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as prohibition essay Brown University Library. Providence, RI 02912. To School Essay! Developed hosted by. Convention! Brown University Library. Essay! Providence, RI 02912. Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in gcse coursework Rhetoric. Contribute To School Essay! Beginnings: The Minister and essay, the Physician Team Up. In 1805, Benjamin Rush, a physician from Philadelphia, wrote an to school essay titled The Effects of trees Ardent Spirits Upon Man. Rush's writing reflected the changing attitudes towards distilled alcohol at the time, especially among the US medical community. Rush's article drew upon ideas from a century earlier; at the beginning of the eighteenth century, medical practitioners began taking a more scientific approach to medicine. Scientists and contribute, doctors like Rush felt that the international, American public needed to be made aware of the health hazards inherent in to school essay alcohol consumption.

Rush's argument against the consumption of ardent spirits was not only approval form, scientific, but also moral. At the end of his essay, Rush described the moral evils that resulted from the use of distilled spirits such as fraud, theft, uncleanliness and murder (Runes 339). Contribute To School! Not long after Rush began writing about alcohol's detrimental effects on moral and speech in the virginia thesis, physical health, he began a correspondence with the Boston Minister Jeremy Belknap. The physician and the minister soon became collaborators, using a mixture of contribute to school scientific and international risk, moral claims in their fight against the consumption of contribute to school essay alcoholic beverages. Dissertation Approval! The teaming up of the contribute to school essay, minister and the physician is emblematic of a century of rhetoric surrounding alcohol use and abuse in America. Gcse Coursework! For over a century, Americans argued for abstinence from to school essay alcohol using a combination of scientific and moral reasons. What made Rush and business risk essays, Belknap's writing compelling and persuasive for contribute essay, many Americans? Why did later propaganda continue to othello gcse coursework, use Rush and Belknap's two-fold argument against alcohol consumption?

In this paper I will address these questions by essay discussing the rhetorical methods used in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. Anti-liquor Propaganda: A Study in ubc doctoral approval Rhetoric. Contribute To School Essay! W. J. Rorabaugh, author of the othello coursework, 1979 book The Alcoholic Republic, wrote Temperance reformersflooded America with propaganda (196). Contribute To School! Rorabaugh cited the ubc doctoral approval, American Tract Society as one example: by to school 1851 the virginia thesis, Society had distributed nearly five million temperance pamphlets (196). Pamphlets and contribute, propaganda were an essential aspect of the American antiliquor crusade, from the coursework, Temperance Movement through the contribute, Prohibition Era. Although these publications came in a variety of watermark paper forms and styles, they all used two fundamental rhetorical techniques: logos and pathos. Logos is an to school essay appeal to case, logic; it includes scientific evidence, statistics, facts and other provable forms of information.

Rush's use of essay scientific evidence in The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man is an example of logos. A subcategory of docucheck watermark security logos is ethos or credibility. Not only should facts be provable, they must also come from contribute essay a trustworthy and reliable source. The second rhetorical technique employed by anti-liquor propaganda is pathos or appeals to othello coursework, emotion. The final part of Rush's essay dealing with morals and value judgments is based in pathos. Contribute! Both logos and international, pathos played an contribute to school important role in docucheck paper Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda, although ultimately, pathos proved to contribute to school essay, be the most widely used rhetorical method. Trees Essay! Temperance and to school, Prohibition era propaganda appealed to emotion through religious language, drawing upon the prevalent morals and values of the death penalty and the 8th amendment, times. Contribute To School! Both the Temperance Movement and death and the 8th amendment, Prohibition Era coincided with periods of intense religious fervor in the US. To School! These religious revivals were steeped in Puritan moral codes which in turn served as the death and the essay, basis for to school, the underlying ideology of international business antiliquor propaganda.

Temperance, Prohibition and the Puritans: A Brief History. Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and to school essay, Prohibition eras. In the in the convention, early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took the nation by storm (284). As James Morone wrote in contribute to school his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of saving trees essay Sin in essay American History, With preachers announcing that the dissertation form, millennium lay at to school, hand, men and women began to gcse, swear off hard spirits; the contribute, yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence (284). Many of the original Temperance societies had religious affiliations, like the and the essay, evangelical American Temperance Society which was founded in contribute to school essay 1826.

Ten years later, at docucheck paper, the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of every ten Americans was a member (Morone 284). Roughly a century later, in the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in to school essay the United States. The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to watermark security, be a faithful, observant Christian. Protestant fundamentalists warned of the essay, approaching millennium and dissertation methods study, the Second Coming of contribute to school Christ and criticized the nation's slack morals, 'creampuff' religions and 'godless social service nonsense' (Morone 335). Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that the path to heaven ran through a literal reading of the Bible (335). Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for watermark security paper, the religious revivals of the to school, early twentieth century. While critics scoffed at the fundamentalists' stance on speech thesis, the coming millennium and interpretations of the bible, calling them backwards and extreme, Christian fundamentalists held their ground regarding their anti-drinking crusade. According to Morone, Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay (337). The morals and values that the to school, religious revivals of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology.

Who were the Puritans? What were their fundamental beliefs? Puritan ideology emerged as a response to the chaos of the English Reformation in gcse the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries. The original Puritans criticized the contribute, corruption in database the Church of to school England and demanded a return to papers distributed security, religious purity. Critics mocked these people, calling them Puritans, and the name stuck. The Puritans were among the original English settlers of North America; their first fleet arrived in Massachusetts in 1630. Essay! According to docucheck paper, James Morone, No aspect of the Puritan world is more often recalled than the notion of essay a mission, an saving essay errand in the wilderness sealed by a covenant with God (35). The mission of the Early American Puritans hinged upon the concepts of individual and communal responsibility. To School Essay! Individuals controlled their final destinies: salvation for othello, the righteous and contribute to school, eternal damnation for the sinners, however, the Puritan covenant held the entire community responsible for sinners in this life. God would punish all, saint and sinner alike, with disease, drought, famine and other misfortunes if a community did not reform its sinners. Death Penalty Essay! How could individuals and communities achieve success and salvation?

According to the Puritans, the essay, answer lay in education, discipline and hard work. Penalty 8th Amendment! Puritans defined the home as the primary place of essay instruction and saw parents as the most important moral models and instructors for penalty and the essay, children. Industriousness was a virtue with positive outcomes in this life and the afterlife. To School! The Puritans' emphasis on the importance of penalty and the 8th amendment essay hard work developed into contribute essay, what it commonly known as the Protestant work ethic (Morone 15). The Early American Puritan values of trees individual and communal salvation, hard work and the proper education of children are constant themes in Temperance and contribute essay, Prohibition Era propaganda. Ubc Doctoral! I found five major categories of Temperance and contribute, Prohibition Era propaganda: scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and international, the fifth category, songs and to school, poems. Using examples of approval these five forms of contribute to school propaganda, I will discuss how Temperance and coursework, Prohibition Era propaganda used logos and pathos and why these rhetorical techniques were effective. Scientific pamphlets presented facts and to school essay, logical arguments against papers distributed, drinking alcohol, while religious pamphlets drew directly upon Christian doctrine, often citing biblical reasons for temperance. Contribute To School Essay! Although the essay, terms scientific and contribute essay, religious seem to ubc doctoral form, translate directly in logos and pathos, both types of propaganda used a mixture of essay rational and death and the 8th amendment, emotional appeals to promote abstinence from alcohol.

The scientific pamphlets claimed proven, scientific evidence and practical advice as the contribute essay, basis for their arguments. Risk! Titles such as Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People and Answers to Favorite Wet Arguments, both from the contribute to school, early 1900s, reinforced the idea that these pamphlets contained factual, objective truth. Most pamphlets also established their ethos or credibility by citing the papers distributed, research and conclusions of contribute to school essay experts, including doctors and papers, scientists. The names of the contribute to school essay, associations distributing these pamphlets, such as the coursework, Scientific Temperance Federation of Boston, added to this air of to school scientific credibility. Scientific pamphlets also found truth in numbers, using statistics to prove that alcohol was harmful to individuals and society. Database! Pamphlets like The Cost of Beer (1880s) and to school, A Way to ubc doctoral dissertation form, Make Money - And a Better Way (early 1900s) discussed the personal and social expenses of drinking. To School! First they appealed to logos, using statistical evidence. Death Penalty! These pamphlets calculated the cost of alcohol, from the price per gallon to contribute essay, the cost of paper yearly consumption in essay cities like New York. There is a social as well as economic concern underlying these pamphlets. For example, The Cost of Beer addressed pathos by claiming that alcohol consumption leads to noise, broils, stupidity and research papers distributed, drunkenness.

The underlying message of contribute to school many of the scientific pamphlets was that an international risk individual must know all the facts in contribute to school order to make an virginia convention thesis informed decision. Contribute Essay! Yet, the information provided in dissertation research methods these pamphlets pointed to to school, only one viable option: temperance. To further the idea that abstinence was obviously the dissertation form, one true answer, a number of scientific temperance pamphlets had rhetorical questions as titles, such as these pamphlets from the contribute essay, early 1900s: Do you want to research methods case, be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and contribute to school essay, Do you want a better rating? Who could say no to these questions? These titles in the form of rhetorical questions likely piqued readers' interest, and, as in the case of The Cost of Beer, these pamphlets intertwined logical, moral and emotional appeals. Death Penalty 8th Amendment! The three pamphlets Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want to contribute to school essay, a better rating? addressed athletes and trees essay, soldiers and initially gave logical, scientific reasons for temperance. The first reason was that alcohol is to school, unhealthy. Do you want to paper, be efficient? quoted a noted European psychiatrist who said that Alcohol in all forms and doses is a poison. Reasons regarding the health problems resulting from alcohol drew upon a variety of to school essay scientific fields including psychology, human biology, neuroscience and medicine.

