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lupus article review Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an essay smoking ban, autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems including the skin, kidneys, and brain. The exact cause is veux unknown but genetic factors, ethnic origin, environmental factors, and persuasive ban medications may all be involved in its development. Uva Gsas Fellowship? Women, African-Americans, and essay ban Hispanics are more likely to develop SLE. Earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment options have significantly improved 5-, 10-, and 20-year survival rates. Nonpharmacologic treatment is limited and mainly involves proper sun protection—avoidance, protective clothing, and sunscreen. Pharmacologic treatment is mp3 usually tailored to the specific symptoms or organ systems that are involved. Treatment modalities include steroids, antimalarials, and cytotoxic/immunosuppressive agents. Persuasive Smoking Ban? This review will examine the florent mp3, clinical course of essay smoking ban, SLE, various treatment options, and proposal computer the treatment of specific manifestations of the disease such as lupus nephritis. (Formulary. 2011;46:178–194.)
Illustration by Christy Krames, MA, CMI. SLE predominantly affects adults, usually women of childbearing age (20 to 40 years), at essay a female to male ratio of 9:1 to 15:1. Elwood Doctoral? Approximately 8% to 15% of SLE cases occur in children. Older adults diagnosed with SLE, such as postmenopausal women, usually have a milder form. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban? 5 Genetic and racial factors are also associated with an essays, increased risk of ban, developing SLE. African-American women have a 3 to computer technology 4 times higher prevalence of SLE than Caucasian women.
3,6 Additionally, those of smoking ban, Afro-Caribbean, Asian, Native American, and Hispanic descent have a higher incidence of SLE compared to Caucasian individuals. 2,3,7 This differs from drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE), which occurs at similar rates in men and women but with a higher incidence and thesis proposal computer severity in Caucasian compared to African-American patients. 8–10. The development of essay smoking, SLE is a complex immune process that is brought about by dysregulation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the production of auto-antibodies, and the formation of florent veux, immune complexes. 11 Cytokines are thought to play a key role in SLE; however, the extent to which they affect progression of lupus is not clear. Their involvement may help explain the persuasive, variations seen in florent si tu the clinical manifestations of patients. More research is needed to identify the role of cytokines in order to persuasive smoking better understand the disease progression as well as find new treatment options. While it is known that the immune system plays a role in the development of the disease, what causes the immune system to function abnormally is uva gsas fellowship unknown.
It is speculated that environmental factors play a role, but the data have not consistently supported this theory. 12,13 There is, however, evidence to suggest that genetic components play a role. Several immunologic gene abnormalities (eg, interferon regulatory factor 5, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22, and integrin alpha M) have been identified. Essay Smoking Ban? Additionally, research in homozygous twins has shown a higher incidence of SLE in is ordinary essays families where the prevalence of the disease in other family members was low. 2,14 Furthermore, those with infantile-onset SLE occurring within the first year of life have a high incidence of having family members with a history of autoimmune diseases.
15. There is ban also some evidence that hormone abnormalities are associated with SLE. Conclusion? Estrogen and essay smoking ban androgen metabolism have been found to proposal technology differ in essay ban men and women with SLE compared with healthy controls. 16 For example, women with SLE metabolize estrogen to a more potent form, 16a-hydroxyestrone, instead of 2-hydroxyestrone, and can have irregular menstruation cycles and increased risk of miscarriage. Prolactin levels can also be elevated in patients with SLE. 16 Use of proposal computer technology, hormone replacement therapy has also been shown to increase the risk of developing SLE. 17 Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with the production of persuasive smoking ban, autoantibodies that are present in up to 38% of patients with SLE. 18 However, it is not clear if these actually lead to elwood doctoral competition the development of SLE or just occur concomitantly. Table 1 Some medications associated with DILE a. Several mechanisms have been implicated in persuasive smoking ban DILE, including genetics and auto-antibody production.
Agents such as procainamide, hydralazine, and isoniazid generally cause DILE in patients with genetic abnormalities. These medications all undergo acetylation as part of their metabolism, so patients who are slow acetylators tend to have more problems with DILE compared with those who have normal or fast acetylation. Another potential cause of DILE involves hapten-like reactions where the drug or its metabolites bind to proteins rendering them foreign to the body. Super Conclusion? This in turn leads to an autoimmune response by the body. Other drugs, like the essay, anti-TNF agents, are thought to produce auto-antibodies by causing direct damage to the immune system.
8–10. DIAGNOSIS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION. Diagnosis is based on classification criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). A minimum of 4 of the campus thesis, 11 ACR criteria should be met in order to qualify as SLE for clinical trials. The 11 ACR criteria are broken into systems: cutaneous, musculosketetal nonerosive arthritis, cardiopulmonary pleuritis or pericarditis, renal, neurological disorder with seizures or psychosis due to unknown causes, and laboratory. 20 A rheumatologist or nephrologist may diagnose a patient if the patient meets only 3 of the smoking ban, criteria (1 must be clinical and 1 must be serologic) and has other clinical manifestations such as alopecia, skin vasculitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, or lung fibrosis. 5 Some patients may have only 1 organ system involved or only have some of the super size conclusion, manifestations of essay ban, SLE and essays will, therefore, not be diagnosed with SLE under the ACR criteria. Persuasive Essay Smoking? These patients are classified as having incomplete or latent lupus. 16 Furthermore, patients might have SLE for years before enough criteria are met to classify them as having SLE, with a mean of 2 years between first manifestations and final diagnosis. 2.
Table 2 Lupus nephritis classification. Clinical presentation can include nonspecific symptoms (eg, severe fatigue, fever, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy). Common skin manifestations include a malar or butterfly rash, with sun-induced macules or papules occurring on fellowship, the face, or a generalized rash occurring on persuasive smoking, the body, which may or may not be sun induced. Discoid lupus presents as a hyperkeratotic lesion associated with atrophy, scarring, and hypopigmentation. Ninety percent of patients have joint inflammation such as arthralgia, arthritis, tendinitis, or early morning stiffness generally in the knees, wrists, and elwood hands. Joint inflammation tends not to cause permanent damage. Men with SLE tend to have less arthritis, but serositis can be more predominant than in women. 5. Another common feature, occurring in 50% of cases, is mucosal ulceration, usually oral.
Since methotrexate can also cause these ulcerations, it can be difficult to determine if the ulceration is essay induced by SLE or the florent m essayer mp3, drugs used to treat it. Diffuse alopecia can generally occur when the smoking, disease is active and is usually reversible during remission. Patchy alopecia, on thesis computer, the other hand, may lead to scarring and can become permanent. 5 Cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms are also common and include chest pain on inspiration due to pleurisy or pericarditis. Cardiovascular disease (eg, myocardial infarction) is secondary to accelerated atherosclerosis and persuasive essay other risks (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes, and heart failure), which can also exacerbate cardiovascular disease in SLE. Elwood Doctoral Dissertation? The risk of hospitalization for an acute myocardial infarction was 2.27 times greater for lupus patients aged 18 to smoking 44 years than for non-lupus patients. 22 Renal complications (glomerulonephritis and microvascular thrombosis) and neuropsychiatric complications (seizures, psychosis, neuropathies, stroke, and depression) are common as well. 23 Ophthalmic and elwood s. buffa doctoral dissertation competition gastrointestinal manifestations are usually uncommon but can be serious, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and subacute bowel obstruction. Age at onset affects clinical presentation. Pediatric patients can have severe organ involvement, especially nephropathy. Neurologic and persuasive smoking ban hematologic manifestations such as thrombocytopenia and essays hemolytic anemia are common early features in pediatric SLE, whereas skin and joint manifestations are less common.
2 Arthritis, fever, serositis, sicca symptoms, Raynaud's syndrome, lung disease, and neuropsychiatric symptoms are more common in the elderly population with SLE, while malar rash, discoid lupus, and glomerulonephritis are less common. 4. DILE can present with different clinical features. Symptoms in DILE are generally milder, with arthralgia often being the only symptom that these patients have. Persuasive Ban? Arthralgia and myalgia are both common, occurring in 90% and 50% of patients, respectively.
Other common symptoms include fever, pleurisy, and pericarditis. Campus Design? Skin manifestations are relatively uncommon; however, purpura, erythema nodosum, and erythematosus papules can be seen. Additionally, renal and central nervous system (CNS) damage do not occur in the vast majority of cases. Persuasive Essay Ban? Onset of most symptoms generally occurs 4 to 20 weeks after initiation of therapy, but some cases of DILE have occurred after years of therapy. 8-10.
MEASURING TREATMENT OUTCOMES. Disease activity. SLE activity has 3 patterns: flare, chronic, and long quiescence. A flare or relapsing remission is an is ordinary essays, exacerbation that occurs suddenly and smoking unpredictably; patients are usually in good health between flares. Pagny Veux? Factors that may trigger a disease flare-up include stress, excessive work, emotional crisis, sunlight, ultraviolet light, infection, injuries, surgery, pregnancy, abrupt discontinuation of medications, treatment noncompliance, medications, and immunizations. Serologic tests are not helpful in predicting flares because serologic activity of SLE may occur without clinical manifestations. Chronic SLE has persistent activity of some type such as chronic synovitis, chronic cytopenias, or active discoid lupus. This chronic activity may or may not require treatment.
Patients with long quiescence have a long remission period before having additional flare-up. 1,24 Patients can also have comorbid conditions associated with the main SLE activity (eg, nephritis and neuropsychiatric involvement). Outcome measures. Disease activity may be measured with validated instruments such as the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), the persuasive essay, Safety of Estrogen in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA)-SLEDAI, the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group scale (BILAG), the European Concensus Lupus Activity Measure (ECLAM), or the m essayer, Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), which are good predictors of damage, reversible inflammation, and mortality. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Task Force on SLE recommends that at least 1 of these indices be used to monitor disease activity.
25 The Lupus Activity Index (LAI) is a visual analog scale for assessing overall activity and individual organs. The Systemic Lupus International Cooperating Clinics/ACR (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index documents the number of items of irreversible organ damage that have occurred. 26 To measure health status, the persuasive smoking ban, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) or 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) can be used. Follow-up. Patients with unstable disease may need to be seen as often as every week; those with stable disease can generally be seen every 3 to 4 months. Physical examination includes skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, chest, heart, abdomen, extremities, and the musculoskeletal and neurologic systems. Laboratory tests include complete blood count, platelet count, creatinine, liver function tests, and urinalysis. 27 Other monitoring may be required based on the patient's treatment regimen and specific organ system involvement. Super? Specific monitoring parameters required for individual drugs are discussed below in the treatment section. There is little, if any, literature on nonpharmacologic management of SLE. Despite the lack of persuasive smoking ban, evidence, EULAR and ACR guidelines do make some recommendations.
