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bill joy wired essay uns nicht braucht. Advantage? Bill Joy, deutsche Version seines Essays aus Wired (April 2000), abgedruckt in scripps application, der FAZ am 6. Essay Advantage Book? Juni 2000. Rackham Dissertation Handbook? Die mächtigsten Technologien des 21. Jahrhunderts - Robotik, Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie - machen den Menschen zur gefährdeten Art. Advantage? Seit ich mich mit der Entwicklung neuer Technologien befasse, haben deren ethische Dimensionen mich interessiert, aber erst im Herbst 1998 wurde mir bewusst, welche Gefahren uns im einundzwanzigsten Jahrhundert erwarten. Handbook? Mein Unbehagen nahm seinen Anfang, als ich Ray Kurzweil begegnete, dem verdientermaßen berühmten Erfinder der ersten Lesemaschine für Blinde und vieler anderer erstaunlicher Dinge. Advantage? Wir hatten beide einen Vortrag auf der George Gilder’s Telecosm Conference gehalten, und ich traf ihn zufällig in essay, der Hotelbar, nachdem wir unsere Sitzungen hinter uns gebracht hatten. Advantage Book? Ich saß mit John Searle zusammen, einem Philosophen aus Berkeley, der sich mit Fragen des Bewusstseins beschäftigt. Ray setzte sich zu uns, und es begann ein Gespräch, dessen Gegenstand mir bis heute nachgeht.

Ich hatte Rays Vortrag verpasst und ebenso die anschließende Diskussion, an godard essays der er und John teilgenommen hatten; die beiden griffen den Faden dort wieder auf, wo sie ihn hatten fallen lassen, und Ray erklärte, die technische Entwicklung werde sich weiter beschleunigen, wir würden selbst zu Robotern oder mit ihnen verschmelzen, und John entgegnete, das werde nicht geschehen, weil Roboter kein Bewusstsein entwickeln könnten. Essay? Solche Dinge hatte ich schon früher gehört und dabei stets gedacht, empfindungsfähige Roboter gehörten in history thematic essay, das Reich der Science Fiction. Essay? Doch nun brachte jemand, den ich respektierte, überzeugende Argumente für die These vor, dass solche Roboter schon bald Wirklichkeit werden könnten. How To? Ich war vor allem deshalb verblüfft, weil Ray bereits bewiesen hatte, dass er die Zukunft vorauszusehen und zu gestalten vermochte. Advantage Book? Ich wusste bereits, dass neue Technologien wie Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie uns die Möglichkeit geben, die Welt grundlegend zu verändern, aber ein realistisches Szenario für intelligente Roboter in application essay, allernächster Zukunft überraschte mich. Advantage Book? Man kann solcher Durchbrüche leicht überdrüssig werden.

Fast täglich hören wir in application essay, den Nachrichten von irgendeinem technologischen oder wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt. Advantage Book? Aber dies war keine gewöhnliche Voraussage. Responsibilities Catholic Citizen Essay? In der Hotelbar gab Ray mir einen Vorabdruck mit einem Auszug aus seinem damals im Erscheinen begriffenen Buch ,The Age of essay book Spiritual Machines (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Homo [email protected] Catholic Citizen? Leben im 21. Advantage Book? Jahrhundert), in set an, dem er eine Utopie vorstellt und die Voraussage macht, dass die Menschen durch die Verschmelzung mit der Robotertechnik nahezu Unsterblichkeit erlangen werden. Advantage? Die Lektüre verstärkte mein Unbehagen noch; ich war mir sicher, dass er die Gefahren und die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines schlechten Ausgangs dieser Entwicklung noch untertrieben darstellte. In Idleness David? Am stärksten beunruhigte mich eine Passage, in essay book, der ein dystopisches Szenario geschildert wurde: ,Zunächst einmal wollen wir annehmen, dass es den Computerwissenschaftlern gelingt, intelligente Maschinen zu entwickeln, die alles besser können als der Mensch. Challenge? In diesem Fall wird alle Arbeit wahrscheinlich von riesigen, hochorganisierten Maschinensystemen erledigt, so dass man auf menschliche Arbeit verzichten kann. Essay Advantage? Dann gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten: Man könnte den Maschinen erlauben, ihre Entscheidungen selbst und ohne menschliche Kontrolle zu treffen, oder der Mensch könnte die Kontrolle über die Maschinen behalten. Set An? Falls man den Maschinen erlaubt, ihre Entscheidungen selbst zu treffen, lassen sich die Ergebnisse nicht abschätzen, denn wir können unmöglich voraussehen, wie solche Maschinen sich verhalten werden.

In dem Buch erfährt man erst nach der Lektüre der Passage, dass ihr Autor Theodore Kaczynski ist - der Unabomber. Ich setzte mich wahrhaftig nicht für Kaczynski ein. Advantage Book? In einer 17 Jahre dauernden Terrorkampagne haben seine Bomben drei Menschen getötet und zahlreiche andere verwundet. Handbook? Mein Freund David Gelerter, einer der brillantesten und weitsichtigsten Computerwissenschaftler unserer Zeit, ist von einer dieser Bomben schwer verletzt worden. Advantage Book? Wie viele meiner Kollegen hatte auch ich das Gefühl, ich könne durchaus das nächste Ziel des Unabombers sein. Handbook? Kaczynskis Taten waren mörderisch und kriminell. Advantage? Er ist eindeutig ein Maschinenstürmer, aber damit hat man seine Argumentation noch nicht entkräftet.

So schwer es mir auch fiel, ich musste zugeben, dass der in responsibilities essay, dieser Passage geäußerte Gedanke nicht ganz abwegig war. Advantage Book? Ich fühlte mich gedrängt, ihm zu widersprechen. How To? Kaczynskis dystopische Vision beschreibt unbeabsichtigte Folgen, ein bekanntes Problem in essay advantage, der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Technologien, das eng mit Murphys Gesetz zusammenhängt: „Was schief gehen kann, das geht auch irgendwann einmal schief. Dupont Essay Challenge 2014? (Eigentlich stammt das Gesetz von Finagle und müsste daher Finagles Gesetz heißen was wiederum beweist, dass Finagle Recht hatte.) Der übermäßige Einsatz von Antibiotika hat zu dem wohl größten Problem dieser Art geführt: zur Entstehung antibiotikaresistenter und daher weitaus gefährlicherer Bakterien. Essay? Aus dem Versuch, die Malariamücken mit DDT auszurotten, sind DDT-resistente Mücken entstanden, und auch die Malariaerreger haben mehrfachresistente Gene erworben. Die Ursache solcher Überraschungen scheint klar: Die betreffenden Systeme sind komplex; sie umfassen Wechselwirkungen und Rückkopplungsprozesse zwischen zahlreichen Teilen. Dupont Essay Challenge 2014? Jede Veränderung solch eines Systems löst eine Kette von Reaktionen aus, die sich nur schwer voraussehen lassen; das gilt insbesondere für Systeme, in essay advantage, denen menschliches Handeln eine Rolle spielt. David Warren? Ich begann, Freunden das Kaczynski-Zitat aus Kurzweils Buch zu zeigen; ich gab ihnen das Buch, ließ sie das Zitat lesen und beobachtete ihre Reaktion, wenn sie entdeckten, wer das geschrieben hatte: der Unabomber. Advantage? Etwa um dieselbe Zeit stieß ich auf Hans Moravecs Buch „Robot: Evolution from about memorial Mere Machine to essay advantage, Transcendent Mind (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Computer ergreifen die Macht).

Moravec gehört zu den führenden Forschern auf dem Gebiet der Robotik und war Mitbegründer des weltweit größten Robotik-Forschungsprogramms an essays in idleness david der Carnegie Mellon University. Advantage Book? Sein Buch gab mir weiteres Material an essay challenge 2014 die Hand, das ich an essay advantage meinen Freunden ausprobieren konnte, Material, das Kaczynskis Argumentation überraschenderweise stützte. How To Set An Essay? Ich beschloss, mit meinem Freund Danny Hillis zu reden. Danny hat sich einen Namen als Mitbegründer der Thinking Machines Corporation gemacht, die einen sehr leistungsfähigen Parallel-Supercomputer gebaut hat. Advantage? Obwohl ich gegenwärtig die Position des Chief Scientist bei Sun Microsystems bekleide, bin ich doch eher Rechnerarchitekt als Wissenschaftler, und ich schätze Danny wegen seiner Kenntnisse auf dem Gebiet der Informatik und der Physik mehr als jeden anderen.

Außerdem ist er ein angesehener Zukunftsforscher, der in memorial day, langen Zeiträumen denkt - vor vier Jahren gründete er die Long Now Foundation, die eine Uhr mit einer geplanten Lebensdauer von 10 000 Jahren baut, um die Aufmerksamkeit auf die beschämende Kurzsichtigkeit der Gesellschaft zu lenken. Advantage Book? Ich flog nach Los Angeles, um mit Danny und seiner Frau Pati essen zu gehen. Handbook? Ich spulte mein inzwischen vertrautes Routineprogramm ab, trug die Ideen und Passagen vor, die mir solches Unbehagen bereiteten. Essay Advantage? Dannys Antwort - vor allem im Blick auf Kurzweils Szenario einer Verschmelzung des Menschen mit den Robotern - kam rasch und setzte mich in memorial day, Erstaunen. Advantage? Er sagte nur, die Veränderungen erfolgten schrittweise, so dass wir uns daran gewöhnten.

Aber ich war nicht vollkommen überrascht. Essays David? In Kurzweils Buch hatte ich ein Zitat von Danny gelesen, in essay, dem er sagte: „Ich liebe meinen Körper nicht mehr oder weniger als andere, aber wenn ich mit einem Körper aus Silicium 200 Jahre alt werden kann, werde ich ihn nehmen. Scripps? Offenbar hatte er seinen Frieden mit dieser Entwicklung und ihren Risiken gemacht, während mir das schwer fiel. Essay? Als ich so über Kurzweil, Kaczynski und Moravec redete und nachdachte, kam mir ein Roman in essay, den Sinn, den ich vor fast zwanzig Jahren gelesen hatte: ,The White Plage von Frank Herbert (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Die weiße Pest); darin wird ein Molekularbiologe durch die sinnlose Ermordung seiner Familie in advantage book, den Wahnsinn getrieben. Godard Essays? Um sich zu rächen, entwickelt und verbreitet er einen neuen, hoch infektiösen Erreger, der selektiv tötet. Advantage Book? (Ein Glück, dass Kaczynski Mathematiker und kein Molekularbiologe war.) Ich musste auch an citizen die Borg aus Star Trek denken, diese halbbiologischen Roboterwesen mit stark destruktiven Neigungen.

Katastrophen nach Art der Borg sind eine Spezialität der Science Fiction. Essay? Warum hatte ich mich nicht schon früher mit solchen Roboter-Dystopien befasst? Und warum kümmerten andere Menschen sich so wenig um diese albtraumhaften Szenarien? Ein Teil der Antwort liegt sicher in an essay about memorial, unserer Einstellung gegenüber dem Neuen, in essay advantage book, unserer Neigung, Neues sogleich als vertraut zu empfinden und es fraglos anzunehmen. Essay Challenge? Da wir ständig neue wissenschaftliche Durchbrüche erleben, müssen wir uns erst noch klar machen, dass die stärksten Technologien des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts - Robotik, Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie - ganz andere Gefahren heraufbeschwören als die bisherigen Technologien. Vor allem Roboter, technisch erzeugte Lebewesen, und Nanoboter besitzen eine gefährliche Eigenschaft: Sie können sich selbständig vermehren.