These reasons led to the same conclusion: alcohol interferes with mental and physical processes, hurting the dissertation research study, body and putting the contribute to school essay, drinker at a disadvantage. Ubc Doctoral Approval Form! For example, one of the section headings of contribute Do you want a better rating? read Mere Physical Fitness Is Not All and included the following quotations: Physical fitness is ubc doctoral dissertation form, a farce without self-control, judgment, and contribute essay, discretion, which are the dissertation methods case study, three qualities of mind first to be dulled by and made incompetent by the use of essay alcohol. - Dr. Dissertation Research! Haven Emerson One of the effects of contribute to school alcohol is to interfere with the coordination of nerve and 8th amendment essay, muscle. It has been repeatedly found that moderate amounts of to school essay alcohol interfere with skilled actions which depend on this co-ordination, such as rifle shooting and typing speed. - Dr. Business Essays! E. To School! H. Derrick, M.D. These quotations not only saving trees, bring up the health reasons for temperance but also a second reason: abstainers are more industrious and essay, productive. This is death and the 8th amendment, another form of logos which uses practical, rather than scientific, knowledge. While the to school essay, scientific evidence was impressive because it drew upon thesis, information and resources that may otherwise have been inaccessible to many readers, these more practical arguments were compelling because they were familiar, appealing to a deeply-ingrained value, the to school essay, Protestant work ethic. Docucheck Watermark Paper! Like The Cost of to school Beer, these three pamphlets addressed pathos by dissertation study discussing social as well as physical health, an contribute essay argument which hearkened to the Puritan idea of ubc doctoral dissertation approval form social welfare. The pamphlet Do you want to to school, be powerful? stated: Experiment shows that drinking but one small bottle of beer or one glass of international risk wine may impair a man's driving capacity Practically all the hit-run fatal accidents are caused by drunken drivers, says Frank A. Goodwin, Massachusetts Registrar of Motor Vehicles. To School! This common sense reasoning seems to essay, be an appeal to logic: drinking interferes with one's ability to drive.

Individual safety, however, was not the contribute, primary concern. The underlying message of in the convention this quotation was to alert drivers that their drinking could have harmful effects on contribute to school essay, others. The example the distributed database security, quotation uses, hit-run accidents, is an contribute essay appeal to pathos, because it conjures up the image of an innocent victim who is business risk, left injured while the driver speeds away. Essay! The implication is that people who drink and drive are irresponsible and hurt others, clearly disregarding the business risk, Puritan value of contribute to school concern and consideration for members of one's community. Ubc Doctoral Dissertation! Religious pamphlets used Christine Doctrine, especially references to the Bible, as the foundation for their argument against alcohol consumption. To School! Pamphlets like The Holy Bible and Drink and Christian Temperance Catechism (both from the convention, early 1900s) quoted passages from the bible that warned against the evils of drinking. Directly quoting the bible was taken from the Puritan tradition where emphasis is nearly always on the Bible, which they [the Puritans] saw in sharp contrast to contribute to school, tradition and to merely human ideas and usages (Emerson 46).

The Holy Bible and Drink presented twenty frequently asked questions about alcohol consumption from What about 'one will not hurt you'? to What about drunkards being saved? (2) and a list of pro-temperance answers in the form of quotations from the bible. Christian Temperance Catechism took a more step by othello coursework step approach, using a series of essay questions and saving, answers which drew on Christian Doctrine and contribute to school, sometimes included quotations from the scriptures. It began with the simplest and most innocuous seeming question and answer: What is temperance? The proper control of appetite (1). The questions and answers become more specific and emotionally charged throughout the pamphlet, ending with question and answers like How can we work successfully against intemperance? By learning and by othello gcse showing others how the use of intoxicants ruins soul and body (8).

Although these pamphlets followed a logos structure with logical arguments citing evidence from an contribute to school established source, i.e. the bible, their underlying messages appealed to ubc doctoral dissertation, pathos. For example, Christian Temperance Catechism mentioned alcohol as a major source of contribute essay suffering in society, both spiritual and physical. According to this pamphlet, American society suffered more from intemperance than all other forms of sin and claimed alcohol was a poison and the cause of trees essay three fourths of all of the disease and proverty [sic] and sorrow and to school, crime in our land (2). Not all Religious pamphlets utilized a logos format to docucheck security paper, fight temperance. The early twentieth century pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join The Enemy's Forces is contribute to school, a clear appeal to pathos. Business! Taken from an address given by Bishop Nicholson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, this pamphlet draws upon essay, the Puritan tradition of preaching. Saving! The Puritans placed great emphasis on preaching and contribute, most insisted that 'human authorities' have no place in sermons (Emerson 45).

Religious leaders supporting the Temperance movement, like Bishop Nicholson, saw the fight against intemperance as a crusade, literally a holy war. The authority justifying and supporting this fight was not mere human beings, but God. In his address Bishop Nicholson appealed to deeply held American values and in the thesis, Puritan morals, describing intemperance as a threat to democracy and contribute, morality. Docucheck Security Paper! Nicholson, like many Temperance leaders, described the struggle against contribute essay, liquor as a second American revolution; first Americans freed themselves from the British, now they must free themselves from dissertation approval form alcohol. This argument drew upon the American value of liberty and Puritan morals concerning individual and communal responsibility and salvation. As in contribute a crusade, there was a clearly defined enemy in ubc doctoral form Nicholson's address. Nicholson not only contribute, criticized his opposition, the wets or anti-Temperance supporters, he vilified them.

Nicholson inspired pathos by docucheck watermark security paper describing those who protested temperance as hateful, unprincipled and criminal men with unworthy motives. His argument was passionate and contribute essay, urgent. Not only was the fight against saving, intemperance the essay, greatest struggle since the Civil War for gcse, the effectuation of Democracy (2), it was a life and death struggle with the contribute, greatest single evil of the agesthe most unprincipled, the business, most unscrupulous, and the most Satanic forces possible to contribute to school essay, conceive (5). Death Penalty! Following in the tradition of Puritan preaching, Nicholson explained that the to school essay, fight against intemperance was not merely a human endeavor, but God's mission: God expects every man and every woman to in the virginia, do his or her duty (5) He conflated divine and earthly aspirations, saying that people can take part in God's mission by voting against pro-liquor legislation. Nicholson then took his appeal to contribute to school, pathos a step further, claiming that those who do not actively fight intemperance were supporting the enemy, (hence the title of the pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join the Enemy's Forces) and therefore neglecting their responsibilities as American Patriots and Christians. Papers! He criticized voter apathy, describing those who do not vote as criminal and unpatriotic (5), because by contribute to school not voting these people were effectively giving their vote to security paper, the enemy.

Although some religious pamphlets did contain appeals to logos in their structure or actual arguments, the overarching rhetorical technique in this form of contribute propaganda was pathos. Othello Gcse Coursework! Religious pamphlets evoked emotional responses by appealing to people's deeply held religious values and contribute to school essay, patriotic sentiments. (All posters mentioned in this section are from ubc doctoral 1913) In many ways, Temperance and Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the contribute, scientific and religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and security, compelling arguments through images and sound bytes. Essay! Many of the ubc doctoral dissertation form, posters took the Benjamin Rush approach, showing scientific and to school, logical evidence to prove that alcohol consumption was detrimental to watermark security, both body and essay, soul. Papers! Many posters referred to scientific studies and statistical information, citing medical and scientific experts for ethos. Like the titles of scientific pamphlets (ex.

Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People), the headings of the posters purported indisputable information. Poster headings like Deaths, Defect, Dwarfings in the Young of contribute essay Alcoholized Guinea Pigs, Death Rate From Various Diseases in Drinkers and General Class and Insurance Records Show that Drink Shortens Life 11% with their graphs and charts hardly seem debatable. Othello Coursework! Despite their scientific and factual claims, many of the contribute essay, underlying messages of security these posters were steeped in contribute to school essay Puritan morality and appeals to pathos. Temperance Era posters hinted both at the importance of death responsible parenting and to school, the Protestant work ethic, both deeply held Puritan values. International Business Risk Essays! A number of posters described how children of alcoholic parents suffered developmentally, both physically and emotionally, citing statistics and scientific studies as proof. Some described how parents who drink have a higher rate of defective children: Defective Children Increased with Alcoholization of Fathers, Drinkers' Children Developed More Slowly, Hand in Hand: Feeblemindedness and Alcoholism: More alcoholism found in contribute parents of Feebleminded than those of business risk essays Normal Children and Child Death Rate Higher in contribute to school Drinkers' Families. Others depicted the docucheck security paper, psychological problems drinking caused children: Drink the Largest Cause of Unhappy Homes in Chicago, Children in Misery, Parent's Drink to essay, Blame in at dissertation research methods case, Least Three Cases Out of Every Four and Drink Burdens Childhood. Temperance and Prohibition Era posters described alcohol as the source of contribute essay society's individual and social problems. Alcohol was the penalty, cause of laziness, inability to concentrate and other impediments to the ideals of success and the Protestant work ethic as noted in the posters: Drink Impaired Scholarship, The Better Chances of the Sober Workman, Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work and Daily Drinking Impaired Memory. Like the scientific pamphlets, these posters used charts, percentages, results from contribute studies and ubc doctoral dissertation approval form, quotations from scientific and medical experts. Contribute To School Essay! Still other posters were more explicitly moralizing, like the following poster which drew upon paper, the Puritan value of contribute essay care for research methods case, others: DRINK MAKES ONE MORE LIABLE TO ACCIDENT.

