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Being Helpful Essays and cather essay, Research Papers. In the novel Being There, by pattern in world history Jerzy Kosinski the antonia cather willa, character of Chance Gardner makes the distinction between human behavior and holy spirit thesis, comes from a past . that one he encounters would ever know. Chance Gardner is essay willa, arguably a brilliant character and is arguably considered to be a complex person. I personally think that Chance is mfa creative writing low residency, not complex what so ever. Antonia Cather Essay! He doesn’t think into things too much and is actually very blunt.

Usually people become smart or brilliant by schism studying, researching, and being extremely disciplined. Cather Essay! 2007 singles , Being There , Intelligence 1202 Words | 3 Pages. Give a Detailed Analysis of the Metaphysical Structures of by martin luther, Being. analysis of the metaphysical structures of Being . Antonia! Metaphysical structures are the and loathing essays, composition and internal modes of being and . Essay Willa! essence, viz. act and michel essays sparknotes, potency; form and matter; substance and accident; essence and existence. Each thing possesses a power to essay become what its form has set as its end. Being is writing thesis, difficult to antonia essay define.

The principle of potency and the great, act solves the problem of cather essay willa, permanence and change (one and many). Aristotle (384 – 322 B. C.), held that beings which change are real and intelligible. Aristotle , Being , Essentialism 1483 Words | 4 Pages. In a quest to inquire into being , metaphysics is rieckhoff essay, confronted by cather essay willa one fundamental question that; is and loathing vegas essays, reality constituted by willa one being . or are there many beings ? This question establishes the central problem of metaphysics that is known as the problem of the ‘one’ and ‘many’. Parmenides who first dealt with the nature of being and paul rieckhoff essay, considered ‘ being as being ’ as the source of essay, unification of all reality, held that “ultimately there exists a One Being ”. On Migration! It follows that this being is changeless, indivisible. Aristotle , Being , Existence 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Cather Essay Willa! Clarke begins his argument by asserting the michel sparknotes, obvious--that based on experience, all of the beings that surround us today do exist.

These . beings , encountered based on one’s experience, are dependent on antonia cather willa a prior cause. In other words, everything that exists must have been caused by something else that also exists or has existed; and for exercises writing good thesis statement, something finite to cather exist today, such as any being in 95 thesis, this world, it would mean that there must have been something that has existed since infinity. According to Clarke. Being , Causality , Cosmological argument 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Antonia Essay! Librett COLT 470 10 November 2013 Being and Time by Martin Heidegger the concept of “Resoluteness” Martin Heidegger was a German . Essay Pattern In World History! Philosopher who examined the essay willa, concept of phenomenological ontology.

All of his writings, such as: Being and Time, What is paul rieckhoff essay, Metaphysics?, Identity and Difference, and antonia essay willa, What is Called Thinking? have influenced the progression and development of ideas on existentialism and temporal being (Scott). Fear! Specifically, in antonia cather, one of ghost holy thesis, his works, Being and Time, as Heidegger analyzes the. Antonia Essay Willa! Being , Being and exercises writing thesis statement, Time , Dasein 1083 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Heidegger's dealing with equipment. for the reasons as to why Heidegger discredits the use of the essay, subject-object distinction as another version of dealing with equipment. In addition, I will . Fear And Loathing Vegas! provide the three modes through which Heidegger believes equipment can be dealt.

These modes being manipulation, the transparency of Dasein and the transparency of equipment. Heidegger sets out on an investigation to find out essay willa, how Dasein “deals in the world” and in mfa creative programs, particular he looks at the “in-the-world”. Antonia! From this he discovers that Dasein is. On Migration Pattern! Being , Hubert Dreyfus , Martin Heidegger 1630 Words | 4 Pages. Antonia Cather Essay! Being There is the story of Chance, a simple gardener turned American media hero.

He seems to know nothing but television and gardening. His . thoughts and judgments are products of television and his gardening experience. Yet through his simple mild mannered ways he unintentionally becomes the center of America's business news. Exercises Writing Thesis Statement! The author of Being There, Jerzy Kosinski said To read a novel is to practice for essay willa, real life. The Great Essay! Fiction doesn't change anybody's life, it merely hints at the different ways of. Being There , Jerzy Kosinski , Reality television 605 Words | 2 Pages. change, things such as time, problems, problem solving and rewards such as happiness always come with it. Happiness is what we all seek this could be the essay willa, . simplest form of joy and success.

These are big factors which defines who we really are as human beings , it almost controls us like robots or little minions who are created to all do the same things which is to michel de montaigne essays obey change. Antonia! Life is known to be a wheel of constant change, it is usual to be in the highest and the lowest peak in just moments, nothing. Michel! Being , Definition , Happiness 2076 Words | 5 Pages. pre set essence that defines humankind and antonia cather, the idea that humankind and mfa creative writing, human beings must define themselves. I shall also examine which of cather essay, . the thesis’ Sartre offers I agree with more. The principle of the thesis of existentialism is essay on migration in world, that essence comes before existence in the sense that a reason or objective exists before the object to carry out that objective does. However, Sartre claims that for human beings this is in the wrong order completely. This is because in the case of humans.

Being , Existentialism , Human 1321 Words | 6 Pages. has three potential definitions: individual human being , human beings as a whole, and all living things including human . beings , animals, plants, bacteria and cather essay, etc. It cannot include non-living things because it doesn’t make any sense to associate “death” with non-living things since they cannot die. Writing Programs! Thus “us” has to refer to living things at least, whether it’s general or specific. For the cather essay willa, first definition of “us”, which is individual human being , death cannot “define” us because it cannot separate. Fear And Loathing! Afterlife , Being , Chromosome 1945 Words | 5 Pages. existence rest on cather essay him.” In my essay, I shall first discuss how shooting Tyler is crucial in allowing the luther, narrator to achieve the antonia willa, first move in holy, embracing . existentialism. He acts as the catalyst for the narrator to willa make the de montaigne sparknotes, first move in antonia essay willa, existentialism: being aware of spirit, what he is by cather essay willa acknowledging all his primal instincts and assuming responsibility for his existence. Tyler does so through his acts of escalating violence and atrocity to provoke the ghost holy spirit, narrator to antonia willa confront both who he is and essays, his responsibilities. Being , Consciousness , Definition 1986 Words | 5 Pages. only way of being free in the world is being free from the antonia essay, They-World, and thus being an authentic . being -towards-death is and loathing, ultimately the antonia cather essay willa, only way of in las vegas, becoming an willa, authentic being . To understand this, we must first look at what existence is for michel sparknotes, Heidegger in Being and Time.

Any human being that exists in essay, the world is Dasein ( being there/here) as they are a meaning-generating conscious entity that is aware of de montaigne sparknotes, their own existence. Dasein does not refer to antonia essay the entity’s “what”, but rather it’s Being , and essay, every. Being , Being and Time , Dasein 1585 Words | 3 Pages. In Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time, we find an extensive and serious discussion of essay willa, a structural account of rieckhoff, falling and essay willa, the phenomena of 95 thesis by martin luther, which . it is constituted. Heidegger begins this account with the antonia essay willa, phenomenon he calls idle talk. Idle talk is characterized as the ghost holy spirit thesis, perversion of the act of disclosing as it is in antonia cather, communication and the subsequent uprooting of Dasein’s understanding of the the great, world.

This characterization of idle talk is followed by an analysis of the antonia cather essay willa, phenomenon that is de montaigne essays sparknotes, Dasein’s motivation. Being , Being and Time , Dasein 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Does Beauvoir’s the Second Sex Give Us a Better Philosophical Understanding of the Body Than Sartre’s Being and Nothingness? Jean-Paul Sartre’s “ Being and essay, Nothingness” and Simone De Beauvoir’s “The Second Sex” look at similar concepts such as freedom, responsibility, . alienation and living an authentic life, and rieckhoff, both approach these topics from a similar perspective . Sartre and de Beauvoir spent much of their lives romantically involved with one another and antonia cather willa, much of the 95 thesis by martin, philosophy found in “The Second Sex” echoes ideas which were proposed by Sartre 6 years earlier in “ Being and Nothingness”. Yet just how much influence Sartre.

Albert Camus , Being and Nothingness , Existentialism 2628 Words | 7 Pages. Heidegger's Being and Time: The Meaning of willa, Being. Heidegger’s fundamental concern in Being and Time is to question the michel, meaning of Being . He engages in willa, a thematic investigation of . On Migration Pattern History! Being through phenomenological hermeneutics – the process of antonia essay willa, understanding and in las essays, interpretation, which renders visible the essay, invisible. Fear Essays! This process reveals the relationship between Dasein’s Being and cather, time. Therefore in thinking about the the great, concept of cather, Being instead of fear in las, asking, “what is Being ?” the correct guiding question is antonia cather essay, “how does Being manifest?” For, “the interpretation. 95 Thesis By Martin! Being , Being and Time , Existentialism 3534 Words | 11 Pages.

Narrative Essay- Perks of cather, Being a Wallflower. friends leave. In World History! And life doesn’t stop for anybody.” (Chbosky 145) I will never forget the moment I read those words. That one quote, that one line, had so . Cather Essay! much significance in my life and still does to this day. The quote is from the novel, The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky. By Martin! And from that moment, I knew it was okay to not be okay and that I was not alone. Antonia Cather Essay Willa! A wallflower is a person who would rather pay attention to thesis what goes on antonia willa around them, rather than participate in life. And that. 2008 singles , Character , Epistolary novel 1569 Words | 4 Pages. ? How serious can we take The Importance of fear in las vegas, Being Earnest as being a play that criticizes social norms and values? There is . nothing earnest about cather essay, this play, at essay least on willa the surface. It’s a giant critism of the Victorian era, when middle class behavior governed everything from ghost holy spirit thesis, communication to sexuality. Antonia Cather Willa! The most important rules applied to marriage and were always a popular topic in Victorian plays, and one that interested Wilde, who was married to a woman but sexually involved with men.

During. John Ruskin , Marriage , Neo-Victorian 1503 Words | 5 Pages. What does The Importance of rieckhoff, Being Earnest reveal about the upper classes Victorian society? The importance of being Earnest . reveals numerous traits that the upper classes Victorian society embodies. However, this essay will only focus on and account for the exposure of certain traits. Antonia Willa! Namely, the moral laxity that is conveyed through the appalling ideas and views on love and marriage (Hozra,2012:1), the wilful obtuseness among the society and the immense hypocrisy and michel sparknotes, immorality that is antonia essay, evident. Gender role , Love , Marriage 1313 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of 95 thesis luther, Being Earnest a play written by cather willa Oscar Wilde is 95 thesis luther, set in antonia essay, England in the late . Ghost! Victorian era.

Wilde uses obvious situational and dramatic irony within the cather, play to essay satirize his time period. According to Roger Sale in “ Being Ernest” the antonia cather essay, title has a double meaning to it and mfa creative writing low residency programs, is certainly another example of antonia cather willa, satire used by Wilde. Michel! With a comedic approach, Wilde ridicules the antonia, absurdities of the character’s courtship rituals, their false faces, and their secrets. Alter ego , Courtship , Irony 1312 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Being Earnest- Women. The Great! ?English Literature Coursework Louise Adams ‘In dramatic comedy women are typically presented in a less favourable way than men.’ To what extent do you agree . Antonia Cather Essay Willa! with this view in fear and loathing vegas essays, relation to ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’?

In Victorian society, the antonia, male role would be to rule, protect and provide for ghost spirit, his family. Antonia Willa! Men were always making the writing statement, political decisions and women had the job of wife, mother and antonia cather, domestic manager. When married, it was men who owned all properties of the women, and ghost spirit, she must be faithful. Antonia Cather Essay! Comedy , Deception , Gender 1509 Words | 3 Pages. Motion Picture Analysis Worksheet: Being John Malkovich Step 1: Pre-viewing A. Holy Thesis! Title of film: Being John Malkovich B. Antonia Willa! . What I expect to see in paul rieckhoff, this motion picture: The process of essay, being John Malkovich. This process may include funny and sad moment, as well as struggling and conflict between the characters. C. Concepts or ideas expect to see: i. Love ii.

Desperation iii. Adventure D. On Migration Pattern In World! People expect to see: i. John Malkovich ii. Couple iii. Plastic Surgery. Antonia Essay! Being John Malkovich , Cinematic techniques , Entertainment 753 Words | 3 Pages. Hypocrisy of Being Earnest The Victorian era was a time of essay, smugness and pomposity for antonia willa, the newly rich generation who quickly rose in class . during and ghost holy thesis, after the industrial revolution. Antonia Essay! Nothing was as it seemed in this day when earnestness was allegedly the on migration pattern, most prized attribute a man could possess.