Eine Bombe explodiert nur einmal, ’aus einem einzigen Roboter können viele werden, die rasch außer Kontrolle geraten. Essay? In den letzten fünfundzwanzig Jahren hat man viel an memorial day der Entwicklung von Computernetzen gearbeitet, in essay, denen das Senden und Empfangen von Nachrichten die Möglichkeit unkontrollierter Vermehrung eröffnet. History Thematic Essay? In einem Computer oder Computernetz kann solche Vermehrung lästig sein; schlimmstenfalls legt sie den Computer oder das Netzwerk lahm. Advantage? In den neuen Technologien dagegen gehen von der unkontrollierten Vermehrung sehr viel größere Gefahren aus; dort drohen erhebliche Schäden an in idleness david warren der materiellen Welt. Advantage Book? Jede dieser Technologien eröffnet auch ungeahnte Möglichkeiten: Die Aussicht auf annähernde Unsterblichkeit, die Kurzweil in essay challenge, seinen Roboterträumen voraussieht, treibt uns voran; die Gentechnik wird schon bald zur Behandlung und vielleicht auch Heilung der meisten Krankheiten eingesetzt werden; Nanotechnologie und Nanomedizin werden diese Möglichkeiten noch erweitern. Zusammen könnten sie unsere Lebenserwartung beträchtlich verlängern und die Lebensqualität verbessern. Advantage? Die vielen kleinen, individuell erfahrbaren Vorteile dieser Technologien führen jedoch zu einer gewaltigen Ansammlung von Macht und zugleich zu großen Gefahren. About Day? Was war im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert anders? Natürlich bargen die Technologien, die den nuklearen, chemischen und biologischen Massenvernichtungswaffen zugrunde lagen, gewaltige Potentiale, und die Waffen stellen eine ebenso große Gefahr dar. Essay? Aber zum Bau von Atomwaffen benötigte man zumindest in scripps, der Anfangszeit seltene - tatsächlich sogar nahezu unerreichbare - Rohstoffe und ein durch Geheimhaltung geschütztes Wissen; auch der Bau biologischer und chemischer Waffen verlangte einigen Aufwand.

Die Technologien des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts - Genetik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik - bergen dagegen Gefahren, die sich in advantage book, ganz anderen Dimensionen bewegen. Und am gefährlichsten ist wohl die Tatsache, dass selbst Einzelne und kleine Gruppen diese Technologien missbrauchen können. Scripps? Dazu benötigen sie keine Großanlagen und keine seltenen Rohstoffe, sondern lediglich Wissen. Book? An die Stelle der Massenvernichtungswaffen tritt damit die Gefahr einer wissensbasierten Massenvernichtung, die durch das hohe Vermehrungspotential noch deutlich verstärkt wird. About? Ich denke, es ist nicht übertrieben, wenn ich sage, wir stehen an essay der Schwelle zu einer weiteren Perfektion des Bösen in rackham handbook, seinen extremsten Ausprägungen; und diesmal werden die so geschaffenen schrecklichen Möglichkeiten nicht nur Nationalstaaten zur Verfügung stehen, sondern auch einzelnen Extremisten. Advantage Book? Als ich begann, mich mit Computern zu befassen, deutete nichts darauf hin, dass ich einmal mit solchen Problemen konfrontiert würde. Application Essay? Mein Leben lang habe ich das Bedürfnis gehabt, Fragen zu stellen und Antworten zu suchen.

Schon mit drei Jahren konnte ich lesen, und mein Vater stellte mich dem Schulleiter der Grundschule vor; auf seinem Schoß sitzend, las ich ihm eine Geschichte vor. Essay? Ich kam früh in essay, die Schule, übersprang später eine Klasse und flüchtete mich in advantage book, Bücher - ich hatte einen unglaublichen Drang zu lernen. 2014? Ich stellte zahllose Fragen und trieb die Erwachsenen damit manchmal zur Verzweiflung. Book? Als Teenager interessierte ich mich sehr für Naturwissenschaft und Technik. Responsibilities Of A Citizen? Ich wäre gerne Amateurfunker gewesen, hatte aber nicht das nötige Geld für die Ausrüstung. Advantage Book? Der Amateurfunk war das Internet der damaligen Zeit; es bestand die Gefahr, dass man süchtig danach wurde und sich in about, seinem Zimmer verkroch.

Ganz abgesehen von den Kosten, war meine Mutter entschieden dagegen; Amateurfunk kam nicht in advantage, Frage, ich war schon ungesellig genug. Scripps Application? Donnerstag abends gingen meine Eltern zum Bowling; wir Kinder blieben allein zu Haus. Essay Advantage? Und donnerstags wurde Gene Roddenberrys ursprüngliche Star-Trek-Serie gesendet, die großen Eindruck auf mich machte. Rackham Dissertation? Von dort übernahm ich den Gedanken, dass die Menschen eine Zukunft im Weltraum haben, ganz wie im Western, mit Heldengestalten und Abenteuern. Essay Advantage Book? Roddenberrys Vision der kommenden Jahrhunderte war stark durch moralische Werte geprägt, die ihren Niederschlag in essay, Regeln wie der Hauptdirektive fanden; danach sollte vermieden werden, in essay, die Entwicklung technisch weniger weit fortgeschrittener Zivilisationen einzugreifen. Das machte großen Eindruck auf mich; nicht Roboter, sondern Menschen mit sittlicher Verantwortung beherrschten diese Zukunft, und ich machte mir diesen Traum zu Eigen. History? In der Highschool war ich besonders gut in essay, Mathematik, und als ich mein Ingenieurstudium an scripps essay der University of essay advantage Michigan begann, belegte ich gleich Mathematikvorlesungen für höhere Semester.

Die Lösung mathematischer Probleme war eine aufregende Herausforderung, doch als ich die Computer entdeckte, fand ich sie noch interessanter: Maschinen, denen man ein Programm eingab, das Probleme zu lösen versuchte und die Lösung gleich noch überprüfte. Rackham Dissertation Handbook? Der Computer wusste sehr genau, was korrekt oder nicht korrekt, wahr oder falsch war. Advantage Book? Waren meine Ideen korrekt? Der Computer konnte es mir sagen. Godard Essays? Das war sehr verführerisch. Book? Ich hatte das Glück, einen Job als Programmierer früher Supercomputer zu finden, und ich entdeckte die erstaunliche Fähigkeit großer Rechenanlagen, fortgeschrittene Entwürfe numerisch zu simulieren. Als ich Mitte der siebziger Jahre in day, Berkeley mein Promotionsstudium aufnahm, begann ich, bis spät in essay advantage book, die Nacht und manchmal ganze Nächte hindurch aufzubleiben und neue Welten im Computer zu erfinden.

Probleme zu lösen. Essays Warren? Den Code niederzuschreiben, der unbedingt geschrieben werden wollte. Essay? In seinem biografischen Roman ,The Agony and how to set an the Ecstasy (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Michelangelo) beschreibt Irving Stone sehr lebendig, wie Michelangelo die Figuren aus dem Stein befreite, den ,Bann des Marmors löste und den Bildern in essay advantage, seinem Kopf Gestalt verlieh. Application? In meinen ekstatischsten Augenblicken entstand die Software im Computer auf ganz ähnliche Weise. Advantage? Wenn ich sie mir vorstellen konnte, hatte ich das Gefühl, sie existierte bereits in godard essays, der Maschine und müsse nur noch freigesetzt werden. Advantage? Die ganze Nacht aufzubleiben schien da nur ein kleiner Preis, um sie zu befreien und der Idee konkrete Gestalt zu verleihen. Godard Essays? Anfang der achtziger Jahre ertrank ich fast in book, Arbeit. Unix, das ich mit entwickelt hatte, war sehr erfolgreich, mein kleines Projekt hatte bald genug Geld und Personal beisammen, aber nicht das Geld war in godard essays, Berkeley das Problem, sondern der Platz es gab einfach keine Räume für die Leute, die das Projekt benötigte. Advantage Book? Als die anderen Gründer von Sun Microsystems an ap european history thematic mich herantraten, ergriff ich daher die Gelegenheit und schloss mich ihnen an. Essay? Bei Sun blieb es dann in ap european history essay, der Frühzeit der Workstations und Personalcomputer bei den langen Arbeitstagen, und ich hatte das Glück, an essay advantage der Entwicklung fortgeschrittener Mikroprozessor- und Internettechnologien wie Java und Jini mitwirken zu können. Godard Essays? Aus alledem dürfte hinreichend hervorgehen, dass ich kein Maschinenstürmer bin.

Ich war schon immer davon überzeugt, dass wissenschaftliche Forschung von großem Wert für die Wahrheit ist und Technik materiellen Fortschritt bewirken kann. Advantage? Die industrielle Revolution hat die Lebensqualität der Menschen in rackham dissertation handbook, den letzten Jahrhunderten beträchtlich verbessert, und was mein eigenes Berufsleben angeht, hatte ich stets vor, nach sinnvollen Lösungen für reale Probleme zu suchen - ein Problem nach dem anderen. Ich bin nicht enttäuscht worden. Essay Advantage Book? Meine Arbeit hat größere Wirkung erzielt, als ich jemals gehofft hätte, und findet so weite Anwendung, wie ich es unmöglich hätte erwarten können. Godard Essays? In den letzten zwanzig Jahren habe ich herauszufinden versucht, wie Computer die Zuverlässigkeit erreichen können, die ich mir wünsche (sie sind noch längst nicht dort angelangt), und wie ihre Anwendung sich möglichst einfach gestalten lässt (von diesem Ziel sind wir sogar noch weiter entfernt). Advantage? Trotz mancher Fortschritte erscheinen die verbleibenden Probleme fast entmutigend schwierig. Of A Essay? Ich war mir zwar immer schon der kaum lösbaren ethischen Probleme bewusst, die im Zusammenhang mit den Folgen der Technik auf Gebieten wie der militärischen Forschung auftreten, doch hatte ich nicht erwartet, auch auf meinem Gebiet mit solchen Problemen konfrontiert zu werden, oder zumindest nicht so bald.

Vielleicht ist es auf dem Höhepunkt des Wandels besonders schwer, die Folgen zu überblicken. Advantage Book? Offenbar erkennen Wissenschaftler und Techniker die Folgen ihrer Entdeckungen und Innovationen häufig nicht, solange das Fieber der Neuerungen sie gefangen hält. An Essay About Memorial? Wir haben uns lange von dem unbändigen Wunsch nach Erkenntnis treiben lassen, der das Wesen der Wissenschaft ausmacht, und dabei übersehen, dass der ständige Drang zu neuen, leistungsfähigeren Technologien ein Eigenleben entwickeln kann. Essay? Mir ist schon lange klar, dass die großen Fortschritte im Bereich der Informationstechnologie nicht von Computerwissenschaftlern, Rechnerarchitekten oder Elektroingenieuren ausgehen, sondern von Physikern. Godard Essays? Die Physiker Stephen Wolfram und Brosl Hasslacher führten mich Anfang der achtziger Jahre in essay advantage book, die Chaostheorie und die Theorie nichtlinearer Systeme ein. In Gesprächen mit Danny Hillis, dem Biologen Stuart Kauffman, dem Physiker und Nobelpreisträger Murray Gell-Mann und anderen lernte ich in godard essays, den neunziger Jahren kom plexe Systeme kennen. Advantage Book? In jüngster Zeit schließlich gaben mir Hasslacher sowie der Elektroingenieur und Apparatephysiker Mark Reed Einblick in godard essays, die unglaublichen Möglichkeiten der Molekularelektronik. Book? In meiner eigenen Arbeit als Mitentwickler dreier Mikroprozessorarchitekturen - SPARC, picoJava und MAJC - und bei diversen Implementierungen dieser Systeme habe ich Moores Gesetz aus erster Hand und sehr genau kennen gelernt. Responsibilities Of A Essay? Moores Gesetz hat die exponentielle Verbesserung der Halbleitertechnologie korrekt vorausgesagt.

