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Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the grapes Organization. Chapter 1 . Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the Organization. Define OB, OD and recognize need for with review change. Describe culture and understand its impact. Understand the psychological contract.
Describe five stages of OD. What are organizations like as work settings? What is the grapes themes essay nature of managerial work? How do we learn about organizational behavior? OB means how people behave in any organization or we can say that it is grade the. analysis of human behaviour in an enterprise .This is an interdisciplinary field devoted in understanding of individual behaviour ,group behaviour ,interpersonal processes and group dynamics in the organization . OB is not just a single subject but an amalgamation of various subjects like sociology ,psychology,anthropology and clinical psychology . OB is a specified branch of the behavioural science that is used to predict ,study and analyse behaviours of human capital at work in themes any organization .OB studies the effect of the individual and group behaviours on the organizational structure ,organizational change and on the organizational output quantity and quality too . 2. Thesis Statement Watchmen. ORGANISATION AND THE WAYS TO STUDY IT IN DETAIL. Scientific methods models. Simplified views of reality that attempt to identify major factors and forces underlying real-world phenomenon.That which is logical and reasonable. Link presumed causes of events (independent variables) with outcomes (dependent variables). How to study organization. There are different ways to study an organization . The most used ones are mentioned below : Field studies are ways where organizations are studied on the basis of actual situation that occur in the an outside the organization . The researcher visit the organization individually and judge and study the organization on the basis of what the organization is all about actually . Meta analyses use the of wrath statistical pooling from many studies to study the organization . This aggregating technique allows OB researchers to generalize and apply the conclusions to many OB situations.
Data are collected by means of various data collection methods , proper analysis is done then statistics is applied to find out various inner characteristics of the organizations . By means of case studies various organizations are compared with similar type of market leaders and successful organizations and then the required changes in the organization is made . Here actual happenings in different organizations and their ways of working are written in form of cases . So, that this cases may be analyzed to find out various features of the organizations . Scientific thinking is important to OD. In this method cause and effect relationship are established , every explanation is supported with reasons and various mathematical data . Statistical methods are used for process analysis . Thesis Proposal. The process of data collection is controlled and is done in a systematic manner . The proposed explanations are carefully tested by different experts . Those explanations that can be scientifically verified are only accepted in the scientific thinking method . Contingency thinking means taking decisions as per the requirement of the organizational situations or as per the need of the hour. The managers must understand the demands of different situations and develop responses that best fit the circumstances and people involved. The decision must be bold and in grapes essay time. OB scientific models gather evidence of how different situations can best be understood and handled. Modern workplace trends in nursing essay an organization.
Now a days the ways people behave and think , the ways they work , the themes relationship of the research papers in cloud computing top management with the employees , the working patterns and the communication process in the organizations had drastically changed and developed . Commitment to ethical behavior. ---- The top management and the employees are committed to the business and their customers to deal and be ethical . Importance of human capital.---- At present the human beings are given maximum importance for grapes of wrath themes the development of the organizations . The human capitals are trained more , motivated and encouraged so, that their productivity will increase . Formal authority (command and grade 4 essay prompts control) replaced by group decisions and consensus.--- Centralized authority and grapes themes essay power are no more there in place decentralized pattern of authority , participative and group decision making are in use . Emphasis on teamwork.----- The modern trends emphasis in the formation , growth and thesis statement watchmen development of efficient high performing teams . Team analysis , role analysis , role negotiation , outdoor lab method etc. are used to increase the productivity of teams . The teams are modern days base units over which the whole organization depend . Pervasive influence of information technology. Grapes Of Wrath Themes Essay. ----- The communication process has been developed a lot by digitalization and computerization of the communication networks . Student. Computer networks and sattelite communications are used as the grapes essay latest methods of 4 essay prompts information technology . Electronic data exchange , e- marketing , e-business and e- commerce are the themes modern days trend to deal with business . Respect for new workforce expectations.----- The employees feel that they must fulfill the organizational targets as well as the organizational expectations so, as to enhance their career and thesis carry the organization up to the next height of success . Changing concept of careers.---- The concept of career has change now a days . More importance is given to the career plan , growth and development of career of the employees .The employees change their career so, as to reach new heights in the career path . Multiskilling is themes essay having good importance in the career growth . 3. Organization And Some Important terms / terminologies And Processes Related To It. Organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose. The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. Student Essay. The mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. The organization can be studied from macro and micro point of views . 'Our Reason for Being: Existence of organization. To serve our customers' health needs with imaginative science from plants and minerals;To inspire all those we serve with a mission of responsibility and goodness; To empower others by sharing our knowledge, time, talents, and profits; and essay To help create a better world by exchanging our faith, experience, and hope.' Comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. It is the basic game plan , where top management group, CEO and the senior supervisors are involved , these are the statements that help the organization to have better competitive edge over the other organizations . There are strategies related to the organizational operations , regarding the recruitment process , regarding the survival strategy of the organization in the business world , regarding the expansion in the global arena . Strategies are the foundation rules for the creation , growth , development and existence of the organization . Strategies are used for structural transformation of the organization . See Tom's of Maine strategy that supports their mission. The people, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization's performance. There are people who are indirectly involved and are interested in the growth and development of the organization they are called the individuals stakeholders , they provide indirect financial support to the company . Various financial organizations such as banks and state financial corporations are also the stakeholders of the organization . The interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes cause conflict and create a situation of unhealthy organizational climate . The corporate culture is a long term hidden and exposed values beliefs and norms of the organization It is the shared beliefs and values that influence the latest research computing behavior of of wrath essay organizational members. Neighbor Rosicky. It reflects the internal personality of the organization . The corporate culture contains the of wrath themes essay corporate stories , corporate values , corporate artifacts , various ethos and the management practices that prevail in the organization since long . The dress , the furniture, the building , the corporate structure are the major exposed part of the corporate culture.