24,25 All patients with SLE should practice proper sun protection as approximately one-third of patients are photosensitive. Patients should be instructed to avoid direct exposure to sunlight and use protective clothing and sunscreens that block both ultraviolet A (UVA) and UVB rays. Patients should also be counseled to avoid tanning beds. This is especially important for patients with cutaneous involvement. Smoking cessation is also recommended for computer, all patients with SLE because current smokers have been shown to have significantly higher SLEDAI scores than previous smokers or never smokers. 28.
It is persuasive essay ban also important that patients maintain proper nutrition, including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. 25 These are especially important in patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Vitamin D levels should be monitored periodically as well, since patients are encouraged to avoid sun exposure, which could cause problems with inadequate conversion of m essayer mp3, vitamin D in the skin. In addition, it is recommended that patients exercise routinely. Patients may also need other individualized nonpharmacologic therapy based on the different comorbid conditions that may be present (such as diet and exercise recommendations for patients with cardiovascular disease). Guidelines were developed by the ACR in persuasive essay smoking 1999 and the EULAR taskforce in 2008. These are the most commonly used guidelines but do have some limitations, particularly the uva gsas year, ACR guidelines, because of the outdated nature of the material. Persuasive Essay Smoking? Newer medications are not included in si tu the guidelines because they were not available. SLE treatment is highly individualized and depends on symptom manifestations, organ involvement, and essay ban disease severity. Campus Network Design Thesis? 24,25 Duration of therapy is also highly individualized and is based on the patient's response. Antimalarials and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are useful in the treatment of mild symptoms such as arthralgias and cutaneous manifestations. Oral corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents are used in more severe disease.
Other medications (cyclophosphamide, immunosuppressive agents, tacrolimus) may be used depending on the severity and various organ systems involved. Belimumab is a newer agent that is approved for patients with mild to moderate disease currently taking standard therapy. Ban? 29. NSAIDs. NSAIDs are commonly prescribed for patients with SLE because greater than 90% will develop arthralgias or polyarthritis. Because there are limited data to culture support improved outcomes in SLE, NSAIDs should be used cautiously, and there are significant risks associated with long-term use. 25 NSAIDs work by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which inhibits the production of prostaglandins that mediate inflammation and pain. In addition to COX-2 inhibition, NSAIDs can also inhibit COX-1, which in persuasive essay ban turn inhibits the production of prostaglandins that protect the lining of the super size me essay conclusion, gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, gastrointestinal bleeding is a concern, especially in patients who are taking these medications long term and/or receiving corticosteroids. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban? It is therefore recommended to use an NSAID with higher COX-2 selectivity, such as celecoxib, and to avoid agents with less selectivity such as piroxicam and ketorolac. Additionally, patients on florent pagny m essayer, long-term NSAIDs may require a proton-pump inhibitor or histamine-2 receptor blocker to help prevent complications and alleviate side effects.
30 Patients requiring long-term therapy should have a complete blood count and serum creatinine level measured annually and be instructed on how to monitor for persuasive essay smoking ban, signs/symptoms of super size me essay conclusion, bleeding (unusual bleeding, bloody stools, and blood in the urine). 24. Antimalarials. Antimalarials are used to treat and prevent flares and are particularly useful for arthralgias that are not adequately controlled with NSAIDs. 24 They may also be useful in patients with cutaneous manifestations. Hydroxychloroquine is the most commonly prescribed antimalarial agent, accounting for up to 95% of the prescriptions in the United States. Persuasive Smoking Ban? This is due to its decreased likelihood of causing ocular and gastrointestinal adverse reactions compared with other antimalarial agents. Hydroxychloroquine has also been shown to help maintain remission, possibly protect against vascular and thrombotic events, and to dissertation year fellowship improve lipid levels. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban? 31,32 Chloroquine is another antimalarial agent that can be used. 33. The mechanism of action of antimalarial agents in the treatment of SLE is not fully understood but is thesis computer believed to be due to their known immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties.
They may also block UV light absorption, which may decrease cutaneous lesions. 33. The most common side effects are gastrointestinal upset, dermatologic reactions, headache, and lightheadedness. Rare but serious side effects include psychosis, convulsions, toxic neuropathy, skeletal myopathy, cardiac myopathy, and ophthalmologic toxicity, including permanent vision loss. The ACR recommends that all patients undergo a baseline eye examination before beginning treatment with an antimalarial agent, followed by ophthalmologic assessments every 6 to 12 months. 24 The American Academy of Opththalmology in persuasive ban 2002 published recommendations for florent pagny si tu, retinopathy screening. They base their recommendations on the economical burden of frequent screening, risk level of the persuasive, patient, and duration of uva gsas fellowship, antimalarial treatment. Persuasive Ban? Since there are no standardized screening parameters, they recommend following the recommendations from the s. buffa dissertation competition, American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern based on the patient's age if they do not have risk factors.
34. Glucocorticoids. Systemic glucocorticoids used alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents are typically reserved for patients with significant organ involvement, particularly renal or CNS. 35 High doses (40 to 60 mg/d of prednisone or prednisone equivalent) are used in patients with severe SLE, while doses of essay smoking ban, 10 mg/d or less are used for milder SLE for treatment of cutaneous and musculoskeletal symptoms not responding to other therapies. 24 Doses and elwood doctoral dissertation competition dosage forms may vary based on severity and complications but the shortest duration possible should be used to persuasive essay ban avoid long-term complications with these medications, which may include myopathy, osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and infections. Patients requiring long-term therapy should routinely be monitored for these complications. Total cholesterol and bone density should be checked annually, and blood glucose levels should be checked every 3 to campus design 6 months. 24. Cytotoxic/immunosuppressive agents. Patients who are not responsive to antimalarials or glucocorticoids should be considered for ban, treatment with immunosuppressive agents for more severe manifestations of the disease.
Agents in elwood s. buffa this category include cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and persuasive ban methotrexate. The majority of data with these agents are in the area of SLE nephritis. Elwood Competition? It is important to note that mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and methotrexate must be avoided during pregnancy. Some of these agents have also shown promise in neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as in severe cutaneous manifestations of lupus. Essay Smoking? 23,25,36,37. The intravenous route for administration of cyclophosphamide is generally preferred due to technology fewer side effects compared with oral administration. Intravenous administration can be given with mercapto-ethanesulphonic acid (mesna) to decrease the risk of bladder damage that occurs with cyclophosphamide administration.
Mycophenolate has shown promise as compared with cyclophosphamide; however, long-term data are lacking, so cyclophosphamide is preferred in persuasive combination with steroids for proliferative nephritis. 38. Several other agents have been tried for patients with more severe and resistant disease, including fludarabine and cladribine. Much of the me essay, evidence for these agents is from essay anecdotal, uncontrolled trials or very small controlled trials. Controlled trials are required before these agents can be recommended. Computer Technology? 23,36,37,39–41. Belimumab. Essay Smoking? In March 2011, belimumab (Benlysta) was FDA approved for treatment of adults with active, autoantibody-positive SLE who are receiving standard therapy.
29 Belimumab has a unique mechanism of action targeting B-cell dysfunction by inhibiting B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). It has been shown that decreases in culture essays BLyS levels are associated with improvement in SLE activity and increases in BLyS levels are associated with worsening SLE activity and mild/moderate flares. 42. Belimumab's safety and efficacy have been evaluated in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In all 3 studies, patients met ACR criteria for SLE and were on standard SLE therapies including corticosteroids, antimalarials, NSAIDs, and immunosuppressants (alone or in smoking combination). Patients on other biologics or cyclophosphamide were excluded, along with patients with active lupus nephritis or CNS disease. 43–46. The phase 2 study included patients who had a history of measurable autoantibodies and had coprimary outcomes of is ordinary, percent change in the SELENA-SLEDAI score and time to first mild/moderate or severe flare. In the study population as a whole, belimumab was well tolerated but did not significantly reduce SLE disease activity or flares. Ban? When the subgroup of thesis technology, seropositive patients (71.5% of population) was evaluated, they had a significantly improved response. 43 This led to the evaluation and development of persuasive essay smoking ban, a novel composite end point called the SLE Responder Index (SRI) to be used as the primary end point in both phase 3 studies.
The SRI uses the SELENA-SLEDAI score to determine global improvement, BILAG scores to assure no worsening in culture is ordinary a particular organ system, and physician's global assessment scores. 44. The phase 3 trials (BLISS-5245 and BLISS-7646) included only patients who were seropositive at screening, and both trials used SRI response rate at week 52 as their primary end point. BLISS-52 (n=865) and BLISS-76 (n=819) randomized patients to standard of persuasive essay, care plus placebo, belimumab 1 mg/kg, or belimumab 10 mg/kg for uva gsas, 52 weeks or 76 weeks, respectively. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban? Both studies showed significant improvement in size patient response according to the SRI using the belimumab 10 mg/kg dose compared with placebo at persuasive essay ban week 52: there was a 57.6% versus 43.6% response rate, respectively ( P =.0006), in super BLISS-52 and persuasive essay smoking 43.2% versus 33.5% response rate, respectively ( P =.017), in BLISS-76. The numbers needed to year treat for the BLISS-52 and BLISS-76 were 8 and 11, respectively.
The 76-week results from smoking BLISS-76 failed to show a statistically significant difference between belimumab 10 mg/kg compared with placebo in the percentage of patients responding according to the SRI (38.5% vs 32.4%, respectively; P =.13). 46 Safety data through week 76 showed that belimumab was generally well tolerated, with rates of adverse events, infections, and campus discontinuation that were similar to placebo. 46. TREATMENTS FOR SPECIFIC DISEASE MANIFESTATIONS OR PRESENTATIONS. Table 3 Summary of cytotoxic/immunosuppressive medications used in the treatment of lupus nephritis. Treatment of lupus nephritis consists of 2 phases: induction and persuasive ban maintenance. There is some controversy as to what agent should be used due to issues with the individual agents and is ordinary limited data, particularly with maintenance therapy.
Selection of the appropriate agent depends on the severity of disease, risk of persuasive, adverse reactions with the different medications, desire to preserve fertility, and proposal cost. Typically, patients will be started on a regimen of IV cyclophosphamide plus corticosteroids or mycophenolate mofetil. Meta-analyses of lupus nephritis therapies have generally shown that there is similar efficacy between mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide for induction therapy. Studies included in these analyses generally lasted between 6 and 12 months. Cyclophosphamide in addition to corticosteroids has been shown to improve renal function by decreasing the risk of doubling serum creatinine levels (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.4–0.88) and of relapsing (RR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.94) when compared to steroids alone. 50 They have, however, failed to show an improvement in mortality. Safety issues are a serious concern with cyclophosphamide, especially for women of child-bearing age. The risk of ovarian failure was significantly increased when cyclophosphamide was added to persuasive essay smoking steroids compared with steroids alone (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.1–4.34).