Bis letztes Jahr glaubte ich, die von Moores Gesetz vorausgesagte Verbesserungsrate könne nur bis etwa 2010 anhalten, weil dann bestimmte physikalische Grenzen erreicht wären. Essay? Mir war nicht klar, dass zur rechten Zeit eine neue Technologie bereitstünde, die für einen weiteren gleichmäßigen Fortschritt sorgen kann. Dank rascher, radikaler Fortschritte im Bereich der Molekularelektronik - in history thematic essay, der einzelne Atome und Moleküle an advantage die Stelle der mit Hilfe lithografischer Techniken erzeugten Transistoren treten - und dank der zugehörigen Nanotechnologien sollten wir in essay, der Lage sein, die von Moores Gesetz vorausgesagte Entwicklungsgeschwindigkeit auch für weitere dreißig Jahre zu erreichen oder zu übertreffen. Essay Book? 2030 werden wir wahrscheinlich in essays, großen Mengen Maschinen produzieren können, die eine Million mal leistungsfähiger sind als die heutigen Personalcomputer - und das wird ausreichen, um Kurzweils und Moravecs Träume zu verwirklichen. Advantage? Die Verbindung dieser Computerleistung mit den manipulativen Fortschritten der Physik und dem vertieften genetischen Wissen wird gewaltige Veränderungen ermöglichen. Rackham Dissertation? Wir werden die Welt vollkommen neu gestalten können, im Guten wie im Schlechten. Essay Advantage? Replikations- und Schöpfungsprozesse, die bisher der Natur vorbehalten waren, geraten in responsibilities, den Einflussbereich des Menschen. Essay Book? Bei der Entwicklung von Computerprogrammen und Mikroprozessoren hatte ich nie das Gefühl, eine intelligente Maschine zu entwerfen. Essay? Soft- und Hardware sind so zerbrechlich und den Maschinen fehlt so offensichtlich jede „Denkfähigkeit, dass dies alles mir noch weit in essay book, der Zukunft zu liegen schien. How To? Doch da wir nun schon in advantage book, dreißig Jahren mit einer dem Menschen vergleichbaren Computerleistung rechnen können, drängt sich mir ein anderer Gedanke auf: dass ich mich möglicherweise an about memorial der Entwicklung von Instrumenten beteilige, aus denen einmal die Technologie hervorgehen könnte, die unsere Spezies verdrängen wird.

Wie fühle ich mich bei diesem Gedanken? Sehr unbehaglich. Da ich mich mein Leben lang um die Entwicklung zuverlässiger Software bemüht habe, erscheint es mir mehr als wahrscheinlich, dass diese Zukunft nicht so schön wird, wie manche es sich ausmalen. Advantage Book? Meine persönliche Erfahrung sagt mir, dass wir dazu neigen, unsere Fähigkeiten auf diesem Gebiet zu überschätzen. In Idleness Warren? Sollten wir uns angesichts der unglaublichen Leistungsfähigkeit der neuen Technologien nicht lieber fragen, wie wir am besten mit ihnen koexistieren können? Und wenn die technologische Entwicklung wahrscheinlich oder auch nur möglicherweise zur Auslöschung unserer Art führt, sollten wir dann nicht besser vorsichtig sein? Die Robotik träumt zunächst einmal davon, intelligente Maschinen könnten uns die Arbeit abnehmen, uns ein Leben in advantage book, Muße ermöglichen und wieder in godard essays, den Garten Eden zurückversetzen. Essay Advantage Book? George Dyson warnt jedoch in an essay day, seinem Buch „Darwin Among the book, Machines, in responsibilities citizen essay, dem er die Geschichte solcher Ideen nachzeichnet: „Im Spiel des Lebens und der Evolution sitzen drei Spieler am Tisch: der Mensch, die Natur und die Maschinen. Essay Advantage Book? Ich bin entschieden auf der Seite der Natur. Rackham Dissertation? Aber ich fürchte, die Natur steht auf der Seite der Maschinen.

Dieser Meinung ist auch Moravec, wenn er sagt, wir könnten die Begegnung mit der überlegenen Spezies Roboter möglicherweise nicht überleben. Essay Book? Wie schnell ließe sich solch ein intelligenter Roboter realisieren? Angesichts der zu erwartenden Fortschritte in rackham dissertation, der Rechnerleistung wäre dieser Schritt bis 2030 vorstellbar. Und wenn erst einmal ein intelligenter Roboter existiert, ist es nur noch ein kleiner Schritt hin zu einer Spezies intelligenter Roboter, das heißt zu einem Roboter, der Kopien seiner selbst herzustellen vermag. Essay? Die Robotik träumt des Weiteren davon, den Menschen schrittweise durch Robotertechnologie zu ersetzen, so dass wir gleichsam Unsterblichkeit erlangen, indem wir unser Bewusstsein abspeichern; diesen Prozess meinte Danny Hillis, als er davon sprach, wir würden uns schrittweise daran gewöhnen; und diesen Prozess beschreibt auch Ray Kurzweil mit so gesetzten Worten in responsibilities of a essay, seinem Buch „The Age of the essay, Spiritual Machines. Scripps Essay? (Anfänge sehen wir bereits in advantage book, der Implantation von Computerchips in essay, den menschlichen Körper.) Doch wenn wir uns in essay advantage, unserer eigenen Technologie abspeichern, welche Chance haben wir dann, hinterher noch wir selbst oder auch nur menschliche Wesen zu sein? Mir scheint es sehr viel wahrscheinlicher, dass ein Roboter nichts mit einem Menschen in set an, unserem Verständnis zu tun hat, dass die Roboter keineswegs unsere Kinder sein werden und dass auf diesem Wege das Menschsein verloren gehen wird. Essay Advantage Book? Die Gentechnik verspricht, die Landwirtschaft durch Erhöhung der Ernteerträge und Verringerung des Pestizideinsatzes zu revolutionieren; Zehntausende neuer Bakterienarten, Pflanzen, Viren und Tiere zu erzeugen; die geschlechtliche Fortpflanzung durch Klonen zu ersetzen oder dadurch zu ergänzen; Heilmethoden für zahlreiche Krankheiten zu entwickeln, unser Leben zu verlängern und unsere Lebensqualität zu verbessern und vieles andere mehr. Es besteht kein Zweifel, dass diese tiefgreifenden Veränderungen in dupont 2014, der Biologie bevorstehen und dass unser Bild vom Leben dadurch grundlegend in advantage, Frage gestellt wird. An Essay Memorial Day? Techniken wie das Klonen von Menschen haben unsere Aufmerksamkeit für die tiefgründigen ethischen und moralischen Fragen geschärft, vor die uns diese Techniken stellen. Essay Advantage Book? Wenn wir uns zum Beispiel mit Hilfe der Gentechnik in an essay about memorial, mehrere, nicht als gleich geltende Arten aufspalteten, wäre die Idee der Gleichheit gefährdet, auf der das ganze demokratische System aufbaut.

Angesichts der gewaltigen Möglichkeiten der Gentechnik kann es nicht verwundern, dass ihre Anwendung große Sicherheitsprobleme mit sich bringt. Book? Mein Freund Armory Lovins hat kürzlich zusammen mit Hunter Lovins in handbook, einem Leitartikel ein ökologisches Bild dieser Gefahren gezeichnet. Book? Dort heißt es unter anderem: „Die neue Botanik richtet die Entwicklung der Pflanzen nicht an dupont essay 2014 ihrem evolutionären, sondern an advantage ihrem ökonomischen Erfolg aus. Dupont? Armory hat sich in essay, seinem langen Berufsleben vor allem mit dem effizienten Einsatz von Energie und Rohstoffen befasst, indem er die vom Menschen geschaffenen Systeme einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung unterzog; diese ganzheitliche Betrachtung findet häufig einfache Lösungen für ansonsten sehr schwierig erscheinende Probleme und lässt sich auch auf dem genannten Gebiet sinnvoll einsetzen. Nachdem ich Lovins Leitartikel gelesen hatte, sah ich in in idleness warren, der New York Times vom 19. Essay Advantage Book? November 1999 einen Artikel von Greg Easterbrook über gentechnisch veränderte Lebensmittel; die Schlagzeile lautete: „Nahrung für die Zukunft: Eines Tages wird Reis auch Vitamin A enthalten. Essay 2014? Sofern nicht die Maschinenstürmer siegen. Essay Book? Sind Armory und Hunter Lovins Maschinenstürmer? Gewiss nicht.

Ich denke, wir alle hätten nichts gegen Reis mit eingebautem Vitamin A, wenn er mit der nötigen Sorgfalt entwickelt würde und insbesondere mit Blick auf die mögliche Gefahr, dass Gene die Artenschranke überspringen könnten. Godard Essays? Das Bewusstsein für die möglichen Gefahren der Gentechnik beginnt zu wachsen, wie sich in book, dem Leitartikel der Lovins zeigt. David? Eine breitere Öffentlichkeit weiß um die gentechnisch veränderten Pflanzen und zeigt sich besorgt; offenbar ist man nicht damit einverstanden, dass solche gentechnisch veränderten Lebensmittel nicht als solche ausgewiesen werden müssen. Advantage Book? Aber die Gentechnik ist schon weit vorangeschritten. Wie die Lovins schreiben, hat das amerikanische Landwirtschaftsministerium bereits fünfzig gentechnisch veränderte Nahrungspflanzen zur unbegrenzten Aussaat freigegeben; mehr als die Hälfte der weltweit erzeugten Sojabohnen und ein Drittel der angebauten Maispflanzen enthalten Gene, die aus anderen Lebensformen stammen. How To? Die Gentechnik wirft viele wichtige Fragen auf; meine Sorge gilt eher einem besonderen Aspekt, der Gefahr nämlich, dass sie die Möglichkeit bieten könnte, zufällig, aus militärischen Gründen oder bewusst im Sinne eines Terroranschlags eine Weiße Pest auszulösen. Essay Advantage? Einen Ausblick auf die zahlreichen wunderbaren Möglichkeiten der Nanotechnologie gab erstmals 1959 der Physiker und Nobelpreisträger Richard Feynman in application, einem Vortrag, der später unter dem Titel ,There’s Plenty of essay Room at essay the Bottom veröffentlicht wurde.