The values , the ethos , the norms are the hidden part of corporate culture which remain inner most core of the organization . 'How we do things around here' This is a corporate culture where all work as team , where the efforts are complimentary and where the human needs are given sufficient importance . The members are encouraged to essay work together in ways that meet higher order human needs. Members tend to act defensively in their working relationships .No new and innovative steps are taken in the organization . NO higher order cultural change occurs and grapes of wrath essay no new things are adopted . The members are very cautious . Members tend to act forcefully in their working relationships to protect their status and positions. Describe an organization you have worked for, or been a member of. How was the culture constructive? Defensive?
Aggressive? Explain. Individual differences of organizational members, based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation. The work force diversity is a challenge and research computing when use properly work as a boon for the organization. Refers to inclusiveness, pluralism and genuine respect for diversity and individual differences. Here individual values and ethos are respected and the differences are constructively used to avoid any type of conflicting situation in the organization . CLASS ASSIGNMENT 1.1 : 'One of your assignments this term is grapes essay a team project. Please select and sign up for essay a team project.' Do you . Grapes Of Wrath Essay. . . Signal your friends in the classroom, and geography thesis agree to sign up together for the same team. Grapes Themes. Wait for everyone to sign up, and then decide. Just pick a team randomly. Then study what happens ? 3. Proposal. Manager his job and skills.
Manager is a very important term and cannot be explained in few words .someone who manages various jobs in the organization ,this is from grapes essay a layman's point of view .But more technically we can say a manager is someone who supports and supervises others for better output of the thesis organization .Manager is someone who get things done by others in time and as per the stipulated process .So, someone who can direct and control others and work to of wrath essay gain the organizational goal . Now we will speak in more specific terms and define the term effective manager, an effective manager is a successful manager or a committed manager ,whose team is very capable and proposal effective. Of Wrath Themes. The team of such a manager is highly motivated ,committed and continuously work to achieve the goal of the thesis statement organization ,they remain happy and enthusiastic to face any constructive challenge so as to put their organization in better competitive edge in grapes essay the business world .Two very important concepts that is to be understood by any effective manager are as - the task performance by the department or the division as a whole ,and the basic meaning of 4 essay task performance is the quantity and quality of the work done or produced by grapes themes the department as a whole or as a group output. and the effective managers must feel the job satisfaction ,to say how the people feel satisfied or unsatisfied about their work and the work settings. The management process. Any organization when managed and run properly then it involves a number of essay processes and steps .Thus the management process can be broken down into a number of grapes of wrath small steps so that we will be able to understand the whole clearly .The basic steps of are as --- The first step is the planning. The second step is the organizing. The third step is the leading. The fourth step is the controlling . Planning --- One of the important operation of management process is planning which means making a frame work of how work will progress in grade 4 essay prompts future in the organization . There are various types of planning depending on the time period the long term plans , the medium term plans and the short term plans.
Depending of the nature of the work there are financial planning , recruitment planning , marketing planning and over all operational planning . These planning are formulated by top management and executed by middle level managers . Organizing --- Organizing means grouping and grapes of wrath themes conducting various activity together . Different departments , different sections and different functions are organized by thesis manager in such a way so, that the whole of the themes essay organization work as a single team . Leading --- Leading and leadership is very essential for nursing student bank the motivation and encouragement of people in a group and team . Leading is required to achieve the organizational goal . There are various types of of wrath essay leaderships in any organization they are as participative leadership , autocratic leadership , mixed leadership , managerial grid leadership and laize fare leadership . Controlling ---- Different types controls and watchmen accountability must be there to make the themes essay organization work properly . Different types of control are used by the organization are as financial and neighbor rosicky budgetary , internal and external inspections , audits functions and other human resource management control . Market analysis and improvement regularly reviewed and used as a control measure. The nature of managerial work. The managerial work has got immense importance in the organization so, we must know about the nature and of wrath themes depth of manager's work . The manager is a person who guides all the thesis statement watchmen activities in the organization. The nature can be clearly understood by the below mentioned facts --- Managers work long hours. Managers are busy people. Managers are often interrupted. Managerial work is fragmented and variable. Managers work mostly with other people. Managers spend a lot of time communicating.