25,40,51–55 Patients with proliferative renal disease should also receive standard therapy for chronic kidney disease including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists and lipid-lowering therapies. 25,40. Mycophenolate mofetil has been shown to thesis proposal improve outcomes in patients with more mild disease. Persuasive Ban? 40 The risk of super me essay conclusion, relapse at 3 years, however, was increased with mycophenolate mofetil plus steroids compared to cyclophosphamide plus steroids (RR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.1–8.11). 25,38,47,51–55 According to the EULAR guidelines, more intensive therapy may be needed if patients do not have significant improvement (improvement in serum creatinine and persuasive smoking ban reduction of thesis proposal, proteinuria to 1 g/d) after 6 months of treatment. 25.
Azathioprine is another possible treatment option for induction therapy. Smoking? When added to steroids, it decreased all-cause mortality (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.36–0.99) when compared with corticosteroids alone but did not improve renal function. 47 Azathioprine did not increase the risk of ovarian failure. Me Essay? Triple combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and steroids is not recommended since the only benefit seen was an improvement in persuasive the risk of having the serum creatinine double. Elwood Dissertation Competition? 38,47. Studies examining long-term maintenance therapy are limited. The MAINTAIN trial was designed to essay ban compare the long-term effects of mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine. Patients had WHO class III–V renal disease and met ACR criteria for SLE.
Patients were randomized to florent pagny the azathioprine (azathioprine + glucocorticoids + cyclophosphamide) or mycophenolate mofetil groups (mycophenolate mofetil + glucocorticoids + cyclophosphamide) and were followed for an average of essay smoking ban, 48 months. There was no difference in the time to renal flare (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.33–1.71 for campus design thesis, mycophenolate compared with azathioprine). Adverse reactions were similar among the groups. 56. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus. In addition to the sun protection measures mentioned above, intermediate-strength topical corticosteroids are generally helpful for patients with skin lesions. If patients do not respond adequately, stronger topical or oral medications may be used. First-line oral therapy consists of antimalarial agents, dapsone, or a short course of prednisone. If these treatments fail, then treatment can move on to isotretinoin or gold compounds. For more severe, resistant cases, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, or long-term corticosteroids can be tried.
Surgery has been successful in some patients but caution is advised since surgery could potentially worsen disease activity. 23,25,41,57,58 Agents that have recently been tried include thalidomide, mycophenolate mofetil, and intravenous immune globulin. 58 Controlled trials are needed to determine the place of these agents in smoking therapy. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus have also shown promise in super size me essay treating skin lesions. Essay Smoking? Tacrolimus when compared to clobetasol showed a decrease in computer side effects with a similar efficacy profile. 59 Both tacrolimus and pimecrolimus have shown improvement within a few weeks after initiation of therapy. Persuasive Essay Smoking? 59 Tacrolimus showed improvement in photosensitive rash, and pimecrolimus showed improvement in cutaneous lesions. 59 Both medications also appear efficacious in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. For discoid lupus, pimecrolimus appears to be more effective than tacrolimus.
59 The main issue regarding these medications is that they have not been compared to other agents in elwood s. buffa dissertation competition a controlled manner. Controlled studies are needed to determine what role these agents may play in treating cutaneous symptoms. 59. Neuropsychiatric lupus. There are limited data on specific treatment for neuropsychiatric involvement. Treatment usually focuses on the psychiatric symptoms rather than on treating the lupus (eg, anticonvulsants to treat seizures or antidepressants for essay ban, patients with depressive symptoms). In addition to these more serious symptoms, patients will often develop headaches, including migraine, that require preventive medications. 23,25,41,60 There is some evidence to suggest that rituximab may be useful in uva gsas year these patients as well, but controlled trials are needed to confirm this. Persuasive Smoking Ban? 61.
One randomized controlled trial has been conducted comparing cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with lupus. 60,62 A statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with 18 of 19 patients in the cyclophosphamide group compared with 6 of 13 patients in the methylprednisolone group responding at 24 months (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.13–3.73). Therefore, cyclophosphamide may be a better treatment option than corticosteroids. 60,62 A risk/benefit analysis is elwood doctoral needed before recommending cyclophosphamide in individual patients, due to the significant risk of adverse reactions. Drug-induced lupus. Treatment of DILE is primarily withdrawal of the offending agent. Symptoms will generally start to persuasive essay smoking ban resolve within a few days to weeks after discontinuation.
If symptoms have not resolved, patients can be given cytotoxic agents to treat symptoms. Corticosteroids should be reserved for patients with organ damage. Super Me Essay Conclusion? Patients who do not have complete resolution of symptoms should be worked up for development of idiopathic SLE, since some medications may just expose an ban, underlying case rather than causing DILE. 8–10. Several agents have recently been or are currently being evaluated for safety and efficacy in lupus. Uva Gsas Year? Many of these medications have failed to show a difference when compared to placebo or standard therapy, while others are still in the early stages of clinical trial testing. Leflunomide has shown some promising results in clinical trials.
63,64 Rituximab is another agent that has some limited data to suggest that it may be beneficial in smoking ban patients with SLE nephritis. Year? 25,61,65 Clinical trials with rituximab are currently underway or have reached completion, and will help to smoking ban define its role in culture essays therapy. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder that can affect several organ systems, including the skin, kidneys, and CNS. Better and earlier recognition of SLE and persuasive essay smoking ban more effective treatments have significantly improved survival rates. Treatment is generally individualized, based on clinical presentation of the patient. The main nonpharmacologic management strategies are proper sun protection (eg, avoidance, protective clothing, and sunscreen with both UVA and UVB protection) and proper nutrition. Glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, cytotoxic/immunosuppressive agents, and dissertation fellowship antimalarials are used for generalized symptoms and patients with more chronic or severe symptoms. Lupus nephritis is one of the smoking, most common manifestations and is generally treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids.
Other disease manifestations may be treated with therapy targeting the specific condition, such as antipsychotic medications for essays, psychiatric symptoms. Dr Bernknopf is associate professor, Ferris State University, Kalamazoo, Mich. Dr Rowley is assistant professor, Ferris State University. Dr Bailey is professor, Ferris State University. Disclosure Information: The authors report no financial disclosures as related to products discussed in persuasive essay smoking ban this article. 1. Miah T, Hoque MA, Mahmood T, Tarafder BK. Clinical profile, management and outcome of lupus. Mymensingh Med J . 2008;17(suppl 2):S6–S11. 2. Jimenez S, Cervera R, Font J, Ingelmo M. The epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus.
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Mok CC. Therapeutic options for resistant lupus nephritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum . 2006;36:71–81. 37. Bansal VK, Beto JA. Treatment of lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis of smoking ban, clinical trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;29:193–199. 38. Houssiau F. Thirty years of cyclophosphamide: assessing the evidence.
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Association of fellowship, plasma B lymphocyte stimulator levels and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Persuasive Essay Ban? Arthritis Rheum . 2008:58:2453–2459. 43. Wallace DJ, Stohl W, Furie RA, et al. A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. S. Buffa Competition? Arthritis Rheum . 2009:61:1168–1178. 44. Furie RA, Petri MA, Wallace DJ, et al. Novel evidence-based systemic lupus erythematosus responder index. Arthritis Rheum . Persuasive Essay? 2009:61:1143–1151. 45.
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Ramos-Casals M, Diaz-Lagares C, Soto-Cardenas MJ, et al. Rituximab therapy in lupus nephritis: current clinical evidence. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011;40:159–169. Managed Care Pharmacy Survey 2017. Take three minutes to answer our managed care pharmacy survey. As a thank-you to persuasive survey-takers, when the is ordinary, survey closes, we will hold a drawing to give away not one, but two $200 Visa gift cards.
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Valuation of Brand “Coca-Cola” Essay Sample. The global beverage industry consists of the total revenues generated through the sale of soft drinks, beers, ciders, flavored alcoholic beverages (FABS), spirits and wines. For the purpose of this report we are concentrating only on the soft drinks sectors as that is where coca cola deals in. The global beverages industry had total revenues of $1749.4 billion in essay, 2010, representing a CAGR of thesis proposal computer technology, 1.9% for 5 year period of 2006-2010. The industry forecast is that the industry will decelerate and will have an anticipated CAGR of 1.8% for five year period of 2010-2015.
A report by Rabobank, global financial services says that industry consolidation will take place in 2012-2013 and will be driven by the five mega trends such as volatility, emerging market demand, bifurcation of value, convergence of persuasive smoking ban, distribution and sustainable sourcing. Soft drinks have been a custom of passage among the youth of modern generations which sets up this category for future generations. With margins getting slim, it is important that brands continue to attract new customers and patronize them towards their brand. Consumer conversations are increasingly driving the florent veux m essayer mp3 perception of the brands which implies that the soft drinks and persuasive ban beverages brands will have to focus more on customer engagement and look for new entry points. The soft drinks segment contributed revenue of pagny si tu veux m essayer mp3, $559.8 billion in 2010 having a share of around 32% in the overall beverage industry. The Coca-Cola Company is the leading player in the global beverages industry, generating 16.3% share of the essay industry’s value and next is PepsiCo, Inc, which accounts for 9.2% of the industry. Coca-Cola turned 125 years young in 2011 and has set a 2020 vision with focus and intensity along the 6Ps of Profit, People, Portfolio, Partners, Planet and Productivity. Coca-Cola continues to occupy a unique place in mp3, the hearts of the people worldwide.
It is also investing billions of dollars in India to increase presence and preference and outpace competitors and essay ban envisages China to become its biggest market eventually. We have carried out elwood doctoral dissertation a valuation of the “Coca-Cola” brand and have used generally accepted brand valuation methodologies viz Income based valuation method (Dividend Discount Approach), Market base brand valuation methods (Relative Valuation), Cost based Brand valuation method (Historical Method). We have provided a rationale for the various methodologies pointing out the persuasive essay pros and cons of the various methodologies. The brand valuation has been carried out based on the consolidated financials and forecasts provided by the company on public sources. The brand valuation is fellowship based on 2011 data available in Annual Report FY 2012. The valuation of the brand as per persuasive smoking, the above methods is estimated at thesis technology around 100 bn$ based on our analysis of the brand and the company and subject to the assumptions and limitations described in this report. Persuasive Essay Ban. COCA-COLA Company. The Coca-Cola Company engages in the manufacturing, distribution and marketing of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and doctoral competition syrups. The company owns the persuasive smoking world’s most valuable brand: Coca-Cola and is sold in more than 200 countries worldwide. Most of the Coca-Cola’s products are manufactured and sold by bottling partners, who convert them into campus design thesis finished packaged products for sale to distributors and other customers.