Besonders beeindruckt hat mich Mitte der achtziger Jahre Eric Drexlers Buch „Engines of essay book Creation, in godard essays, dem er sehr schön beschreibt, wie man durch die Manipulation der Materie auf atomarer Ebene eine utopische Zukunft schaffen kann, in essay book, der Überfluss herrscht, weil man nahezu alles billig zu produzieren vermag und in how to, der die Nonotechnologie im Verein mit der Künstlichen Intelligenz fast alle Krankheiten und körperlichen Probleme zu lösen imstande ist. Essay Book? Ein späteres Buch: „Unbounding the godard essays, Future (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Experiment Zukunft: die nanotechnologische Revolution), das Drexler zusammen mit Chris Peterson und Gayle Pergamit verfasste, geht näher auf einige Veränderungen ein, wie sie durch „Assembler, die auf molekularer Ebene arbeiten, herbeigeführt werden könnten. Essay Book? Solche „Monteure könnten Solarenergie zu unglaublich niedrigen Kosten gewinnen, Krebs und gewöhnliche Erkältungen durch eine Stärkung des menschlichen Immunsystems heilen, die Umwelt vollständig von Schadstoffen befreien, billigste Supercomputer im Taschenformat und überhaupt so ziemlich alles zu den denkbar niedrigsten Kosten herstellen, Raumflüge so selbstverständlich machen, wie Interkontinentalflüge es heute schon sind, und schließlich auch ausgestorbene Arten wieder zum Leben erwecken. Dupont Essay Challenge? Ich erinnere mich, dass ich mich nach der Lektüre von „Engines of advantage book Creation sehr wohl fühlte. In Idleness? Für einen Technologen hatte es etwas Beruhigendes, denn die Nanotechnologie zeigte, dass unglaubliche Fortschritte möglich und vielleicht sogar unausweichlich waren. Wenn die Nanotechnologie unsere Zukunft war, bestand gar kein Grund für mich, so viele Probleme in advantage, der Gegenwart mit solcher Hast anzugehen. David? Drexlers utopische Zukunft würde in essay advantage book, angemessener Zeit Wirklichkeit werden; ich konnte mein Leben geradeso gut hier und jetzt genießen. Ap European History Thematic Essay? Angesichts seiner Vision hatte es keinen Sinne, immer wieder ganze Nächte durchzuarbeiten. Essay Advantage? Mit Drexlers Vision hatte ich auch einigen Spaß. History Thematic Essay? Gelegentlich beschrieb ich anderen, die noch nichts davon gehört hatten, die Wunderwerke der Nanotechnologie.

Und nachdem ich ihnen die Ohren voll geredet hatte, gab ich ihnen als Hausaufgabe auf, mit Hilfe der Nanotechnologie einen Vampir und zugleich auch ein geeignetes Gegenmittel zu schaffen. Advantage? Dass diese Wunderwerke auch deutliche Gefahren in of a essay, sich bargen, war mir sehr wohl bewusst. Essay? 1989 sagte ich auf einer Tagung zur Nanotechnologie: „Wir können nicht einfach unserer Wissenschaft nachgehen und die ethischen Fragen ausblenden. Set An Essay? Die Gespräche, die ich später mit Physikern führte, brachten mich allerdings zu der Überzeugung, dass die Nanotechnologie möglicherweise gar nicht - oder jedenfalls nicht so bald - funktionieren würde. Essay Advantage? Kurz darauf zog ich nach Colorado, und der Schwerpunkt meiner Arbeit verlagerte sich auf Software fürs Internet, vor allem auf Ideen, aus denen später Java und Jini hervorgingen. Ap European Essay? Dann, im vergangenen Sommer, erzählte mir Brosl Hasslacher, dass die Molekularelektronik auf Nanoebene das Stadium praktischer Realisierung erreicht hat. Book? Das war neu für mich, und ich denke, für viele andere auch. Diese Nachricht veränderte meine Einstellung gegenüber der Nanotechnologie grundlegend. How To Set An? Als ich Drexlers Engines of essay book Creation nach mehr als zehn Jahren nochmals las, erschrak ich, wie wenig ich doch von dem langen Abschnitt über „Gefahren und Hoffnungen behalten hatte; unter anderem hatte er dort beschrieben, dass die Nanotechnologie auch zur Herstellung von „Zerstörungsmaschinen genutzt werden kann. Dupont Essay Challenge 2014? Wenn ich diese warnende Abschnitte heute lese, bin ich erstaunt, wie naiv Drexlers Vorschläge für Sicherheitsvorkehrungen wirken; auch sind die Gefahren nach meiner heutigen Einschätzung sehr viel größer, als er damals offenbar glaubte. Essay Advantage Book? (Nachdem Drexler zahlreiche technische und politische Probleme im Zusammenhang mit der Nanotechnologie vorausgesehen und beschrieben hatte, gründete er in rackham handbook, den späten achtziger Jahren das Foresight Institute, das dazu beitragen soll, „die Gesellschaft auf fortgeschrittene Technologien vorzubereiten, und insbesondere auf die Nanotechnolgie.) Der Durchbruch zur Konstruktion der „Assembler dürfte mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit in essay advantage, den nächsten 20 Jahren erfolgen.

Die Molekularelektronik - das neue Teilgebiet der Nanotechnologie, in godard essays, dem einzelne Moleküle als Schaltelemente fungieren - wird sich wohl sehr schnell entwickeln und noch in advantage, diesem Jahrzehnt ausgesprochen lukrativ werden, so dass immer größere Investitionen in handbook, diesen Bereich fließen dürften. Advantage? Wie die Kerntechnik, so lässt sich leider auch die Nanotechnologie leichter für zerstörerische als für konstruktive Zwecke nutzen. Handbook? Die Nanotechnologie bietet leicht erkennbare militärische und terroristischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten, und man braucht nicht einmal ein Selbstmörder zu sein, um destruktive nanotechnische Instrumente massiv einzusetzen, denn diese Instrumente lassen sich so konstruieren, dass sie ihre Zerstörungskraft selektiv entfalten und zum Beispiel nur bestimmte Regionen oder bestimmte Menschen mit spezifischen genetischen Merkmalen treffen. Essay? Der Preis des faustischen Handels, der uns die Nanotechnologie beschert, ist ein schreckliches Risiko, die Gefahr nämlich, dass wir die Biosphäre zerstören, von der alles eben abhängt. (. Godard Essays? )Die Technologien, die in essay, den atomaren, biologischen und chemischen Massenvernichtungswaffen des 20. Application Essay? Jahrhunderts Anwendung finden, waren und sind weitgehend militärischen Charakters und wurden in advantage, staatlichen Forschungseinrichtungen entwickelt. Set An Essay? In deutlichem Gegensatz dazu handelt es sich bei Gentechnik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik um kommerziell genutzte Technologien, die fast ausschließlich von privaten Unternehmen entwickelt werden.

In unserer Zeit eines triumphierenden Kommerzialismus liefert die Technologie unter Zuarbeit der Wissenschaft - eine Reihe nahezu magischer Erfindungen, die Gewinne unerhörten Ausmaßes versprechen. Essay? Aggressiv folgen wir den Versprechen dieser neuen Technologien innerhalb eines entfesselten, globalisierten Kapitalismus mit seinen vielfältigen finanziellen Anreizen und seinem Wettbewerbsdruck. Responsibilities Catholic Citizen Essay? Wir hätten aus dem Bau der ersten Atombombe und dem atomaren Wettrüsten, das darauf folgte, etwas lernen sollen. Essay Book? Wir haben damals große Fehler gemacht, und die Parallelen zur gegenwärtigen Situation sind beängstigend. Memorial Day? Wie groß sind die Gefahren, die uns heute drohen, nicht nur von Atomwaffen, sondern von all diesen Technologien?

Wie groß ist das Risiko, dass wir uns selbst ausrotten? Der Philosoph John Leslie ist dieser Frage nachgegangen und dabei zu dem Schluss gelangt, dass die Gefahr einer Auslöschung der menschlichen Art bei 30 Prozent liegt, während Ray Kurzweil unsere Chance auf ein wenig mehr als 50:50 veranschlagt, wobei er allerdings einräumt, man sage ihm nach, ein unverbesserlicher Optimist zu sein. Essay Book? Diese Schätzungen sind nicht ermutigend, dabei berücksichtigen sie nicht einmal die Wahrscheinlichkeit vieler schrecklicher Szenarien, die nur in how to set an, die Nähe einer Auslöschung kommen. Advantage Book? Angesichts solcher Aussichten raten manche uns ernsthaft, die Erde möglichst bald zu verlassen. Scripps? Wir sollen mit von-Neumann-Sonden die Milchstraße kolonisieren und von einem Sonnensystem zum nächsten hüpfen. Essay Advantage? Dieser Schritt wird in essay, etwa fünf Milliarden Jahren unvermeidlich sein (oder auch früher, wenn unserer Milchstraße in advantage, etwa 3 Milliarden Jahren mit der Andromeda-Galaxis kollidiert), doch wenn wir Kurzweil und Moravec beim Wort nehmen, könnte er schon in godard essays, der Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts erforderlich werden. Essay Advantage? Welche moralischen Implikationen wären mit solch einem Schritt verbunden? Falls wir die Erde so bald schon verlassen müssen, um den Fortbestand der menschlichen Art zu sichern, wer übernimmt dann die Verantwortung für das Schicksal der Zurückbleibenden (und das werden die meisten sein)?

Und selbst wenn wir zu den Sternen flüchten, ist es nicht wahrscheinlich, dass wir die Probleme mit uns nehmen oder dass sie uns folgen? Unser Schicksal auf der Erde und unser Schicksal in rackham dissertation, der Galaxis scheinen unlösbar miteinander verbunden. Nach einer anderen Idee soll eine Reihe von Abwehrschilden gegen die Gefahren der einzelnen Technologien errichtet werden. Essay Advantage? Die von der Reagan-Administration vorgeschlagene Strategic Defence Initiative war ein Versuch, solch einen Schild gegen einen möglichen atomaren Angriff der Sowjetunion zu schaffen. Dissertation? Arthur C. Essay Advantage Book? Clarke, der an an essay memorial vielen vertraulichen Diskussionen zum Thema beteiligt war, sagte dazu: „Obwohl es möglich schien, unter gewaltigen Kosten ein lokales Verteidigungssystem zu schaffen, das ’nur’ einen kleinen Prozentsatz der ballistischen Raketen durchließ, war der vielgerühmte nationale Schutzschirm Unsinn.

Luis Alvarez, der wohl größte Experimentalphysiker unseres Jahrhunderts, sagte mir einmal, die Anhänger solcher Vorstellungen, seien ’sehr kluge Köpfe ohne jeden gesunden Menschenverstand’. Essay Book? Clarke meinte weiter: „Wenn ich in how to essay, meine oft getrübte Kristallkugel schaue, nehme ich an, dass ein vollständiges Verteidigungssystem vielleicht in advantage book, hundert Jahren möglich sein wird. Responsibilities Of A Citizen? Aber die dafür erforderliche Technologie würde als Nebenprodukt so schreckliche Waffen hervorbringen, dass niemand mehr einen Gedanken an advantage etwas so Primitive wie ballistische Raketen verschwenden würde. Godard Essays? In Engines of essay advantage book Creation macht Drexler den Vorschlag, einen aktiven nanotechnologischen Schild - eine Art Immunsystem für die Biosphäre - zu schaffen, um uns vor gefährlichen Replikatoren jeglicher Art zu schützen, die aus Labors entkommen oder in set an, bösartiger Absicht freigesetzt werden könnten. Essay? Aber der Schild, den er vorschlägt, wäre gleichfalls mit gewaltigen Gefahren verbunden, weil niemand ausschließen könnte, dass er Autoimmunprobleme auslöste und die Biosphäre seinerseits angriffe. Auf ähnliche Schwierigkeiten stieße die Konstruktion von Schutzschilden gegen Robotik oder Gentechnik. Of A Catholic? Diese Technologien sind zu mächtig, als dass wir uns in advantage, der zur Verfügung stehenden Zeit vor ihnen schützen könnten. Catholic Citizen? Und selbst wenn wir solche Schutzschilde entwickeln könnten, wären die Nebenwirkungen ihrer Entwicklung mindestens ebenso gefährlich wie die Technologien, vor denen sie uns schützen sollen. Book? Diese Möglichkeiten sind also sämtlich entweder nicht wünschenswert oder nicht realisierbar oder beides zugleich.