WHAT THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY SAYS: A man whose nerves have been made unsteady by to school essay a recent debauch or by the habitual use of alcohol, should not be permitted to death and the, operate dangerous machinery or to essay, carry on death penalty essay, dangerous work. Essay! He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of dissertation research case study others. The last line, He endangers not only his own life, but the to school, lives of coursework others, is italicized, the implication being that individuals must care about the to school, welfare of dissertation research methods their fellow human beings. Essay! A number of Temperance and Prohibition Era posters, like a number of the religious pamphlets, used a logos format to make a pathos appeal. These posters contained graphs and statistical information, presenting moral claims as factual information, such as Alcoholism and penalty and the essay, Degeneracy, Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition and Drink A Great Cause of Immorality. The poster Drink A Great Cause of Immorality showed the contribute essay, results of othello gcse coursework a study of 865 Immoral Inebriate Women, claiming that 40% of to school essay their immorality was due solely to business, drink, including as evidence a statement by to school essay a medical expert: There is dissertation research methods case, no apparent reason why any of the contribute to school essay, personsshould have become immoral but for virginia, preceding alcoholism. To School Essay! Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition presented a graph that tracked the drop in poverty as a result of increased temperance, therefore conflating intemperance and immoral behavior with greater social ills like poverty. In The Virginia Convention Thesis! Posters are a powerful form of propaganda; their succinct and striking messages create a sense of urgency. Contribute Essay! In a poster, complex and extensive information must be condensed into death penalty essay, a few words and contribute essay, images. Form! Temperance and Prohibition Era posters did just this, using startling information and making emotional appeals to Americans' most deeply held morals and values.

A significant amount of Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda was targeted towards children. Since logical and scientific arguments may not have made sense to contribute to school essay, young children, the main rhetorical technique in watermark security paper children's pamphlets was pathos. To School Essay! This form of risk anti-liquor propaganda related children's emotional responses and essay, experiences to death penalty and the 8th amendment essay, moral issues. The large quantity of temperance pamphlets targeted towards children was likely a result of Puritan ideology. According to the Puritans, children's moral education began at contribute to school essay, home; as the Puritan minister and saint Richard Greenham, wrote in his essay Of the good education of research children: If parents would have their children blessed at contribute to school essay, church and gcse, school, let them beware they give their children no corrupt examples at to school, home by any carelessness, profaneness or ungodliness. Otherwise, parents will do them more harm at home than both pastors and schoolmasters can do them good abroad. (Emerson 152) Although these pamphlets are written for research distributed security, children, it is probable that they are also targeting parents. A central theme in contribute essay many children's pamphlets is the role of parents in dissertation form promoting temperance and how a child should react if his/her parent is intemperate. Children's pamphlets generally began with an illustration and a story about to school a child or an animal whose experiences served as a subtle or direct warning against intemperance. Dissertation Research! The next section would usually contain a poem, dialogue or mini-story which reinforced the contribute to school essay, ideas presented in saving essay the first story. Many of these pamphlets also ended with advice, telling children to abstain from alcohol and to join the temperance crusade.

Two examples of to school children's pamphlets are Grandmother's boy (1880s) and Look out for othello gcse, the trap! (1870s) The cover story of to school Grandmother's boy deals directly with Puritan values concerning salvation and good parenting. In the research papers distributed database security, pamphlet's opening story, a little boy who has been raised by to school his pro-temperance grandmother pays his father a visit. The father is a wealthy, educated man who is dissertation approval, enjoying a bottle of wine with his friends. The son, who has taken the contribute to school essay, temperance pledge, embarrasses his father, asking him why he is ubc doctoral, drinking alcohol, and then says: 'If I'd known you drinked such stuff, I shouldn't wanted to come and see you. Contribute To School! It makes folks drunkards, and makes them so wicked they can't go to heaven (3-4).' The child's reaction to his father's drinking appeals to pathos, especially fear, in othello gcse two ways. Contribute! First, it plays upon parents' fear that their children will lose respect for them and dissertation research methods case, not want to spend time with them. Second, his statement refers to the Puritan idea that sinners who do not reform cannot be saved, a warning which uses intimidation to contribute, encourage self-improvement. The following section in the pamphlet Grandmother's boy is papers distributed database, a poem titled Johnny's Soliloquy, which expresses the to school essay, messages of the in the convention thesis, first story even more explicitly. Contribute Essay! The poem encourages children to serve as models to their parents, as in the phrase, The boy is father to gcse coursework, the man (3) which is contribute essay, repeated throughout the poem.

By taking the international, temperance pledge of total abstinence from alcohol and contribute essay, encouraging their parents to speech in the convention, do so, children modeled the Puritan ideal of saving oneself and others. The last two paragraphs of the contribute, Grandmother's Boy titled Stand Firm! make a stirring call to arms. Ubc Doctoral Approval Form! Describing temperance as the way of contribute to school truth and right (4), this section of the pamphlet reads like an excerpt from a passionate sermon. It draws upon the crusade concept, telling the approval form, reader that God will help us and that the to school, struggle against temptation is a fight children can and risk essays, must win. The children's pamphlet Look out for the trap! also warns against contribute to school, the dangers of temptation. Docucheck Watermark! This pamphlet begins with a picture and contribute essay, story of two squirrels. As in an Aesop's fable, the two squirrels come into case study, trouble as a result of their own foolishness - both fell prey to temptation - and there is to school essay, a moral at the end of the story: Children, avoid temptation. Always be sure there is in the thesis, no trap beyond (2). Contribute To School Essay! In this story the trap beyond is convention thesis, set by contribute to school Charlie Wood, who tempts the squirrels into his home with good food. Once Charlie slams the door shut, the squirrels realize that they were no longer their own masters (2). International Business! Charlie's imprisonment of the squirrels is analogous to, as temperance supporters would have put it, a drunkard's enslavement to to school essay, drink.

The story of the two squirrels ends with an anecdote. The narrator switches from third person omniscient to a more conversational, first person, telling the saving trees essay, reader he saw a young boy give in to temptation. Contribute To School! Worst of all, the one who tempted him was his mother. This final appeal to pathos is meant to shock both children and parents and to show children that even though their parents may have the dissertation research methods case study, best intentions, those intentions may be wrong and harmful. The second part of contribute to school Look out for the trap! is a short story titled Why Joseph Signed the methods case, Pledge.

The story draws upon a common theme in Temperance propaganda: a child living in poverty whose father is a drunkard and therefore cannot provide for his family. The story evokes a great deal of pity for Joseph, the protagonist, who is to school essay, taunted by a wealthier classmate. Oh! You needn't feel so big says the business risk essays, classmate, your folks are poor and your father is a drunkard (3). The story describes the to school essay, Puritan ideal of redemption through self-improvement and dissertation research case study, helping others. Joseph's mother reminds him to depend upon contribute to school essay, his own energies, trust in God and remember that he is responsible only for his own faults (4). Joseph remembers his mother's advice and, through his hard work and determination achieves the epitome of the Protestant work ethic, becoming a useful and respected man. He follows the business, Puritan value of individual and communal improvement by contribute helping his father become a sober man and research papers database, 'respected by other folks' (4).

The boy who taunted Joseph in school, however, lives to to school essay, see his wealthy father become poor and docucheck watermark paper, a drunkard. Joseph's story concludes with a piece of to school advice: Boys, never twit another for what he can not help (4). The moral of the watermark security paper, story is to school, a direct reference to research security, the gold rule (i.e. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you) and essay, appeals to research distributed database, human compassion, kindness and respect. Grandmother's boy, Look out for to school essay, the trap and many other children's pamphlets present a dilemma whose solution is convention, temperance. The dilemma is an contribute extreme situation, often of pain, suffering or another intense emotion which must be immediately and in the, directly addressed. Abstinence from alcohol is to school essay, always the happy ending - as soon as the characters in the story swear off spirits they become successful, happy and achieve salvation. Trees Essay! In Hellfire Nation, James Morone discusses one of America's earliest anthems, the essay, jeremiad. Dating back to the seventeenth century, the jeremiad was a lament that the people have fallen into sinful ways and face ruin unless they swiftly reform (14).

The jeremiad described specific crimes which had invoked God's wrath, scolding Americans for research papers database, their moral degeneracy, and reminding people of their mission with an contribute immodest goal: redeem the world (Morone 42, 45). Othello Gcse! The poems and songs of the to school, Temperance and ubc doctoral dissertation approval, Prohibition Eras were direct descendants of the contribute to school essay, jeremiad. Business Risk Essays! Like the jeremiad, these poems and essay, songs defined a specific problem, intemperance, its ruinous effects on death penalty, both individual and contribute, society, and saving trees essay, the need for contribute to school, personal and speech in the thesis, communal responsibility and reform. Three central themes in contribute to school essay Temperance era songs and poetry were the drunkard's story, the crusade and temperance as a form of liberty. Although their themes were similar to dissertation research, other Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda, songs and poems had a distinct style and structure. Unlike scientific and contribute essay, religious pamphlets, posters, and international risk essays, children's pamphlets, which used text and contribute to school, images, songs and dissertation methods, poems formed part of an to school essay oral tradition. While a reader can always re-read a complex argument or refer to saving, a new fact or statistic in a text, a listener cannot re-hear a song or poem. As a result, the contribute essay, songs and ubc doctoral dissertation approval form, poems are more repetitive and direct, drawing upon common themes and widely accepted ideas rather than introducing new information.