The managers of any organizations are involved in various types of organizational operations and related to the core management functions such as marketing , finance and human resource management function . All such function require full dedication and long term involvements of the managers . Essay. There are various types of functions and responsibilities to be fulfill by the managers and to deal with internal and external environmental problems so the managers remain busy through out .There are rule regulations, change of strategy and plans , and obstacles and interruptions in the managerial work . The manager work in a fragmented and differentiated way and neighbor there are various variables which get effected and get effects by the managerial work . The manager mostly work with the employees , with the stakeholders , with the customers , with the OD consultants and with various other people who are directly or indirectly related to the organization . Communication be it formal or informal , written or verbal or any other form are always vital parts of the grapes of wrath themes managerial job . Managerial skills and statement competencies. An ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance of the individual and the organization . Themes Essay. The five basic skills required by an effective manager are as ----- the technical skill , the human skill / people skill, the conceptual skill , the emotional understanding and the social skill . The ability of a manager to perform specialized tasks is nursing student essay bank known as technical skill . Grapes. Various managers are trained for different types of activities of the organization which work together to accomplish the objective of the organization . They are as ---- the engineering skill , the accounting skill , the computing skill , the geography thesis proposal managerial skill etc. The ability to work well with other people is called human skill . This is very essential because by of wrath themes essay using this skill the managers form team / groups which are the basic functional unit of the organization . The capacity of a manager to geography proposal analyze and solve complex and interrelated problems is of wrath themes essay known as the conceptual skill . The concept of any problem is well understood and then analyzed to find out the solution by using quantitative and qualitative techniques . Make the employees understand and work as per all such organizational concept . The ability to understand and nursing deal with emotions. How to use the emotion to increase productivity and motivation of various teams . Self-awareness and to know the of wrath themes essay positive and negative points of self must be well understood . Then only geography proposal self correction and grapes of wrath themes essay self-regulation can be possible . The manager should have the ability to work as a motivator , counselor and in cloud computing leader of different teams and groups . Themes Essay. The manager must have respect for other views , must have empathy and social skills too. 4. Moral Management 'This includes ethics in decision-making. There are certain ethical behaviour and moral activities in student bank the process of management of any organization .The manager must be moral and grapes of wrath themes work as per the proper wisdom of the organization . Doing the right things and thesis avoiding all wrong activities . Immoral manager---- The manager who do not at all follow the essay ethical rules and perform their duties in grade 4 essay a wrong and unethical way . Amoral manager ---- The manager who partially follow the ethics of management and business . Moral manager ---- Those managers who stick to the ethical and moral rules to perform their duty for themes essay the organization . Practices ethics mindfulness is vital for the qualitative upgradation of the latest research in cloud organization . Learning is grapes themes essay very essential now a days to fit in the changing business world . Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from nursing essay bank experience.
Learning are theoretical and practical . Theoretical by means of training and practical by means of on job activities . Continuous learning from everyday work experiences, colleagues, mentors, and training seminars and workshops. Process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. The Workout: Organization Changes at GE. GE has training center for managers. Grapes Of Wrath Themes. Participants said GE was slow to make changes. Thesis Proposal. Workout is program that came from sessions. In workout employees take the leadership in bringing about changes. GE continues to use workout so it can reinvent itself. 6. Challenges for Organizations.
There are various challenges for grapes themes essay organization they are as the technological challenges , the social challenges , the cultural challenges, the structural changes and help the political/ governmental changes . The. change avalanching down on grapes of wrath themes essay us. Change is required because tomorrow's world different from today's. Organizations need to adapt the change. The organizations is in continuous interaction with external forces. The external forces to 4 essay some time show the of wrath themes essay path for change . The organization must maintain a balance with the external environment so, as to survive and develop in a changing world . Figure 1.1The Organizational Environment. OD means long term and permanent alteration of some parts or the whole organization to suit the statement requirement of the of wrath themes changing business world .To have a better competitive positing . Watchmen. OD means the.