Its major beverage products include Coca-Cola, caffeine free Coca-Cola, Cherry Coke, Diet Coke, caffeine free Diet Coke, Diet Coke Sweetened, Coca-Cola Zero etc. It operates its business through six business segments: North America, Eurasia and persuasive Africa, Europe, Latin America, Pacific and Bottling investments. The company has divided its operations into culture is ordinary segments based on geographic operations. The Coca-Cola system is smoking ban not a single entity from a legal or managerial perspective and the Company doesn’t own or control the bottling plants. The company common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, traded under the florent pagny mp3 ticker KO. Essay Ban. The company has been one of the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1987. As of December 31, 2011 there were approximately 2.3 billion shares outstanding and 252,197 shareowners of record. The company had net operating revenues of $46,542 mn in 2011 with an operating income of 10,154 mn $ which is essays a significant growth vis-a-vis 2001 which had revenues of 35,119 mn $ and smoking operating income of 8,449 mn $. Thesis Technology. Per capita consumption – the persuasive essay smoking average number of 8 ounce servings (250 ml) servings of beverages people consume each year in a given market is a key indicator of the growth potential.
2011 Per Capita Snap Shot (Source: 2011 Annual Review, www.coca-colacompany.com) Consumers often prefer products that have a strong, positive image. Brand Association plays an florent mp3 important part when people think and feel the essay smoking brand both on super me essay conclusion, conscious and subconscious level. Essay Ban. Thus it is imperative that any brand should create the right image in super conclusion, the minds of the consumer. Coca-Cola has been a global sponsor of sports by means of associating at the international level to the local level so that is exposed to consumers at maximum touch points. It thus positions itself as an icon and persuasive leading brand that mentally and physically boosts consumer associations.
Awards received by Coca-Cola in 2011:- 1. Topped Interbrand’s ranking of the 100 Best Global Brands for the 12th consecutive year. The estimated brand value of super size conclusion, Coca-Cola increased 2% to 71.9 bn $ in 2011 as per Interbrand. 2. Ad Age saluted this brand for marketing excellence and persuasive smoking identified it to be the fellowship Marketer of the Year. Moreover, Coca-Cola remains the number one consumer product fan page on Facebook.
3. Smoking Ban. Advanced to number 6 on FORTUNE magazine’s 2011 list of the World’s 50 most admired companies. 4. Moved up to no 8 on Barron’s ranking of the World’s most respected companies 5. Moved up five spots to number 12 on Diversity Inc magazine’s top 50 companies for Diversity list for 2011 The company’s efficient brand management system has successfully established a global brand. At present, Coca-Cola possesses a strong brand identity in the global market for which its sales are rapidly increasing. Relevance of the Study. One of the critics of valuation has been that it fails to capture the value of brand names and other intangibles. Brand name is one of the assets which strike immediately when intangible assets are talked about. Uva Gsas Dissertation. Brand names are powerful enough that it allows a premium to be charged for exactly the same product without the brand leading to greater profit margins and higher earnings. A brand name company will have higher value than an otherwise similar company without the brand name. Having a world renowned brand has its benefits. Some of them are: * Allows to charge a premium for exactly the same product * A brand name company will have higher value than an otherwise similar company without the persuasive essay smoking brand name * If we accept the intention that brand names have values it is logical to follow up and going ahead in estimating them * Effects of brand are multi-bound as it affects all the elwood s. buffa doctoral 4P’s of Marketing as coke in the late 1980s made the mistake of smoking ban, thinking that their brand name come from taste and started experimenting with the is ordinary essays product putting entire company to risk. * Sales.
* Brand names represent one of the long lasting competitive advantages to businesses. * Top brand names in essay smoking, 1925 were still alive in elwood dissertation, 2000 as per a marketing journal The best way to think about how much a brand adds value to the company is to think about persuasive smoking what will happen to the firm’s value if it loses the brand. This is very difficult to calculate as a brand is an integral part of the firm affecting sales to finances. In this project we confront this problem and lay down a methodology of valuing brand values which generate cash flows for businesses but are difficult to isolate. Why Coca-cola. Brand valuation is clearly brought out when:- * There are no quality differences between a company’s product and those of its competitors * There is at least one company in florent si tu veux m essayer mp3, the sector that is truly generic We cannot think of any reason why one Soda should sell for a price higher than another, based on persuasive smoking ban, attributes like price and quality. Thus we feel any differences in margins between coke and a generic soda is due to the BRAND NAME that coke has built up over the period of time. Super Size Conclusion. Also, Coca Cola was ranked number 1 brand name in the world by Business Week magazine.
Thus it is not surprising that various valuations in the past have assumed 80% of persuasive ban, Coca Cola’s value coming from network thesis its brand name. Also the approaches that we adopt while valuation assumes that a generic company exists and we have access to its financial statements. Moreover, brand name is the only reason for differences in persuasive essay smoking, earnings of the two companies. Thesis Proposal. Hence this approach is more appropriate in valuing brand name such as Coca Cola but less in valuing say Sony or Goldman. Objective of the Study. How much can Coca Cola bargain due to essay smoking ban, its brand name? What is the Valuation of the s. buffa Brand “Coca Cola”? The approaches used by essay smoking ban analysts to value brand names are often ad-hoc and may significantly overstate or understate their value. Firms with well – known brand names often sell for higher multiples than lesser-known firms.
The standard practice of adding on a ‘brand name premium’, often set arbitrarily, to discounted cash flow value, can lead to erroneous estimates. One of the is ordinary essays benefits of having a well-known and respected brand name is that firms can charge higher prices for the same products, leading to higher profit margins and hence to higher price-sales ratios and firm value. The larger the price premium that a firm can charge, the greater is the value of the brand name. Literature Review. We studied the following papers in this field:- * Valuation of brands and intellectual capital by persuasive essay Pablo Fernandez: – This paper basically is a revision of various brand valuation methodologies used worldwide.
In particular, the paper has gone deep in to technology, study the valuations of Kellogg’s and Coca-Cola performed by Damodaran and the method proposed by Interbrand. * Papers by persuasive ban Damodaran: – Damodaran has considered price to sales ratio to value a brand. Proposal. Specifically, he has taken the price to sales ratio for a branded company and another price to sales ratio for an unbranded company, that is, with private labels or generic products. The difference when multiplied with the smoking actual sales of the company gives the brand value of the company. * Houlihan Valuation Advisors: – The brand’s value is the present value of the company’s free cash flow less the assets employed multiplied by proposal computer technology the required return. Observe that the free cash flow attributable to persuasive smoking, the brand is somewhat similar to the EVA. Uva Gsas Fellowship. This method does not make much sense.
It replaces the cash flow attributable to a generic product company with the assets employed by the branded company multiplied by the assets’ required return. * Roos J, G. Roos, L Edvinsson and L Dragonnett: – In the first part of the article, they describe and analyze the persuasive smoking ban “first-generation” intellectual capital practices, the systematic visualization and measurement of the different forms of intellectual capital. Florent Veux M Essayer Mp3. The “second-generation” intellectual capital practices expand on persuasive ban, the “first generation” by consolidating the measurements in an aggregate intellectual capital index. According to these authors, “intellectual capital” (IC) can be described as the difference between a company’s market value and its book value. * + numerous other secondary resources available. Data sources are the super me essay accounting statements of the company for the last many years which are available in the Annual Reports available publicly on the website. The data on the brand name expenditure is collected for each year, going back historically for persuasive essay ban the amortizable life of the brand name.
We chose 31 years as our amortizable life, we collect data for each year for the last 31 years (1980 onwards) for the brand name expenditures (under historical cost approach). Network Design. One of the generic companies identified is a Canadian beverage manufacturer call Cott Corporation and its financials are also sources of important data available publically. Valuation Methodologies. The standard of value used is the essay one which a buyer could be expected to pay for the brand or seller can expect to accept if the brand was put on sale in an open market with both parties having access to all the appropriate information. Uva Gsas Dissertation Year. Also we have assumed the business to persuasive essay smoking, be a going concern for uva gsas the valuation. Brands are more than just the name of a company. It is a concept which creates value for the business or the company as an organization delivering economic values, shareholder wealth, prosperity and culture. Brand if successful is one of the most valuable and rare assets that are recognized and persuasive smoking ban due care must be taken to exploit it to super size conclusion, an organizations own advantage. Due to its wide aspects brand is considered to be a very valuable asset and it influences the choice of customers, employees, investors and government authorities. Brands have a unique durability and in a commoditized market, it provides the organization with a sustained competitive advantage which cannot be compared to any other asset in the balance sheet. Based on the information available for the brand Coca-Cola and a generic company also available as Cott beverage, we have used the smoking following methods for our valuation:- 1. Income based valuation method (Dividend Discount Model), 2. Market base brand valuation methods (Relative Valuation), 3. Cost based Brand valuation method.
Date of thesis, Valuation: Updated last on 09th Dec 2011, based on financials ending 31 Dec 2011 Income based valuation methods (Dividend Discount Approach) Price premium method: based on smoking ban, capitalization of elwood s. buffa doctoral dissertation, future profit stream premiums attributable to a business’ brand above the revenues of a generic business, without a brand. Persuasive Essay. Simply put, how much extra do I get which is florent pagny si tu veux attributable to persuasive, the brand To quantify this difference, we used the discounted cash flow approach and uva gsas try and isolate the brand name on persuasive smoking ban, the cash flows of the firm. Here we try to measure the brand value by comparing the cash flows of Coca-Cola with Cott Corporation. Market Base Brand Valuation Methods (Relative Valuation Approach) In this model of relative valuation, we try to estimate the florent pagny si tu mp3 brand value by looking at how the market prices behave with and without the brand name. We again make use of the generic firm and calculate the EV multiple as the aggregate value doesn’t make much sense as Cott is a very small firm as compared to coca-cola. Mathematically, The V/S ratio ensures that the essay ban difference of size between the branded product and the generic product is taken care of. We also used the multiple EV/EBITDA and both resulted in different brand values.
Cost based Brand Valuation Method (Historical Approach) Creation costs method: this brand valuation methodology estimates the amount that has been invested in si tu veux m essayer, creating the brand. Valuation Description. Method 1: 3 stage Dividend Discount Model approach. Here we basis is that Coca-Cola, the persuasive ban branded company and the generic company (Cott Corporation) are publicly traded. Super Size Conclusion. Since it is difficult to compare the aggregate market value because the generic company is very small as compared to Coca-Cola Company. Thus we compared the key statistics for Coca-Cola and Cott Corporation for year ending Dec 2011:- | Coca- Cola| Cott| Revenues (USDm)| 46,542| 2335| Operating margin(after-tax)| 15.79%| 4.28%| Return on smoking, Capital (after-tax)| 17.90%| 2.80%|
We can clearly see the benefits of the brand name. Coca-Cola generates more revenues and me essay is substantially more profitable than Cott. So to get the value of the brand we used the operating margin approach, where we changed Coke’s operating margin to make it equal to Cott holding revenues constant and Sales to capital ratio at persuasive ban current level. We assumed a 3 stage growth period with a stable growth rate of g (which would be a bit higher than the economic growth rate) Here we tried to incorporate the impact if Coca- Cola goes for a brand extension and say comes up with T-shirts. This is done in the growth rate estimated STEP 2: Cash flows are estimated as per the growth rate. Expenses are similarly calculated based upon certain assumptions.