Like children's pamphlets, Temperance and to school, Prohibition Era songs and poems use pathos more or less exclusively. Security! Many songs and poems speak specifically to contribute to school, the plight of drunkards, both as an example of the dangers of intemperance and to encourage people to join the coursework, temperance crusade. Essay! Religious references are especially prevalent: alcohol is described as an dissertation approval form evil temptation and the devil's agent. Contribute To School Essay! Drunkards are those who have fallen from risk essays grace; they have lost control of their lives and sunk to ruin and contribute essay, damnation. According to saving essay, these poems and songs, alcohol is to blame for most of contribute to school society's ills. Coursework! Once complete abstinence is to school essay, achieved, prisons will empty, crime will cease, humanity will be saved and the kingdom of heaven will reign on othello, earth. The poems The Curse of Rum (1800s) and The Face Upon the Floor (early 1900s) and the song The Drunkard's Fall (early 1900s) depict the dangers of drinking and the plight of the to school, drunkard. The Curse of Rum draws upon speech in the virginia, common religious themes in order to contribute essay, demonize alcohol. The poem describes rum as the serpent from the speech in the thesis, Garden of Eden, a soul destroyer (1) that has destroyed the paradise of the home by contribute bringing disease and sin into society. The underlying message in these songs and risk essays, poems is essay, not to take the security, first drink, because once people begin, they lose control and to school essay, cannot stop.

According to The Face Upon the Floor and The Drunkard's Fall, even the most successful and promising individuals can fall prey to alcohol's evils once they take their first drink. The Face Upon the Floor depicts a penniless, filthy, wretched drunkard who wanders into a bar and othello, tells a group of young men his story, from wealth, good looks and to school, a loving wife to how drinking led him to dissertation research, current state, and then falls to the floor dead. The Drunkard's Fall, whose subtitle reads a warning for contribute to school, all college men wherein is declared how a Yale man was fired yesterday for case, over-cutting describes how even the best and the brightest fall to ruin once they take to drinking. As the refrain states: He was a Yale man, but he done all wrong. The young man becomes apathetic, lazy and contribute to school essay, eventually goes insane from docucheck paper drinking. To School! Neither he nor the drunkard in paper The Face Upon The Floor can achieve the to school, goals of the Protestant work ethic or reach spiritual salvation. Their alcohol abuse has taken away their capabilities for productivity and success, both on earth and in the world to death penalty, come. Contribute To School! Songs and international essays, poetry make more direct appeals to pathos than other types of essay temperance propaganda because of their oversimplification and use of hyperbole. Oftentimes the speech in the thesis, title of a song or poem is enough to evoke a strong emotional response, as in to school the case of the death penalty 8th amendment, song title Father's a Drunkard and Mother is Dead (1866). Song and poem titles may give a clear warning or command, like the to school, songs Girls, Wait For A Temperance Man (1867) and Help The Fallen Brother (mid to dissertation research, late 1800s).

The first song is a reference to the Puritan ideal of to school good parenting and addresses both children's' and speech in the virginia convention thesis, parents' fears that children will not be taken care of and even abandoned. Help The Fallen Brother is a clear appeal to compassion and the Puritan idea that everyone must be reformed in order for a community to achieve success and salvation. The solution to these individual and to school, social ills, as mentioned in other types of speech virginia thesis Temperance Propaganda, was the crusade. The first verse and chorus of the contribute essay, Anti-Saloon Battle Hymn (1907) for example, provides a rousing call to arms: The might are gathering for conflict; / The right is in the virginia convention thesis, arrayed against wrong; / The hosts of the righteous are singing, / And this is the voice of their song: Cho. Contribute Essay! The Saloon, it must go! Do you hear us?/ Repeat it again and again. Research Methods Case! They strive to contribute essay, make millions of speech in the virginia money;/ We strive to save hundreds of contribute essay men! As in Bishop Nicholson's address, the enemy, in this case the saloon, is clearly defined and its motives are proclaimed immoral and unjust. The battle hymn describes the ubc doctoral dissertation approval form, saloon as an awful, unspeakable monster and asks God to free the people of the contribute, United states from docucheck watermark paper its shackles. Contribute Essay! Metaphors of slavery and liberation and security paper, their relationship to the temperance crusade are a significant aspect of contribute to school essay Temperance era songs and poetry.

The song Emancipation (1914) speaks of America as a nation with True liberty so grand,/ that makes men free and saving, alcohol as a monster that enslaves Americans. The song conflates the crusade's mission with Puritan ideals of to school essay personal and communal salvation, ending with the stanza: This is the watermark security, hope of all / To see the traffic fall, / And not one slave. Then wave from sea to essay, sea, / By union temperance plea, / Old Glory's jubilee, / Our nation free! Even the most convincing anti-temperance supporter would have been hard pressed to refute the penalty 8th amendment, stanza above. It makes a powerful appeal to contribute essay, pathos, addressing many Americans' pride in their freedom and faith. How could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen? Despite Benjamin Rush's efforts, his widely circulated warnings had little influence upon the consumption of alcohol (Rorabaugh 187). In fact, alcohol consumption actually rose during Rush's anti-liquor crusade and did not begin to research papers distributed database security, decrease until the early 1830s (Rorabaugh 187). W.J.

Rorabaugh explains in The Alcoholic Republic that historians are still unsure as to why Rush's anti-liquor crusade failed while later temperance efforts had great success (187). Contribute Essay! I propose that the answer lies in the rhetoric. Benjamin Rush took a logos approach to promoting temperance, noting the security paper, harmful physiological effects of essay alcohol. He did not appeal to speech virginia convention, pathos until the end of contribute The Effect of business risk essays Ardent Spirits Upon Man, when he described the moral depravity and contribute to school, social ills caused by docucheck watermark security paper alcohol consumption. Essay! Rush's use of speech convention pathos may have been too little too late. To School! The weakness of using a logical argument is that it can be refuted, either with other logical explanations, new information or emotional appeals. It is othello gcse, harder to contribute, question people's emotions and dissertation case, deeply held morals and values. To do so would not only be considered offensive, it would also be futile. To School! As I wrote earlier, how could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen?

Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda were founded on pathos. Docucheck Watermark Security Paper! Although a number of to school pamphlets drew upon dissertation methods study, both logos and pathos, many forms of propaganda, including children's pamphlets, songs and poems, used only emotional appeals. Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda appealed to deeply held beliefs, based upon Puritan ideology and all-American values. Essay! While Rush's more scientific arguments could be disputed or ignored, most Americans would not question the importance of papers security God, hard work, personal and communal salvation and freedom. Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work. Contribute! Boston, MA and Westerville, Ohio: Scientific Temperance Federation and docucheck paper, American Issue Publishing Company, 1913.

Alcohol, Temperance and Prohibition: A Brown University Library Digital Collection. Written in partial fulfillment of requirements for UC 116: Drug and essay, Alcohol Addiction in the American Consciousness (Professor David Lewis Fall 2004)

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and contribute essay the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and research distributed security champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of essay, traditional learning. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the international business risk essays human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. Contribute To School? His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618).

While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and international risk philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and contribute Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to ubc doctoral approval form a prominent and contribute to school essay well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the death and the 8th amendment Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and contribute essay from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. Othello Gcse? In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself).

In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to to school essay take a position in the diplomatic service in coursework France as an contribute essay assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and the youngest of othello gcse coursework, six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and contribute no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at international risk, Gray’s Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for essay, various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the distributed database Queen taking personal offense at to school essay, his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of death, appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of contribute to school, intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen.

No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in international risk a disastrous coup attempt. To School? When the othello gcse coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for contribute, advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the othello coursework ladder of state and contribute from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions:

1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. Dissertation? 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only contribute, have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.

Yet it was at coursework, this point, while he stood at contribute, the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of business, London. Although the contribute to school fine was later waived and Bacon spent only othello coursework, four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against to school essay, him without excuse. International Business Risk Essays? According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and to school essay done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on.

Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on dissertation approval form 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and contribute essay insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of gcse, public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. Essay? As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and coursework produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the contribute Reign of docucheck paper, King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of contribute essay, his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on dissertation methods case study topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of contribute to school essay, rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of business risk, one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death.

Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and contribute to school essay a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is dissertation methods case a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the to school essay works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of paper, English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in contribute essay 1597 and then revised and expanded in watermark security 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors.

And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and essay especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in watermark paper the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of contribute to school, his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in docucheck watermark paper his writing he was never quite able to contribute resist the papers database occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the contribute essay society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to papers distributed database a natural lucidity and contribute to school essay “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the international business essays volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories.

According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of contribute to school, a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of docucheck watermark security paper, what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and contribute to school More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is othello coursework little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from contribute, Bacon’s point of gcse, view) apply the contribute to school essay knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of paper, its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to contribute be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and research model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to to school summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by essays, his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. To School? (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas.

As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and 8th amendment vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on contribute to school essay subjects ranging from logic and dissertation epistemology to to school essay practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the dissertation case study intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun.

Consequently, the contribute work as we have it is death penalty and the 8th amendment essay less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of contribute, philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Docucheck Watermark? Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of essay, Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to research papers security James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for contribute, interpreting nature. It first appeared in and the essay 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and to school essay principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in research security his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to contribute essay an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the watermark first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the essay notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of papers distributed database security, learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and contribute to school essay “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”).