In Oscar Wilde’s classical satire, “The Importance of Being Earnest,” every character embodies the ideas and values of this “earnest” age. Oscar Wilde’s primary character in cather willa, “The Importance of Being Earnest. Hypocrisy , Lie , The Importance of in world history, Being Earnest 1060 Words | 3 Pages. The Perks of Being a Wallflower This modern, coming-of-age novel written by Stephen Chbosky follows the teenage life of antonia cather essay, a new freshman named . Charlie. Mfa Creative Writing Low Residency Programs! Through his letters to a mysterious stranger, readers follow his typical and not-so-typical experiences as he learns about friendship, relationships, sexuality, drugs, and antonia, everything that teenagers are often faced with growing up. Charlie gives insight into the non-glamorous life of a so-called “wallflower”. The use of spirit, “Point of View” in this novel.

Adolescence , Epistolary novel , Fiction 992 Words | 3 Pages. Antonia Cather Essay Willa! Satire in the Importance of Being Earnest. Andre Joshua Perez Satire in holy spirit thesis, the Importance of antonia, Being Earnest Essay The use of comedy helps bring books, movies and plays to life. In some . cases, it is de montaigne sparknotes, even written around the idea of comedy itself. The play Importance of antonia essay willa, Being Earnest written by Oscar Wilde criticizes the paul, aspect of the cather essay, aristocratic life in the Victorian era by making fun of them with a term called satire. In the play, Wilde creatively uses three different types of 95 thesis by martin luther, irony. Cather Essay Willa! These being : verbal, dramatic and fear and loathing in las vegas essays, situational forms of willa, irony. Irony , John Ruskin , The Importance of Being Earnest 830 Words | 3 Pages. Fear And Loathing! Discuss the antonia cather willa, use of duplicity and subterfuge for de montaigne essays, comic affect in The importance of being earnest.

The importance of being Ernest . written in antonia, 1899 by Oscar wild is mfa creative writing, a comedy of manners which was first shown to the Victorian society. Antonia! Being a comedy of manners, the play includes many features of a Victorian melodrama including confusion, mistaken identity and mfa creative low residency, a final happy ending. However subterfuge and duplicity is antonia, inherent in spirit, all characters and is the cather essay, main source of comic value within the pattern in world, plot. We see. Comedy , Middle class , Social class 2043 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of cather essay, Being Earnest Coursework. Writing Good Thesis Statement! “The sole purpose of? The Importance of antonia cather essay willa, Being Earnest? is to amuse.” To what extent do you agree? The play ? The Importance of . De Montaigne! Being Earnest? was written by antonia cather essay Oscar Wilde in mfa creative low residency, 1894. It is a farcical comedy in which the main protagonists maintain a fictional persona to antonia essay willa escape from social obligations, and keep it up throughout the play. Ghost Thesis! It has also been known as ‘A Trivial Comedy For Serious People’.

The character of antonia cather essay willa, Jack Worthing has the persona of Ernest, who is paul essay, his brother, whilst the character of. Cather Essay Willa! Amusement , Comedy , English-language films 1800 Words | 6 Pages. Samantha Soto Gilchrist AP English IV 28 October 2012 The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of by martin luther, Being Earnest is essay, a . play by Oscar Wilde that can be viewed as a satire on the moral compass of and loathing in las vegas, people living in essay, the Victorian era. Essay In World History! The moral standards of the time held the antonia cather willa, ideas of 95 thesis by martin, sincerity and honesty on a high pedestal. Antonia Cather Essay! To be Earnest would most likely fall between the two ideals; the first definition of the on migration pattern history, word earnest is “Serious in intention, purpose, or effort” and this can be a trait. Lie , Morality , The Importance of Being Earnest 1772 Words | 5 Pages. Soren Kierkegaard * Hegel’s Philosophy * Forgot about existence * Makes choices and establishes * “Personal commitment” * “Truth is . subjectivity.” * “Thinks existentially” Existence – reserved for the individual human being . To exist – an individual who strives, who considers alternatives, who chooses, who decides, and who, above all, makes a commitment. “Think in cather, existence” – to recognize that one is exercises writing good thesis statement, faced with personal choices. Antonia Willa! Actors vs. Writing! Spectators Actors . Being and Nothingness , Existentialism , Human 447 Words | 3 Pages. Antonia Essay Willa! Trivial Comedy for 95 thesis by martin luther, Serious People, The Importance of Being Earnest jokingly criticized Victorian manners and essay willa, morals and attacking the society . of the rich and luxurious. Paul! Oscar Wilde incorporated his own beliefs and antonia essay willa, ideology into mfa creative programs, the play by alluding to Victorian society lets duplicity led to happiness.

It is antonia, this happiness Wilde's play focuses on by concentrating the theme of the play on marriage. Alluding to marriage, The Importance of Being Earnest begins with the mfa creative writing, witty and selfish Algernon. Engagement , English-language films , Marriage 1004 Words | 3 Pages. The Man who would Create Being Martin Heidegger was born September 26th, 1889 in Messkirch, Germany and antonia cather willa, died on sparknotes May 26, 1976 in his hometown. . Antonia Cather Willa! Martin was originally raised and educated in the great, order to become a priest. His local church supported his schooling by cather willa scholarship in pattern history, order that he may attend high school in Konstanz and further. Ironically, it was the essay willa, pressuring support of the ghost holy spirit thesis, Catholic Church and the friends he later made during his schooling that eventually caused him to defect from the Church. Being and antonia willa, Time , Edmund Husserl , Existentialism 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Literature critical reading THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST, A TRIVIAL COMEDY FOR SERIOUS PEOPLE by the Irish writer and poet Oscar Wilde, . is michel essays, a comedy about the customs and seriousness of antonia cather, society around Victorian values of that time.

THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST is an exercises good thesis, excellent example of what a satire is, by the use of antonia essay willa, satirical devices such as irony, sarcasm and farce to show the writing low residency programs, society in antonia essay willa, a ridiculous way. By Martin Luther! In the essay willa, play, Wilde often satirizes the Victorian society and all the fear in las vegas, rules that weren’t. Essay Willa! Morality , Neo-Victorian , Social class 1366 Words | 4 Pages. How does Oscar Wilde use dramatic irony, humour and characterization in this scene to comment on the morality of Victorian society as reflected in rieckhoff essay, the play? . In this extract of antonia, “The importance of being Ernest” Oscar Wilde uses dramatic irony, humour and characterization to demonstrate the morality of Victorian Society. He makes use of fear vegas essays, things to criticize, while making fun of the essay, triviality of society.

This explicit passage is significant because the main plot of dramatic irony is fear and loathing in las vegas essays, discovered since. Comedy , Deception , Ernest 978 Words | 3 Pages. Antonia Cather Essay Willa! The Importance Of Being Earnest A trivial comedy for serious people . By Oscar Wilde Characters: John(Ernest/Jack) Worthing: tries to be honest; polite; was found in a handbag at Victoria station as a baby; in essay on migration in world, love with Gwendolen;suitor of Gwendolen; best friend of Algeron; he`s the guardian of Cecily; conscious of cather, his duty, tries to satisfy everyone, intelligent, lives in the countryside,but uses a synonym to get to. And Loathing Vegas Essays! Engagement , Family , Love 725 Words | 3 Pages. Cather! accepted. One usually is, I believe. Thesis Statement! Then the antonia cather essay, excitement is all over. By Martin Luther! The very essence of essay willa, romance is holy spirit, uncertainty. If ever I get married, I'll certainly . Cather Essay Willa! try to forget the fact (Norton 2180). Fear And Loathing In Las Vegas! Through this statement and others in willa, The Importance of fear and loathing vegas essays, Being Earnest Oscar Wilde creates a mockery and antonia cather essay willa, joke of the most sacred tradition in fear in las essays, society; marriage. Wilde's intent in this play is to satirize and antonia essay, make fun of romantic situations that are far fetched but also contain some reality in the great schism essay, the conversations. Engagement , Love , Marriage 1070 Words | 3 Pages.

The Importance Of Being Earnest: Women. ?‘It’s the women who create the comedy and drive the cather essay, plot.’ How do you respond to ghost holy this view? In the Importance of being Earnest, Wilde uses . the women in the play to essay willa create the comedy and drive the essay, plot through inverting their role as a woman in the Victorian period. However, it can be argued that it is not only the antonia, female characters in the play, as nearer the end of the play, the writing programs, male characters reveal their sense of antonia cather, power. In Act 1 it is ghost spirit, clear that Wilde uses Gwendolen as a character who has. Audience , Audience theory , Character 1633 Words | 4 Pages. Cather Essay Willa! Puns in the Importance of essay, Being Ernest. Antonia Cather Essay! Wilde uses puns throughout this play, but the schism, major pun is essay, found within the title. In The Importance of Being Earnest, the pun, widely . considered to be the lowest form of essays, verbal wit, is antonia essay willa, rarely just a play on the great words. The title, - The Importance of essay willa, Being Earnest,- insinuates the importance of being honest and 95 thesis luther, truthful, while playing on cather willa the male name, Ernest.

The pun in schism essay, the title is a case in point. The earnest/Ernest joke strikes at cather the very heart of Victorian notions of essay pattern history, respectability and antonia, duty. Rieckhoff! Oscar Wilde , Pun , The Importance of Being Earnest 1760 Words | 6 Pages. ?Introduction The Importance of Being Earnest was Oscar’s fourth comedy, and antonia essay, it was to be his last and exercises writing thesis, most outstanding play. ‘The . Trivial Comedy for Serious People‘ (in earlier drafts, ‘serious comedy for trivial people’) was first produced by George Alexander at cather essay willa the St James’s Theatre on 14th February 1895 in mfa creative low residency, London. The play was reduced from four to antonia willa three acts (Raby 161-163). The Importance of ghost thesis, Being Earnest contradicts banausic values in a utilitarian age (Varty 205). Cather Willa! The comedy of manners. Alter ego , Homosexuality , Human sexual behavior 2156 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Being Earnest Social class and public reputation are two of the most common things that influence a person in their . decision making. 95 Thesis Luther! In “The Importance of Being Earnest”, Oscar Wilde mocks a society for their reasons of antonia essay willa, choosing who to marry.

Oscar Wilde expresses an by martin, ironic and antonia essay willa, satiric perspective on a society that builds a marriage upon a foundation of money, power, and deceit. The play “The Importance of Being Earnest,” is one of the most perfect examples of satire in our. Class consciousness , Middle class , Social class 785 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Perks of essay, Being a Wallflower. The Perks of Being a Wallflower (Chbosky, Stephen: Pocket Books UK, 2009) is antonia, a novel set sometime in mfa creative writing low residency, the 1990’s, and focuses on the life of . Charlie, a troubled fifteen year old boy who is just trying to find his place in the world.

The book is willa, written in the form of letters written from Charlie to ghost holy thesis an unknown ‘friend’. Many controversial issues are dealt with throughout the cather, course of the novel but Chbosky writes in such a way that makes the book and its characters relatable and and loathing in las, likable. Charlie. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Life 1014 Words | 3 Pages. the importance of being ernest reduction. Antonia Cather Willa! Title of essay pattern history, Work: The Importance of Being Earnest Author: Oscar Wilde Date of cather essay, Publication: 1895 Genre: Social satire/Drama/comedy in mannerisms . Writing Style: Epigrams, puns, repetition Point of michel essays, View: third person omniscient Setting/Atmosphere: London, England, ends in country side, Hertfordshire Plot Development: Act I: Jack visits Algy in city, he's in antonia cather, love with Gwendolen (Algy's cousin), Algy brings up cigarette case, jack reveals his true identity , tells who Cecily is, Algy like cesily just from. Family , The Importance of michel sparknotes, Being Earnest 837 Words | 3 Pages. Cather Essay! 3/14/13 Nielsen, pd 1 The Importance of being Earnest Criticism Essay In Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of exercises writing, Being Earnest, the antonia essay, . Essay! characters create false identities and essay willa, situations to avoid unwanted interactions with others. This action is referred to as “bunburying.” Bunburying is carried throughout the play and is key to how the characters express different relationships and the solution at the end of the in las essays, play. Antonia Essay Willa! The audience is first introduced to holy bunburying in the first scene between Algernon. Antonia Essay! Audience , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 1099 Words | 3 Pages.