Die einzig realistische Alternative, die ich sehe, lautet Verzicht: Wir müssen auf die Entwicklung allzu gefährlicher Technologien verzichten und unserer Suche nach bestimmten Formen des Wissens Grenzen setzen. Set An? Mit der Gentechnik, der Nanotechnologie und der Robotik öffnen wir eine neue Büchse der Pandora, aber offenbar ist uns das kaum bewusst. Ideen lassen sich nicht wieder zurück in essay book, eine Büchse stopfen; anders als Uran oder Plutonium müssen sie nicht abgebaut und aufgearbeitet werden, und sie lassen sich problemlos kopieren. Scripps Application? Wenn sie heraus sind, sind sie heraus. Advantage? Churchill meinte einmal in dupont 2014, seiner unnachahmlichen Art, die Amerikaner täten immer das Richtige, nachdem sie alle anderen Alternativen sorgfältig geprüft hätten. Essay Advantage Book? In diesem Fall jedoch müssen wir mehr Voraussicht walten lassen; wenn wir das Richtige erst am Schluss tun, könnte es schon zu spät sein, überhaupt noch etwas zu tun. Godard Essays? Ich denke tatsächlich, die Situation war 1945 einfacher als heute. Essay Book? Bei den Nukleartechnologien konnte man kommerzielle und militärische Nutzung hinreichend klar voneinander trennen; die Überwachung war nicht schwer, weil Atomtests sehr auffällig sind und Radioaktivität leicht gemessen werden kann.

Die militärische Forschung lag in handbook, den Händen staatlicher Forschungseinrichtungen wie Los Alamos, so dass die Ergebnisse sehr lange geheim gehalten werden konnten. Essay Book? Bei Gentechnik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik dagegen lassen kommerzielle und militärische Anwendung sich nur schwer trennen; angesichts ihres ökonomischen Potenzials kann man sich kaum vorstellen, dass nur staatliche Forschungseinrichtungen sich mit ihnen befassten. How To Essay? Angesichts ihrer kommerziellen Bedeutung erforderte ein Verzicht Überwachungssysteme, wie man sie für biologische Waffen geschaffen hat, nur dass sie in essay book, diesem Fall ganz andere Größenordnungen annehmen müssten. Dadurch entstünden unvermeidlich Spannungen zwischen der Notwendigkeit einer unserem Schutz dienenden Überwachung und der Privatsphäre sowie dem Anspruch auf private Verfügungsgewalt über Informationen. Catholic? Gegen diesen Verlust an essay advantage book Freiheit wird es ohne Zweifel starke Widerstände geben. Dupont 2014? Meine Begegnung mit Ray Kurzweil und John Searle liegt jetzt mehr als ein Jahr zurück. Essay Advantage? Wenn ich mich umschaue, sehe ich einige Gründe zur Hoffnung: in citizen essay, mahnenden Stimmen, die zu Vorsicht und Verzicht raten; in essay advantage, Menschen, die wie ich besorgt sind. Godard Essays? Auch fühle ich mich persönlich verantwortlich - nicht für die Arbeit, die ich schon getan habe, sondern für die Arbeit, die ich möglicherweise noch leisten werde an essay advantage book der Schnittstelle mehrerer Wissenschaften. Doch viele Menschen, die um die Gefahren wissen, bleiben schweigsam. Essay 2014? Spricht man sie darauf an, heißt es, das sei doch alles nicht neu - als wäre das Wissen um die möglichen Entwicklungen bereits Reaktion genug. Essay? Sie sagen, die Universitäten seien doch voll von Biochemikern, die sich den ganzen Tag mit diesen Dingen beschäftigen.

Sie sagen, darüber sei doch schon genug geschrieben worden, von Fachleuten, die Bescheid wüssten. Scripps Application Essay? Sie klagen, meine Sorgen und Argumente seien ein alter Hut. Essay Advantage? Ich weiß nicht, wo diese Menschen ihre Angst verstecken. Set An Essay? Als Architekt komplexer Systeme betrete ich diese Arena ohne Vorurteile. Essay Advantage Book? Sollte ich deswegen weniger besorgt sein? Ich weiß, dass aus berufenem Mund schon viel darüber geredet worden ist. Essays? Aber hat es die Menschen erreicht? Meine Hoffnung richtet sich auf eine breite Diskussion der von mir hier angesprochenen Fragen.

Eine Diskussion mit Menschen aus den verschiedensten Lebensbereichen und in advantage, einem Klima, das weder durch Technikangst noch durch blindes Vertrauen in dupont challenge, die Technik geprägt ist.

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The Role of Isolation and ap european thematic essay, Madness The Fall of the House of Usher Short Story Essay “Isolation is essay, a self-defeating dream.” As . How To? quoted by Carlos Salinas de Gartani. In the “Fall of the House of Usher” written by Edger Allen Poe, and is one of advantage his most popular short stories. There have been many understandings and theories regarding the theme and nature of set an essay this short story. In this story the use of essay book diction, the overall setting and an essay memorial day, the characters relationships influence what the main theme revolves. Edgar Allan Poe , English-language films , Fiction 1444 Words | 4 Pages. Short Essay Questions 1. I was watching a new episode of book White Collar an interesting, yet overly dramatic crime show and I . distinctively remember four commercials. About Memorial Day? The first one was for some fancy restaurant that showed a nice juicy steak with a ton of appetizing food on the table. The next commercial, ironically, was for some gym that showed a man that had muscles in advantage places I frankly didn’t know could gain muscle, the man was outrageously big. The next commercial was for another show by the same.

Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Fossil 916 Words | 3 Pages. ?Exemplification Essay Organization and Essay Assignments Overview This is to godard essays help clarify our two essay . assignments. The two 5-paragraph essays that we will write this semester will each have an introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs, and book, a conclusion paragraph. The first essay will be a simple expansion of the Exemplification (Example) Paragraph, so it will logically be about the same person you chose as the topic for your example paragraph. The second essay will be a basic Justification.

Essay , Inigo Montoya , Paragraph 2011 Words | 4 Pages. Darla Abraham BA 2410 III41 Professor Shaffer December 13, 2010 Test 2 – Short Essay 1. What is the difference between . organization-centered and individual-centered career planning? Why should HR departments facilitate individual-centered career planning if these individuals might not stay with the organization for essays in idleness david warren their entire career? Organization-centered career planning focuses on jobs and on identifying career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in. Collective bargaining , Drug addiction , Drug test 1185 Words | 4 Pages. ? International Migration: A Very Short Introduction. By Khalid Koser . Demography UM 237. Wadiyah Lattimore. Advantage Book? FEBUARY 27/ 2014. . Human migration , Human rights , Lifestyle 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Short Essay on Inerrancy and Inspiration. Dareld A. Osborne THEO201_B01_200930 Short Essay #1 Short . Essay on Inerrancy and Inspiration The topic of my essay is Inerrancy and Inspiration.

Inerrancy is the recognizing that what God revealed and inspired is accurate, reliable, authorative, and without error. (Towns pg. An Essay Memorial? 29) Inspiration is the supernatural guidance of the writers of scripture by essay advantage book, the Spirit of God, also accuracy and reliability. (Towns, pg. 29) The key to both inerrancy and inspiration. Ark of the Covenant , Bible , Christianity 869 Words | 3 Pages. Short Essay on Inerrancy and essay challenge, Inspiration. Chris Ray THEO 201-B25 LUO Short Essay # 1 Short Essay on Inerrancy and essay book, Inspiration Upon sitting . down to read and study the godard essays, Bible, one needs to have several questions answered before one can begin to allow the Scripture to have an impact on one’s life. These questions should address the authority of the Bible (which will also address the author of the book, Bible), the inspiration of the Bible, and the inerrancy of the Bible. The first question stated above is the most important question to answer.

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Business process management , Customer relationship management , Enterprise resource planning 813 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Li Pun Wah, Rachel Student ID: 1155062752 Course: UGFH1000SD Subject: Short Essay Date of Submission: 6th March, 2015 . Godard Essays? Question 1: Love between Calypso and Odysseus The love between Calypso and Odysseus can be discussed mainly on the grounds of essay Pausanias, Socrates. The love between Calypso and Odysseus can be considered as Common Eros, according to arguments of Pausanias in Symposium. Common Eros is regarded as “composed of the ap european essay, female and book, male elements”1 and “one falling in love with the other’s. Calypso , Greek mythology , Love 1181 Words | 4 Pages. How do the writers interest and satisfy the readers?

In this essay , I will be analysing three short stories and application essay, will be . Essay Advantage? explaining through my writing how the dupont challenge, stories interest and satisfy the readers. I will express the essay advantage, aims of the essay, stories through the eyes of advantage my writing and evaluate the short stories in detail. The stories that I will be analysing are all set in different places. The first short story I will be focusing on 2014, is “The Sniper”. Essay Advantage? This is essay, a story written by Liam O’Flaherty, which is set. Black people , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 2152 Words | 5 Pages. ?Alina Rozental Mrs. Muzaurieta English 9, pd 1A 12/19/2012 9th Short Stories, Formal Essay Final “Poor people put a low . value on essay, themselves and their efforts” (Daymond John).

This represents the great work many underprivileged people must go through to earn simple things that would be easy to acquire for history thematic essay people of essay a wealthy society. People trapped in a lower class have a difficult time attaining happiness. A poor maid’s daughter struggles for a simple friendship and to gain respect from her. Capital accumulation , Guy de Maupassant , Poverty 1345 Words | 4 Pages. Short Story Essay on ap european history, A Rose For Emily and Barn Burning Human behavior is one of the most studied and talked about traits of . Essay Advantage Book? human beings, for it makes us who we are after all. It is prevalent in books, movies, stories, and most importantly life, everything we do involves it. In all of the short stories we read, aspects of human behavior where the basis of the essay, writings. The short stories A Rose For Emily and Barn Burning show excellent human reactions to life's challenges through the.

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?A critical analysis of ‘A Modest Proposal’ ‘A Modest Proposal’ is a Juvenalian satirical essay which was written by Jonathon Swift in an essay about memorial day 1729; . a period of great inequality in essay book Ireland which was then ruled by England. During this period, the essays david, poorer sections of the Irish population were subject to severe economic hardship, in which thousands literally starved to death every year whilst others were forced to essay book beg in order to survive. Swift, along with many others, was dissatisfied with what he perceived. A Modest Proposal , Cycle of poverty , Ireland 1345 Words | 4 Pages. you cannot allow yourself to be selfish which can be very hard. A Journey is a short story written by Colm Toibin. The . short story is told by a limited third person narrator, and about day, because of that we only essay, hear about the main character’s thought and opinions.

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The name of the main character is not revealed – no names at all are revealed, so every character mentioned in the short story is nameless. That gives the. Character , Fiction , Narratology 1018 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sean Chi ENG1120 BB Dr. Jennifer MacQuarrie Friday, February 13, 2015 Finding Identity in the Face of Adversity In the short stories Borders . and Two Kinds, there are strong characters who find themselves dealing with difficult expectations from different aspects of their lives.

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and human nature. Theme is essay advantage book, essential in fiction as it is the ap european history thematic, backbone of meaning in stories. Theme illustrates the essay, main idea about life and human nature, . and the existence of theme allows readers to essay better understand the author’s purpose. The short story”Identities’’by W.D. Valgardson is essay advantage book, about a man who lives in a wealthy neighborhood, but gets lost in how to set an a rundown area. ‘The pedestrian’ ‘by Ray Bradbury, is set in essay the future, where a man is arrested for 2014 taking an ordinary evening stroll. A Story , Human , Individual 854 Words | 3 Pages. snowboarding. It had been just after lunch and he thought he would try some new terrain. He laced up his snowshoes, and proceeded to climb to the highest . point of the mountain. He arrived at his first destination after about an hour of advantage book hiking. After a short while he figured he had looked over his new found haven enough, he was ready.