By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and essays theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to contribute essay any intellectual endeavor in watermark paper which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the to school essay retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the risk revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the contribute most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of docucheck watermark security paper, learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed – and this is contribute to school a theme reiterated in all his later writings on 8th amendment learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries.

Though it is hard to contribute to school essay pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in 8th amendment applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and contribute essay became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is research papers distributed power, and when embodied in essay the form of new technical inventions and ubc doctoral dissertation approval mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Contribute To School? In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for study, its having been conceived and promoted at to school essay, a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the dissertation research methods study literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the contribute to school signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and penalty and the 8th amendment a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of to school essay, human knowledge into research papers distributed database three primary categories: History, Poesy, and to school Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and research distributed database reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the to school essay other two branches of knowledge, in death penalty and the essay essence defining history as the mere accumulation of essay, brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of risk essays, philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of to school, history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to othello coursework be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of contribute to school, everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle.

In essence, it becomes simply a means of watermark security, recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the contribute to school essay title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to dissertation study transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the essay New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and dissertation approval philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. To School? Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the death and the essay idols is as important to the study of nature as the contribute to school essay recognition and research papers refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics.

Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Each arises from contribute to school, a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. Ubc Doctoral Dissertation Form? The Idols of the contribute to school Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature.

Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. Ubc Doctoral Approval Form? As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is contribute actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the gcse cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and contribute essay thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to othello gcse owing to contribute our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include:

Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. Watermark Security Paper? A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the to school Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of docucheck watermark paper, Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate.

And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of essay, abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into ubc doctoral dissertation approval form a model or paradigm to essay explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of death and the essay, thought that mixes theology and philosophy.

He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of to school, natural philosophy on Genesis or the research distributed security book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for to school essay, the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the research distributed security work never got beyond an contribute essay introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . . 8th Amendment? sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and contribute to school then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Dissertation Case Study? Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from contribute to school essay, this general axiom to research methods case study deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is essay that if the general axioms prove false, all the research papers distributed intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is to school one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and dissertation approval form “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. Contribute To School Essay? His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by security, observation and experimentation before the contribute to school essay next step is dissertation form taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process.

Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in to school general. Risk Essays? And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of to school essay, a rickety structure that collapses with the docucheck watermark security paper appearance of contribute to school essay, a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to risk proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. Contribute? For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the death penalty essay leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for contribute to school, the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and distributed database collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly.

One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the contribute to school essay initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the death penalty process itself; in contribute to school effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for watermark, its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the contribute to school essay hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to dissertation methods quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the contribute to school more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in business the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by contribute to school, mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to docucheck watermark security the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and contribute essay even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the business essays spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the contribute essay Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the dissertation research methods fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate.

He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of contribute to school, mathematical reasoning and research papers distributed deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the to school essay actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the point is dissertation research methods case already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by to school, shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the docucheck value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of to school essay, new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of business, nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to essay come.

If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and essays sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and to school literary interests (from practical rhetoric and docucheck paper the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Contribute To School Essay? Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in ubc doctoral dissertation approval a variety of literary genres – from to school, learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the research methods case great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the essay policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Risk Essays? Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of essay, his age and nation” and security paper portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. Essay? His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the othello daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on contribute essay a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose.

Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to dissertation approval form Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Contribute To School Essay? Leibniz was particularly generous and form observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and to school essay lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in gcse effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by contribute to school, Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Risk? The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and essay emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an dissertation research case early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view.

In his “Lectures on contribute to school essay the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on database his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the contribute Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for watermark paper, “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and to school most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in international business risk his Letters on the English . After referring to contribute essay Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the othello gcse empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. Contribute To School? The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the docucheck watermark other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the essay human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest.

On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of gcse coursework, Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from essay, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and research study eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the contribute main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of dissertation, alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of contribute to school essay, Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to business risk essays be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of to school essay, learning and docucheck watermark paper a champion of modern science.

In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).

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resume paper weight I’m Chanpory, and this is my site on how to live and essay work better as a designer. You should follow me on Twitter here. For more, check out the death penalty, archives. The 7 deadly sins of resume design. So you’ve labored with sweat and tears writing your resume, and now you’re all set to to school, turn it into a magnificently designed creation.

Unfortunately, with the freedom of docucheck watermark, modern computers and fancy software, comes huge opportunities for abuse. When it comes to resumes, both non-designers and professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. To School Essay! Here are the 7 deadly sins of resume design and how to repent: Take a tour of any office supply store and you’ll see shelves of extravagant “resume” papers featuring special “linen” and “parchment” finishes. Methods! Avoid these like dog poop on a New York summer sidewalk. They’re too expensive and don’t make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and get paper with a plain smooth finish. It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board.

An ever so slight hint of to school, cream is fine. It’ll make your resume easier on the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. Death And The Essay! I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in Natural White with a Super Smooth finish. Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. The default typeface in contribute essay, Microsoft Word is Times New Roman, and thus it’s the default for most resumes. It’s a tragedy, because Times’s letterspacing and wordspacing is wretched in Word. The result is an unharmonious mess.

To repent: Choose a different typeface. Papers! I won’t go into explaining x-heights or the difference between Humanist Sans and to school essay Geometric Sans. If you’ve got money to spare, pick any of the typefaces in FontShop’s professional collection, and you’ll be a step above Times New Roman. If you’re cheap, use Matthew Carter’s Georgia. Death And The! It’s free and already installed on your computer. To School Essay! If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. If you need more guidance, check out Before After’s tutorial on picking typefaces. Designers fresh out of school love teeny tiny type. The belief is that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for more white space on the resume. It’s a shame.

For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in hiring positions won’t have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for sans-serifed type and 10 points for serifed type. Anything smaller, and your resume is at research distributed security risk of to school essay, being shredded. Designers also love grey type. On an inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of noise. If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and unfaxable. Penalty 8th Amendment Essay! But wait, should you really be using inkjet to contribute to school, print your resume? To repent: Use a laser printer and print in 100% black for ultimate clarity. If you do go grey, don’t go lighter than 75% black.

You may be tempted to add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and hearts. Perhaps, you want to papers distributed database, use an illustration of a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you. This is to school essay, great if you want to look like a box of crayons melted on papers distributed security your resume. To School Essay! Otherwise, don’t try to be cute. To repent: Add some character by setting your name slightly larger, or in a different weight as the same typeface as the rest of your resume. Use color, but very sparingly, if at all.

No more than one color in security, addition to contribute essay, black. If you live in the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. In Europe, it’s 210 x 297mm. Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. Ubc Doctoral Dissertation Approval! When it doesn’t fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to contribute to school, the standard paper size of your geographic location. International Essays! It’s easier to print and package. In an attempt to contribute to school essay, stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format. This is more annoying than innovative. To repent: Keep to a portrait format. The first person who sees your resume is dissertation, usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of resumes daily.

Too much variation from the norm makes it harder for them to make a quick assessment of you. If you want to stand out, write a good cover letter instead. So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out to school, my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the resume format should match the job/industry you are applying to. Business Essays! It also comes down to the personal opinion of the person doing the hiring. I had a resume designed and contribute to school two people were interviewing me. One person really liked it and the other didn’t…But most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. Death And The 8th Amendment Essay! I would say have common sense and keep it simple and not over contribute essay done. You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and papers talent.

Good Luck Cheers. All the comments are great. To School Essay! However, I have to say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of my resume at othello gcse the beginning of the interview. Frankly, I have come to view that as a test of contribute to school essay, your organizational skills. Research Papers Distributed! I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the door very, very quickly. hello just asking, what should be the best paper size for resume/cv in philippines. is contribute to school, it short or long bond paper. waiting for international risk reply..thanks^^

To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. , A very useful Design Refresher – Think I need to change some of my fonts around now !! More work … Don’t forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to be an escort)! HR people basically don’t give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. And most of them just scan it to contribute to school essay, make sure you fit the job requirements. So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts. Papers Distributed Database! Most HR people wouldn’t know a font if it jumped out of the PC and bit them. … You’re probably going to be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in which case you ought to make sure the file will transmit OK and be clear enough to copy. Many companies just ask you to contribute to school, paste a text version of your resume into dissertation research methods case, an online application, which is a dead give-away that they couldn’t care less how pretty it looks. Just make sure you leave out the silly dingbats. I have found in my 10 years in the professional design world that HR are the non educated gate keepers of the employment world.

Go get real employees opinions on said workers within HR…most cringe at the notion of contribute to school essay, going through HR. Really, what do people in HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and and broken well but not unless you’re an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Death Penalty 8th Amendment Essay! Number one advice is to school, just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the dissertation methods case, plague. Wow, tough crowd. This is a perfect list of rules for design “begginers”. Essay! Of course designers and talented creative types may be able to make an impact by cleverly breaking some of these rules – but you’re probably going to have to use some software other than Word to pull that off.

If you’re using Word this is your bible with one addition – NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory. @James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! I’m in case, a similar role as the owner of a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for contribute to school essay designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable. Gcse Coursework! My alltime favorite was one in contribute essay, Comic Sans (no joke!!). I think the key point is that design must always help achieve the goal. The goal for a resume is to get an research interview.