We have calculated FCFF in this case STEP 3: Generic Product. We tried to create a scenario by taking different values for dissertation the growth and operating profit percentage of the generic product. The generic company here is Cott Corporation which is a leading supplier of private label carbonated soft drinks headquartered in Canada. Snapshot: | Value of Coca-Cola|
| With Current Margin| With Cott’s Margin| Tax Rate| 24.50%| 24.50%| Revenues| 46,542| 46,542| Length, years| 10| 10| Reinvestment Rate| 0.35| 0.35| Operating Margin (after-tax)| 15.79%| 4.28%| Sales/Capital (Turnover Ratio)| 1.13| 1.13|
Return on persuasive essay ban, Capital (After-tax)| 17.84%| 4.84%| Growth rate during period (g1)| 6.24%| 1.69%| Cost of Capital during period| 7.10%| 7.10%| Length, years| 5| 5| Growth Rate| 5.0%| 5.0%| Return on Capital| 12.0%| 12.0%| Reinvestment Rate| 41.7%| 41.7%|
Cost of capital in steady state| 7.1%| 7.1%| Payout Ratio| 52.0%| 52.0%| Growth Rate| 1.4%| 1.4%| Return on Capital| 7.1%| 7.1%| Reinvestment Rate| 19.7%| 19.7%| Pn (Payout ratio for the next period)| 80.3%| 80.3%| Value of firm| 134621| 29629| Brand Value| 104 bn $| | This helped us to analyze the brand value spread for different growth rates and the value of conclusion, brand name we got is 104 bn $ The attached excel shows the smoking ban calculations associated with the super size me essay conclusion valuation. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban. Method 2: Relative Valuation Approach.
We would calculate the EBIT for the company which is veux mp3 from the branded part by subtracting the EBIT of the generic company A multiple would be calculated on persuasive essay ban, the basis of certain parameters and then earnings of the various brands in the same sector (like Pepsi, Coca cola) would be multiplied to get the brand value. The multiple we used here are EV/sales and EV/EBITDA. Valuing any brand using this method seems highly subjective, not only because of the parameters used but also because of the methodology itself. However, analyzing the strength factors for each brand/geographical area/format enables comparisons to be made and may provide guidelines for identifying the brand’s and company’s main value drivers, increasing the brand’s strength and, therefore, its value. 2011| Coca-Cola| Cott Corporation| EV/Sales| 3.67| 0.55|
Brand Value| 145037| 145 bn $| EV/EBITDA| 14.10| 6.34| Brand Value| 93933| 93 bn $| Details are in the excel attached. Method 3: Cost Based Approach. In this we analyzed the pagny m essayer amount that has been invested in building the brand. We begin by persuasive essay ban assuming that around 40% of the selling, general and administrative expenses are spent in brand building and then we try to capitalize this expense.
We collect data going back to elwood doctoral dissertation competition, 1980 and thus we have 31 years data. Persuasive. We choose 31 years as the amortizable life using a straight line schedule. As a result, we calculate the amount invested till date in brand building which we say as the value of the brand. Year| Total Selling Advertising| Brand Name Related Expense| Amortization this year| Unamortized expense| 1980| 1121| 448| 14.46| 0|
1981| 1189| 476| 15.34| 15| 1982| 1221| 488| 15.75| 32| 1983| 1376| 550| 17.75| 53| 1984| 1543| 617| 19.91| 80| 1985| 1579| 632| 20.37| 102| 1986| 1631| 652| 21.05| 126| 1987| 1777| 711| 22.93| 161|
1988| 2025| 810| 26.13| 209| 1989| 2235| 894| 28.84| 260| 1990| 2717| 1087| 35.06| 351| 1991| 3069| 1228| 39.60| 436| 1992| 3499| 1400| 45.15| 542| 1993| 3797| 1519| 48.99| 637| 1994| 4765| 1906| 61.48| 861| 1995| 5231| 2092| 67.50| 1012|
1996| 5597| 2239| 72.22| 1156| 1997| 5535| 2214| 71.42| 1214| 1998| 5699| 2280| 73.54| 1324| 1999| 5963| 2385| 76.94| 1462| 2000| 6016| 2406| 77.63| 1553| 2001| 6149| 2460| 79.34| 1666| 2002| 7001| 2800| 90.34| 1987| 2003| 7488| 2995| 96.62| 2222| 2004| 8146| 3258| 105.11| 2523|
2005| 8739| 3496| 112.76| 2819| 2006| 9431| 3772| 121.69| 3164| 2007| 10945| 4378| 141.23| 3813| 2008| 12124| 4850| 156.44| 4380| 2009| 11358| 4543| 146.55| 4250| 2010| 13158| 5263| 169.78| 5093| 2011| 17440| 6976| 225.03| 6976| Total| | | 2316.95| 50477.08| Value of Brand Name| 50 bn $| 1. 40% of SGA each year are associated with building up the brand name with the campus network thesis balance used to generate revenues in essay smoking, the current year 2. Amortization over 31 years using straight line amortization 3. Costs before 1980 are not taken into account due to lack of data and information Conclusion Uniqueness about this study.
We have tried to estimate the value of brand coca-cola by various methods and there are significant differences in me essay conclusion, the value that have been estimated by different methods Method| Value of brand| Income based valuation methods (Dividend Discount Approach)| 104 bn $| Market Base Brand Valuation Methods (Relative Valuation Approach)| 145bn$(EV/Sales); 93bn$ (EV/EBITDA)| Cost based Brand Valuation Method (Historical Approach)| 50 bn $| The income based valuation method gives us an intrinsic value of the brand and that we believe is the persuasive essay ban most reliable given that the inputs are chosen appropriately and with due care. As it approaches from the company fundamentals, we assume the value of the Coca-Cola brand to culture is ordinary, be within 20% of the value calculated from this taken into account various approximation parameters due to lack of ban, time and culture data. Persuasive Essay Smoking. The market based valuation is campus design a method of relative valuation and is the most commonly used method in the market today. Essay Ban. It carries with itself the disadvantages of what a typical relative valuation does. The choice of multiple as we have seen gives a range of brand value and it may sometimes be difficult which one to essays, choose for. However, this is persuasive essay one of the easiest methods to calculate the essays brand value.
The cost based or the historical method is persuasive essay smoking ban another estimation which gives us a very low value. This is due to the fact that we have taken into super size me essay conclusion account data from essay smoking 1980 onwards only while the company is existing since 1886. Dissertation Year Fellowship. So, a large amount of persuasive, value is lost because of the non availability of data. We believe the uva gsas dissertation year fellowship actual brand value to essay smoking, be definitely higher than this value of 50 bn $. However, the elwood dissertation brand valuation process is very useful, since it helps identify and assess brand value drivers. This assessment consists of comparing a brand’s value drivers with those of other brands/companies, with the brand’s previous drivers and essay smoking ban with the campus network thesis proposed goals. The brand valuation process increases the amount of information held by the company about persuasive essay smoking its brand and it should be developed so that it can be used as a management tool for thesis computer technology value creation. A good brand valuation process is a tool that helps maintain a coherent strategy over time and assign marketing resources consistently.
In our analysis we have assumed that the brand grows in a stage wise manner, but in essay smoking, reality the s. buffa competition brand may grow at different rates throughout the horizon and thus the brand value calculated here is only a reflection of persuasive, actual value. To accommodate these changes, we carried out sensitivity analysis with our variables being profitability (to explain the dynamic business) and stable growth regime (to explain the dynamic business environment) which can be seen in year, the attached excel. Is this the perfect essay for smoking ban you? Save time and order Valuation of Brand “Coca-Cola” essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Valuation of Brand “Coca-Cola” The Coca Cola Company is a big company that carries different products that a lot of people like.
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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in ban, your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the super, information? Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for persuasive essay smoking ban, resumes? Choosing the format of uva gsas dissertation fellowship a resume is key to starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is persuasive essay ban right for culture, you, and how to use the format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes.
Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of essay a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the outfit and the format need to accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at the same time. Super Size Conclusion. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of smoking ban a resume.
To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and proposal weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone. Persuasive Smoking Ban. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into elwood s. buffa competition their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the skills-based resume format, is controversial and should be avoided by everyone. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban. More on that later.
Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to essays, put them on a resume. Essay Smoking Ban. The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for a job. It is the s. buffa doctoral dissertation, bread and butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. Essay Smoking. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and pagny veux mp3 that you’ve sent a complete resume. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. Persuasive. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on work history and experience . Campus Design Thesis. If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located.
Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to persuasive smoking, make an extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and year fellowship achievements. 2. Essay Smoking Ban. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and experience. If you have large gaps in culture, your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the ban, contact information. You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format.
Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of year your resume is persuasive smoking a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and other additional sections.
Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for is ordinary essays, you and attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Persuasive Essay Smoking. Add achievements to your experience section. Elwood S. Buffa Doctoral Dissertation Competition. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section.
I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write. Super Me Essay. So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and essay smoking ban objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the m essayer mp3, experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the persuasive essay ban, PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to size me essay conclusion, R (Result) . Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban. So to pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of is ordinary you as a person.
While it may seem unprofessional to essay smoking ban, include such an informal section in the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and elwood s. buffa doctoral dissertation competition signal that you would be a good fit for the company. Persuasive. If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and how to add one to your resume, you can read the article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on me essay conclusion, a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to ban, Use a Combination Resume Format to veux m essayer, Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the persuasive essay, only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. Uva Gsas Year. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the persuasive essay smoking, experience section. The experience section is still important and near the top of proposal technology your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set.
Your experience section comes next. Persuasive. Here is where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. With the combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of a team of florent m essayer 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months.
Conduct webinars on how to wash dishes in glass heels. Ban. Orchestrate the creation of internal communications between different departments. Responsible for elwood, organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of essay smoking both staff and florent pagny veux mp3 bootcamp participants. Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for essay ban, talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to campus design thesis, focus on persuasive essay ban, skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the uva gsas year fellowship, Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. Essay Ban. A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right?
In fact, the format of a functional resume just throws job history out of the window. On a functional resume, an proposal experience section is reduced to essay, a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and your roles and responsibilities. The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of thesis proposal technology random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to ban, that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in uva gsas fellowship, any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in persuasive essay smoking, a recruiter simply throwing out your resume.
There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. Thesis. It is also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. Persuasive Essay Smoking. I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs.
Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. Proposal. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on hand is essay smoking best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to proposal computer, do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the choice is persuasive essay important. The format of a resume really comes down to uva gsas year fellowship, whether or not you want to focus on your skills or your career progression.
Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of smoking ban resume formats without coloring too far out of the lines. You also have to campus, make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. The best way to persuasive ban, enhance a standard resume format is to culture essays, improve each section and to persuasive smoking, place your most important skills and thesis proposal achievements near the top third of your resume. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about essay smoking ban, choosing the right resume format for campus network thesis, your position?
Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at persuasive essay smoking, Uptowork. She loves writing about size me essay, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Essay On Summer Camp Essays and Research Papers. Research Proposal The research proposal that I picked for persuasive essay smoking ban, this course is thesis technology, what the summer camp counselor’s role is for the . Persuasive Ban! campers, and for the camp . How does the counselor’s role affect the experience for the campers? What is the best advice a counselor could take in to is ordinary, make the camp experience better. Do campers feel that their counselor is more a friend, or there to babysit? I feel these questions are a good start to the research I will be doing. There are also a lot of sub questions that come.
ACT , Camper , Camping 1013 Words | 3 Pages. ?Laurie Grenier Dylan Kissane PHIL 130 Tuesday, April 7th 2015 Sociological issues displayed in Jesus Camp In 2009, more then 4.5 million . evangelical memberships in the United States were recorded and between 2006 and 2013, the number of Evangelical Protestants –also called Born Again- rose by 11.2 percent. The evangelical population is part of a bigger group -the Protestants representing more then 50 percent of the American population- and represents almost 30 percent of this larger group (Frejka. Christianity , Evangelicalism , God 1725 Words | 6 Pages. ? Summer Camp Rosynka - AIESEC LVIV, UKRAINE Earliest Start Date 06.06.2013 Latest End Date 18.07.2013 About . Summer Camp Rosynka The main aims of the Summer Camp project are - improvement of English, education of the tolerance and persuasive essay ban interest to other cultures in today's youth and younger generation through the involvement of the volunteers from abroad to work in children's camps . Job Description Department the intern will be working non-government organization Job Description1 working with children. Employment , Foreign language , Language 503 Words | 3 Pages. scholarship soccer player at computer technology, State University. Persuasive Ban! During the summer she works at a youth all-sports camp that several of the . university’s coaches operate. The sports camp runs for eight weeks during July and August. Campers come for a one-week period, during which time they live in the State dormitories and use the State athletic field and culture facilities. At the smoking, end of the week a new group of kids comes in.
Mary primarily serves as one of the camp soccer instructors. However, she has also been placed. Camp Records , Cleanliness , Equality 1315 Words | 5 Pages. Summer camps in is ordinary PA, Houston and Atlanta. Hey, I thought summer camps were only for kids but I found out there are several of them that can accommodate the entire family. . Here are some of them in PA, Houston and essay ban Atlanta. Summer camps in PA Camp Saginaw: Located in Chester County, Pennsylvania, is family owned and florent mp3 operated traditional coed summer camp for kids. Their key drivers are to strengthen athletic abilities, cultivate artistic talents, and – most of all – to essay smoking ban, have fun during the camp . Thesis! Saginaw utilizes its beautiful natural.
Atlanta , Camping , Centennial Olympic Park 624 Words | 3 Pages. ?English Essay – Europeans works at US summer camps Many young people from Europe go to the USA to work in a . summer camp , e.g. Smoking! as instructors, carers or maintenance workers. What do you think they can learn from such an experience? A summer camp is a program for children, to do sports and get education during summer . A summer camp is an doctoral competition, alternative to spending the summer home. Summer camps are most common in the US, but are found almost all over the world.
The Young Europeans go to the US to essay smoking ban, work. Camping , Education , England 743 Words | 2 Pages. experience. Culture Essays! Did it have to end so quickly? I wondered to myself. Just think of next year, I said to comfort my disbelief, It’s going to persuasive, be ten . times the s. buffa doctoral competition, fun. I'll make sure of that.
After what seemed like years of waiting, the day of camp finally arrived. I hastily packed my bags and essay smoking ban threw them in my car. My friend on doctoral, the other hand, was late. She took forever putting her bags together and she walked out of the house as slow as a snail. Hurry up! I yelled at her. Essay Ban! I'm sorry.
2000 singles , The Longest Time 1452 Words | 4 Pages. Top Summer Camps in California, Maryland and NJ. There are so many summer camps coming up that it’s kinda confusing for parents to pick and campus select. Especially if you live in . California, Maryland or New Jersey then you have a lot of work to do before figuring out where to send your child. Hopefully this article helps you cut down that research and select something truly worthwhile for ban, your child :) Summer Camps in California We did some research on summer camps in California and found the following camps can be a big hit with kids and florent veux mp3 also. Camping , Day camp , National Mall 642 Words | 3 Pages. English Essay – Indian Camp The transition from persuasive essay child to adult can be a rough process. At times a radical experience has to . occur for super size, the change to persuasive, happen.
A meeting with the basic conditions of life, and with that the circle of life, can in many cases be a trigger for the transition from boy to man. In this short story the transition is s. buffa doctoral competition, linked to the dichotomy between civilisation and nature, civilisation dominating nature. In the persuasive smoking, short story “Indian Camp ” by Ernest Hemingway, there is a case. Biodiversity , Civilization , Environment 958 Words | 3 Pages. SUMMER (Descriptive Essay ) Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to . Super Me Essay Conclusion! be alone and not with people to disturb them. My place is nature in the summer . The summer time relaxes me like no exact place could. Nature, in the summer , relaxes me with its naturedness. I love sitting in the grass and listening to essay, the nature sounds around me while it's summer . Elwood S. Buffa Competition! One of the sounds I tune to essay smoking ban, first is the sound of the birds singing and chirping. Feeling , Huntington Beach, California , Orange County, California 1860 Words | 5 Pages.
Britne Allison September 06, 2014 Professor Schilling ENC 1101 MW Childhood Memories Of Summer Camp “Are we . there yet?” I yelled from the back seat of my best friend Alicia’s mothers grey minivan. Culture! My mother sat in persuasive essay front next to Mrs. Martin, while Alicia and uva gsas dissertation I had the essay smoking ban, whole back seat to ourselves. Well, mostly except for essays, the suitcases and gear we had packed to spend the persuasive, week at Camp . Si Tu M Essayer Mp3! I already knew the answer to the question I had asked so, it didn’t matter that both women in the. Alicia and persuasive smoking Annie Sorell , Campfire , Camping 757 Words | 3 Pages.
in responce to your advertisement. My name is Adeline. I have two children- John and culture is ordinary essays Brian, which are very active, friendly and communicative. They told me . that they want to spend summer in a camp where they can learn survival in persuasive essay ban nature. Next day I found your advertisement in mailbox and I decided to allow them to camp conway. John is thesis proposal computer, 13 years old. He attend basketball school “Hurricane”. Now he’s in first team and he is doing really well.
In free time John goes to play football with his friends. American football , I Decided , Need 256 Words | 2 Pages. The summer i had was amazing. I did so many different things. I went to camp , went to USA, and went to the beach.
I had so much . fun. I just hope next summer is smoking, as exciting as this one. First of all I went to my camp with tons of my friends. (name of camp ) was so much fun! I spent money on ______ and me and my friends did so much different things. The only uva gsas fellowship problem is that i had to essay smoking, wake up early.
That was a bummer. Secondly i went to USA. I woke up early, and took a long bus ride. That wasnt that. High school , Writing 1795 Words | 4 Pages. ? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of Summer we see a developing relationship between the proposal computer technology, two main characters Tom and . Summer . Some might deny that this is a love story because it doesn’t have your typical happy ending, but none the essay, less it is a love story with a lot to thesis computer technology, say about relationships and persuasive smoking ban the types of love that are evolved during it.
This relationship starts out doctoral illustrating how both of the characters view life and love. Persuasive Smoking! Tom is me essay, described as a hopeless romantic in the beginning of. Agape , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 4 Pages. below, choose two books to persuasive essay, read over the summer . In all of the thesis proposal computer, following novels and smoking ban autobiographies, the protagonists are struggling to find . their place in the world. They want to understand their role and their purpose as human beings as they prepare to enter the thesis proposal computer technology, adult world. (Note: If you decide to choose a graphic novel from the list, the persuasive essay ban, other selection should be a novel or autobiography.) Write a well-developed, multi-paragraph response to literature essay in which you compare and contrast the. Fiction , Graphic novel , Literature 1765 Words | 6 Pages. “A Little History of the World” Summer Reading Essay Throughout the campus network, history of the smoking ban, world, multiple civilizations have formed . and prospered, some to culture essays, the extent of persuasive essay smoking, world domination. A key reason of their success has been a civilization’s respectable technological advancements, which put them ahead of other societies at the time.
These breakthroughs range from agricultural developments to wartime advancements and campus network design even to civilian luxuries, but all of these new technologies have one thing in persuasive ban common. A Little History of the World , Agriculture , Ancient Greece 1556 Words | 4 Pages. ?Devaughn Harris Ms.Brooks English 3 June 23,2015 Double A Shakespeare Comparison Essay of Can you see the Pride in size conclusion the Panther and persuasive essay smoking Uncle Jed’s . Barbershop Tupac’s poetry pieces are littered with archetype racial dissociation. However this by no mean discourages the inspiration star who sparked millions to share in the distinction. Shakur's Can you see the pride in the panther and Uncle Jed’s Barbershop by Margaree King Mitchell will be compared to proposal computer, express the heart wrenching situation and plot of. African American , Afro-Latin American , Barber 803 Words | 3 Pages. ?Creative Writing Essay 2 Summer Ventures If a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step, then Summer . Ban! Ventures was a leap. The closest I have ever gotten to actually living a college life was when I went to Summer Ventures in Science and culture is ordinary Mathematics for four weeks in the summer of persuasive smoking ban, my sophomore year. My experience at Summer Ventures was truly an culture essays, un-forgetful one. Not only did I meet new friends and enjoyed my stay at East Carolina University, taking part in Summer Ventures made me realize. Trojan War 969 Words | 3 Pages.
thing that is not taught is Canadian literature. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban! All across Canada, grade 12’s are being taught Shakespeare and other American or British playwrights. Sure . the elwood s. buffa dissertation competition, writings are excellent pieces, but how are they relative to our Canadian Heritage? This essay will prove that graduating students must be taught only Canadian literature in persuasive essay ban grade 12 rather than the florent si tu m essayer mp3, aspects of American and British literature. There are great writers from all different cultures, despite this, as Canadians we must remain intent. British literature , Canada , Canadian literature 983 Words | 3 Pages.
there is risk that if the child was born, s/he would have physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped. Ban! The procedure of abortion contains . many ethical issues and is a complex subject which can lead to conflicting discussions. This essay will explain all the mixed views about abortion and explore the ethical perspectives regarding the topic. Christianity has always conflicted with abortion throughout history. Design Thesis! The Bible does not mention abortion but Christianity believes that human. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fetus 2426 Words | 6 Pages.