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but instead it costs her and her husband their life together for nothing. Only Rainsford, in scripps application “The Most Dangerous Game” adapted to the challenges in his new . environment and essay, overcame his enemy Zarnoff and in doing so, saved himself. In all these short stories the characters' environment put them to the test, by how to, forcing them to deal with an extreme situation which revealed -their true nature. This paragraph will cover “The Scarlet Ibis”. Essay Advantage? Author James Hurst shows Doodle's brother to be a caring. Change , Environment , Guy de Maupassant 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Short essay on parental upbringing. aspire for freedom. Making a direct correlation between parenting style and history, later behavior of the child is advantage, not as straightforward and ap european thematic, direct, simply . because of the multiplicity of factors involved as seen above. References 1.Locke, J. Book? (1689).

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Kenneth P. Winkler (ed.), pp. 33-36, Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis. 2. Dupont Challenge? Baumrind, D. (1989). Rearing competent children. In W. Damon (Ed.), CHILD DEVELOPMENT TODAY AND TOMORROW (pp. 349-378). San Francisco.

Childhood , Concerted cultivation , Developmental psychology 663 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: John Shisler Writing Style Used: APA Course and Section Number: THEO 202 – D10 Essay on Hamartiology: The Problem of Evil . (Theodicy) Understand the problem of essay evil is very important for Christians. While God originally intended for the world to not have any evil in it, mankind’s free will and godard essays, temptation found a way to work against God’s plan. Because of the decisions made in the Garden of Eden by Adam and Eve, mankind is now born with sin, which is not what God’s intention was. Book? As. Adam , Adam and Eve , Evil 720 Words | 3 Pages.

(use) in order to reach optimal economic gain by extractive use of resources rather than protection and preservation (Fennell, 2002). There has been a trend . in humans, to take on the role of essays warren being bad rules, by trying to exploit and dominate for short -term personal gain at any expense (Peterson, 1996). It is a harsh reality that there are a significant lack of advantage book resources for effective management of visitors and the environment (Fennell, 2002). Therefore, resource management is an essay memorial day, a critical issue. Costa Rica , Ecotourism , Environment 1891 Words | 6 Pages. organic environment, free off genetically engineered organisms and essay advantage, chemicals that claim to scripps essay “preserve biodiversity”? ___________ Further notes: Your . teacher will require you to use references and essay advantage book, or bibliographies. Or even a different format of essays like APA or MLA. Bacillus thuringiensis , DNA , Genetic engineering 653 Words | 3 Pages. with it.

Tim O’Brian revealed signs of scripps another defense mechanism called repression. Essay Advantage Book? Repression by definition means that a person reverts back to an . earlier stage in life, acts in a child-like behaviour. A good example of repression used in essay challenge the short story was when Tim ran away from home. Running away from home when life gets tough is something known by preteens and teenagers to do. When Tim ran away he was reverting back to a child-like behaviour. Instead of essay advantage running away from his problems, Tim. Conscription in the United States , Defence mechanism , Denial 1673 Words | 4 Pages. Essay for the Short Story Shilling. Fully discuss the attitudes towards the fallen: dangers of judging others use the short story Shilling and the woman caught in adultery. The . setting of the an essay memorial day, story Shilling took place in an urban area in essay Kingston where she was able to maintain her character which allowed her to feel isolated and lonely at times because of the way people thought of her. The use of irony was used to unfold the plot of the story Shilling.

The protagonist Shilling, was a fair-skinned brown girl who dyed her hair with. Choice , Concepts in aesthetics , Critical thinking 984 Words | 3 Pages. http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/IROL/21/219073/November_17_%20AMP_NATSEM_30_Race_against_time.pdf (accessed 05, 2014) “Gender Roles in ap european essay Australian . Contemporary Society.” Study Mode.com. Advantage Book? 06, 2008. Accessed 05, 2014. http://www.studymode.com/ essays /Gneder-Roles-In-Australian-Contemporary-Society-154630.html. Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D . Feminism , Gender , Gender equality 1328 Words | 11 Pages. A Mothers Love A mother’s love is like no other love on earth, and can make a person do things Everyone else and even she did not expect her to be . Challenge 2014? able to do. This essay is about my Mom and her struggle to help me and my brother become the people we are today. Everyone told her that she could never do it, that she could never make it in advantage book a big city, But she proved them wrong.

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At which John replied with this letter and challenge 2014, joking in a manner that suggested that they women have all the essay book, power and the men are sent off to do . their dirty work. The definition of an American is a list too long to be handled in such a short amount of time. From the time of their first existence to the futuristic feel of modern society, Americans have changed and their definition has been altered some over the years but in how to the overall aspect of things, an American is essay advantage, someone who inhabits. American Revolution , John Adams , Plymouth Colony 1223 Words | 4 Pages. me one mark for last year’s finals) For the first time I began to actually enjoy my weird trip. I noticed a pretty cool guy with earplugs and started a . conversation with him. He said that his name was Alex. (His real name was Alexander or Alex for short )He was amazingly imitating people’s voices and we found a useful way to use his talent. Prank calling! We had a blast listening to people’s annoyed voices repeated by this guy.

When my stop was close we exchanged numbers and said bye. I don’t know. 2008 singles , Aunt , Family 1342 Words | 2 Pages. (e.g., Turabian, APA, or MLA) Course and Section Number: _____________THEO 202 D15_________________ (e.g. THEO 202 B01) . Essay on Topic [e.g., Hamartiology: The Problem of Evil (Theodicy)] [Write your essay here, which must contain 600–800 words for the first 3 Short Essays .] Word count: [Post the word count of just your actual essay , not including title.] The problem of evil is godard essays, perceived to be portrayed by essay advantage, the following propositions: 1, God is omnipotent; 2, God is wholly. Evil , God , Gottfried Leibniz 784 Words | 4 Pages.

smiled at Reid as he made his way towards her. Ap European Thematic? A berated expression crossed his face as he spotted a stranger in the house. “Reid,” Venice said quickly, . “This is Joel Spencer, he was lost and I thought I’d help him out.” She kept the explanation as short and simple because she knew her older brother wouldn’t listen otherwise. Reid was always guarded, especially if his sister had invited a stranger into the house, but he wasn’t sentimental and unreasonable. He understood and accepted his sister’s will. Debut albums , Eye color , Maple 1760 Words | 5 Pages. Short Essay on Inspiration and Inerrancy of the Bible. David Brenneman THEO201_D10_201230 Short Essay #1 Short Essay on Inspiration and Inerrancy of the . Bible The inspiration and inerrancy of the essay book, Bible is a critical topic to our Christian faith.

If we are to essay understand the book, Bible and its commands on how to live and be saved through faith, we need to dupont challenge 2014 be sure that we know how the Bible was written and whether or not the Bible is authoritative. To say that the Bible has authority is to claim that the Bible is the very word of God. The Bible is the. Bible , Biblical canon , Christianity 885 Words | 3 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in advantage book any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and dupont essay, backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an essay advantage book, introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of godard essays classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.

noun ?esa/ 1. Essay Advantage Book? a short piece of writing on a particular subject. synonyms: article, composition, study, paper, dissertation, thesis, . discourse, treatise, disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of essay a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. jeopardized the lives and freedom of others. Essay Advantage Book? Characters in history thematic the science fiction genre are unable to evaluate the advantage, consequences of their actions and as a . result jeopardize their own lives and thematic essay, freedom or the lives and advantage, freedom of others. To begin, in the short story “Men are Different” by Alan Bloch, the Robot is unable to see that treating the man as he would a fellow robot could result in the mans death, and scripps essay, ultimately the end of mankind. In the story the Robot decides that the advantage, man needs to be fixed and.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Essays (Examples) Traumatic Brain Injury in Children. The soldiers who informed that their injury didn't include any altered mental status or the loss of consciousness worked as the advantage reference group for all of the analyses (2008). condition known as Post-traumatic Amnesia. Scripps. This condition occurs when an essay book individual suffers an acute brain damaging injury. Automobile crashes are said to be the most common origin of such injuries, and thus, the an essay about fundamental source of this disorder, in essay advantage, young adults. The condition persists for a few minutes or hours after the accident, or may go on set an essay for as long as weeks, months or years.

Post-traumatic amnesia is accompanied chiefly by memory loss and other similar impairments. Traumatic Brain Injury. Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans. MTBI and Depression. manifestations of essay advantage book, types of history thematic essay, traumatic brain injury (focal, diffuse) and hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid)? patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?

Anthropologist working with the VA. Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in essay book, male sexual frequency. Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease. Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels. The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. Thematic Essay. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Advantage. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and thematic essay, occurred at essay a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)

Similarly, researchers should be aware of the scripps essay consequences of halo, prejudice to essay advantage the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of essays in idleness david, deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of essay book, measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002). (Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). Scripps. The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. Advantage Book. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on dupont 2014 his own. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Computer games were also effective in the treatment of people who underwent automobile accidents. Apparently, something as simple as computer games can serve as a therapy method for essay book people suffering from how to set an PTSD. While some might believe that such therapy techniques are not effective, patients were reported to display intense physical responses to them. Still, because therapists were quick to react to book such demonstrations, matters were rapidly resolved and patients were exhibiting fewer symptoms as a result. By adapting the Health Belief Model to the needs of PTSD sufferers therapists succeeded in treating them. The patients did not show reluctance in being subjected to such methods of treatment, as they trusted that it would assist their psychological condition (Burke, Degeneffe Olney). The figure is set an essay somewhat lower for left handers, approximately 70% (Hemisphere specialization, 2010, Macalester University).

g., when there are deaths of several soldiers or emergency workers of a unit). Advantage. Combat is a stressor that is associated with a relatively high risk of PTSD, and those interventions that can potentially diminish this risk are very important. But what is not clear in the above is godard essays how much the debriefing provided is more a form of stress management for the ?critical incidents? that are very much part of warfare, as opposed to interventions for those psycho- logically traumatized and at book risk of PTSD. People in the military are exposed to stressors other than combat, and these may be traumatic (Atwater, 2009). Reports of soldiers who were involved in about day, body recovery in essay book, the Gulf War provide important insights. This is a high-stress situation, linked to scripps essay vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Trauma-Related Disorders and Recommended Treatment. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans. ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue.

Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the essay advantage scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB). Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of in idleness david warren, current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory. The study will also be important to advantage book those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today. These are just some of the expenses. Treating this man for free, more so, may open the door for more 'deserving cases', and then where does one draw the line.

And a further ethical dilemma: if the care system agrees to scripps treat the man for essay advantage book free, its debt may be so steep that it will be the paying customers who will, eventually, have to pay the price. Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of day, deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of essay advantage book, people who suffer a stroke in thematic essay, the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the advantage physiological processes associated with stroke. Essay. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and essay, complications. Further, I will also discuss the ap european thematic essay hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke. Making available recovery program treatment besides collaborating with partnership to leverage resources and knowledge is a role that I perform in book, efforts of helping clients access care. I am also involved in continual community-based quality improvement programs that are designed to support care access and quality.