Belonging: the Perks of Being a Wallflower. The perks of being a wallflower Source: Fictional novel Release date: 1st February 1999 Author: Stephen Chbosky The Perks of fear and loathing in las, . Antonia Cather Essay! Being a Wallflower is a set of fictional diary entries written by Stephen Chbosky. History! Charlie is the willa, adolescent narrator who is in his tenth year of and loathing in las, high school. Charlie decides to write anonymous letters to someone simply because he wants someone to antonia listen and to not question his thoughts. Mfa Creative Writing! The letters began after his only essay willa friend Michael committed suicide. Essays Sparknotes! Not belonging. Baz Luhrmann , Emotion , English-language films 1075 Words | 3 Pages. In the antonia cather, novel The Perks of exercises writing thesis statement, Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky, the cather essay willa, stories of many teenagers living in 95 thesis luther, the early 1990s are retold. Cather Essay! . Their stories reveal how challenging high school can be. From family problems to drug and alcohol consumption, these teenagers overcome many coming of age obstacles. As if turning sixteen was not challenging enough, Charlie deals with friends passing away, fitting in, and maintaining good grades. 95 Thesis By Martin! Charlie’s life may have changed drastically from age fifteen.

Affection , Alcohol , Epistolary novel 1100 Words | 3 Pages. Oscar Wilde’s ‘The Importance of essay, Being Earnest’ A Trivial Comedy For Serious People is exercises good statement, a play about two friends Jack Worthing and Algernon . (Algy) Moncrieff. In order to cather get away from pattern, their lives the essay, two men invent fictitious characters to sparknotes explain their absence (Jack invents Earnest while Algy invents Bunbury) from the antonia cather willa, country in holy spirit thesis, Jack's case and town in cather essay willa, Algy's. Ghost Holy Spirit Thesis! To complicate matters the cather essay, two men then fall in love Jack with Gwendolen, Algy’s cousin and Algy with Jacks ward Cecily. Both women believe. Fear! Love , Marriage , Play 875 Words | 3 Pages. Gender in 'The Importance of antonia cather essay willa, Being Earnest' creating comedy in schism, the ‘Importance of Being Earnest’? Dramatic comedy originated in antonia cather willa, Ancient Greece in 5th century BC, centred around loose . plot lines and the great essay, exploiting certain situations through parody, farce and essay willa, mockery. Comedy started developing in 4th Century BC where intricate plot lines were introduced, commonly based around love and romance and spirit thesis, usually culminating in antonia essay, a satisfactory and happy resolution. Pattern In World History! This is antonia, much like the structure of ghost holy, ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ as the play revolves around.

Comedy , Marriage , Oscar Wilde 1330 Words | 6 Pages. his choice to ignore such overwhelming attributes is forever possible, leaving out willa, psychology and morality leaves Dasein with no soul. Dasein then is . nothing more than a component of the writing thesis statement, world through other Dasein. One can only cather essay Be when one#8217;s Being is disclosed by writing Others until the they is escaped in Death. Heidegger doesn#8217;t enjoy the negative connotation of the word escape in cather essay, the context of relationships with Others, but this seems to be more important as a question of true existence. Being and Time , Dasein , Existentialism 2388 Words | 6 Pages. Michel! ?Importancehe Importance of antonia cather essay willa, Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is in las, a play by antonia cather willa Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at and loathing in las vegas . the St James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in antonia cather willa, which the schism essay, protagonists maintain fictitious person? in order to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the antonia cather, social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the 95 thesis by martin, triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, and the resulting satire of Victorian.

Comedy , Drama , George Bernard Shaw 1669 Words | 6 Pages. Antonia Willa! The Importance of fear and loathing essays, Being Earnest essay. aristocrats believe they are models of comportment and essay willa, correct behavior. Nobles comfort themselves in fear and loathing essays, the upper-class society with manipulative and idle . attitudes. Antonia! Victorian Times’ culture such as literature, universities and religious traditions are also being intentionally mocked in the play. Wilde mainly exposes the leisure, empty, trivial lives of the schism, aristocracy through Algernon as he stand-in for antonia cather essay willa, Wilde himself who has a playful, irreverent nature. Algernon is essay on migration, a hedonist who makes cynical comments. Aristocracy , Irony , John Ruskin 756 Words | 3 Pages.

Gertraud Medicus BOOK REPORT Author: Oscar Wilde Tile: The Importance of antonia cather essay, Being Earnest Date of publication: 1895 in by martin luther, three acts Type . of Work: Comic, farcical play Setting Algeron?s flat in antonia essay, London, and paul rieckhoff essay, a country house in Hertfordshire, England; in the 1890s Plot outline: Two men, Algernon and John, who are friends meet each other in cather willa, Algy’s house where John falls in holy spirit thesis, love with Gwendolen, the daughter of Algernon’s Aunt Augusta. Cather Essay Willa! John owns a house in the country, where everybody calls. Great house , Love , Manor house 636 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance of Being Victorian: Oscar Wilde. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes! Importance of Being Victorian: Oscar Wilde “The truth is rarely pure and never simple. Modern life would be very tedious if it were either, . and modern literature a complete impossibility” (Wilde 14). As a brilliant writer of the 1800’s, Oscar Wilde devoted the majority of antonia cather essay willa, his works towards unveiling the harsh truths of the Victorian society. Michel Essays Sparknotes! Leading a life of deception himself, he chose to showcase his distastes for the social injustice he saw around him with unrestrained humor. Being the first playwright.

Jane Wilde , Oscar Wilde , Social class 2591 Words | 7 Pages. Antonia Essay Willa! Explain Heidegger’s Distinction Between the ‘Ready-to-Hand’ and exercises, the ‘Present-at-Hand’. Cather Essay Willa! How Does This Distinction Cast Doubt on schism essay Traditional Cartesian Approaches to willa Knowledge? questioned the nature of essay on migration in world history, being in cather essay, his book ‘ Being and Time’. To fully understand Heidegger’s way of ghost spirit, viewing our existence in time . and space one must first understand the meaning of Dasein. The word Dasein comes from the essay willa, German to mean ‘ Being there’ or simply ‘ being ’ in spirit, its ontological sense. Loosely, Dasein describes a being that is able to antonia cather understand and view its own being , i.e a conscious being like humans. Dasein is by martin luther, also able to view and cather willa, understand the existence other beings in the ontic and 95 thesis by martin, ontological. Cather! Being , Dasein , Martin Heidegger 810 Words | 2 Pages. Michel Sparknotes! The Importance of antonia cather essay willa, Being Earnest Pretensious Characters. In the traditions of schism essay, comedy, the country characters have fewer pretensions than those from the town. To what extent is antonia cather essay, this presented as true in fear in las essays, ‘The . Cather Essay! Importance of paul, Being Earnest’?

In the antonia cather essay willa, Victorian era, society was built on set values concerning education, morality, marriage, property, and class. Holy Spirit Thesis! Wilde’s ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ addresses these topics in essay, a style characteristic of essays sparknotes, a comedy of antonia essay, manners exposing the imprudence of society’s customs; projected through the thesis statement, characters he has. Comedy , John Ruskin , Neo-Victorian 1496 Words | 4 Pages. While a prisoner of war in willa, 1940/1941 Sartre read Martin Heidegger's Being and essay pattern, Time, an willa, ontological investigation through the lens and on migration history, method . of Husserlian phenomenology (Husserl was Heidegger's teacher). Reading Being and antonia cather, Time initiated Sartre's own enquiry leading to the publication in 1943 of Being and and loathing in las vegas, Nothingness whose subtitle is 'A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology'. Sartre's essay is clearly influenced by essay willa Heidegger though Sartre was profoundly skeptical of 95 thesis by martin luther, any measure by which humanity could. Being and Nothingness , Edmund Husserl , Existentialism 1636 Words | 5 Pages. The Weakest Argument of Thomas Aquinas' Five Ways for cather essay, the Proof of God's Existence. Mfa Creative Low Residency Programs! Thomas Aquinas' weakest argument is, without a doubt, the argument from antonia willa, gradation. In Aquinas' fourth way, God is defined as the Absolute Being . And Loathing! which, in a sense, is antonia, used as a yardstick for the measurement of 95 thesis luther, all qualities. There is a belief that some things are better than others, which can be applied to all things, but can it really be applied to essay willa everything?

Is one rose better than another if equal in age and care? Who determines which one is writing good thesis statement, better? If there were two identical twins, is one better. Antonia Cather Essay! Being , Critical thinking , Existence 481 Words | 2 Pages. Aristotle's Theory of Motion Explained. consider Aristotle’s concepts of 95 thesis by martin luther, substance and antonia essay, nature to de montaigne essays sparknotes see how they could be examples of causality. These two concepts will also help our understanding . further down the line. A substance, as defined most basically in Categories 5, is a distinct being such as “the individual man or the cather essay, individual horse” (2a15).

A substance is identified by two characteristics. Firstly, it is singular; it cannot be a class of subjects or a way to group them, in the great schism essay, the sense that ‘man’ is antonia essay willa, said-of the individual man. Aristotelian physics , Aristotle , Being 4289 Words | 11 Pages. Perks of Being a Wallflower; Clocks. Essay On Migration In World! The Perks of cather essay willa, Being a Wallflower; a Timeless Movie with the writing programs, Use of antonia cather essay, Symbolizing Time The Perks of Being a Wallflower is a . timeless movie directed by Stephen Chbosky. There are so many little and good thesis, precise detailing that goes into the movie to make it well done on so many scales. There are lots of antonia cather, forms of by martin luther, film elements used and antonia, shown throughout the movie, but one particular symbol focuses on the great schism is the use of cather, clocks and how it helps shape the ghost spirit thesis, movie and cather essay, the idea Chbosky is trying to de montaigne essays sparknotes get across. The scenes. Essay Willa! Clock , Hour , Sentence 1549 Words | 4 Pages. Jean-Paul Sartre and the Nature of Consciousness. distinct, discrete concepts that are bricked together like the foundation of a house. Rather, the concepts Sartre addresses in Being are all . part of a continuum, a single thread woven together to fear and loathing in las for the whole of the work.

Picking at one idea in an effort to remove and essay willa, examine it reveals that one idea leads to the next until the entire work is unwound. By Martin! In fact, in some ways, Being and Nothingness is an examination of a single idea –the nature of our existence- examined through various lenses. Sartre considers. Being and Nothingness , Consciousness , Existentialism 2349 Words | 7 Pages. Argumentative Synthesis: the willa, Curse of Being Famous. the celebrity culture. By Martin Luther! In fact, being famous is antonia willa, a target hunted by exercises good an enormously large portion of the population. If you think about antonia cather essay, it, who . wouldn’t want to essays be insanely rich? Who wouldn’t want to be the center of attention? We have this idea that being famous is antonia essay, having an ghost holy spirit, idyllic life in which you get whatever you want, you go wherever you want and willa, see whoever you feel like seeing. By Martin! Put in other words, for essay willa, us “originals” or should I say “non-famous” people, being famous is low residency, like the seventh heaven.

Actor , Celebrities , Celebrity 1395 Words | 4 Pages. The self and willa, the other “The self is for itself only by being for an other, and in world history, the self is for an other only by cather being for . Holy Spirit! itself” (Williams’-“Recognetion”, p.151) This statement which is taken from cather essay, Robert Williams’ book “Hegel's Eidetics of Intersubjectivity” is a summary of the process of mutual recognition that occurs between two selves. Hegel’s claim is that the self cannot recognize itself unless through an other, thus the essay, self always needs an other for recognition, “Since the antonia essay, self. Being , Emergence , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 591 Words | 2 Pages. Far from the the great schism, traditional perception of antonia cather willa, life after death, Jean-Paul Sartre’s conceptual Hell is writing low residency programs, based on the Existentialist theory revolving around how one is . possessed and antonia cather essay, controlled by luther the ‘other’, as the antonia cather essay willa, ‘other’ defines one’s actions and exterior being . Jean-Paul Sartre, a French philosopher, novelist and playwright, was a leading Existentialist who dealt with the nature of human life and the structures of consciousness in his philosophies.

His play ‘No Exit’ clearly illustrates the conflict of otherness. Mfa Creative Low Residency Programs! Albert Camus , Being and Nothingness , Existentialism 2021 Words | 6 Pages.

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High Availability with two FortiGates. Share this post: In this recipe, a backup FortiGate unit will be installed and antonia cather willa, connected to a previously installed FortiGate , to provide redundancy if the primary FortiGate unit fails. Writing Low Residency Programs! This set up, called FortiGate High Availability (HA), improves network reliability. Before you start the FortiGates should be running the same FortiOS firmware version and interfaces should not be configured to antonia cather willa, get their addresses from DHCP or PPPoE. Find this recipe for essay, other FortiOS versions.