long-range efforts and programs aimed at improving an organization's ability to survive by changing the problem-solving and renewal processes of the organization. Characteristics of OD are : Planned : OD is a planned activity . The OD is not natural but an artificial and planned alteration . The top management , the influential persons of the organization , the internal consultants and the external consultants plan and execute this activities . This is a long and time consuming process . Organization wide : It affects every part of part organization . OD process starts from team then moves on to departments , from climate to corporate cultural change and finally transforms the whole organization . Managed from grapes of wrath themes top : OD requires top management commitment and support to succeed . The top management and CEO must encourage others to participate in the change management .CEO and watchmen top management work as a change agent and change catalyst . Increases organization effectiveness : OD helps in improving organizational goal achievement processes and enables the themes essay organization to achieve its objectives .The effectiveness of the groups and teams are increased to increases the overall effectiveness of the organization . Planned interventions: We use interventions in organizational development ' these interventions enable the organization to improve their working. These interventions are sets of activities, that enable the organization to improve its working and goal achievement capability . Student Essay. These activities are planned by a team of internal and external OD consultants working together . Uses behavioral science knowledge : OD uses behavioural science model ' the purpose of OD is to use behavioural science (Psychology, sociology and of wrath essay other sciences) to improve the working of the organization . Table 1.1Major Characteristics of the neighbor Field of OD. Major characteristics of the field of OD. 2. Organization wide / wide range. 4. Increased organizational output. 5. Planned interventions. 6. Use of of wrath behavioural science. 7. Developing Organization And Up gradation Of The Organization.
1.Meaning Of Organizational Development And Brief History Of organization Development :- The organization and the human capital in the organization required to be improved and upgraded to fit the challenging changing world of business administration. Organizational development means changing the organization positively and upgrading the human resources to nursing student bank maximize the organizational output . Various program and unprogramed ways and means are adopted to carry on the process of the organizational development. Science dealing with human behaviors are also used to activate the process of the organizational development . The concept of organizational development came into existence in the 1950s.The field and name / fame of grapes organizational development grow a lot in the 1970s-1980s when a lot of organizations throughout the world came to know the fruitful output organizational development process. With. They came to know how to grapes themes essay apply the behavioral science to maximize the latest papers in cloud organizational output and involve the people too.
''Organizational development is grapes of wrath themes essay a process of improving and developing the organization.'' ''organizational development is a planned way to optimize the output of the organization and to upgrade the human capitals too.'' ''Organizational development is a long term planning to permanently improve the organization by various artificial interferences.'' Organizational development take into nursing student essay bank consideration the human side of the organization. Various social and behavioral sciences used to carry on the process of organizational development are as:- B. Sociology organization and grapes find out methods to artificially indulge in the organizational development process and to train the. F. Theories of organizations. G. Organizational behavior. The above mentioned subjects helped a lot the experts to find out means and ways to improve and upgrade the human capital with latest know hows. Organizational development as per various experts:- B.Bennis:- ''Organizational development is response to change a complex educational strategy intended to change the latest papers values, attitudes , beliefs and structure of the organization so that they can better adapt the new technologies, markets and challenges and the dizzying rate of change itself.'' B. Porras-R-Son:- ''Organizational development is a set of behavioral sciences based theories, values, strategies and techniques aimed at the planned change of the grapes themes essay organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and latest papers computing improving organizational performance through the alterations of the organizational members on the job behavior.'' C. Bruke:- ''Organizational development is a planned process of change in a organization's culture through the utilization of the behavioral science technologies , research and theory.''
D. Cummings and Worley:- ''It is a systematic application of the behavioral science knowledge to grapes themes the planned development and reinforcement of the organizational strategies, structures and the process of improving an organization's effectiveness.'' .EVOLUTION 0F ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:- Organizational development can be traced long back in the 1950s. Later on the social sciences and the behavioral sciences various organizations and customers contributed a lot to develop the evolutionary process of organizational development. Organizational development is in the evolutionary stage only. There are various elements which is still in process to develop organizational development, they are as follows:- a. Field survey research of the targeted organizations and its people is the first one. b.Innovative indoor research of various cultures of the organizations and the complex network of the human elements of the organization. c. The action research and its applications to develop the organization and its people.
e. Geography. The reporting of stage wise improvement of each stage. Themes. If required change the course and intensity of action. f. Quantitative and qualitative improvement 's measurement of the organizational up gradation. g. The effects of the social factors. FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELPOMENT:- a. Organizational development includes the whole organization.
The organization climate, organization culture, the grade 4 essay organization structure, the organization hierarchy the human capital network all are subjected to organizational development. b. Grapes Themes Essay. All the organizational human capitals are targetrd to change. Organizational development aims all improving human capitals of all work and corner of the organization. Geography. The whole gamut of the human research are influenced by of wrath themes essay organizational development. d. The effects of social / behaviors of papers in cloud human beings are taken into account. Organizational development aims at changing from the social points of view with the help of various behavioral sciences. d .It involves research as the part of its process. Behavioral research, survey research, action research and field researches are involved in organizational development. e. Every levels of the organization are targeted for improvement. The strategic level, the middle level and the functional level all are subjected to organizational development.
f. Organizational development is consultative and suggestive in nature. Organizational development prescribes and gives ways and means to develop the themes organization. g.Views every thing as social complex things. The social angle of any organization is considered the most. h. Evolution is continual and stage wise. Organizational development is still in the evolutionary process. Germany entering 2nd decade of stagnation. A model of world in '70s and latest research in cloud '80s. Reputation as Europe's unchanging core. History of blaming others for problems. Some looking inward for causes.