?In the poem, “The Summer Day”, by persuasive smoking, Mary Oliver, there are many examples poetic devices that are extremely effective and uva gsas year fellowship help to reinforce the . thematic theme of the poem. A few that I found to be particularly effective are the examples of metaphors, repetition and irony. Persuasive Ban! The most interesting poetic device found in the poem was the use of extended metaphor. It is evident in lines three to ten: Who made the grasshopper? This grasshopper, I mean – the one who flung herself out of the grass.
Academy Award for Best Picture , English-language films , Genre 922 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sample College Essay #1 The sun sleeps as the fellowship, desolate city streets await the persuasive smoking, morning rush hour. Driven by campus thesis, an inexplicable compulsion, I . Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban! enter the building along with ten other swimmers, inching my way toward the cold, dark locker room of the culture essays, Esplanada Park Pool. One by one, we slip into persuasive essay ban our still-damp drag suits and size me essay conclusion make a mad dash through the essay, chill of the morning air, stopping only to s. buffa doctoral dissertation competition, grab pull-buoys and persuasive kickboards on our way to the pool. Si Tu Veux M Essayer Mp3! Nighttime temperatures in coastal California dip into. Camping , Demographics , Family 2422 Words | 6 Pages. Dear Parent: Thank you for persuasive ban, selecting the Cal Poly Pomona Soccer Camp . S. Buffa! We are excited to smoking ban, have you join us this summer . Thesis Proposal Computer Technology! The . Camp will focus on the following activities. Technical-develop ability to beat opponents, correct passing and shooting technique, and improve first touch. Smoking! Tactical - Learn to read the game, play quicker, and make good decisions.
Physical - Improve your speed, quickness, and agility. Attitude - Learn to enjoy the game, train on your own, and improve your concentration. Cal Poly , California State Polytechnic University, Pomona , Camper 706 Words | 3 Pages. Summer for a Camp Skyline Ranch Counselor ENG 101 Tucker September 9, 2013 When the realization that my final days of super size me essay conclusion, high . school were vastly approaching, I began to smoking ban, ask myself what I would do with my life. From that point, the thoughts began to creep in of what things I could do to help better prepare myself for the future that was being pushed upon me. Seeing that I have known since a young age that I wanted to culture is ordinary essays, be an educator, my exploration of a summer job that would involve surrounding. Camping , Oak , Odor 1112 Words | 3 Pages. ? Summer Activity Several businesses, such as Primark and Nestle, have been accused of persuasive essay smoking, being unethical in recent years.
Do you think it is . essential for managers to take ethics into account consideration when making business decisions nowadays? Justify your answer with reference to Primark, Nestle and other businesses that you know. (40 marks) Business ethics refer to what is regarded as right or wrong in pagny si tu veux mp3 relation to business behaviour. I think that managers should worry about ethics as it. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 681 Words | 3 Pages. ?Summer’s getting drowsy now Soon she will be fast asleep Missing summer , the persuasive essay smoking, trees begin to size me essay, weep It’s autumn time so leave and take a bow I . Persuasive Essay Ban! heard the autumns singing. Pagny Veux M Essayer Mp3! The wind it sprints through the trees. The air is getting crispier and persuasive a chilly nip is in the breeze. On autumns night a luminous pearl hangs in the radiant night sky. Pagny Si Tu! Journeying to warmer land, the birds ‘gossip loudly as they fly. When orange and red are burnished on leaves, They glide down like a silent pack of thieves.
The. Autumn , Bus , Fake Noise from a Box of Toys 537 Words | 3 Pages. Strengths-Weakness Opportunities-Threats CO-OP Essay In the summer of persuasive essay, 2005 I had the opportunity to intern at The Franklin . Institute Museum in thesis computer technology PA. This museum is one of the many well known science museums across the country. Persuasive Smoking Ban! The Franklin Institute Museum is a unique museum that gives the experience of exploring science in a fun and fascinating way. The museum touches bases on many areas of science such as, anatomy, physics, environmental sciences, and thesis proposal computer technology space. Persuasive Essay Smoking Ban! The Franklin Institute is pagny m essayer mp3, named. Benjamin Franklin , Benjamin Franklin National Memorial , Benjamin Franklin Parkway 798 Words | 3 Pages. Scale Development: Conception, Application and essay smoking ban Future Reflections, Apex Press New York London Samir Amin (2012), ‘The South Challenges . Globalization’(PDF), zcommunications.org Thursday, April 12, 2012 Part I: Four Seminars – Discussion and Essay Topics 1. CAPITALISM AND FREEDOM Friedman is a libertarian who believes in reducing the role of the State in order to increase the freedom of the florent m essayer, individual. Explain his conviction that paternalism is incompatible with individual autonomy.
Assess. Capitalism , Communism , French Revolution 1175 Words | 7 Pages. Statement of Intent/ISP Proposal U2A6 – ISP Progress Report #1 (here you will review your ISP novel) U4A1 – ISP Annotated Bibliography U5A1 – ISP Progress . Report #2 (here you will review your ISP film) U5A2 – ISP Thesis/Outline U5A4 – Final ISP Essay ISP TOPICS FILM CHOICES NOVEL CHOICES Personal Liberation/Redemption Gran Torino Rocky Balboa Albert Camus, The Outsider Carol Shields, The Stone Diaries Ernest Gaines, A Lesson Before Dying Ian McEwan, Atonement Jane Urqhart, The Stone. American novelists , Canada Reads , Canadian novelists 625 Words | 4 Pages. Sarah Jerez, Karen Huot, and Shams Fardeen?? 701 Mrs. Schwibner English Language Arts Argumentative Essay ? The word traditional means to . follow older styles and year round schools mess with these systems. A reason to support this is that it costs more to run year-round schools due to air-conditioning bills and persuasive smoking ban other expenses. Secondly, it disables the activities that you can accomplish over the long summer because year round vacations have shorter break periods. Florent Si Tu Mp3! Lastly, it forces parent to take time.
Buffalo Bills , Education , Extracurricular activity 959 Words | 3 Pages. Summer Reading Essay/ Deadline/ Hannah Campbell. Summer Reading Essay Deadline Hannah Campbell Deadline Essay The note said, “It wasn’t an accident.” The so . Smoking! called “accident” that killed Jake’s best friends turns into a question that Jake is desperate to ?nd answers to. Conclusion! At this rough time in his life, Jake must deal with making a di?cult choice. Jake is forced to deal with pressure when he meets suspicious FBI agents.
He is smoking ban, convinced that they need one another to solve their respective mysteries, but they leave Jake wondering what their mystery. 2000s American television series , 2000s music groups , American films 744 Words | 3 Pages. thought of thesis computer, summer camp comes the recollection of cabins filled overstuffed with bunk beds, campfires, and persuasive essay smoking mess hall meals with . the loads of friends we met at the opening dance. Summer camp is culture essays, a childhood memory for many of us, one that changed our youth, usually for the better. Such camp memories and activities still hold true today, even for children with disabilities. Essay Ban! The inclusive classroom that takes place during the school year has now begun to carry over into the summer months at camps across the. Camping , Day camp , Disability 2395 Words | 8 Pages. the rare southern English dialect forms to have come into standard English, vixen is also the only survival of this type of super size conclusion, feminine noun in the modern . language. To my mind, the best essays are deeply personal (that doesn’t necessarily mean autobiographical) and deeply engaged with issues and persuasive essay smoking ban ideas. Super Size! And the best essays show that the name of the genre is also a verb, so they demonstrate a mind in process--reflecting, trying-out, essaying.
James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (originally appeared. Essay , Essays , Lobster 2138 Words | 7 Pages. What makes our camp so unique in terms of business is the Requirements fact that it only operates for ten weeks during the . summer , which results in low operating costs and smoking overall expenses. Because it is seasonal service orientated, there is very little capital required to technology, start such a business. Essay Smoking! Our first summer of operation will be in 2005, however, we will begin advertising during the fall of 2004. Florent Pagny Mp3! This will allow a sufficient amount of time for parents to research our camp and to utilize. Accounts payable , Accounts receivable , Asset 648 Words | 2 Pages.
Camp X Camp X was a Canadian espionage school for special agents who participated and operated in the “Secret War” during . the Second World War between corrupted German power. Agents and students volunteered or enrolled in ban this training camp were taught a wide variety of skills and elwood doctoral dissertation competition techniques that were proved useful in World War Two. Camp X was Canada’s defining moment because it trained many agents and allied units, played an persuasive essay ban, important role in victory of World War II, and had a highly sophisticated. Adolf Hitler , Allies of culture, World War II , French Resistance 1073 Words | 3 Pages. GREEN MOUNTAIN CAMP : ITS MORE THAN A SUMMER JOB Case Summary: Nick and Carol Randall purchased Green Mountain Camp . in Vermont to persuasive essay smoking, live out their dream of raising their two boys in a summer camp . But the camp was not all that it seemed to culture is ordinary essays, be, and it took extensive repair work to bring the physical facilities up to code. Now Nick and Carol are faced with a more daunting task hiring new employees. They want to smoking, hire people who will be motivated to stay with the elwood competition, job for more than one summer , and although. Camping , Employment , McGraw-Hill 870 Words | 3 Pages. collegeconfidential.com/summerprograms/1063234howapplyindependentresearchinternships.html . Here is information about summer programs, if this list is essay smoking, insufficient. http://talk.collegeconfidential.com/summerprograms/1277483summerprogramsstartlookingwinter.html http://talk.collegeconfidential.com/summerprograms/343495summerprogramslookgoodcollegeapplications.html?high light= summer I highlighted the s. buffa doctoral, ones I want to apply to persuasive, as Yellow. so don't be using my color. GIrl stuff is uva gsas year, pink FInancial Aid is persuasive essay ban, red.
Academic Ranking of World Universities , Association of American Universities , Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities 3048 Words | 6 Pages. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay about your favorite location. You will . not be focused on building characters or telling a story in culture this paper - Your paper will purely describe. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location. Smoking Ban! Your favorite room of your house Your favorite location. Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. ABOUT WAHANOWIN: Camp Wahanowin is a summer camp for campus thesis, children set up in Ontario, Canada in 1955. For over 57 . years, the Nashman Family, along with their caring and dedicated staff, have provided a significant and memorable camp experience to thousands of persuasive smoking, children and young adults.Wahanowin is committed to this tradition of giving children the opportunity to establish lifelong friendships, learn new skills, gain an appreciation for the outdoors, achieve independence and culture be a contributing member of. Camper , Camping , Facebook 1982 Words | 7 Pages.
Summer Sport Camp at State University Because Marry Kelly are facing very hard decision, she uses Solver in Excel spreadsheet. . First, she makes the decision variables and the model of the essay ban, problem. Thesis Proposal Technology! In the essay, case, there are 19 decision variables : Xi = buy new sheets where i is the year, week Yi = Wash at the Local Laundry where i is the smoking ban, week Zi = Washing by Marry’s friends where i is the dissertation, week The cost of buying new sheet is $10, wash at the Local Laundry is $4 and by Marry’s friends is $2, and then. BMW , BMW Sports Activity Series , BMW vehicles 319 Words | 2 Pages. ? MEMORABLE SUMMER Magic, name of the cruise line we went on last summer , have one thousand feet long . as much as twenty seven length of school buses combine and fifteen decks above of surface sea water, and because of a imagination, my kids called it by “big boat”. We were very excited, and my kids had been asked about the trip every night since spring. Also, we were join a group had five families were going to. Wow, group vacation on cruise sounded like it could have a. Freshwater , Recreation , Seawater 1363 Words | 3 Pages.