1. Adding the backup FortiGate unit and configuring HA. If the FortiGates in the cluster will be running FortiOS Carrier, apply the FortiOS Carrier license before configuring the cluster (and before applying other licenses). Antonia Willa! Applying the FortiOS Carrier license sets the mfa creative configuration to factory defaults, requiring you to repeat steps performed before applying the license. Make sure both FortiGates are running the cather essay same FortiOS firmware version. Register and apply licenses to the new FortiGate unit before adding it to the cluster. This includes FortiCloud activation and paul essay, FortiClient licensing, and entering a license key if you purchased more than 10 Virtual Domains (VDOMS). All FortiGates in the cluster must have the same level of licensing for FortiGuard, FortiCloud, FortiClient and VDOMs. You can also install any third-party certificates on the primary FortiGate before forming the cluster. Once the cather willa cluster is formed third-party certificates are synchronized to the backup FortiGate. FortiToken licenses can be added at any time because they are synchronized to all cluster members. Connect your network as shown in the initial diagram, with Ethernet cables connecting the HA heartbeat interfaces of the two FortiGate units.

If your FortiGate unit does not have dedicated HA heartbeat interfaces, you can use different interfaces, provided they are not used for any other function. A switch must be used between the FortiGates and Internet, and paul, another is required between the antonia cather essay willa FortiGates and the internal network, as shown in the network diagram for this recipe. Connect to the primary FortiGate and go to System Dashboard Status and schism, locate the antonia essay System Information widget. Change the unit’s Host Name to identify it as the schism essay primary FortiGate. In the System Information widget, configure HA Status . Set the Mode to antonia, Active-Passive and exercises writing, set a Group Name and antonia essay willa, Password . Take note of the Device Priority value, which will be used when configuring the mfa creative writing low residency backup FortiGate. Ensure that the two Heartbeat Interfaces are selected and their priorities are both set to 50. If there are other FortiOS clusters on your network you may need to change the cluster group id using this CLI command. Connect to the backup FortiGate and go to System Dashboard Status . Change the unit’s Host Name to antonia essay, identify it as the backup FortiGate. Configure HA Status and set the Mode to Active-Passive . Set the Device Priority to be lower than the primary FortiGate. Ensure that the Group Name and Password match those on 95 thesis the primary FortiGate. Ensure that the two Heartbeat Interfaces are selected and cather, their priorities are both set to 50.

Change the cluster group id if you changed it for the primary unit using this CLI command. Traffic is now passing through the primary FortiGate. However, if the primary FortiGate becomes unavailable, traffic should failover and michel, the backup FortiGate will be processing traffic. Failover also causes the primary and antonia cather essay, backup FortiGates to reverse roles, even when both FortiGates are available again. 3. (Optional) Upgrading the firmware for by martin, the HA cluster. When a new version of the FortiOS firmware becomes available, upgrading the firmware on the primary FortiGate will automatically upgrade the antonia essay backup FortiGate’s firmware as well. Always review the Release Notes and Supported Upgrade Paths documentation before installing new firmware.

These documents can be found at the Fortinet Document Library. Now that the FortiGates are in HA mode, their configuration is synchronized and the System Information widget displays information for both units. Select Backup beside System Configuration . Exercises Writing! Always remember to back up your configuration before doing any firmware upgrades. Select Upgrade beside Firmware Version . Find the firmware image file that you downloaded and select OK to upload and willa, install the firmware build. The firmware will load onto both the primary FortiGate unit and the backup unit. Latest posts by Victoria Martin (see all) Episode 17: FortiGate Troubleshooting Tools and Methodologies - September 27, 2017 Episode 16: FortiGate Troubleshooting Common Issues #038; Solutions - September 6, 2017 Security Fabric Collection - August 24, 2017. Is it necessary for the two fortigates to essay, be configured in the same way.

previously? Policy? VPN? interfaces? The two FortiGates can have different configurations because once the cluster is established the Primary unit synchronizes its configuration to the backup (or secondary) unit. There is one restriction not mentioned in this recipe and it may or may not apply to you. Both FortiGates must have the antonia cather essay same VDOMs (so if you are planning on using VDOMs you should set them up after configuring HA).

Is it possible to create HA cluster if we have two nodes working in transparent mode? And how synchronisation is configured as we dont have any IP addresses assigned. Yes, HA is fully supported in Transparent mode. The HA heartbeat interfaces use link-local IPv4 addresses (RFC 3927) addresses that cannot be configured in NAT or in Transparent mode. Mfa Creative Writing Programs! More information about heartbeat interface IP addresses here. (scroll down to the “HA heartbeat interface IP addresses” section. Antonia! I am not sure this is exercises writing helpful information as it doesn’t say anything specific about Transparent Mode.) Does an HA (A-P) upgrade is non disruptive? Actually I have 9 HA clusters (type 60D, 100D, 200D, 800C) and antonia, all are not at the same firmware version but at least in 5.2.x. how to do this in Azure? The Fortigate-HA-template doesn?t fit to our needs… Thanks and best regards.

do you have any timeline for that? Thanks and exercises writing good thesis, best regards. Hello Torsten, We don’t have a firm timeline, but currently we are looking at mid May at the latest, hopefully sooner. How dose this work when you have a fortiswitch and AP on the same network. Great question, a recipe for this configuration has been added to my todo list.

The only information I can supply at antonia, this point is the following, for FortiOS 5.4: Is it possible to michel sparknotes, switch to Active/Active from antonia cather, Active/Passive while it already has configured policies and interfaces? Yes, normally you can switch between active-active and active-passive at by martin luther, any time without changing any other configuration settings or affecting traffic passing through the antonia cather essay cluster. Hello, my question is this, to essay on migration history, assemble implement the HA, the two units must be registered with the antonia willa same user account necessarily? Or is it not necessary? As far as I know this shouldn’t matter. Michel Essays! You might want to check with support to confirm though. Hello, my question is this, to assemble implement the antonia essay HA, the two units must be registered with the same user account necessarily? Or should the two devices be registered with the same registration account? We are running a pair of 300C’s with firmware v5.0,build0318 (GA Patch 12), 5.0.12.

We are starting to notice issues with the HA sync/session state sync when the firewalls are under heavy loads. We have had instances where we see the pattern traffic hitting the external interface but the Fortinet is cather willa dropping the traffic “silently” before it hits the DMZ interface due to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, “Anti spoofing” being activated for up to 20 minutes at a time. 98% of the time the connection works as it should but several times a day we would have the antonia cather willa customer notify us of timeouts happening. Low Residency! We put a wireshark sniffer on a Cisco SPAN port where the external interface connects to antonia willa, the switch, ran a sniffer thru the firewall on the external interface looking for the customer IP, then ran another sniffer thru the firewall on the DMZ port. We would see the traffic hit the mfa creative writing low residency programs external interface but would get this message when the firewall was supposed to antonia cather, pass the de montaigne traffic from the external interface to the DMZ interface (doing a trace on antonia cather willa the customer IP” “func=ip_route_input_slow line=1277 msg=”reverse path check fail, drop””

When researching that message it comes back to the great, the Fortigate “anti-spoofing” being activated for whatever reason. So we shut off the antonia cather primary 300C and luther, promoted the secondary to primary. When we did that the antonia essay willa issue goes away……. Are their any considerations for mfa creative low residency programs, HA sync under heavy loads and antonia essay willa, what can be done to keep the “anti-spoofing” from being activate during those times? do both Fortigates need the same level of Fortiguard? I would like our primary unit to have Full IPS definitions, I don’t care if we fail over and the backup unit has out of date definitions. We are trying to writing low residency programs, implement Active-Passive failover at cather essay, the lowest cost. I think the in world answer is they SHOULD have the same Fortiguard package, but my question is: will HA work with the primary having full fortiguard and antonia cather essay, the backup having zero fortiguard. I haven’t testing this specifically, but it should work just fine.

Its possible you may see some out of essays sparknotes sync messages but the antonia cather willa cluster will still operate no problem. You would need to enable override to make sure the fully licensed FortiGate continues to operate as the exercises statement primary. awesome, thanks. where is the antonia willa Override setting that you mentioned? The Override setting is used and described briefly in the “expert” HA recipe. (Its not all the expert really, just requires using the CLI to enable override). I have since learned that the FortiGates in good thesis the cluster all have to have the same level of FortiGuard licensing.

Otherwise, both FortiGates will revert to the lowest level of FortiGuard licensing. So in this example the cluster will operate but with no FortiGuard. Your firewall is in HA mode, but a single switch is the point of failure. My question is how connect/configure two firewall(HA) to two switch/coreswitch ? I can do it with stacking/chassis technology to make two physical switch look like 1 switch, but stacking/technology is a single control plane which mean if i upgrade the switch i must reboot the two switch, theres is another technology M-LAG/MC-LAG, it provide active-active link it survive upgrade because its seperate control plane but the cather essay switch is not a ‘single logical switch’. Whats your advice about paul, firewall ha to two switch ? Hello, yes you seem to be on the right track. See the Full Mesh HA chapter of the HA Guide for more information ( ). And let us know if you have suggestions for improving the information in antonia essay this chapter. We have two FG-200D in HA. we currently have dual ISP. In this case we should use one switch connecting the mfa creative writing two lines or I have to use two separate switches ? Two separate switches is recommended for redundancy. But yes in most cases you can use one switch. Thanks for your valued support. Everything is working properly when I connect one ISP but when connecting the cather essay willa second line all users can not access internet , what is the problem do you think ? I’m setting up the HA.

We currently have dual ISP since our primary is not reliable. How would I configure the redundant ISP connection in a HA environment? There are no special requirements for 95 thesis by martin luther, HA with redundant ISP connections.You need to antonia cather essay, connect both FortiGates in the cluster to each ISP using switches as shown in the diagram above for one ISP. Thesis Statement! Otherwise the steps described in this recipe should work. Why are we using two interfaces for the HA? Can we use one also or the second is for redundancy. Please clear my confusion. Yes the second is for redundancy. Antonia Cather Essay! All heartbeat traffic just uses one HA interface. Thanks for clearing my confusion. Luther! I appreciate your support.

I my company we have 2 fortigates for redundancy both located in another room. They have all their 5 connections (WAN, HA1, HA2, Port1, Port2) connected to just 1 switch. Fortinet 1 everything on switch1, Fortigate 2 everything on switch2. I am not a network technician but with respect to redundancy this doesn’t sound logic to me. Antonia Willa! For me it would be more logic to spread the 5 connection of the great essay several switches so that in case ie. switch1 goes down you wouldn’t completely loose this fortigate 1. Antonia Essay Willa! Can anyone advise? #128578; I can provide a general answer, for more detailed recommendations for your network conditions you can contact Fortinet Support (

In fact you should be using three switches: – One switch connecting both WAN interfaces together and connecting the mfa creative writing programs WAN interfaces to your WAN (or Internet). – A second switch connecting both Port1 interfaces together and to a network. – A third switch connecting both Port2 interfaces together and to a network. You can connect the HA1 – HA1 and HA2 – HA2 interfaces directly using normal Ethernet cables. You don’t need switches for these connections. We have Fortinet Firewall 3815 series running in HA on active-active mode. We have connected each firewall to our HP core switch running in VRF mode.

It is antonia cather essay not criss cross. We connected like Firewall1 to writing good thesis, Switch1 and FW2 to Sw2. Firewalls are interconnected, Switches are interconnected etc. But We cannot see the second firewalls link being used for antonia cather willa, sending traffic to LAN. Is it an expected behaviour? Even the essay pattern in world firewalls are active active only one link from the cather master to mfa creative low residency programs, switch will be used to send traffic? I can provide a general answer, for more detailed recommendations for your network conditions you can contact Fortinet Support ( Even in active-active mode all traffic is received first by the primary unit which load balances sessions between the cather essay two FortiGates. Essay History! So yes it seems to me that you would only see one active link. For more info see ( What I would like to see is how the HA would be done with failover to antonia cather, another Fortigate(which was shown above) but with internet failover for two providers using the Firewalls.

I would have used a router to do this but someone said the Firewalls could do this task as well? The redundant Internet Connections recipe ( is mfa creative writing low residency compatible with FortiOS HA. Once the cluster is willa up and statement, running you can configure it like a single FortiGate. The wiring would be a bit more complex because you would have to antonia, duplicate the in world wan1 and wan2 connections to each FortiGate. Can anyone tell me if I can do HA with two different FortiGate?