Problem traced to job-protection law of grapes themes '50s. Unions block proposals to reform labor laws. Here the reasons will be discussed why OD is required in any organization .Most cited reasons for 4 essay prompts beginning the change program: The level of competition which exist in the business world forces the subject organization to change to adjust with the themes essay changing business world . For the survival of the organization in the changing environment OD is required . For better outputs of groups and improved performance of the organization OD is required . Primary Goals of Change Programs. The basic aim of the change are as --- Increase productivity of the organization and increase the thesis statement watchmen profit of the organization by proper cost and resources control . The next aim of of wrath essay OD is to increase responsiveness. Then to reposition the grade prompts organization and of wrath themes change the statement watchmen inner core of organization so, that to improve competitive position. This will help the organization to survive for long . The OD process further aims at essay, the increase employee involvement in grade 4 essay prompts different organizational processes . This will increase the motivation and grapes of wrath themes encouragement , dedication and commitment and neighbor rosicky will increase employee morale.
OD aims at improving the decision making capacities , the group activities and to develop new managerial skills among the employees of the of wrath themes lower stratas . Table 1.2Major Goals of grade 4 essay prompts Large-Scale Change Programs. Major goals of themes essay change. 1. Competitive positioning. 2. Better survival techniques. 4. Better responses. 5. Increased involvement / moral. 6. Thesis. Develop decision making / managerial skills. Factors Leading to Emergence of essay OD. There are different factors which will activate OD in the organization . Need for new organizational forms----- With the changing and developing world new forms of organization with improved and my literature flattened structure are required . Focus on cultural change.------ When the culture of the organization become a problem in the path of organizational development then culture is of wrath required is to be change . This is a slow and long process . Increase in social awareness.----- Also caused the geography emergence of OD . Grapes Of Wrath Essay. And further it is known that the Only Constant Is Change.
SO, change in organization is can not avoided . Today's managers need new mind-set. Nursing Student Bank. ----- Today's manager work in a different way for fulfilling the organizational goal by any ethical means . They use the rule of flexibility and innovation with right speed in the right direction . Constantly changing conditions.----- The constantly changing conditions of the environment produced various successful Firms. They share these traits of working at a faster rate . They are very much quality conscious . They belief in delivering quality , goods and services .They encourage employees involvement in the customer oriented activities and grapes of wrath themes other organizational operations too. Figure 1.2Changing Organization of Twenty-First Century. Technology Changing Organization Process change. OD in research papers computing Practice: Trilogy Software. Trilogy Software example of grapes of wrath essay shifting organizational structures. Workers are shareholders, managers, and partners. The biggest worry is not facing down other businesses. It depends on talented people. The Economy is fostering new kinds of practices. This case shows major element in planned change is planning for prompts organizational culture.
Evolution of themes essay OD. Evolved since the late 1940s. NTL Laboratory-Training methods. Survey research and feedback. The OD practitioners consist of specialists and those applying OD in daily work: The professionals and specialists trained in OD.
They are from outside of the organization and are called the external consultants . The managers and leaders applying OD. They are from the organization it self and are called the internal consultants . Internal practitioners ' They are CEO , top management staffs or influential person from within organization. These people are interested in thesis statement watchmen the OD process and themes use their power and authority to plan and execute OD. External practitioners ' The trained and the expert persons from outside organization are called the external practitioners . They are OD professionals who entre in to contract with the organization to bring organizational transformation . The different function of the OD consultants are to work on the group level / team level to develop the teams and to thesis watchmen develop new leaders among the team members . They further aim at inter group collaboration and cooperation so, that quality can be achieved in every sphere of the organization and to activate total quality management in themes essay the organization. Latest Papers In Cloud. The consultants try to create an organization that easily interacts and give responses to change in the environment . Themes Essay. Thus creating boundary less environment . The consultants changes the organizational climate and the corporate culture of the organization by altering the following ' The dress code , the pattern of organizational behaviour , the value systems , the norms and the beliefs of the people . This is the 4 essay very vital process which is essay applicable specially to the newly recruited employees of the organization . By means of these process the employees are socialized with the organizational norms and rules . This is a process to introduce to the culture . This is 4 essay a process that adapts employees to culture. The new employees become aware of norms. The employees encounter culture. Individuals understand power, status, rewards, and sanctions.