To that end, a resume’s design must help communicate the message/content of the resume effectively. Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to be conservative with it in my opinion: what’s clever, creative, and “the best resume I’ve seen” to one person might just be tacky and overdone to another. OK…. this entire “7 deadly sins” is bullcrap. Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the contribute to school essay, rules, you can break the research study, rules. There is nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. Contribute Essay! After all, they are coming to us to be creative. It lets me see how well they understand how to othello gcse coursework, sell themselves. I hate to say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the cream of the crap… not the cream of the crop. I think its just a matte of contribute to school, time until the resume gets replaced. International Business Risk! Sort of old fashion. I think you are all missing a very important piece—who is the audience?

All of these concerns are dependent on the type of contribute to school essay, job you are applying to (i.e. your audience). No matter what you are designing, this is the #1 variable to consider. What is important when applying to a creative job, is very different than what is death 8th amendment essay, important in the financial world, for essay expample. Thanks for the tip on Georgia font – I had Garamond originally, and it looked terrible when converted to PDF. Just tried out othello coursework, Georgia and loved it! When we go to interviews, it’s nice to bring a copy of our resume along. That’s why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesn’t mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. In addition, someone or someone’s just may pop in on the interview out of interest. I was once take directly from the contribute to school, interview with HR straight to the manager to interview with her immediately because HR thought I’d be a good fit. I’m glad I had another copy of my resume on distributed security hand.

It’s just good form to bring extra copies of a resume. PS Speaking of to school essay, bad font; what’s up with the ubc doctoral dissertation form, font on this page?! Its super bold and contribute narrow… and hard to read! Maybe try Georgia instead ;) I’m personally a huge fan of death penalty and the essay, Palatino Linotype. (or its cousin Book Antiqua) It’s a nice serif font that’s easy to read and scan down through, it’s nicely formed and spaced and it’s ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you don’t have it you can download it free. Somebody up there also made the point of trying to essay, mimic the style and branding of the company you are submitting to. If possible you should always do that. One idea is to send the cv/resume in a nice folder the docucheck watermark security, same colour as the to school, company’s branding, to use similar coloured paper or to use the docucheck watermark, same fonts. If you’re sending off internationally always look up the to school, proper resume and cover letter format for the country you are sending to.

For example many countries in mainland Europe also expect you to gcse coursework, embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the contribute, page. Be sure to international business, use the correct spelling also. True it’s best not to entrust your spelling and grammar to a machine, but, if you’re applying from one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language – e.g. Contribute To School Essay! British English v US English. I’ve found, actually, that many computers, for example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the default language regardless of where they were being sold to. Database! So be sure and check that your computer and word processor are set to the right language for your country before you send your resume to anybody! This is so good to contribute essay, know and follow… I totally agree with kathy, but when you haven’t met the contact person the question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the dissertation study, point that you go on and brand yourself and make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to gain a remarkable first impression. It also dependent on the culture of the company you’re entering and the position you’re applying for… and how old are you and your experience… your CV is your spirit and vision, at to school the end.. and if you get your CV to a company where they don’t like it, don’t worry… your CV has probably landed in the wrong place… and your spirit and vision doesn’t suite the company you’re applying for. I truly think design is essential, in research case study, order to essay, stand out… but design alone doesn’t make the CV standout… it’s the content and experience and papers distributed database the way you brand yourself.

Wow. Contribute To School Essay! According to your article, I’ve committed 3 sins: “gray text,” “weird paper size” and “horizontal format.” You probably should also add an 8th sin for kicks that I’ve also committed: “folding.” Now, taken that I’ve broken lots of your rules in research methods case, resume design — why is it that I’ve been working for my company for 3 years and to school essay 10 months thanks to my “poorly designed resume”? There has to be something wrong. A graphic designer’s resume should reflect his or her craft. Approval! It should have hints of contribute essay, their style and should totally have an experience to go along with it. Docucheck Watermark Security! Designing out to school essay, of the box is always favored and is always put on top of the docucheck paper, pile if executed properly. You should never confine yourself to designing freely.

Your resume is another piece of your portfolio — one which your future employer will keep. I don’t believe filenames have been mentioned here. When sending a resume electronically, the to school, filename resume.doc is the kiss of death. Be sure to methods, change the filename to reflect your own name. In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format – otherwise, you risk incompatibility. Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and both multi-column and fancy fonts/paper will be puked out rather than scanned in. When sending electronically, the plainer, the better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. These days, virtually no one is worth a two-pager.

The point is to get IN the contribute essay, door for methods case an interview… you can elaborate later, during the interview. Hi, you guys would be surprised to know that most Turkish companies require your resume to have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in my photo. It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the contribute to school essay, resume screams prejudice. Im not Turkish(I worked and dissertation form will work in Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to Turkish companies they add a photo. By the way, I know for a fact that some American companies ask for photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends who’ve applied to American companies). I wish I could get some points on how to add your photo in your resume and not feel like a complete jackass. :P. As an engineer and industrial designer who needs to walk a fine line between ‘logical’ and ‘artzy-fartzy’, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the contribute to school, suggestions above.

I have been using Tahoma for years and have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for international risk essays the last dozen years…I am 5 for 5. Tahoma kerns nice and contribute tight and ubc doctoral dissertation approval form 10pt leave plenty of white space. If you know how, typesetting your documents in TeX can really improve the font appearance through proper use of ligatures and a line-break algorithm that evaluates the to school, appearance of the entire paragraph rather than that of the distributed database, individual line. It can produce PostScript or PDF files for contribute essay electronic usage. Failing that, it may be possible to use the Computer Modern fonts for which the program is configured in paper, other programs like Word, and I expect these would still be a cut above Microsoft’s pet fonts. I think everyone should come out of the dark ages. We now have the facility of computers and graphics……why not use them within reason. / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of reading and the content…….not crossing a prospect off because of the font used.

Lets move into contribute to school essay, the 21st century people. As a recent “job seeker” I found this very useful. Dissertation Form! though of course we call them CVs in the Uk, the tips are all good. Better equipped to avoid the pitfalls now, although I don’t agree 100% with all the points it is none the less a useful read. Thanks again. Pat. I think it would be best to send a virus to HR because all in all they never call anyone back.

Most of contribute, HR have no clue about anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all. Business Essays! I would rather just meet someone who works at the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.

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The combining of a bass increase strategy support for contribute to school essay compact disc, CD-R, CD RW plus MP3 music tunes on CD. Includes random repeat programme replay settings, which render the MPCD a perfect facility, modest sized transportable CD music player. 03: Philips AX2201 Dynamic Bass Portable Power Saver CD Player. The AX2201 fully transportable CD music player possesses good power saving solutions and gives up to 20 hours of dissertation research methods study playback from contribute essay, 2 LR6 alkaline battery packs. Provides all CD play settings with 14 track programming, shuffle, search, resume and hold functions.

Multi Track Programming Features.. Electronic digital dynamic bass enhances your audio at all volume levels. CD Re-Writable appropriate plays instantly to coursework rapidly scan any compact disk. To School? The powersave function provides you with up to business risk essays 38 hours of playing time with your personal CD recordings. Provided with bass wave stereo headphones. Dynamic Bass And Power Saving Options.. Digital dynamic bass enhances and improves bass at contribute to school essay low, mid and high volume level to research security provide strong, abundant sound. External battery pack is contribute, provided. CD-Rewritable suitable makes sure that both CD Recordable and CD-Re-writable disks created by penalty and the 8th amendment any recorder can be played. 04: Sony D-NE511 ATRAC Plus MP3 CD Audio Walkman.

Receive the best possible audio with Sony's D-NE511 portable CD music player, consisting of (SonicStage CD Simple Burner) application to contribute essay help you benefit from ATRAC3 plus, Sony's exclusive audio data compression concept when creating custom MP3 Compact disks on a PC. 48 Hours Of Constant Playback On Battery.. Sony D-NE511 ATRAC Plus MP3 CD Walkman. This mobile CD player contains the well loved Jog Dial management for effortless folder finding, a 2 line dot-matrix display screen. Gcse Coursework? It also accomplishes greater than 48 hours of contribute constant playback on two double 'A' type batteries, which are not supplied. ATRAC3plus is an audio-compression technology that decreases the ubc doctoral dissertation approval form dimensions of digital audio tracks, protecting the track's authentic sound quality. ATRAC3plus Audio Compression.. Essay? This portable music player is dissertation approval, comparable in principle to 'MP3 or Dolby Digital' sound platforms, but with ATRAC3plus, music can be burned and to school compacted at docucheck watermark 132 down to 48 kilobits per second, enabling you to contribute pick the best stability among fidelity and gcse coursework space for contribute to school essay storage, where you may get around 490 tracks per othello gcse, disc. SonicStage CD Simple Burner App.. The player arrives incorporated with SonicStage CD Simple Burner application.

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15 Track Programmable Memory.. This mobile music CD player includes earphones and three info pamphlets in 12 languages. The AX1100 is a simple, transportable CD player with a few crucial characteristics that provides astonishingly good sound, regardless of contribute it's reduced price. The bass boost is ubc doctoral, highly effective, providing a warm, profound audio through the 'supplied earphones'. Earphones Included In Bundle.. To School Essay? The player does not include any batteries or mains adapter, however for dissertation the purchase price, you probably would not expect it to. If you prefer a CD player without having all the special features that doesn't really bargain on essay sound quality, the AX1100 ought to be towards the top of your checklist.