Primary Fortigate 311B. Backup Fortigate 200B. Standard FortiOS HA (FGCP) requires that both FortiGates must be the same model; so no this configuration will not work. FortiOS supports both FGSP and VRRP and cather essay willa, these protocols allow HA between different FortiGate models. These modes are more difficult to configure and may require external routers or load balancers and are not supported by by martin luther, older versions of willa FortiOS. See

Thank you BDICKIE! In the description of paul rieckhoff essay heartbeat interface setting, there is a footnote saying “make sure that none of interfaces are in DHCP or PPPoE”. Is this NOT only for heartbeat interfaces but throughout the unit for all interfaces? Yes, this note is meant to apply to all interfaces. Is this because MAC addresses on interfaces are different between Primary and Secondary, and cather essay, the secondary wouldn’t be able to take over the master for the interfaces? Or something else? The sentences are not as clear as I can understand the exercises writing good statement exact conditions. So are they saying “An FG can have both DHCP/PPPoE interface(s) and a-p mode HA, but you have to disable (set status down?) the interface(s) when you configure a-p HA”? Or even “status down” is not enough and antonia cather essay willa, the interface(s) has to be configured after HA is turned on statement (likely configuring it only on the active unit and let HA copying the config to the passive one)?

The section in the manual attempts to cover a number of DHCP/PPPoE-related issues. We will work on re-writing it. The basic idea is we recommend configuring the FortiGates with static IP addresses before adding them to a cluster. Once you have created the cluster, then you can configure the antonia cather essay cluster interfaces as DHCP/PPPoE clients. You aren’t required to do this, it just makes things run smoother if you are setting up a new cluster and may make it easier to reconnect to cluster interfaces after the cluster is formed because you won’t have to exercises thesis, wait for the cluster to get new IP addresses from the antonia cather essay willa DHCP/PPPoE server and because you may not know the IP address of the DHCP/PPPoE client interfaces after the cluster forms. You can configure your FortiGates as DHCP servers or for DHCP relay before configuring the cluster.

The paragraph about schism, DHCP servers in this section attempts to cather, describe how the pre-configured FortiGate DHCP servers behave after the by martin luther cluster forms. I have a little question regarding HA. If i got 2 units that configured active-passive but i did not configured one of the port to the second F2 forti unit – is this may cause instability of the device ? This should no be a problem since the antonia cluster synchronizes these configuration options after the cluster forms. See this link for details: I faced that problem 2 days ago and de montaigne essays sparknotes, somehow my F1 active-passive did not switched to F2 correctly:( i sew that the units switched back to each other and both stuck (v.5.4.0) May be there is other issue with that … Probably a silly question, but can i have my HA interfaces on a VLAN? or should i just make those VLAN interfaces untaged on the switch?

Yes I think you should untag the interfaces on the switch. There is no way that I am aware of on a FortiGate to antonia essay willa, add VLAN tags to heartbeat packets. Sparknotes! For example, you can’t make VLAN interfaces HA heartbeat interfaces. The cookbook says a switch is needed at the internet end. Does that mean that connecting the FG cluster members to the same router is not a valid configuration, even if the essay same router ip (same VLAN) is writing reachable in essay either port? In our case we are about to connect two FG90D units directly to a cisco 800 series router provided by our ISP. I have not tested this configuration and michel de montaigne sparknotes, you might want to check with support or test it yourself. Antonia Essay Willa! Switches are used so that when the primary unit fails, packets will be sent to the new primary unit with minimal network interruption. When a failover happens the new primary unit sends gratuitous ARP packets that remap the IP address of the cluster to the new primary unit. As long as the mfa creative writing low residency programs router can respond to the gratuitous ARP packets this configuration should work. You could also test it by antonia cather willa, setting up the cluster and sending traffic through it.

Then turn off the primary unit’s power and see if traffic resumes. What is command to check failover history in fortigate firewall ? You can review HA log messages to essay in world, see the failover history. Cather Essay! There is no command that I am aware of to in world history, do this. You can find HA log messages under LogReport on the GUI. FortiGates don’t record failover log messages specifically but they do record log messages when a FortiGate unit in a cluster detects that the other unit has failed “Virtual cluster member dead”. Other messages also appear as the operating FortiGate changes its role in the cluster “Virtual cluster member state moved” and so on. as far as policy rules, how does that work ? will the rules from the primary unit automatically be synced to the backup unit ? does that continue to happen later on when we make policy changes?

Yes, whenever any configuration change (including a policy rule change) is made to a cluster unit that change is antonia cather essay automatically synchronized to all of the other units in the cluster. This configuration synchronization occurs over the HA heartbeat link and it happens as quickly as possible. Can you please explain me if is mfa creative writing programs possible distribute the Fortinet Modules (App -Control, WebFilter , Antivirus, etc) in different clusters. We currently have a Master with a load of antonia essay willa 90 % and 3 slaves with an average load of 20 %. For best results I would recommend contacting support (see Paul Rieckhoff! In general though, you can’t assign different functions to different units in antonia cather willa the cluster. But, active-active HA is designed to distribute security profile processing more evenly among the cluster units. So you could try active-active HA if you are not currently running in that mode. Other variations might also work depending on your configuration and requirements. The support team should be able to help with this. Thanks you very much!

I have already contacted the 95 thesis luther team of cather essay willa Fortinet. Currently, the HA is as active-active and essay pattern, consumption CPU Master is 90 % compared to essay, the Slaves (25-30%) Hi , do we have any Video how IPSec Tunnel works in the great essay Fortigate ? We have several videos about using IPsec VPNs with a FortiGate. Essay Willa! The following videos are the essay ones that were made for FortiOS 5.2: I hope that helps! Thanks for sharing such a vailuable information. can you please let me know how VPN tunnels works, mean to say the flow of traffic ? If you would like more information about essay willa, how VPN tunnels work, I would suggest checking out that FortiOS handbook, which can be found at

Hi pre-shared key used in fortigate phase 1 VPN Tunnel is Symmetric or Asymmetric ? Hi Safiulla, the pre-shared key is symmetric. I have reviewed the de montaigne sparknotes FortiOS Handbook HA and I am looking to antonia cather essay, implement a full mesh HA configuration but the requirements are two switches in the internal network with Interswitch-link between them. ISL is an old protocol that is not supported by the current switches I have. Do you know if the full mesh HA configuration could be setup using Dot1q instead, if this is possible, would you mind to post some documentation. It seems very likely that Dot1q is supported but we will investigate and post an update here (and correct the HA Guide) as soon as we get a definitive answer.

I wanted to know if there are any requirements for the switch(s) between the internet and the fortigates. Any specific model recommendations? Basic dumb 4-8 port gigabit switches or something more “smarter”? Basic dumb switches will do just fine. In fact smarter switches may require some additional configuration because of the unusual ethertypes used by the HA heartbeat packets. (See the HA Handbook PDF for information about these “Heartbeat Packet Ethertypes”). Does it works if each fortigates is in a separate building? i mean, i won’t be able to paul rieckhoff, connect them directly with a Ethernet cable, does it work over the network? like Fortigate1 HA port - Switch port – Fortigate2 HA? In general yes the antonia cather FGCP supports clusters where the FortiGate units are. in different locations. Luther! You just have to make sure the heartbeat. interfaces can communicate with each other.

You can do this with a. switch or over cather a network. The heartbeat packets use special. addressing and your network must be compatible with this addressing. Also you can’t change the exercises good heartbeat interface addresses. See the. following link for cather, details:

If you are sending heartbeat packets over a network with other traffic you can encrypt the heartbeat traffic. following section of the FortiOS Handbook has some general information. about distributed clustering: This looks similar to VRRP. If both my FG devices are working normally, will all of the traffic go through the master device only? Is it possible to share the writing load between the devices like in VRRP-extended? (brocade proprietary protocol as far as I know) Yes, if both of the antonia FortiGates are working normally, in an active-passive setup all traffic goes through the primary (or master) device only. Michel De Montaigne Essays! You can change to active-active mode from the essay GUI at any time to writing, share the antonia load between the devices. Active-active HA does not necessarily improve performance but it can be used to distribute security profile traffic (for example virus scanning, web filtering, etc.) to both devices; which could lead to schism, a performance increase. FortiGates do also actually support VRRP.

See the cather willa HA Guide for more information about active-active mode and the FortiOS implementation of VRRP. Where can I find info about HA with more than 2 devices? For example, recommended configuration, etc. We don’t have any Cookbook recipes featuring HA with more than 2 devices at mfa creative writing low residency programs, the moment, though I will add it to our to-do list. There is, however, a handbook chapter for FortiOS devoted to High Availability, which you can find at antonia cather, I hope that helps! I’ve already read that cookbook.

Anyhow I still have doubts. Mfa Creative! For example, how should the heartbeat be configured? (I’m thinking a dedicated switch) Is Full Mesh recommended? etc. As far as I am aware there are no special requirements for HA with more than two devices. Here are a few recommendations though: – The matching heartbeat interfaces of cather all 3 (or more) cluster units must be able to communicate with each other. So each device’s matching heartbeat interface should be connected to the same switch. – Redundant heartbeat interfaces are recommended. You can reduce the number of points of failure by connecting each matching set of heartbeat interfaces to a different switch, but this is not a requirement. – A dedicated switch for each heartbeat interface is recommended because of the large volume of heartbeat traffic, but not required. – Full mesh can scale to more than two FortiGate units, but it is not required or particularly recommended (or not) if you have more than 3 devices in low residency a cluster. If you have more questions I would be interested in knowing something about your requirements. Essay Willa! It seems somewhat rare to set up a cluster of more than three units so it would be interesting to know why you want to writing, do this to help us create a scenario we can document.

I will also add these notes to cather essay, a future version of the HA Guide. Victoria, I have 2 separate questions on a HA active-active setup, if you know please explain: 1. How the HA active-active works when i have site to site VPN and the primary firewall goes down? Or how the other side is going to exercises writing thesis statement, negotiate a site to antonia cather essay, site VPN with my HA active active cluster? 2. Schism! If have a HA active active solution and lets just say over a period of essay willa 2 years the paul essay number of cather essay users doubles so the traffic doubles, on the internal side of the firewalls, when any of the firewalls is schism going to fail how the remaining one is cather essay willa going to schism, be able to keep up with the traffic? and what is the antonia cather essay solution from preventing overwhelming the remaining firewall? I will try and answer your questions. Let me know if you need more info. 1. HA synchronizes IPsec security associations (SAs) between cluster members so that if a failover occurs, the by martin backup can resume IPsec sessions without having to cather willa, establish new SAs.

2. Active-active HA does not provide double the performance of a single FortiGate. The main idea of active-active HA is to distribute proxy-based security profile processing to all cluster units. Proxy-based security profile processing is CPU and memory-intensive, so active-active HA may help increase performance depending on the traffic you process. In the scenario you describe it seems likely to essay, me that the active-active cluster would start having performance problems even before a failure. After a failure the remaining FortiGate could become overwhelmed.

FortiOS can attempt to deal with high traffic loads by entering conserve mode to save memory. In general in this scenario I think the solution would be to upgrade your hardware or find ways to reduce the processing load on essay the cluster. Mfa Creative Writing Low Residency! I am not really qualified to talk about performance issues though. Perhaps Support or our Sales team could better answer this question. This cookbook ist just nothin worth.

Keep in mind that in real world, the most time a Cluster when creating or updating makes nothing than Troubles. Here should Fortigate make a real Firewall, with a Chance of no Default config, instead of crap Switch Interfaces or Default rules. I have two FGT-60C, I can it be HA? If you look at the Feature/Platform Matrix ( ), you can see which models support HA. Antonia Cather Essay! According to the chart, you should be able to set up HA with two FortiGate 60Cs. Is it possbiel to have HA cluster between Fortigate 200B and 200D? Because of the way HA synchronizes the configuration the hardware of the exercises good thesis statement FortiGates in the cluster must be identical. The 200B and 200D have different hardware and antonia essay willa, different configurations. In general the complete model numbers must be the same including the letters at the end. Is it possbiel to have HA cluster between Fortigate 200B and 200D? Unfortunately not.

The hardware model numbers, including the letter at the end, must be the exercises writing good same. First, an apology for taking so long to reply to antonia, your comment. Mfa Creative Writing Programs! Somehow we missed it #128577; Second, the HA Guide has some basic information about HA, L3 switches, and LACP but does not include a detailed example or a cookbook recipe. But we will add this recipe to our to do list. Here is a link to the HA Guide for FortiOS 5.2, open the PDF and search for antonia cather willa, LACP. This is writing if FortiGate Cluster connected directly to single L2 Switches, do you have any reference if FortiGate Clusters Connected directly to Mesh L3 Switches on large environment where FortiGate Clusters will be installed in antonia cather essay willa the middle between Active-Active Core L3 Switches and Active-Active DataCenter L3 Switches. Both Core and Data Center Switch is mfa creative writing Using LACP. The first picture shows Internal Network connected to WAN and antonia cather, Internet connected to Internal zones :S. The labels in programs the diagram have been corrected, thanks for pointing this out. I have a client with two FortiGate-100D appliances in the cluster, made contact to antonia cather, request a proposal for by martin luther, licensing high availability UTM.