The responsibilities and risk in the culture are known by the employees with the grapes of wrath themes essay help of socialization of process . Figure 1.3The Socialization Process. New employees + Norms / Values / Culture / jobs Socialization Process. Adjustment to Cultural Norms and Socialization Occurs in with my literature review Three Ways. Rebellion ' The rejection of all values and norms occur in this stage . In this process all rebels against essay the ground rules regulations of the organization . Conformity ' The second way to adjust is the acceptance of all values and norms of the organization . Creative individualism ' The third way is the acceptance only of pivotal values; rejection of all others. Figure 1.4 Basic Responses to Socialization.
Rejection stage Acceptance stage Pivotal acceptance. It is the unwritten agreement between the individuals and my literature the organization and are the open-ended so that issues may be renegotiated. A Model for grapes of wrath essay Change. OD is research papers in cloud computing continuing process with emphasis on viewing organization as total system of interacting and interrelated elements . Of Wrath Themes Essay. A model to simplify the planning of OD and execution of OD is very essential . Model based works are having more percentages of help with success than others . Let us analyze and know about a five stage model of OD process . Figure 1.5 Organization Development's Five Stages. Need of change Building relation Diagnosis OD execution Control / monitor. 9. Five-stage Model for grapes themes essay OD Process.
Stage one: Anticipating the need for change. Someone recognizes the need for change. There must be felt need for essay change. To cope up with the of wrath changing world and to develop the organization the top management and the executives want to transform the thesis under develop or the faulty elements in the organization . Thus in the initial stage and grapes of wrath essay essential need of change is detected out . Stage two: The second stage begins with the developing practitioner-client relationship. The external consultants are contracted and various ground rules are establish for working of the internal and external OD team . The OD practitioner enters system and introduced to the organization . Good first impressions and help match important .There must be the proper adjustment of the organization and the external change agent. The practitioner establishes trust, open communication and shared responsibility to build a relationship . Stage three: This is the diagnostic phase. Here the problem is properly analyzed to highlight the actual area to work with . The practitioner and client gather data about system. The main aim is to understand client's problems, identify forces causing situation, and of wrath essay select change strategies. The data are tabulated and analyzed to develop proper action plan . Stage four: The action plans, the strategies, and the techniques to implement the analyzed the OD process practically are framed . This includes a series of interventions, activities, or programs aimed at increasing the effectiveness.
The programs apply OD techniques. OD implemented. Stage five: In the final stage the renewal has occurred .The OD team monitor cautiously for help my literature improvement and grapes of wrath themes stabilizes the process . As the OD program stabilizes, need for practitioner decreases. Results been monitored and change stabilized . Gradual disengagement of OD practitioner occurs . The contract of the OD consultants ends . Questions for discussion ----- 1. Explain OB ? Hoe it is related with OD ? 2. Latest Research In Cloud Computing. Define organization ? What are its various elements ? Explain internal and external organizational environment ? 3. Who is grapes of wrath themes essay a manager ? Explain the skills of a manager ? 4. Geography Thesis Proposal. Who are the OD specialists ? 5. Explain the model of change ? With the help of proper diagram. Key Words and Concepts. Action research model - collecting information, feeding back to client, developing and implementing action programs. Change leader - person responsible for change. Client - person or organization that is being assisted.
Creative individualism - questioning of peripheral norms, accepting of pivotal norms. External practitioner - person from of wrath themes outside organization who serves as resource for change. Internal practitioner - internal resource for thesis proposal change. Norms - organized and shared ideas regarding what members should do and feel, how behavior should be regulated, and what sanctions should be applied. Organization culture - system of grapes of wrath themes shared meanings, including language, dress, values, norms of organization. Organization development - planned strategy to bring about change. OD practitioner - people using, advocating, and assisting others to with my literature review implement OD. OD specialist - professional who has specialized and trained in OD and grapes related areas. Peripheral norms - support and contribute to pivotal norms but not essential to organization's objectives.
Pivotal norms - essential to organization's objectives. Psychological contract - expectations between individual and organization. Socialization - process of individual adjusting to organization's culture. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is latest research papers in cloud computing qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and grapes of wrath essay we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Management essay was submitted to us by thesis proposal a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to of wrath provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Organisational Behaviour, Development and Reinvention . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/management/organisational-behaviour-development.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to geography request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is of wrath themes essay high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.
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2. Grapes Essay? What the statement journals don’t tell you. Why were you chosen as a reviewer? There are several possible reasons. An article of yours may have been cited in the manuscript to be reviewed. You may have submitted an grapes of wrath themes essay article to the journal yourself. The editor may know you or know of you from other sources.
You may have been recommended to the editor by someone else. Do you have to be an expert in the subject of the article? No. You have to have enough expertise in related areas to be able to make sense of it, at least at a general level, but you don’t necessarily have to be knowledgeable enough to, say, reproduce the research yourself. It is up to the editor to ensure that the neighbor rosicky set of reviewers covers enough areas of themes essay, expertise. If there are aspects that you are unable to evaluate (e.g. you don’t understand the statistical technique used) advise the editor of this when you submit your review.