Prisoners of War and essay smoking ban Internment Camps in New Mexico. Internment Camps in New Mexico HIST 203: New Mexico History After America’s entry into . Computer Technology! World War II, which lasted from 1941 to 1945 in the United States, prisoner of war camps and internment camps in New Mexico were among the largest. Most of the essay smoking ban, prisoners were Germans captured during the culture essays, North Africa Campaign. Others were of Italian and persuasive essay smoking Japanese origin. Culture Essays! There were three base camps , located in Roswell, Lordsburg and Santa Fe, 19 branch camps and two. Internment , Internments , Japanese American internment 1421 Words | 7 Pages. ? Triple Crown Award In the summer of 2014 I received my Eagle award through Boy Scouts, the highest rank one can achieve through the . organization. It was extremely hard and long, I had been working on persuasive smoking ban, pursuing this goal since 6th grade. Size Conclusion! Throughout all the awards and badges I received, the essay ban, most important and memorable to me was receiving the Triple Crown Award.
This award is achieved by visiting three of the culture is ordinary, four high adventure programs, spotted throughout the United States. These programs include. Boy Scouts of America , Canoe , Florida National High Adventure Sea Base 988 Words | 5 Pages. We count five seasons in America. Summer is one of them. It is the hot season. Persuasive Essay! It rules over June, July, and August.
How it is caused . The earth moves round the uva gsas dissertation, sun. The part of it, which comes nearer the sun, gets the persuasive essay, summer season. Because here the sun's rays are straight and network thesis direct. Advantages In summer , everything is neat and clean. The earth is persuasive essay, dry. Hence, there is no mud or marsh. Ways and paths are open to very place. Mangoes ripe in summer . We get plenty of mangoes. we get jack-fruits. Climate , Earth , Rain 373 Words | 2 Pages. Description of florent pagny si tu veux, Japanese Internment Camps. Granada War Relocation Center Located in Amache (Granada) Colorado this camp had a peak population of persuasive ban, 7,318 Japanese Americans mainly from . California.
This camp opened on August 24th, 1942 and closed on October 15th, 1945; within this time there were 120 deaths, and 31 volunteers to fight in the war. Conditions in this camp were primitive; there was no insulation or furniture in the barracks, and they were heated through coal-burning stoves. The Granada center became the tenth largest city in. Internment , Japanese American internment , Manzanar 1628 Words | 5 Pages. ?English Summer Reading Essay “Whether or not an individual succeeds is unimportant. The very act of trying is florent pagny si tu veux m essayer, itself a . victory.” The quotation applies itself to a lot of things in life but the book Lush, by Natasha Friend, which is essay smoking ban, a realistic fiction and the book The Acorn People, by Ron Jones, which is a non-fiction really relate to the quote in a special way. This quote indicates that it does not matter if you succeed in what you are trying to accomplish, it only matters if you at least try. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism , Black-and-white films 741 Words | 3 Pages.
Ministry of Science and campus network Technology, Govt. of India. Essay Smoking! • . Uva Gsas Dissertation Year Fellowship! Won national level 1st prize in Mechanical Technical Quiz (Techilla) organized in National level technical fest of NIT Kurukshetra, Literati’08. Essay! TECHNICAL EXPERIENCE • Summer Internship in Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited’s LPG bottling plant at Bahadurgarh, Asaudha, where industrial insight was developed by pioneers of experience and able staff in campus one of the best working conditions. . Hindustan Petroleum , Management , Mechanical engineering 837 Words | 6 Pages. 2015 Nazi Extermination Camps During the Holocaust, a grand total of eleven million people, about ban half of the total population in Texas as of . Me Essay Conclusion! 2014, were robbed of their lives because of Nazi extermination and concentration camps (“Extermination Camps .” Encyclopedia). Around half of the persuasive ban, total people killed were Jews, and the rest were a combination of Gypsies, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and/or disabled men, woman, and children (“Extermination Camps .” Encyclopedia). Although. Auschwitz concentration camp , Extermination camp , Nazi concentration camps 1132 Words | 4 Pages.
in our hearts we cried and cursed this government every time when we showered with sand. We slept in size conclusion the dust; we breathed the dust; we ate the dust,” Joseph . Kurihara, an internee at persuasive ban, the Manzanar internment camp in California stated in thesis proposal technology his experience during the essay, war. Japanese internment camps were the term used to describe the size, relocation and confinement of Japanese American during World War II. Japanese internees often questioned why the government decided on essay smoking, moving the Japanese U.S. citizens without. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Hawaii , Internment 1191 Words | 4 Pages. student will be expected to choose from the list of si tu m essayer mp3, titles for smoking, summer reading. Returning to school in September is much easier for those who . have maintained the habit of responsive reading during the summer . Summer reading provides a pleasurable broadening of a teenager’s experiences. Students who read as a source of both intellectual stimulation and overall relaxation are likely to become lifelong readers. Those who read over design thesis the summer months achieve speaking and writing skills, which align with. Ben Kingsley , High school , Jane Eyre 1693 Words | 7 Pages. Emily Rasichanh Essay 4 Professor Marshall November 9th, 2012 How was it like at Auschwitz’s Concentration Camp ? “Why . is it that nobody cries out, nobody spits in their faces, nobody jumps at their throats?
We doff our caps to the S.S. men returning from the little wood; if our name is called we obediently go with them to die, and—we do nothing. We starve, we are drenched by rain, and we are torn from our families. What is this mystery? This strange power of one man over another? This. Auschwitz concentration camp , Extermination camp , Nazi concentration camps 885 Words | 3 Pages. Title: Camp X Author: Erik Walters Introduction: This book report discusses the plot, significant characters, setting (e.g., time of the . Persuasive Essay! story took place, historical background), problems and resolutions, themes or messages of the s. buffa competition, story. A reflection of the persuasive smoking, author’s writing style will be presented followed by a conclusion. Plot: This story talks about 2 young teenagers during World War II are spending an campus design thesis, exciting and intense wartime summer in persuasive smoking ban Whitby. Almost 12 years, George and 14 years.
Espionage , The Camp , World war 1544 Words | 5 Pages. Apwh Summer Essay/River Valley Civilization. APWH Summer Essay /River Valley Civilization My duties for this question are to compare and contrast Mesopotamian and . Egyptian civilizations. While it is true that both civilizations originated approximately around the same time they do hold many differences which will be outline in uva gsas dissertation the paragraphs below to the best of my ability. However vast, the difference may be, both civilizations also hold some similarities that will also be outline in persuasive the following paragraphs.The Mesopotamian. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Near East , Cairo 786 Words | 3 Pages. Tip for thesis, Colledge Admissions Essays. ?Tip #1: Wordiness and Repetition in essay College Admissions Essays Ad Accredited MBA Programwww.ISM.eduStudy Where How You Want w/ a MBA From . ISM - Grow Your Career Today! Wordiness and Repetition in College Admissions Essays Image by culture is ordinary, Allen Grove In college admissions essays , wordiness is by far the most common stylistic error.
In most cases, students could cut one-third of an essay , lose no meaningful content, and make the piece much more engaging and effective. Wordiness comes in many forms. Copula , Essay , Expletive 2395 Words | 7 Pages. am punctual and dedicated worker. Qualifications I take direction well able bodied I am very punctual quick learner Relevant Experience I . recently had a leadership position as a summer camp counselor. Persuasive! During the day parents would drop off there children at Tangier Smith summer camp and it was my responsibility to florent si tu m essayer, take care of the kid. Smoking! It was my duty to pagny veux m essayer mp3, make sure the kids were safe when they played and were fed and essay smoking entertained during the day while their parents were out proposal working. Alexander Pope , Education , Essay 428 Words | 2 Pages.
Summer Therapeutic Activities Program Autistic Support Group. SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers -Observation Su In EDU 4085 . 7/30/2009 I observed the summer day camp program called SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers. Child Guidance Resource Centers (CGRC) is a private, non-profit community behavioral healthcare organization. Persuasive Smoking! The Summer Therapeutic Activities Program (STAP) is a highly structured summer day. Autism , Mental disorder , Observation 905 Words | 3 Pages. My First Time at Reserve Camp (A.R.
Camp) My first time at elwood s. buffa doctoral, reserve camp (A.R. camp ) A.R. Persuasive Smoking Ban! camp is the pagny veux mp3, great experience for every Thai male. Even though it . is hard and essay smoking ban tired for every activity but I had fun, friendship and good memory from is ordinary essays this camp.In this essay I will tell the story about my experience at persuasive, A.R. camp by Thai army which everyone has ever participated it. Uva Gsas Year Fellowship! Whatever I recognized this experience, it has been my good memory because even if I face several forms of difficulty such as sunshine and exhaustion but it can turn into. Army , English-language films , Friendship 923 Words | 3 Pages. Summer Reading 1. Capturing the Main Point of Essays I chose three essays from The Signet Book of American . Essays based on the sections that appealed to my interests.
In “The Meaning of This Hour,” Abraham Joshua Heschel claims that the world is a world living inhumanely because there is a lack of God’s presence and glory. Persuasive Essay Smoking! George Plimpton’s “Desperately Seeking Humor” describes the great lengths a group of comedians and writers went through to put a humor section in elwood s. buffa competition an edition of smoking ban, a magazine. Abraham Joshua Heschel , Erma Bombeck , United States 756 Words | 3 Pages. SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON AN ANALYSIS OF SELECTION PROCESS AT ITC LIMITED [pic] Submitted For the partial fulfillment . Culture! towards the award of the degree in Master of Business Administration of U.P.Technical University,Lucknow Submitted To: Submitted By: Mrs. Rinku Sanjeev Ekta Sharma Faculty Guide Roll no.- MBA-3rd Sem [2008-10] Dronacharya College of Engineering Greater NOida I hereby declare that. Board of directors , Corporate governance , Executive director 15983 Words | 67 Pages. ?ASAM 30: Asian American Issues Through Film City College of San Francisco Instructor: Roger Chung Summer 2014 Location: MUB 150, TWR . 6:00-9:15pm Email: [email protected] Office Hours: 5-6pm, Thursday, MUB 150 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: This course will explore both historical and contemporary themes in Asian American film. Beginning chronologically with early representations of race, gender and sexuality, the smoking, course will move towards new representations in films made by and about is ordinary Asian.
Asian American , Better Luck Tomorrow , Cinema of the United States 1401 Words | 5 Pages.