Please please help me with the antonia essay willa BoM. There are no special high availability UTM licenses, you just need to license each individual FortiGate appliance for UTM. Sparknotes! Customer support should be able to provide you with any additional information. See for details about contacting them. Can you create an essay HA pair between Fortigate 300C and 300D? Both the model number and letter must match (in fact the hardware must be identical). So it is not possible to create an HA cluster between a FortiGate 300C and essay pattern in world history, 300D. How about HA with two firewalls and two ISPJoin the discussion.

Also What kind of switches you will recommend managed or un Managed? Can we use only one switch after ISP’s Routers ? Yes you can configure HA with two FortiGates and antonia willa, two ISPs. This would only require adding another network connection to the cluster. For example, if your FortiGates have WAN2 interfaces you would connect them in the same way as the WAN1 interface as described in the recipe. There are no HA-specific reasons to in world history, recommend managed or un-managed switches that I am aware of. Essay! This section has some information about managed switches and HA ( and we have plans for a managed switch and FortiAPs with HA recipe. Looks like we should also include dual ISPs in that recipe. You can use one switch after your IPS’s routers as long as each ISP’s traffic is separated on the switch.

I have a client with two FortiGate-100D appliances in on migration pattern in world history the cluster, made contact to request a proposal for cather, licensing high availability UTM.

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Video: President Isaias Afwerki Independence Day Speech. Ladies and Gentlemen. - turmoil, bloodshed and displacements in Iraq; - endless crises and disintegration in Somalia; - continuous turbulence in North and South Sudan;

- subversions weaved to antonia willa plunge Egypt back into crises as it starts to put its act together as if it wasn’t enough to paralyze the programs, country for 30 years; - chaos and destruction in cather essay willa, Libya; - turmoil and exercises good, vacuum in Yemen; - instigating tensions in the Nile Basin for hidden agendas; - incubating and antonia cather, deploying terrorist organizations with different labels to add chaos and destruction to chaos and destruction; - instigating and stoking misguided religious polarizations; and, - plunging the on migration pattern, entire region into interminable turmoil by undermining the regional organizations instead of allowing the countries of the cather, region to solve their own problems.

- In infrastructure: building of roads, power plants, water harvesting facilities, ports, airports, communications networks, and transport fleets; - In agriculture: development of seeds and animal husbandry that go beyond food security and 95 thesis by martin, sufficiency; - In Marine Resources: enhancing capacity to antonia cather essay exploit the fisheries potential ; - In manufacturing: development of modern value-adding processing capabilities in all categories of industry and good thesis, enterprises with the willa, aim of producing quality products for the domestic and exercises writing good, export markets; - In services: building sea and air services connectivity to enhance the growth of tourism both for domestic and foreign clients; - In Social Services: development and antonia cather, expansion of quality health and essays, education services to bolster the growth of human capital as well as to antonia essay acquire the necessary professional and technological expertise to implement all planned, sectoral, development projects and programmes. Victory to michel essays the Masses. Madote is an independent online media that focuses on the Horn of antonia Africa in general, and Eritrea in pattern history, particular. Antonia Cather Essay? For questions or article submissions, please send them to [email protected] ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????#4961;#4961;

??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????#4961; ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???#4961;#4961; ???????? ?????#4961;#4961; Initial impression , the President looks and sound old and tired. No, you sound old and tired. Long live PIA. Rora, hasot natkum woyanitos bezihu. Woyanitos, nezu jigna PIA ferihkumo. He's the symbol of low residency our resistance, the symbol of cather your defeat. Writing Statement? Long live PIA.

Hahaha, ab kereba euu zelo.ferah eko euu benay kale Jegenanet euu zeneberet zelo. Enquan Zenbobish Dirom Teza Nesh New Negeru Woyanewoch Silashenefu Qizen Qizen Bilotal=== Ayi Eidilu==. Why agame lemani come to this website. Antonia Essay Willa? They don't belong here. I just say to them, Yerdae'kum. AGAME: TIGRAY: Limena (begging) hasot (lying) sirki (stealing) tinkulana (wickedeness) natkum iya. Kedemina abotatna Libi Tigray Tiwiyway ilomo. Nihna Keyteweldna Kelena. (Before any of us were born, our forefathers called their Tigray neighbors Libi Tigray Tiwiyway. It looks like todays Agames Tigrays have not changed one bit. They are every bit the writing, liars and beggars that they were in the past. Hence, the antonia essay, saying Libi Tigray Tiwiyway lives on and is being passed on to the michel sparknotes, next generation.

Eritreans will always despise you Tigray people. How many times did he tell us that the necessary infrastructure buildings had reached the stage where fast multi faceted development would be launched? The question we must all Eritreans, oppenents and antonia cather essay, suporters, ask is: Why does isaias afewerki repeat the same mantra knowing full well that what he had promised all 24 Mays in the past only gave birth to catastroph after catastrophe for our people and country? You are praising an AGAME president and at the same time you call Eritreans agame, what a joke you are. The only difference from the last 14 years speech of the essay on migration history, dictator is when he mentioned the year 2015!! Eri-Tv could have aired any of antonia essay willa his previous speeches and no one would have noticed that it is an old speech, because it is the same boring repeative speech. America, America , America every year. He is so arrogant he didn't even mention what he promised in last year's speech where he said he will implement a constitution.

Only fools belive that this mad dog is paul essay, capable of cather essay willa reform. The central cause for our never ending saga is rieckhoff essay, isaias afewerki and we must wage unrelenting war on him until he is completely gone. That was what we did with Ethiopia and it can be different with isaias afewerki. So with other words you despise Issays, Kisa, both Yemanes, Abraham Kasa (head of security), Eri-TV Asmelash and many more in the mad dogs inner cirecle. Antonia? What does this people have in common?

Yes they are all AGAMES. Agame Lemani Yerdae'ka. That's all I gotta say to you. . by low residency programs, the struggle and sacrifices paid to preserve and build it. This is a continuous process. Vision is our motto! Let us see our future together in advance. we must work hard with patience and diligence . This is needed from each and every Eritrean nationality. That was why all the sacrifices were needed to independent Eritrea. As usual this years the Tyrant's speech is empty and boring! Any one can predict what he said without listening his speech because all the time he said the same boring things.

He always blames the west for his own failures coupled with EMPTY promises. He is the ONLY CANCER of Eritrea and he should be removed so that Eritrea could go in antonia willa, the right direction. Ata neti Hmbashana Hmbasha Tigray ewn serikekumwo? Eway tsegem!! Akedadnan kunon adietatna adietat Tigray misrak keyiaklekums kolay eti Hmbashana?

Lemani, worry about your own country. None of paul rieckhoff essay your business. Agame, not your country, so mind your business and antonia cather, attend to your fake election. Tommic; Obviously you have no idea as to what you are saying! Your ulterior motive and agenda aside you seem to be disappointed by the brilliance of our President! Yes, thanks to our brilliant leaders we will succeed and mfa creative writing low residency, build a prosperous and peaceful state.

The fact is antonia cather essay, Eritrea is blessed to have leaders like PIA and his colleagues. Essay On Migration? Long live our Eritrean leaders! The ward Cancer is cather, appropriate for individuals or groups who are happy to michel de montaigne lie time and again, for essay, the destruction of a nation and cold bloodedly mass murder of tens of exercises good statement thousands of innocent people as happened in Iraq/Afghanistan/Libya/Syria . etc. For your info, see the following links to broaden you horizon how your evil masters manage to cause havoc all over the world. Like always--- Just STFU qomalat Agame. worry about ur u failed state Ethiopia. Like always u came on behalf of essay ur dying opposition groups. STFU qomalat Agame, men kem seb m's hasebekum eu ke na'akum Agametata guahafat. For the enemies of Eritrea / Eritrean people; It must be repeated that, Eritrea is not for sale!

Eritrea belongs to the Eritreans! It merely highlights that, how petrified and desperately paranoid you are to see the slender progress our nation is making under his brilliant leadership! So engrossed and asphyxiated with our country's fortunes and paul essay, quality of essay willa leadership you seem to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes have lost your sense of good and bad and essay, are in the brink of essay history losing your souls. KKKKK, you are praising an AGAME president and his inner circles who are mostly AGAMES (Kisha, Monkey, Asmelash Eri-TV, Abraham Kasa) etc and you dare to call Eritreans AGAME :), why do you think the dictator chose those people with identity complex like you, because you have to much too lose with him gone. We the antonia cather willa, real 100%, not fake 2% Eritreans are proud being Eritreans and doesnt suffer of identity complex like you and your AGAME president. Ha,ha,ha,ha. 95 Thesis? Ala Agame ur inferiority is to antonia essay willa blame all the Paranoia ur having to claim everything thats Eritrea.

Listen wedzom te'lamat the only advice i can give u is--- kill ur self. Essay? thats the only way. U weyane online cadres are everywhere this days LOL. Agame we don't like u ever, swallow it, its the truth. Thanks, you put it correctly. The million dollar question, do you and I have the cather, wisdom to appreciate what we got? Do we have the by martin, intellect to essay willa understand as to why Eritrea is an oasis of peace and harmony? Have we ever gone back in time to know where we were yesterday, where we are today, and to 95 thesis by martin luther where we are heading come morning? Let me repeat it.

Have ever gone back to the recent past to antonia cather essay remember where we were yesterday. We should, if we are not to repeat the same mistakes that are all around us. 95 Thesis? I think it time to count our blessings and cather, appreciate what we got. 95 Thesis? Last but not least, it is time to give gratitude to cather willa the bigger than life Eritrean leaders who brought us to where we are today and still they are at it are paving to michel de montaigne essays road to the bright future. The Promised Land is just around the corner, if we keep marching.

But, we need the wisdom to learn from the mistakes of others if we are to be there. ?????? ????, ???? ??? ? ? ???? ??? ????? ??????. ' Last but not least, it is time to give gratitude to the bigger than. life Eritrean leaders who brought us to where we are today and still. they are at antonia cather willa it are paving to the great essay road to antonia essay willa the bright future. ' People who've spent decades fighting for and serving their land and were rewarded with indefinite imprisonment by the leader for life. What is your message to 95 thesis by martin them and their families on this 24th anniversary of Eritrea's independence that they too fought so hard to achieve? PIA always delievers. Last year he warned those who built dwellings without having the antonia cather willa, necessary permit. Those who didn't adher his warning had their illegal built homes demolished.

There his no doubt the Eritrean leadership will bring the paul essay, corrupt to book too. Antonia Cather Essay? Watch out the space!! Don't be stupid. Say If a parent was to commute a heinous crime against his 30 year old son/ daughter, do you think the parent will face no consequence just because the 95 thesis by martin luther, parent raised the child? Ha,ha,ha. why didn't u say that in ma name--or are u scared LOL. Berhane my message to the people you mentioned is shy did you starry from the noble cause of essay Eritrea for Eritreans? to the families is schism, don't take it as a personal ask your beloved what have they done and seek to speak to Eritreans than outsiders!! Tewelde you appear to be confused agame. ala agame tgebra; DEMHIT is clogging your Dedebit mind. The one who stole and antonia cather essay willa, hijacked what people fought for is your AGAME president and rieckhoff, his inner circles of people with identity complex as their leader.. Those afro-mentioned Eritreans are true Eritrean heroes.

asdagi yebedelw and balegie woyne seraqi. KKKKKK, he will just use the corruption warning to cather essay willa imprison those whom he doesnt like anymore. How can someone talk about corruption when he himself and paul rieckhoff essay, his inner circles has stolen 700M dollar of antonia essay willa our money? Thanks to writing statement HSBC Swiss we know better. You blind supporters have zero IQ, what do you expect people to cather essay do when this mad dog has stopped all private house construction for the last 12 years? If you are one of those diaspora born ignorants, let me tell you this, in Issays Eritrea it is not allowed for writing, private citizens to build house or do renovation, this has been a law since 2003. Who in cather essay, his right mind forbids construction business which could have created many job opportunities. At the end of the day, what can sonmeone expect from people like Issays who suffers from identity complex and hate the Eritrean people. ?? ?? ???? 24,1991 ???? ???? ??? ????? : ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????#4965; ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? '?? ???? ?? ????..' : '???? ???????..' : '??-??.. ' ???? ????? :????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??? #4967; ??? ???- ???-??-??-??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? #4967; ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???. ?? ???? ???? #4965; ???? ????#4965; ???? ???? #4965; ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? (??) ???? ?? . ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????#4963; ???? ?? ???? ???#4962; ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????#4962; ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???#4963; ??? ???????#4963; ?? ???? ??? ?????#4963; ???? ????? ????#4962; ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ?????.. ???? ??? ??? ????? ???'? ????? ?????#4962; ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??-?? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?'????? ????? ??'?????? ??: ?? ???? ??? ??? #4964;??? ???? ??? ??? ????#4962; ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? '??????' ???? '???? ?? ??? ???' ???? ???? ??? ???? ???#4962; ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??#4964; ?? ???? ???? ??? ??#4964; ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????#4962; Hahaha you dont have to be angry my friend.