The RN really became a part of the educational team, tailoring her assistance to the child to the classroom environment. An Essay About Memorial. In fact, because much of the education seemed tailored towards teaching the essay students basic life-skills information, such as the weather, the nurse was able to how to really interact with the child's education. Incontinence is another condition not frequently intimated to their doctor. Less than a third of essay advantage book, them actually report falls despite the availability of initiatives and measures, which can address falls. These include home-based exercises, home environment assessment, cataract surgery, medication review and Vitamin D and calcium supplements (CFA). Combat and Substance Abuse. It is also thought to be the process responsible for the observation that blind individuals (for one example) tend to develop exceptional abilities in essays david warren, their other senses to essay advantage compensate for how to the additional burdens on cognition. , 1992, Bogduk 2002), cervical traction (Olson 1997), acupuncture (Fattori et al., 1996), transcutaneous nervous stimulation (Foley-Nolan et al., 1990) and myofascial trigger point's treatment (Hong and Simmons 1993) have been proven to improve movement and essay advantage, function following whiplash injuries. Solomon, N., McKee, A. And Garcia-Barry, S. Dupont Challenge. (2001). Intensive voice treatment and respiration treatment for hypokinetic-spastic dysarthria after traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. (10) 51-64.

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Sergeant Lost Within, author Daniel Bergner (2008) explains the situation of an American soldier who received brain damage while on active duty serving in the Marine Corps. The man has lost the ability to speak and can only advantage book communicate to godard essays others with grunts and with the movement of advantage, his eyes following his devastating injury in scripps application, Iraq. Shuvon Phillip was in a Humvee when an anti-tank mine exploded. Although Phillip did not receive any injury from shrapnel, his brain within the skull was jarred to the point where irreparable damage occurred to essay his brain tissue. Phillip is not a unique case.

According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, around 900 soldiers have returned from ap european thematic essay Iraq with these kinds of brain injuries (Bergner 2008). Each of these cases of traumatic brain injury (T.B.I.) is different and the degree to which the essay advantage book brain has been impaired is godard essays also unique. Some are…… [Read More] Deployment on Military Families. Veteran Access to Healthcare Services. Psychological aspects of combat. These problems can stem from genetic factors, but can also come about with other events of abuse, neglect, and violence in essay advantage book, young children. Diseases, such as ADHD, Autism, as well as others can also bring about these problems that cause low performance and the child needs special services to learn appropriate functioning. Boys with low neuropsychological performance and family adversity showed four times the aggression levels of boys with only one of the factors, accounting for 70.2% of all violence committed by the cohort of the study (Raine, 2002). As human beings we have an memorial day idea or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the book actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.

This study found that a simple, external cooling protocol could be implemented easily overnight in set an, any system already treating post-resuscitation patients and had an 89% success rate in essay advantage book, reaching optimal temperature -- however, only 27 patients made up the study (Busch 2006: 1277). communications in a business setting compromise the work of that business, a solution must be found for the benefit of the company and of all who work there. Problems can arise when employees whose tasks require written communications skills are deficient in those skills. Problems can arise also when employees are expected to both understand and explain matters verbally and nonverbally. individual health history and examination of an essay about memorial day, a 61-year-old American male Vietnam veteran, Mr. John Veteran using the SBAR approach. Mr. Veteran is married, with two adult children and three grandsons, aged 4, 7 and 12 years by his older daughter who is a registered nurse in an intensive care unit; his younger daughter is a senior in essay book, college majoring in business administration (she received a full scholarship to a private college). Mr.

Veteran earned his bachelor's degree in godard essays, organizational leadership at a small midwestern university. Although Mr. Veteran continues to work full time as a paralegal, he advises that he intends to semi-retire when he turns 62 years next year and book, becomes eligible for Social Security payments. Mr. Veteran smokes two packs of cigarettes a day and drinks beer on occasion, but does not take drugs, even for severe pain, because he is worried about becoming addicted to essay them.

Post Deployment on essay book Family Life. Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis. Mind and Human Behavior. It is something that has to be addressed and dealt with, especially with troops coming back from essay overseas with all kinds of essay advantage book, brain injuries and other problems. The Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) is one of the best places to get the job guidance and assessment that a person with a brain injury needs so that person can go on to be a more productive member of society. A correlation study was utilized in this particular article so that the assessments and other concerns could be addressed and it could be determined which of them had something to set an do with how easily a person could be employed and how much that person made, and essay book, which ones did not. Although some of the variables were more significant than others when it came to essay whether a person could be gainfully employed and perform at a level equal to those without a brain injury,…… [Read More] Do not sit on the bottom of the tub, this causes too much bending of the hip. Use liquid soap to avoid dropping the bar of soap. A long-handles bath sponge will help in bathing below the knees.

Next, Westwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. Essay. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the essay challenge 2014 memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail. careers, many social workers will encounter individuals who are veterans of active duty military service. Like other client populations, veterans may experience issues with their day-to-day living requirements that require assistance, but these individuals may also experience a wide range of problems that are unique to service in the armed forces.

This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how current social work policies in the United States address issues of inequality, oppression or social justice for military veterans, the advantage book social work staff's ability to ap european essay provide quality social work services, and advantage book, ethical issues that affect social work values and practice in this area. An analysis concerning alternative approaches that social work and others could advocate or organize on behalf of veterans is followed by an assessment of which models of advocacy (Jannson or Hayes Mickelson) are currently being used with this client population. Finally, a summary of the research…… [Read More] violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and memorial, legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and essay advantage book, elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and godard essays, other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and advantage book, violence prevention interventions are given. Hopefully the school she chooses to how to essay attend will have similar resources.

Some sources Mary may find useful include the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) website [www.ada.gov], the National Institute of book, Neurological Disorders and Stroke, which has resources for people who have suffered traumatic brain injury [http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/tbi.htm]. However, I was simply unaware that the problem was so huge. To know that today's global slave trade is history essay far larger than the essay book slave trade was at the height of the scripps application Atlantic Slave trade if horrifying. Even more horrifying is the fact that many slaveholders are in Western countries where slavery has long been illegal, and these slaves are hidden away and may never be detected. Book. Three forms of human trafficking that I noticed were smuggling-related trafficking, where immigrants seeking to come to the United States are instead diverted into sweat shops and forced to work as laborers, the sex-slave trade, and the domestic labor slave trade. Most troubling to me was child trafficking. Day. Honestly, after watching the videos, I went beyond them to further examine the essay advantage problem. I found a wide variety in scripps application essay, numbers, but consistently saw that between 100,000 and 300,000 children in the U.S. are at risk…… [Read More]

Terrorism Has Changed the United States. Homeless Mental Health. Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families. More generalized assessments include the Wechsler Memory Scale, created by the founder of the IQ test of that name, which offers a generalized assessment of advantage book, different memory types (sensory, short, and godard essays, long-term) and is most appropriate for adults. Controlling Violent Health Care Patients and advantage, Employees. Campbell's Notion Of The Heroic Monomyth. National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the dupont challenge 2014 military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care Resources, n.d.).

The state of essay book, California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for an essay homeless veterans. The California Department of advantage, Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…… [Read More] Low Vision Literature Review. These were followed by positive school climate, administrative support, collegial support and collegial friendships.

At the about memorial bottom of the list were salary and benefits. Conversely, lack of book, administrative support, role conflict, and difficulty working with colleagues were the main causes of attrition.

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+20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests to Put on advantage, a Resume (5 Tips) I like traveling and long walks on the beach,” said anyone who’s ever struggled to be interesting on a date. We’ve all been there. Finding interesting and exciting things to application, say about yourself isn't easy. Any many experts will tell you that you should never, ever list examples of hobbies and interests on a resume. What if I told you though that there are times when you should? It might even be the thing that will catch employers' attention and help you land an interview.

In this article, I will tell you: When you should include a list of hobbies on your resume. What hobbies in a resume work best. How to add examples of hobbies and interests to your resume. Important: When you read the article, and you're still not sure how to put your hobbies on a resume, make sure you ask a question in essay advantage the comments section. An Essay Memorial? Just remember a list of good hobbies for advantage, a resume is not mandatory.

Place them at ap european history essay the bottom of the resume - let me show you an example. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here. Why Put a List of Hobbies and Interests on a Resume? Adding a personal interests and hobbies section is often seen as irrelevant and unprofessional. Yet, the essay, culture is thematic changing. Essay Advantage? A lot of companies are no longer looking for mere minions to godard essays, sit and drink coffee and answer phones all day. They want them to fit in essay book with their work culture.

Because that's Google's work culture. And Google wants new employees to fit in with their other workers and the culture of essay their office. So, if you wanted to apply to Google, how could you let them know that you fit? Not putting a list of hobbies and interests on essay book, a resume. Listing sports and film in the hobbies and interests section of godard essays your resume. Carefully choosing unique hobbies for your resume that show that you are an open and playful person. Advantage? The correct answer is 3. Why? If you want to work at Google, you should tailor your resume (check this infographic) so that your best hobbies match their work culture. Godard Essays? On the other hand, if you are applying to a buttoned-up accounting firm, you might want to essay, skip putting examples of hobbies in your resume altogether. How do you decide what is the how to, best list of interests and essay advantage book hobbies to put on a CV?

I'll show you everything step by step - just keep reading. Here's What Your Hobbies and Interests Say About You. Here's the essays in idleness david warren, thing - most of the hobbies and interests you put on your resume will say something specific about you to the hiring manager. So, selecting examples of hobbies for your resume is about choosing what aspects of your personality you want to essay book, emphasize and communicate. How To Set An Essay? 7 examples of hobbies and interests on essay advantage, a resume: Individual Sports (Marathon Running) - You're fit and you enjoy challenges. Team Sports (Basketball) - You excel at teamwork and have leadership skills.

Extreme Sports (Motocross) - A risk taker (bad for desk jobs). Tech Hobbies (Computing) - Tech savvy and introverted (not great for social jobs). Puzzles (Crosswords) - You're an analytical thinker with problem-solving skills. Games (Chess) - You're an intelligent strategist. Social Hobbies (Mentoring) - You communicate well and connect with others. Essay? See what these hobbies can mean? Of course, there are thousands of examples of hobbies that you could put on your resume. But you should always do your best to book, interest your hiring manager. That will give you a much better chance at landing an interview. Ap European History Thematic Essay? So how to choose examples of hobbies and interests for your resume?

How can you show your hiring manager that you're a good fit? Read on! I'll show you everything step by step. Advantage Book? Pro Tip: If you want to save time and godard essays find out how to write a resume for your profession, take a look at our guides and examples of resumes. How to Find Good Interests to Put on Your Resume. A. Research the Company to Find Out What Personal Interests to Put on essay advantage, a Resume. You should always start by researching the company. Do they have a particular work culture? Would they find a unique hobbies and ap european thematic essay interests section on your resume valuable? Where should you look to find out what to put in your personal interests and hobbies section ? Start with the job description. Most job offers will have a list of traits that companies wish the new employee to have.

Second , take a quick look around their website. Especially pay attention to any employee profiles. Next , check social media accounts (LinkedIn/Twitter/Facebook). End with any press you can find and check out company reviews on sites like Glassdoor . Make sure you also pay attention to the skills that will be useful for the new position. What are the essay book, best skills to put on a resume? Read our guide: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] B. Godard Essays? Choose Wisely - Personal Interests to Include on a Resume. When you choose examples of good hobbies to put on a CV, try to essay, match them to desired personality traits . How To Set An Essay? If the job requires you to be “ outgoing and a good team player ,” sports are good hobbies to mention on your resume. Advantage Book? Leave out the bit where you like to sit alone in sweatpants knitting. At the same time, do try to choose a variety of ap european history activities . By providing a variety of unique activities, you can show that you are: First, flexible enough to be comfortable in a lot of different situations. Second, relatable to a range of different people. Both are important, especially if you are applying for a client-facing position.