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With decent sound quality and to school an elegant silver finish, this convenient Alba CD player has everything required to hear your treasured compact disks. It facilitates CD-R and research distributed database RW playback functionality - in addition, possesses an LCD display and contribute 24 track CD memory to maintain your content whilst you play together to ubc doctoral approval your preferred tracks. Personal Music Player With 24 CD Memory And LCD Display.. As much as 6 hours playback CD-R CD-RW playback Look-up, programme and replication features, 24 track CD memory and LCD display. General Size L240, W140, D30 mm. Batteries needed 2 x AA type are not supplied. To School? (Rating: 4.80/5) | More Details - Alba 24 Track Personal CD Music Player. 10 Portable Stereo CD Players And Boom Boxes With Great Sound.. Selected your perfect portable music player yet? Purchase a home or portable CD player with radio to play your favourite CD's and international business Mp3's etc. You will find a wide selection of contribute music players, boom boxes and larger CD players here.

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Downton Abbey Cooks Online Guide to Afternoon Tea. My tea party on National TV. Link to Recipes and Video Clip from the show. An overview on what you need to know about Afternoon Tea. My new book with 60+ recipes and tips. Afternoon Tea is arguably the best contribution the British have made to cuisine.

A lovely tradition My upcoming new book will provide all you need to contribute, know, whether you are planning to security paper, visit a famous tea house in to school London, organizing a fundraiser or just hosting a tea at home. This article provides highlights on history, what to eat, how to eat, when to eat!. Enjoy. History of the English Tea Ritual. In 1662 Catherine of Braganza of Portugal married Charles II and brought with her the preference for tea, which had already become common in Europe. As tea was her temperance drink of choice, it slowly gained social acceptance among some of the watermark security paper, aristocracy as she replaced wine, ale and spirits with tea as the court drink. It did take some time though to ween courtiers from essay, enjoying ale at breakfast. Baby steps.

The actual taking of tea in the afternoon developed into a new social event some time in the late 1830’s and approval form, early 1840’s. To School? It was Anne, Duchess of Bedford, one of Queen Victoria’s ladies-in-waiting, who is credited for first “inventing” Afternoon Tea, but actually it had been a gradual evolution. The gap between lunch and methods case, supper was widening, so Anne started asking for tea and contribute to school essay, small cakes to be brought to her private quarters. International? I am sure she quickly realized that a lot of contribute to school, gossip could be shared if she invited other ladies to her quarters to share her cakes. Queen Victoria herself was encouraged to start hosting her own parties as a way of othello, re-entering society after the passing of her beloved husband Albert.

Legend has it that Victoria Sponge was named and served at her tea parties which became large affairs. Other women picked up the idea and spread like wildfire. To School Essay? Thus the ritual of security, afternoon tea began. To School? Women do know how to get things done. Tea lingo: Afternoon Tea is Not High Tea. Nothing better than sharing tea with friends. There is nothing like enjoying tea with friends or colleagues. Check out my recent tv interview about hosting a tea party. If you are planning a visit to the UK, watch Downton Abbey , Coronation Street , or other British type serials, it might be helpful to get proper knowledge of the terms used.

Afternoon Tea — What we imagine all British teas to be. An afternoon meal, served typically from 4 – 6 pm, which includes the tiers of smart little crustless sandwiches, scones, clotted cream, curd, 2-3 sweets and heaps of tea. High Tea or Tea — High tea is eaten in “high chairs” at the dinner table. Afternoon Tea is traditionally served on lower couches and lounging chairs. High tea is penalty, actually is contribute essay, a meal that the working class had at the end of the othello gcse coursework, day with cold meats, potatoes, as well as other foods with tea and perhaps a beer. Americans confuse the two, and contribute essay, since some London tea houses use the dissertation, terms interchangeable to keep tourists happy, it adds to the confusion. Low Tea— This still afternoon tea, but called “low tea” because guests are seated in low armchairs with low side-tables on which to place their cups and saucers. Royale Tea — A social tea served with champagne at the beginning or sherry at to school the end of the tea.

Celebration Tea — Another variation of afternoon tea with a celebratory cake which is also served alongside the other sweets Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea. Gcse Coursework? Elevensies — Morning coffee hour in contribute to school essay England (I remember the Hobbits used this term in Lord of the Rings. I thought that they ate 11 times a day…just like me!) Tea Etiquette: Learn by Example from gcse, Downton Abbey. Matthew helps himself to contribute to school, Madeleines (ITV)

Displaying acceptable manners is a way of fitting in othello with a certain class. Pay attention to the “tea scene” in S1 E2 of Downton Abbey . Contribute To School? The new heir Matthew Crawley comes home to death penalty 8th amendment essay, find visitors, and decides to help himself to tea and madeleines. Contribute? Molesley, the research papers distributed database, butler, is horrified and his mother, the contribute to school essay, Dowager and death, Cora embarrased. To School? Yes, it is evident that this middle class lawyer is a diamond in the rough, and has a long way to go before he will become a true gentleman, but we gradually see him growing into the role of heir apparent. Ubc Doctoral Dissertation Form? If you plan to essay, enjoy the tea ritual in London or your home town, book an Afternoon Tea (not High Tea), and do take note of proper manners to ubc doctoral dissertation approval, fully enjoy the experience. Contribute Essay? In London, they do try to research papers distributed database security, do things properly, which is why we adore Downton Abbey in the first place, right? The Dowager at Tea: always with an contribute essay, agenda (ITV) Tea with the business, Dowager could be stressful since was always some plan she had in mind to discuss. To help make your tea experience less stressful, here are some tips to take to the Dowager House, your local tea shop, or famous London tea house: Sugar/lemon —tea is essay, poured first, then sugar or thinly sliced lemon and dissertation case study, never milk and lemon together as it will curdle. Milk goes in after tea — a nice little saying: “To put milk in your tea before sugar is to cross the path of love, perhaps never to to school essay, marry.” (Tea superstition) Who Pours? — If you are the dissertation research methods, hostess, you should pour.

If you are taking tea at a tea house, it is the person who is closest to the pot when the pot is brought to the table. Proper placement of spoon — the spoon never stays in contribute to school the cup. Proper holding of cup — use both hands to ubc doctoral approval form, lift both cup and to school essay, saucer to drink from, and watermark paper, please no pinkies*. I dare you to catch anyone on Downton The correct order when eating on a tea tray is to eat savouries first, scones next and sweets last. We have changed our order somewhat. We like guests to eat the scones first while they are hot, then move to savouries, then sweets. To School Essay? Scones — the most practical approach according to research distributed database, Debrett’s is to split the scone horizontally before adding your favorite spreads. Cream, then jam on scones? —This depends.

Devon tradition puts clotted cream first on scones, then jam. In Cornwall, preserves first. Eat with fingers neatly. Use your fingers you can eat bite-size pastries with your fingers, as well as sliced loafs, breaking off small pieces before consuming. Use a dessert fork to eat larger pastries. No dunk zone — unless your tea party is contribute to school essay, very informal, dunking treats in your tea will garner a scowl. *Since ancient Rome, a cultured person ate with 3 fingers, a commoner with five. Thus, the birth of the raised pinkie was a perceived sign of elitism, however the The pinky “up” rule is actually a misinterpretation of the ubc doctoral dissertation form, 3 fingers vs 5 fingers dining etiquette. You will never see the ladies at Downton Abbey raise a pinky. I am a bit of to school, a pack rat and have accumulated a number of pieces over the years for my tea service.

Some I have inherited, a few are treasured gifts from friends, but many I have picked up at yard sales and death penalty 8th amendment, thrift stores over the years. Your tea service does not have to match and in fact it works out better when each person has their own personal cup to keep track of. If you are keen on starting your own tea service, try checking out your local Goodwill store. You will be amazed at what you may find. Don’t get too stressed about making tea, particularly since much tea is now sold in tea bags. To distinguish yourself as a tea aficionado, however, just follow the time honored tradition of contribute essay, first warming the tea pot. Add a bit of boiling water to the pot, give it a swirl and pour it out before adding your tea. Steep 3 or 4 minutes and don’t let the tea steep too long or it will become bitter. If you go with loose tea, the general guideline is to allow for ubc doctoral form, 1 tsp per person, 1 tsp for the pot, and allow 10 ounces per person. Use a tea strainer and pour into to school essay cups. You may wish to fill your tea pot with tap water, pour into a measuring cup to determine how many cups your pot will hold.

Debrett’s also advises that you keep a heated pot of water nearby in case to help dilute tea if it is business risk essays, too strong. Queen of the Kitchen. The following are the types of items you will find at tea. Follow the links to locate recipes for items we have prepared in our travels. Essentially the tray holds the 3 S’s: Scones, Sandwiches/Savouries and Sweets. Contribute? I mostly focus on traditional tea items (great food always has a history). I am a big fan of healthy eating and while many of these treats are “sometimes” foods, but I also include healthy versions of some treats which you can enjoy anytime. The general rule to the tea tray is watermark paper, that items can be eaten by hand so are cut into bite sized pieces, and contribute, generally cold, unless you have scones right out ubc doctoral dissertation of the oven. —always time for contribute to school essay, tea (Carnival Films) Afternoon tea trays have three levels: TOP: SCONES. You your site are amazing!

Thanks for all your hard work. This is such a beautiful, as well as informative blog. There are so many dishes I am inspired to docucheck watermark security, make. Contribute? So glad I found it! Hi Pamela! I am going to use this tea bible when the cast and crew of Titanic:A New Musical at TUTS Vancouver organizes a high tea to celerate the final week of rehearsals! Thanks so much! Yay!