You will understand one day the value of eritrean tradition. I don't get angry but i get happy to see u people get old--and rotting in 95 thesis, a foreign country. what is there to be angry, what did u so called opposition-groups achive to get us angry. can u name one? :) Mentally deficient people take the cather essay, words of crafty people for the truth. You may be one of essay on migration pattern history them. But no patriotic Eritrean can say that all those who call themselves eritreans and who are cheering isaias afewekl's reign of cather terror are genuine Eritreans. To be a traitor can take one second, no matter how many years one struggled. What about this man? Didn't he fight for 40 years? No ugum is gonna be allowed to give us non-existent guilty conscience.

My people are gladly applauding their president. Loud and clear. Prove it, you cock sucker. Keep on good thesis wishing wicked people while Eritreans kept the essay willa, country one and going strong the likes of you keep on barking but mark my word your days are numbered no more of your bull anymore. Another idiot in 95 thesis, need of cather essay refocusing. you just don't build housing without the first putting in place the necessary infrastructure such as water pipes, electric wiring, waste drainage etc. Do you get it now retard? The pictures in your profile even hatsea tedroses agame. why are u insulting your own picture and your owen president? ? FYI- Mr. 95 Thesis? twisted heart--wedzom mai telamit--ma profile pic is cather, --Young black jesus, u can Google it. seraqi. wedzom sahsah qomalat. trying to exercises good twist everything to suit ur selves, you're pathetic qomal Agame. And this is my version.

And this is ma version. And this is ma kinda version ha,ha,ha. Cather? I know u hate ma profile pic--bcuz, the **ERI-FLAG** makes ur eyes dizzy-bcuz--- u are Sahsah Agame. Exercises Good Thesis? :) Ras-be-Ras bebHade nEne belen Alec Arkey LOL. Testa nay Eritrawayan kab Hlmi Abay Tgray tebarabir mukhana ayfeleTan alewa mesleni LOL LOL LOL.

Dont touch this ! bele derafay:) Koshem-shem ms deqikhi gedifki. Go to your oldish agaminos instead LOL LOL. You're joking right? Peace and Harmony, are you talking about Eritrea, which has been in a no peace, no war footing for the majority of cather her existence. gratitude to the bigger than life Eritrean leaders who brought us to exercises good thesis statement where we are today are you talking about Eritrea today, which is essay willa, number one in michel sparknotes, refugees (maybe number two now, not sure about Syria) or the fact you can't mention a single pillar of the economy which is feeding the people. What promise land are you talking about and please explain to cather the people, why aren't you there helping Eritrea get there if you believe she is on 95 thesis the right path? Yes, but you can't tell us, where you got information that these men where traitors, other than government propaganda. No trail, no evidence presented or witnesses brought forth. Antonia Cather Willa? All you have to go on is the sparknotes, word of a dictator or his mouth piece. If Eritrea belongs to Eritreans how come the people leading the country are AGAME (Isiasias, Yemane Monkey, Yemane Charlie, Hagos Kisha)?

Are you not living and cather willa, getting old in foreign land my friend? I came up in 2011 from on migration pattern in world history Barentu after spending 3 years teaching i know the pain of my people and cather willa, i saw the life in Eritrea and michel de montaigne sparknotes, i am very happy here. can wait til the cather willa, dictator is michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, gone for antonia cather essay, good. Okay as u wish. Mfa Creative Low Residency? but let me ask u one thing, politics aside, why not help and demonstrate to end the occupation of Eritrean land-Badme- by the Ethiopian govt. don't u think that will help to end the long military-service?. Don't u think if that ends, elections wouldn't start?. what is it with u so called opposition-groups no one ever heard u even mentioned about *Badme*. Don't u think that will help the antonia cather, Eri-pple that u claim to care about- what is the problem. is it bcuz u pple are cahoots with enemy(woyane) and if u talk about badme the 95 thesis by martin luther, support u get from the antonia cather, US woyane will sever. is that it. By Martin Luther? its like badme is ur ticket to keep Eritrea in the dark with the enemies. and u said u care wow. ???? ??#4961; ????? ????. yonatan guy from the Radio.LOL. - If u believe in antonia cather essay willa, what ur preach, but i doubt u want do that u are very happy liven in ur precious America. cuz, just like those so called opposition-groups. they preach. for someone to fight their battle, so they can come and schism essay, live a rich life, while that someone becomes history. like i said..??????#4961;?? ??????!! Remember--Action speak more than words ma dear Rora. Don't we demonstrated for the last 12 years or so about weyane being in Badme. what if they say no? Should we be hostages of no war no peace til we become with out menisy? What if Weyane stays in Badme for the next 100 years. what we need is a strong government and antonia cather essay, institutions that can counter attack them militarily and essay pattern history, deplomatic wise.

In the way that we are going now we are only destroying ourselves to become nomansland. Thats my consern, lets start cleaning our house by implementing justice and institutions so that we will become strong enough to face weyane. That is antonia willa, understandable . No one is arguing the situation is ideal, but What is Eritrea suppose to do? Demobilize their pple and be invaded by any excuse like their neighboring Somalia or Yemen?? Or Demobilize their pple and the great schism essay, revert to the likes of their basket-case neighbor Ethiopia.

Ethiopian oppositions. isn't that a counter attack. and. forget the cather essay willa, the diplomatic scheme with woyane. they will not live badme, bcuz badme is their back-bone of their political agenda, without it. they will lose the. credibility of the Tigray pple. and the USA sent an aircraft carrier task force to the Red Sea and told Eritrea if they did so, the USA would attack them. So, the only smart thing to essay do is antonia cather essay, a regime change thru the Ethio-oppositions. and then we. trusting those so called opposition-groups, they're doing more harm than good for short term gains. bcuz they always have the help from the south to luther make Eritrea hostage in-order to further their agenda about the regime change and grab-power. the opposition-groups are compromised.

These so called opposition groups are even divided against antonia themselves by tribalism, regionalism, and religious fanaticism. So, Rora--I guess better the devil u know. Are we not mobilizing our young forever by chasing them out side the exercises writing thesis statement, country. if you have a connection in the eritrean army you would know how many we lost in the structure. for example when i was there onemesrie used to be 12 members. and antonia essay, one ganta more or less 36 personal, now mesrie is exercises writing good, about 2-3 and ganta up to 8-9 you see how much of our young we lost. This is what happens if you try to force people against their will..i remember in 1998 , when they were told to essay go to their regiments every body was happily cooperating. you do this when you are satisfied. Look at as now so plz don't tell me we are strong enough to face weyane. We have outdated leadership. don't get me wrong they did superb job for our independence but they couldn't handle free Eritrea. Paul Rieckhoff? they shoul step down and hand their power to the people. it's just too much sitting in power for 24 years. Power corrupt people and absolute power corrupts absolutely..

I know about our army. even tho some are leaven the antonia cather willa, country, we have strong army that can stand against. woyane's aggression. Mfa Creative Writing? i will repeat again **we are strong enough to face weyane. Remember when woyane said they attacked camps inside Eritrea's territory at the border back in 2012. Antonia? Well, what they didn't tell the exercises statement, world was, they attacked the Ethio-opposition groups inside the Ethiopian border not inside Eritrea. woyane will never start a war thru badme bcuz that will be the start of a full war-they can't offered that. And if we do not have enough Army to defend Eri-like u are claiming- then what is stopping woyane from invading Eritrea. ask that to ur self..If our border wasn't impenetrable . We would be invaded like Somalia long time ago--And the woyane-tigary would be dancing on our grave right now. Regarding the cather, constitution the dictator said it is dead , who gave him the power to the great schism essay say so if he is essay, not sick. the power to amend the document is on the parliament not president, its even stated in eplfs regulation. He has been degrading eritrean and EPLFs values for along time now. if he thinks he will come up with his own constitution he is dead wrong, it will only widen our problem what we are missing now are institutions, his word had been the rule in the great essay, Eritrea for cather, long now. we should said enough is enough for by martin, our cauntry and peoples sake. The Eritrean government have the obligation to change the constitution---Bcuz The 1997 Constitution was authored by Bereket Habte Selassie.----- And Bereket Habte Selassie, who is married to essay an Ethiopian woman, is a man that has dedicated his life to aligning himself with successive Ethiopian regimes against the Eritrean people. From Haliseassie to the Derg to the current TPLF junta, Bereket has been a consistent friend of Ethiopian dictatorships.---- Bereket Habte-Selassie is loyal to Ethiopia not to Eritrea. Ethiopians.

Historically, culturally speaking as I tried to explain today. And my wish, my hope before I die is that we come back together in a larger unity transcending all these divisions. dream is to see Eritrea reunited with Ethiopia before he dies. *** So-It was a mistake to make him the Constitution Chair. A big mistake. Dear Alec. let me tell you something our constitution is pattern in world, not written by one man, Bereket was the head of the committee but he was not alone. the whole eritrean people participated and at last it went to the national assembly wich comprises more than 300 members, and at the end the national assembly decided the document to be implemented. Antonia? so how come you said that it's one man's document do you think the people and overall the members of national assembly wich they went through a lot of luther debates and arguements for monthes which they finally agreed to be implemented dummies. come on you are better than that. P.s-The eritrean government do not have responsibility nor obligation to amend or change the document. Read it it's writen in 1994 convention in Nakfa by EPLFs central committee. Nebsi u misunderstood me- I know our constitution is not written by cather, one man..but also by the likes of essay him.---i was just pointing out the pple that was, had a hand on the constitution the heads of the committee- hence some of them..they did it in-order to manipulate the system later on. maybe they think it would make their agenda to go forward, by cather, implanting constitution. Mfa Creative Low Residency? yes at that time implementing the essay willa, constitution was marbles-idea.. but their intention was never about democracy. it was all about power and 95 thesis by martin luther, money. they gave priority to their personal interests and tried to sell the nation to outsiders. so they share a common guilt:- at the minimum, abdication of responsibility during Eritrea's difficult hours, at the maximum, grave conspiracy. so why not make it something that can't be manipulate by foreign powers.

And no matter what people's needs is. the essay, country come first. Anyways I wish to see the michel essays, constitution being implemented. and our misery and essay, migration end with it, we suffered for too long and we deserve peaceful, democratic and prosperous Eritrea. if we need that we start it here and now, degefti, tekawemti. we should narrow the differences and work for the betterment of our nation because with out each and essay, every one of antonia willa us prosperous Eritrea is exercises thesis, just a dream.

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abortion photo essay Copyright 2007. Antonia Essay Willa. All Rights Reserved. No images or any part of the website can be reproduced without written consent from The Grantham Collection. By Martin. The Grantham Collection condemns all abortion-related violence. Essay. ABORTION INSTRUMENTS ARCHIVE. The largest abortion instrument collection in the world. From Modern instruments to the 16th century. The most gruesome medical instruments ever made were designed for abortion. INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS USED IN SURGICAL ABORTION.

Click on the images below to enlarge. MVA is used to abort a child from 6 weeks to 12 weeks of age. This handheld syringe works by creating its own vacuum/suction. MVAs are used and by martin luther, reused millions of times a year around the world. The major problem with the MVA is that it has a very weak vacuum. Antonia Cather Essay. This means that the child is ripped apart slowly. One side of the loop is sharp for cutting the child apart. The other side scrapes the uterus to remove the placenta. This abortion instrument's uses include injecting saltwater into the uterus. The baby swallows and breathes the poison. The cause of the death is congestion, hemorrhage and on migration pattern in world history, shock.

The mother goes into premature labor about a day later and delivers a dead child. The other use is to inject the chemicals (digoxin, potassium chloride, etc.) into the heart of the baby. In both uses, these harsh chemicals soften the child's corpse, making it easier to rip apart and remove. This abortion tool is used to crush, grasp, and pull the cather child's body apart. This instrument is used to cut off the head, arms and legs. For dividing the crown of the essay baby from crown to base. This perforator was used to perform a craniotomy. on the baby as the preliminary process in collapsing. the skull, which would allow subsequent extraction. This abortion intrument's purpose was to hold the baby's head with. the spiked ends. Once the head was held, a long thin probe was. pushed deep into cather willa, the skull like a sword.

The instrument held the baby's head, so once it was cut off, it would not float around in the uterus. This abortion instrument was used to crush. the baby's skull so as to allow the extraction. 95 Thesis By Martin Luther. This abortion instrument works by pushing the spike into the child's head. Once it is inside, the button is pushed. When it flattens, you can pull the child out. This abortion instrument was used to. cut off the cather essay baby's head, legs and arms.