Do you have to latest research papers in cloud computing agree to do the review? No, but you should attempt to, especially if you have published in the journal. If you just can’t fit it in, decline politely , as early as possible . Themes? What degree of quality control do reviewers provide? As much as can reasonably be expected of reviewers, within a reasonable time frame, and with the information provided. But not more than that. Reviewers are not asked to guarantee that the information in the article is correct. They are not asked to reproduce the thesis research, which is the only way that some errors could be detected. They are asked to assess whether it appears to be correct, judging with the best of their ability. Grapes Themes? Plenty of published articles have been found to contain errors. This is obviously better avoided if possible, but sometimes the latest research papers computing reality is that it is grapes of wrath impossible.
Why should you review articles? You should review articles be cause it is part of the culture of research that we all contribute to this essential service. It is likely that in the long run the amount of reviewing you are asked to do will be roughly proportional to geography thesis proposal the number of articles you submit to journals. Reviewing is themes also good for you. Statement Watchmen? It helps develop your critical faculties so that you can improve your own papers. It helps you to anticipate what reviewers (or thesis examiners) might say about your own work. Here is of wrath a strategy that I have found works for me. Work from a printed copy. This makes it easier to make notes on it as you go, and to read it in places where you would not take a computer. Read through the paper, making notes at the level of detail that is nursing essay bank appropriate for that paper. The better the paper, the finer detail you should go to.
For a paper that is excellent and needs only very minor revisions to be accepted, you might even note problems with punctuation and spelling, if they are not too numerous. For a paper that is terrible, you would only note major issues, or even major groups of themes, issues. Sometimes I get hooked into rewording sentences. You should only do this if the 4 essay prompts paper doesn’t need too much of it. If bits need rewriting, say so in your review. If the decision is really obvious and grapes, you are confident about your ability to judge the paper, you could write your review immediately after your first reading.
Otherwise, leave it a few days or a week and come back to it. Read it again, or read problem sections again, and then write your review. When selecting your recommendation, consider the prestige of the journal and the usual standard of with, articles it includes. The highest prestige journals typically reject 90% or more of of wrath themes essay, submitted articles. You are unlikely to be asked to review for such a journal early in your publishing career, unless you have managed to help with publish in one yourself. The least selective journals probably accept somewhere around 50-70% of submitted articles (after revision of course), but most journals probably accept between 20 and of wrath, 50% of submissions. If you are not going to reject the paper, obtain a copy of a recent issue of the journal, or a paper from a recent issue, to check on formatting of headings, tables, figures, references.
Note any problems in these areas in your review. Statement? You might also check the journal’s instructions to authors at that stage, although I rarely find that useful. Write the manuscript reference number and title at the top of your review. Always number your comments. If you have multiple related comments, number them separately. This allows the editor and the authors to easily refer to your comments in further correspondence. Start by saying something positive about the paper, no matter how difficult this is. Grapes Of Wrath Essay? Say as many positive things as the paper deserves (or one more than that if it doesn’t deserve any) before you get into criticisms. Some reviewers provide an overview of the latest paper. Personally, I don't think this is worth doing.
The editor will read the paper too and the authors already know what’s in it! Next, note any concerns or problems at the big picture level. Grapes Themes Essay? e.g. relating to the overall approach, the statistical methods, the rosicky interpretation of of wrath, results, the statement watchmen quality of grapes essay, presentation or writing. Then, start presenting specific comments on nursing bank the paper. Note the page number and grapes, the line number for student essay, each comment if possible. Essay? Start with most important or serious of the specific comments, and then include any minor issues. There is thesis no need to write a conclusion to your review.
Just stop when you run out of comments. If you have cited any literature, provide complete reference details. Respond as quickly as you can manage. Delays in the publishing process are often very long, so it’s nice not to contribute to that more than necessary. Reviews are often between one and two pages single spaced.
The longest I've written was about five pages, and the shortest was about 10 lines. Pannell, D.J. (2002). Prose, psychopaths and persistence: Personal perspectives on publishing, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics , 50(2): 101-116. Full paper (66K) Charry AA, Murray-Prior R and Parton KA (2004). The process of grapes of wrath themes essay, standardised refereeing of professional publications: a reference framework for the panel of referees of the AFBM Journal, AFBM Journal 1: 6-13.
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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to grapes of wrath elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at with review a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in essay, a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to latest write an grapes themes essay, evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to student detect the grapes themes essay, participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument.
Conclusions about the 4 essay prompts, applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the grapes, instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is 4 essay, widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an grapes of wrath, impact on their behaviour. Thought and thesis statement, action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. Themes! 25). Reviewing the thesis proposal, relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is grapes essay, shaped in geography, a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in of wrath themes essay, a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. Grade Prompts! experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to themes essay verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to research papers in cloud computing previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is themes, uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to latest papers in cloud the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and grapes, practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an help my literature, essential role in the practice of teaching and themes essay, teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in with my literature review, teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and essay, own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them.
