions about essay gre, Iranian politics is the blink of an eye. Perhaps that accounts for America's fascination with Iran's fate. Iran is the country whose break with the West ended our innocence about the caltech supplement essay 2013 world's affections, and whose government has kept our own leaders up at night for more than a generation. We watched its revolution play out on national television, and lived through the hostage crisis courtesy of Ted Koppel's nightly updates. We have followed the roller-coaster ride of its political turmoil, worn green in solidarity with its short-lived opposition movement, and jeered the loathsome Ahmadinejad in issue essay, late-night parodies. August 2009, Kenneth Pollack, Daniel Byman, Martin Indyk, Suzanne Maloney, Michael O’Hanlon, Bruce Riedel More Brookings research on Iran. Though no one can say for certain what the gullivers travels Rouhani era will bring, now that an election that was expected to consolidate authority in the hands of defiant theocrats has unexpectedly opened a tentative door to conciliation, we are hoping that the tide has turned at last. Clearly many in issue, Iran harbor that same wish.
A few days after the election celebrations, Iranians once again jammed the streets of its cities in joyful demonstrations. The national team had qualified for the World Cup and, just as in 1997, the confluence of the two successes—on the playing field and in the political arena—seemed almost too good to be true. How Do Literary Analysis Essay? Iranians have been hardened by disappointments and essay, reversals; they know that the path of political change will be long and circuitous. Still, they take their victories where they can and, in the cool of research on tomatoes, a summer evening, hope stretches all along Vali Asr, from one end of Tehran to the other. Join the gre conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is four intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues.
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