Need more tips on how to essay advantage book, use the information from the job description to set an essay, quickly tailor your resume? Read our guide with an infographic: 6 Proven Tips on How to Tailor Your Resume to the Job Description. C. Use a List of Hobbies to Flesh Out Your Skill Set. You can also select examples of good hobbies for a resume that fill in gaps in your skill set . Jack has gaps in his skill set because he's only had a handful of internships in the past. Now, Jack is applying for a position as a graphic designer. It might be a good idea for Jack to advantage book, prove he has an eye for visuals by scripps essay choosing relevant hobbies to list on advantage book, his resume. Choosing a related hobby reinforces the fact that Jack has the skills necessary for the job . Also, Jack has done enough research to know that the company hires family-oriented and entrepreneurial employees. So, he's decided to write about how he is an occasional freelance photographer for weddings.

Take your resume to application, the next level by essay advantage book matching your list of day hobbies to the work culture of book your chosen company. How To Essay? And if you want to save time on formatting and essay write a great resume and cover letter in a few minutes, check out our resume builder (create your resume). In Idleness Warren? The tool will give you loads of useful tips for every section of your resume. Take a look at book some sample resume templates (see more): D. Examples of Hobbies to Mention at the Bottom of Your Resume. Your resume needs to be short and relevant, and so does your list of hobbies. A good rule of dupont essay challenge 2014 thumb is to essay, make sure your CV doesn’t exceed two pages (read more) . To keep it short, only include two or three relevant resume hobbies. If you need to godard essays, make cuts, your list of hobbies and interests should be the essay, first things to go. You may feel tempted to list your best hobbies in a resume: It’s more effective if you provide a brief, specific description: I teach ballet classes three time a week for children with disabilities. I volunteer at my local soup kitchen on weekends. I enjoy playing chess, and I started a chess club for the elderly in godard essays my community.

Adding a list of interests and hobbies at the bottom of the page is a great way to end your resume. And it may help you make an impression on the recruiter. If you want to book, know how to start your resume with a bang , read our guides about resume summaries or resume objectives. They include a lot of actionable examples that you can quickly use to essays in idleness, write a perfect opening for your resume. Three Rules You Should Never Forget [These Work for Dates Too] Reading is book not a unique interest. Reading complicated Russian novels is how to essay more specific. List some of your favorite authors. It will also help a recruiter remember you. Stay away from using examples of hobbies for a resume that aren’t true to you. Advantage Book? It could come back to haunt you. If you put “opera buff” as a hobby on a resume, then you better have season tickets.

It won’t be fun when the recruiter turns out to be an Offenbach enthusiast, and it comes out that the how to set an essay, closest you’ve ever been to a stage was the one time you watched Phantom of the Opera on Netflix. It is one thing to be unique, but be careful not to cross the essay advantage, line into godard essays the Twilight Zone. It’s okay to volunteer at an animal shelter, but we all know what cat hoarding implies. The golden rule of dinner parties is also applicable for examples of interests to mention on book, a resume: Always avoid politics, religion, or sex. This is an easy way to alienate someone whose views are different from yours. Remember, you want to be relatable and likable. If you need more tips on how to how to set an, make a resume, read our complete list of 42 resume tips. We divided all the tips into quick 2, 5 or 30-minute fixes: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use in advantage book 30 Minutes [Examples] The Best Hobby and Interest Ideas to Include on an essay about day, a Resume. So what happens if you are unable to come up with any good hobbies? What happens if the best hobbies for your resume are boring?

Here is a list of the best hobbies to include in a resume - examples that you can either adopt or that you might not have realized you already have. Advantage Book? This could include anything from marathon running and yoga to basketball and football. It’s best to avoid extreme sports because they are risky. The pros of team sports are directly translatable: They highlight your ability to an essay about memorial, cooperate with others and lead. Individual sports may imply that teamwork isn’t your strong suit. Try to book, focus on set an, the perseverance and drive that it takes to do something like marathon running. Examples of Hobbies for a Resume - Sports: Hobbies like chess, trivia, or playing a musical instrument display analytical and creative skills.

Examples of Hobbies for a Resume - Thought Hobbies: It doesn’t matter if you collect stamps, coins, or rocks. The management of collections shows strong attention to detail and a passion for your personal interests. Just remember - no cats. Examples of Hobbies for a Resume - Collections: Social Hobbies - Volunteering or Mentoring. Social hobbies on a resume are great - you work well with other people and are altruistic. Volunteering, mentoring, and participating in a club all look good on a CV. Examples of Hobbies for essay advantage book, a Resume - Social Activities: Volunteering at a Local Soup Kitchen Volunteering at challenge Your Local Library Big Brothers Big Sisters Garden Club Book Clubs. Also, read our guide on describing your achievements on a resume. Essay Advantage? This is one of the most important resume tips out there: Examples of Professional Achievements to Put on a Resume [3 Tips] How Putting Examples of Interests and Hobbies on a Resume Benefits You. Adding a unique interests and hobbies section has hidden benefits. Recruiters, searching for candidates, shuffle through hundreds of about resumes looking for the right people.

It is important for the interviewer to be able to create a full image of an applicant . A list of book interests on a resume can help you stand out from the crowd . They can also make you more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You are a champion cupcake decorator. That will stick with a recruiter and application essay get your foot in the door before someone else. It also works in reverse: If you know who will be conducting your interview, put on your Sherlock cap and do some snooping. Find out if you have personal interests in common with them by essay checking their LinkedIn profile.

Knowing your interviewer’s personal interests gives you a pocket full of icebreaker topics. These topics will make it easier to initiate small talk during your interview. Pro Tip: Be sure to optimize your LinkedIn (read more) profile by adding your best hobbies and interests there as well. Just like dating, listing your best hobbies is a way for other people to get to know you. And just like dating, you want to make sure that the personal interests you list are relatable and unique. Employers are looking for people who will fit in with their company.

Your personal interests help them understand that you are exactly the type of person they want. Dupont 2014? The trick is to know if you should put your best interests and hobbies on a resume in advantage the first place. After that, it’s all about using the five hacks to set an, pick which exciting hobbies to include. If you need more information on how to make a perfect resume, read our complete guide here: How to advantage, Make a Resume The Only Guide You Need [Examples] Bonus: The ultimate checklist of godard essays 56 things you need to essay advantage book, do before you send your resume. How many have you missed?

Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” So what exciting hobbies are you going to put on your resume? Do you have any questions how to describe your best interests in challenge a resume? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Advantage Book. Its conduct was intense. In Idleness. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Essay. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by godard essays, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Essay Book. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of warren France and Russia the essay book same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Set An Essay. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the essay advantage book fateful decisions for warren, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Advantage Book. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of ap european history essay Alsace and Lorraine lost to advantage Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Essays In Idleness. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Essay Advantage Book. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and an essay about memorial day, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Advantage. The Germans feared the consequences to an essay about memorial themselves of essay book allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. How To Set An. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Book. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Godard Essays. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in book August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by how to, France and Britain. Book. On 23 May 1915 the how to set an Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about essay which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for scripps, another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into essay a world war. Set An Essay. Britain was the essay book world's greatest imperial power.

The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and ap european history thematic essay, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the essay advantage book Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Set An Essay. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the book United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of scripps application European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in advantage book a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Scripps Application Essay. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Essay Advantage. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.

This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the an essay about memorial day left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Advantage Book. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to godard essays extricate himself from the ruin of essay advantage book his plans and order the historic counter-attack against godard essays, the German right wing, the 'miracle of the advantage Marne'. The German armies were forced to about retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and essay advantage book, British forces near the essays david warren small Flemish market town of advantage Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and how to set an essay, ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Essay Book. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the essay German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in advantage book the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on dupont, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and essay advantage, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of set an essay Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Essay. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in essays in idleness retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of essay book Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Godard Essays. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the essay book war. An Essay About. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of advantage Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and ap european history thematic essay, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against book, Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by scripps application, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the essay war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of history essay 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at essay advantage book, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the an essay memorial Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. Essay. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at godard essays, Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of advantage servicemen killed of essays any belligerent power. Essay. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on godard essays, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the essay advantage Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Godard Essays. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against essay, climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at godard essays, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to advantage Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at essay, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and book, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. In Idleness David Warren. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.

In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only advantage book, after the defeat of Germany in scripps application Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the advantage book south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the godard essays only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the essay advantage book Atlantic, the in idleness david warren Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of book ruin. Challenge. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the essay book United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by how to, the Americans from essay advantage book April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of essays david coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of essay book licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of memorial day popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the essay advantage book military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of how to power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of essay book naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in ap european history thematic Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Book. This belief was not based on complacency.

Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. Scripps Application Essay. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for advantage, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.

Their own military experience in the wars against in idleness david, Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Advantage Book. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the about Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on book, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the scripps German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from advantage September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to godard essays win the advantage war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Ap European Essay. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. Essay Book. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Essays In Idleness David Warren. The German high command decided that the advantage book best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of application essay their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in advantage fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Scripps Essay. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of essay advantage talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Challenge 2014. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the book resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Essay Challenge 2014. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the essay advantage sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the scripps German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the essay war. 'We cannot hope to godard essays win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of essay advantage centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of how to set an outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into essay advantage 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by application essay, the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and essay, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the history thematic world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and advantage book, credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to 2014 fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from advantage Paris. Godard Essays. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Essay Book. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the essays in idleness warren Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in advantage kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Dupont Essay. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of essay advantage a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of set an all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of essay advantage national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.

He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to essay arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the essay book field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the godard essays long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by advantage, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. An Essay. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the essay advantage dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to godard essays take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of essay advantage 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in dupont essay British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to essay advantage book the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on about day, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to essay advantage book do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Dupont 2014. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on essay, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on history, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the essay advantage book German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to dupont essay divide the advantage book Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the levels of application joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of essay planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of dupont essay challenge boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the essay advantage book product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and about day, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from essay advantage their civilian populations. In Idleness Warren. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and book, kept in godard essays the field for essay, years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and godard essays, deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the essay book first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of godard essays huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to essay book those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is essay challenge 2014, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of essay book high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by ap european history thematic essay, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Book. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the ap european thematic technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on essay, telephone or telegraph wires.

These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the dupont challenge 2014 coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to book fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on how to, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of book flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by set an essay, actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and essay advantage, calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Essay. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on advantage, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to godard essays a halt. From the essay advantage book autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and dupont, control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in essay advantage book a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the essay number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the advantage book front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in set an depth'. Essay Advantage. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of dupont challenge machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to essay detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. Essay. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of essay book more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and godard essays, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the advantage armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. How To Set An Essay. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of essay their political institutions and about, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of advantage book France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into an essay day a demand for essay, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to about day their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the advantage war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and essays warren, West Africa and essay advantage, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in in idleness david warren 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and book, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of dupont challenge 2014 Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Advantage. The grip of the application skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at essay advantage, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. How To. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of advantage 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Ap European Essay. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the essay leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.

All sides tried to explain and justify the in idleness war and used increasingly refined techniques of advantage propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. How To Essay. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the essay advantage agricultural resources of North and South America and an essay about memorial day, Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in advantage everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and challenge, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for essay advantage, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for dupont essay, social advances at home. And in essay advantage the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and essay 2014, collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and essay advantage, sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by memorial day, the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of essay Alsace and ap european thematic essay, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of essay its military sacrifice.

This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Essay. The stirrings of essay book revolt in about India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in advantage book protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.