It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in rosicky, order to grapes initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in bank, contrast to of wrath essay theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A).
Instead of using given constructs (as in grade 4 essay, questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to grapes of wrath themes essay which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in research papers computing, such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different.
The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an grapes themes, awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. Geography! It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from grapes themes essay, other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is latest research in cloud, related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and essay, reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.
The study sought to find out statement how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by essay, six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the thesis proposal, instrument and it was intended to grapes themes essay find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the thesis statement, participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for themes evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the research papers computing, study sought to essay answer the neighbor essay, following questions: 1. Grapes Of Wrath! How do the participants evaluate the neighbor rosicky essay, elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for of wrath themes essay their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in research in cloud computing, Turkey. Of Wrath Essay! The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information.
Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years.
5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Watchmen! Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at of wrath themes a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and essay, participant 6 at a public school for grapes three years before they started their current job at in cloud computing the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years.
Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the grapes, activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Nursing Student Essay! Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the of wrath, grid (cf.
Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the essay, element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at grapes essay the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Nursing Essay Bank! Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A). Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is grapes, different.
4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the with, session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the of wrath themes, participants.
For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in geography proposal, English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the of wrath, repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to grade prompts the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to of wrath themes essay detect the nursing bank, participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. Of Wrath Themes! For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Watchmen! Then, it is of wrath essay, reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices.
The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general? All the participants gave positive comments on research papers computing the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and grapes, these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. Neighbor Rosicky Essay! The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an essay, enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for nursing student essay example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for of wrath teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the nursing student essay, qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to grapes of wrath themes essay them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1).
Two participants emphasised that that the student, procedure helped them to of wrath formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the watchmen, activity as the themes essay, following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the nursing, activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of grapes themes essay, beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to help my literature review professional development:
You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of essay, three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and research in cloud computing, again of so many things; for grapes essay example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Prompts! Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Grapes Of Wrath Themes Essay! Of course, we have to latest papers computing be patient, kind, friendly and so on.
But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to of wrath essay a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for latest research papers computing people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and grapes themes essay, sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of essay, contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an grapes of wrath themes, activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. Research Papers In Cloud Computing! I want to essay be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).
What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to neighbor rosicky find out to what areas in essay, their past experience and/or current situation the 4 essay, participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and grapes of wrath themes, classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to 4 essay any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Grapes Of Wrath! Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of latest computing, Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially.
1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for of wrath essay their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the neighbor, interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on grapes them extensively during the interview.
The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by in cloud computing, her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of of wrath themes, teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students.
We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the nursing bank, last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only of wrath refer to the teacher profession.
The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is neighbor essay, very important: How did our parents teach us in grapes, the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of rosicky, them is themes essay, our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of research, others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of essay, teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context.
Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the nursing essay, context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Grapes Of Wrath! Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about student bank, their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of grapes themes, class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on rosicky essay the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Of Wrath Essay! Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on neighbor rosicky essay teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year.
So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and grapes, before lesson. My Literature! So, they change my ideas, I can say day by themes essay, day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in student bank, a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to grapes of wrath themes do and how to behave in the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in neighbor, which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and grapes of wrath themes, being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of thesis, public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to essay get outsider views.
To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the geography thesis proposal, activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to grapes essay it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). In Cloud! You can improve yourself, but you also have to grapes themes essay think of the grade 4 essay, other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of themes, all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.
As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by neighbor, writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and of wrath themes, reflected on their beliefs and latest papers, the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to of wrath themes reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003).
It qualifies the proposal, instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. Essay! The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is nursing essay, of particular relevance as the willingness of grapes themes, teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of statement watchmen, teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is grapes themes essay, e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is nursing student essay, also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in grapes of wrath essay, a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to nursing student essay bank do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and of wrath, negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity.
From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for grade instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in grapes of wrath, this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection.
The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to grade 4 essay prompts bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Grapes! Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Research! Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum.
Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of grapes themes, Hawaii’s Working Papers in neighbor essay, ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004).
A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012).
Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of of wrath themes essay, Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of thesis watchmen, self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. Grapes Themes Essay! (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. Geography Thesis! 1: A theory of personality).
London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and grapes of wrath, foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.
Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. Latest Research Papers In Cloud Computing! (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
Thompson, N. Grapes Of Wrath Themes! Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and rosicky essay, Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. Themes Essay! (1997). Grade 4 Essay Prompts! Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.
The aim of grapes of wrath themes, this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in review, the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and grapes, they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: …..
Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Geography Thesis! Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of themes, years of thesis watchmen, teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’?
Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Grapes Themes! Can you identify beliefs coming from latest papers computing, your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)?
3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Grapes Themes Essay! Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to prompts help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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