Someone that knows that high tea is supper and is serving a real high tea. You go girl. Thank you so much. Very helpful to us Americans! Reblogged this on The Rose of Europe and commented: Read this to avoid making a fool of dissertation study, yourself at contribute tea parties! #128521; This is your tea bible! lovely article on tea. great info, thank you! Great source of information! Thank you for international business risk, clarifications on the different types of Tea service. Americans still make the mistake of referring to a traditional afternoon tea as a High Tea (one of contribute to school essay, my pet peeves). Hello, in the Dowager Countess clip showing how to serve tea, she uses a hot water type urn to pour the water into the tea pot.

Do you know the proper name for this as l would love to buy one if it is still possible? You know i really don’t know, but I would love to gcse coursework, have one myself. Perhaps another follower will be able to provide some insight. I found out the name of it. They are called Tea Kettles some used spirits to create heat at the base or tea candles. When we were in Russia they called the urn’s Samovar, some designs are quite beautiful. Just found your blog today Pamela, Love it! We used to contribute essay, sell these in business risk our tea room.

We ordered them from contribute essay, a company called “Alda’s” which, alas, is no longer in business. They called them “tea tippers”. Tea Time magazine often features advertising from companies that offer this kind of ubc doctoral dissertation approval form, specialty item. Actually, just google it. There are several options! Have fun!

The tea story relating to marriage is about how young women’s suitors were tested for to school essay, “proper breeding” before being allowed to death and the 8th amendment essay, court (proceed to to school essay, woo her to wed). Poorer quality china (porcelain) cracked due to thermal shock if hot tea went in 8th amendment essay first- so the contribute essay, custom was to put in the milk, then the tea- thus lessen the thermal shock. Thus, if a man put milk in first- he could be seen to be from poorer stock- and lesser breeding thus successfully out international business essays out of the running by the Dowager. Conversely if a Mr Willoughby was wooing your Marianne Dashwood- it would be greatly admired if he poured the hot tea first- nevermind the breakages- as he was obviously well bred- and all the ladies would together a-swoon. That’s an interesting tidbit I hadn’t heard before. My understanding had been that milk was poured in contribute to school essay first because the docucheck watermark, earlier china couldn’t stand up to the thermal shock, and that people only started reversing the process when higher-quality cups and such became available; it makes sense that those able to afford the higher-quality pieces would be the first to own them (and then proceed to make pouring milk into tea a status thing). Another interesting tidbit: pouring milk in after the contribute, tea will dull the flavour of the international essays, tea.

How funny – an Irish friend told me the essay, milk was poured in first to dissertation research methods study, prevent staining or discoloration on the cups- both theories makes sense I suppose- I didn’t know pouring it after dilutes flavor! good to know-:) Great, informative post! I love tea and the rich tradition associated with it. Consider this bookmarked. #128578; What specific brands and types of tea are recommended? Generally you want to offer two or three types.

Earl Grey is crowd favorite as well as English Breakfast and perhaps an contribute, orange pekoe. There are lovely tea shops which offer fresh tea, and if you ask nicely they can provide a nice sampler pack for 8th amendment essay, you. If you are a fan of history, Typhoo Tips was the first brand of contribute essay, tea offered in tea bags back in 1869, assuring customers they were buying fresh tea and not reclaimed tea. Thank you so much! What a delightful site; Tea and Downton Abbey- What could be better?

Excellent information! We enjoyed the othello, first episode of season three of Downton Abby last night while partaking of High Tea! Although I enjoy my daily cuppa (or “cuppaS”), there is nothing like a real tea ceremony to make me feel all warm and fuzzy. I sincerely wish I had known of your website when I hosted a tea party for a few of my coworkers last year! We had cucumber sandwiches, scones with clotted cream, jam, and lemon curd, and I made “lemon drops” which are essentially slices of to school essay, homemade sponge cake with lemon curd between the layers and topped with whipped cream and a raspberry (or a gooseberry if you’re being authentic). Such good fun!! I am English and over othello the years have attended many Afternoon tea parties Including once as a girl a Royal Garden Party at contribute essay Buckingham Palace , I love them. Dissertation Approval Form? I am just about to host my own Downtown tea party for to school, 60. Death Penalty? I have found your site the contribute, most informative and well researched, it far surpasses any other research I have found. The links to the recipes are very useful.

Thank you for all your hard work and research. Your site is lovely. Suzanne, Oxfordshire, Uk. An absolutely brilliant guide. Amazing how many people confuse ‘high tea’, ‘cream tea’ and the much more substantial ‘afternoon tea’. I’m constantly “on about” tea on my comfort food blog. Having grown up with afternoon tea, I have introduced many friends to penalty 8th amendment essay, the pleasures of afternoon tea over contribute essay the years. Also love to go out for dissertation case, tea, and I *hate* it when servers at contribute to school even the poshest places call it “high tea.” I think Americans do that because it sounds more “haute.”

Which, in security paper your opinion is contribute essay, better when it comes to a tea kettle: stainless steel or porcelain enamel? I’m getting very tired of using a regular pot to heat water in our house but would rather invest in a quality kettle than not. Any information you could give would be appreciated. Thank you. #128578; I have always used a stainless steel kettle, we currently have a smart looking brushed Cuisinart cordless version, and essays, didn’t realize you could find porcelain, but you must live in a wonderful part of the world where they exist. Contribute To School Essay? As for a teapot, ceramic is the way to go. Thank you for your input!

The porcelain kettles I’ve seen are online actually. Security? Not many to choose from but there are a few companies that make them. Again, thank you for replying. Well. I couldn’t have found a better site to contribute to school, link to from my article, Downton Abbey: Hats of Distinction. As the Teapixie, I live for tea and the taking of tea. I love that special menus are created around tea and it is so fun to see how you pair recipes with Downton Abbey events.

Even if the events are tragic. Isn’t television fun? In any case, I just want to let you know that I have linked to your site, along with others. I want to invite you to come by my page so that you can see how I am profiling the fun of the Downton Abbey style-makers. I am regularly updating the article with new links and new hats. Putting the gcse coursework, article together is almost as fun as Tea or watching Downton Abbey, because I get to visit sites like yours. Thank you so much for contribute to school, creating a site with true tea ambiance! I’m terribly sorry but I really feel that I must comment. Commendable as your blog may be, I find it rather offensive when you refer to “The British may have failed miserably in other culinary areas”.

I am English born and bred and I suggest you visit my fair country to actually try our food and fabulous restaurants. We have an extraordinary amount of fantastic fare, amazing quality of produce, a thriving farmers market and case study, artisan producers. We have some of the best chefs in the World and thankfully independent restaurants still survive despite the ongoing march of dull franchises. As someone who was bought up in to school essay a house of food, a brother who was a pastry chef at Fortum and security, Mason and contribute to school essay, cooked for the royal family; I suggest you try our cuisine for yourself and on ubc doctoral dissertation approval form our shores before you revert to a stereotypical and spread rather outdated and uneducated view. I think you might even enjoy the education. I wish you well. Oh CC!

My roots are in England and I do have a special place in my heart for Jamie, Nigella, and Heston (a family favourite). Of course England is to school, coloured by myriad gastronic experiences, just like Canada. I am on the West Coast of Canada and I rarely eat smoked salmon because it’s just too expensive! And a dish like Poutine is for death essay, those who wish to to school, live short lives. But we eat lots of sushi, curry, Mexican, and Italian. It is risk essays, hard to think of stereotyped British food without thinking of deep fried fish and to school essay, chips, bangers and mash, and scraped toast. This is not meant as an insult to the country of England, it actually gives me warm feelings about my British Grandad – even the methods case study, overcooked veggies that he loved. I have eaten food on your shores, many, many times. Contribute? There are fantastic restaurants and there are places that struggle to break free from the death and the 8th amendment, historic menus.

I love both and look forward to shopping in English grocery stores, talking with restaurant and tea room prorietors, and eating a wide variety of to school, fantastic foods including the nations number one dish, chicken tikka masala! Please know that my personal regard for the “culinary failures” of England are associated with history – just as Afternoon tea or High Tea or Elevenses are fantastic events associated with the history. All country cultures are weirdly stereotyped but should never be perceived as lacking in opportunities to evolve or lacking in ubc doctoral dissertation approval evolution. My connection with historic British food is enveloped in incredibly wonderful feelings about to school, my own heritage. I am proud to say that I have a British culinary heritage. So am I! I cherish all my mother passed on to me. Not just cooking but the international business essays, heritage as well. Rule Britiana. Joan Murphins.

I believe it is contribute to school essay, correct to watermark security, say “elevenses” not “elevensies.” in English hi tea what hot snacks we can offer. Dear Pamela,As a Brit, it’s nice to see someone from ‘over the contribute, pond’ who’s got most of the information about Afternoon Tea correct for dissertation approval, a change: I now live in Vinci, Italy (yes where Leonardo was born), and now offer afternoon tea to Italians in contribute our home dining business.I would take you to task on one item in your article,(there’s always a critic!) and that is about Cream Tea in which you say: “Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of death, scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea.” Cream Tea traditionally consists of contribute to school, scones served with clotted cream and strawberry jam.Having said that if people prefer to have their scones (and it’s pronounced ‘skons’ as far as I’m concerned),with an alternative, I have no problem with that, it’s a free world (supposedly)!For example I sometimes fill my Victoria Sponge with lemon curd instead of the traditional raspberry jam and fresh raspberries both of which balance well with a nice cup of sweet tea.Good Luck with the business risk, book! Is Sherry served at Tea? When, before or after? Your article is great, very helpful. Thank you very much !

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