This abortion tool was used to grab and mfa creative writing, rip the baby out. This abortion instrument was used to decapitate the child. This abortion instrument's only function was to take out the child's decapitated head. This abortion instrument was used to stab into the. baby. The handles would be squeezed, which would. then open the antonia blades. You can imagine the rest of it. This abortion instrument has a long knife blade. Paul Rieckhoff Essay. that is pushed deep into the baby's head.

It has a. blade adjustment and cather essay, a shield to protect the uterus. The folded hooks are positioned around the the great essay back of the neck and the. handles turn apart 180 degrees causing the cervical spine to fracture. This abortion instrument was used to drill a hole in. the baby's head to collapse the skull for essay, extraction. This abortion instrument was used to capture. the baby's head once it was cut off. This abortion instrument was used to bore a. hole in the baby's skull to allow easier extraction. The Great Schism Essay. Top abortion instrument was used to scoop out the. brain. Middle abortion instrument is a double hook.

Bottom abortion instrument is a single hook. This abortion instrument was used for. Antonia Cather. perforating and crushing the baby's head. These abortion instruments were designed to be pushed. into the baby's skull and opened, cutting it into pieces. This abortion instrument was used for obtaining a firm grasp. of the baby's head.

The heavy crochet has 3 sharp teeth and. Schism Essay. was applied to the outside and cather willa, inside of the cranium. This abortion instrument was used to crush and flatten the baby's head. Essay In World History. This abortion instrument has a serrated edge. so cutting the baby's head off would be easier. This abortion instrument was screwed into the baby's head, causing it to collapse for an easier extraction. These abortion instruments were screwed into the baby's head. Once inside the head, the handle was pushed down allowing. a sharp knife to come out and cut the skull into pieces. This abortion instrument was used to pull out. the baby. Usually, it only took out a little at a time.

It also guarded against rupturing the uterus. This abortion tool was designed to hook into the. baby without ripping into the uterus. The olive-shaped end is screwed into the baby's skull. and the hinged blade is passed over antonia cather willa the baby's head causing it to split. These abortion instruments were used to grasp the inside and the. outside of the baby's head by stabbing one end of the instrument into the cranium. The teeth would grab into the skull allowing for extraction. The basilyst was used for the perforation of the schism baby's skull.

It was screwed in and then the handles pulled down, splitting the head. This abortion instrument was used to cut off the baby's head. This abortion instrument was used by stabbing the sharp edge into. the baby's head and then cutting it apart with the built-in scissors. This abortion tool has a long spike that comes out. and goes deep into the baby's cranium. This abortion instrument screws into the child's head, allowing for an easier extraction. This abortion instrument was applied to the baby's head. and then twisted, causing portions of the skull to antonia, rip off. These abortion instruments were used to bore a hole in. the baby's head, allowing an easy collapse for programs, extraction. This abortion instrument has large teeth to grip and crush the baby's head. This abortion instrument was used to crush and flatten the baby's head.

This abortion instrument was used to essay willa, stab into the baby's head. In World. This abortion instrument was used for crushing the baby's skull. Presented to Surgeon W.C. Johnson. By the members of 109th Regiment. The purpose of this abortion instrument was to get. a better grip of the baby's head before crushing it. These abortion instruments were involved in the. Antonia Essay. extraction of the baby by collapsing the skull. The joint. mechanism allowed the point to essay, be opened within the willa skull.

There were hundreds of designs. They were used. to stab into the baby's head, tearing it into pieces. This abortion instrument was used to crush and flatten the mfa creative low residency programs baby's head. For gripping and crushing. This abortion instrument was used to take out body parts. After breaking off the baby's skull with a perforator, the crochet is inserted into cather willa, the cranium and pulled. Used to exercises, grab and rip the baby out. This abortion instrument was used to grip and antonia essay willa, pull.

These abortion instruments were used to cut off the head, arms and legs. Rieckhoff. Details to come. This abortion instrument was twisted to snap the baby's neck. This abortion instrument was used to bore a hole in. the child's head, allowing an easy collapse for extraction. This abortion instrument was used to remove body parts of the baby. Once this abortion instrument is cather close to the baby's neck, you turn the wheel on the handle. It would curl around the neck; then you could twist it, causing the the great neck to break. This abortion instrument was used to bore a hole in. the child's head, allowing an easy collapse for extraction. This abortion instrument was used to grab and pull. out pieces of the baby's skull after a craniotomy.

This abortion instrument was used to. dismember and/or decapitate the baby. This instrument opens the vagina and is used to antonia, aid in abortion. twisted causing it to paul rieckhoff, turn into a T. Then, a decapitator. was used allowing the baby's head to be extracted. This tool, used for dilating the essay cervix, were used for abortions. Abortion tonics date back to ancient times, and were common throughout the centuries. On Migration Pattern History. This cruel death. by poisoning made the child suffer for weeks. Abortion instruments were used because the abortion tonics failed most of the time. One is an aphrodisiac (left image), and antonia cather, one is for killing the child (right image). Abortion Tonic in a Glass Bottle shaped like a baby. Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved. No images or any part of the website can be reproduced without written consent from The Grantham Collection. The Grantham Collection condemns all abortion-related violence.

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control essay gun ( Kan. Essay Willa? J.L. Pub. Pol'y , Winter 1995, at 17) Clayton E. Cramer. The historical record provides compelling evidence that racism underlies gun control laws #151; and not in any subtle way.

Throughout much of American history, governments openly stated that gun control laws were useful for keeping blacks and Hispanics in their place and for michel, quieting the racial fears of whites. Racist arms laws predate the establishment of the antonia willa United States. This is not surprising. Blacks in the New World were often slaves, and revolts against slave owners often degenerated into less selective forms of racial warfare. The perception that free blacks were sympathetic to writing good thesis statement the plight of their enslaved brothers and the dangerous example that blacks could actually handle freedom often led New World governments to disarm all blacks, both slave and antonia, free. Starting in 1751, the French Black Code required Louisiana colonists to stop any blacks and, if necessary, beat any black carrying any potential weapon, such as a cane. (1) If a black refused to stop on demand and was on exercises writing, horseback, the colonist was authorized to shoot to kill. (2) In Louisiana, the fear of antonia cather essay, Indian attack and the importance of hunting to the colonial economy necessitated that slaves sometimes possess firearms. The colonists had to balance their fear of the Indians against their fear of their slaves. As a result, French Louisiana passed laws that allowed slaves and free blacks to possess firearms only writing, under very controlled conditions. (3) Similarly, in the sixteenth century the colony of New Spain, terrified of black slave revolts, prohibited all blacks, free and slave, from carrying arms. (4) Often the relationship between racism and antonia, gun control was direct and programs, obvious. On other occasions the connection was more complex.

One example of a complex relationship between economic struggle, slavery, and possession of arms can be found in seventeenth-century Virginia. The aristocratic power structure of colonial Virginia confronted a political challenge from essay, lower class whites. These poor whites resented how the men who controlled the government used that power to concentrate wealth into a small number of hands. These wealthy feeders at the government trough would have disarmed poor whites, but the threat of both Indian and rieckhoff, pirate attack made this impractical; all white men were armed and had to be armed. (5) Instead of empowering poor whites, blacks, who had occupied a poorly defined status between indentured servant and antonia cather essay willa, slave, were reduced to hereditary chattel slavery. In this way poor whites could be economically advantaged without the upper class having to give up its privileges. (6) In the Haitian Revolution of the 1790s, the paul rieckhoff slave population successfully threw off their French masters.

As the Revolution degenerated into a race war, existing fears increased in the French Louisiana colony and among whites in the American slave states. Cather Essay? (7) When the first U.S. Writing? official arrived in New Orleans in 1803 to take charge of the new American possession, the planters sought to have the existing free black militia disarmed and otherwise exclude free blacks from antonia cather essay, positions in which they were required to bear arms. Programs? This exclusion included such nonmilitary functions as slave-catching crews. (8) The New Orleans city government also stopped whites from teaching fencing to free blacks, and then, when free blacks sought to teach fencing, the city similarly prohibited their efforts as well. Antonia Cather? (9) Restrictions on slave possession of arms in the North American English colonies go back a very long way as well. Arms restrictions on 95 thesis luther, free blacks in slave states, while present, at least allowed free blacks to obtain a license to possess a gun in their homes, or with good reason, to antonia essay even carry a gun. Whites were not similarly restricted. Arms restrictions on mfa creative writing low residency, free blacks increased dramatically after Nat Turner's Rebellion in 1831 caused the South to become increasingly irrational in its fears. (10) In response to Turners Rebellion, the Virginia Legislature made it illegal for free blacks to keep or carry any firelock of any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead. (11) In addition, the existing law under which free blacks were occasionally licensed to possess or carry arms was repealed, thus making arms possession completely illegal for free blacks. (12) But even before this action by the Virginia Legislature, in the aftermath of Turner's Rebellion, the discovery that a free black family possessed lead shot for use as scale weights, but did not have powder or a weapon in which to fire it, was considered sufficient reason for a frenzied mob to discuss summary execution of the owner. (13) The fear of armed blacks had become so extreme that dogs were considered weapons.

Maryland prohibited free blacks from owning dogs without a license and authorized any white to kill an unlicensed dog owned by a free black. Antonia Essay? (14) Mississippi went further and prohibited any ownership of exercises good statement, a dog by a black person, without even a provision for licensed ownership. (15) Provisions in the 1834 Tennessee Constitution further reveal whites' increasing fear of armed blacks. Article XI, Section 26 of the 1796 Tennessee Constitution read: That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. Antonia Essay? (16) The 1834 constitution was revised to: That the free white men of the great schism, this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. Antonia Essay Willa? (17) It is not clear what else could have motivated this change other than Turner's bloody insurrection. The year before the new constitution was adopted, the Tennessee Supreme Court had recognized the right to bear arms as an 95 thesis luther individual guarantee, but there is no evidence that this decision caused the antonia cather essay willa change. (18) Other court decisions during the antebellum period were unambiguous about the importance of race. In State v. Huntly, the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized that the North Carolina Constitution guaranteed a right to carry arms, as long as such arms were carried in a manner not likely to frighten people. (19) The following year the North Carolina Supreme Court decided State v. Newsom. The full significance of the Newsom decision would not be apparent until after the essay Civil War and passage of the essay willa Fourteenth Amendment. An 1840 statute provided: That if any free negro, mulatto, or free person of color, shall wear or carry about his or her person, or keep in his or her house, any shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie-knife, unless he or she shall have obtained a licence therefor from the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of his or her county, within one year preceding the paul rieckhoff essay wearing, keeping or carrying thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be indicted therefor. (20) Elijah Newsom, a free person of color, was indicted under the Statute in essay Cumberland County in June of michel sparknotes, 1843 for carrying a shotgun without a license #151; at the very time the North Carolina Supreme Court was deciding Huntly . (21) A jury convicted Newsom, but the trial judge directed a not guilty verdict, and the state appealed to the North Carolina Supreme Court. (22) Newsom's attorney argued that the Statute, which required free blacks to cather obtain a license to keep and bear arms, violated both the Second Amendment to the U.S.

Constitution and the North Carolina Constitution's similar guarantee. De Montaigne Essays? (23) The North Carolina Supreme Court refused to accept that the Second Amendment was a limitation on state laws. The court, however, also had to deal with the problem of its own state constitutional guarantees, which had been used in deciding the Huntly decision the year before. Article seventeen of the 1776 North Carolina Constitution declared: That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. (24) The Newsom court asserted that: We cannot see that the act of 1840 is in antonia essay willa conflict with it. . . . The defendant is not indicted for carrying arms in defence of the State, nor does the act of good thesis statement, 1840 prohibit him from so doing. (25) But in Huntly , the court had acknowledged that the seemingly restrictive language for the defence of the antonia cather essay willa State included an individual right. (26) The Newsom court then attempted to justify the necessity of this law: Its only object is to essay in world preserve the peace and safety of the community from being disturbed by essay an indiscriminate use, on ordinary occasions, by free men of color, of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, fire arms or other arms of an offensive character. Self preservation is the first law of antonia cather willa, nations, as it is of individuals. (27) The North Carolina Supreme Court also sought to repudiate the idea that North Carolina's Bill of pattern history, Rights protected free blacks by pointing out that it excluded free blacks from voting.

Therefore, the court reasoned, free blacks were not citizens. But unlike a number of other state constitutions that limit the willa right to michel de montaigne keep and bear arms to citizens , (28) Article seventeen of the North Carolina Bill of Rights guaranteed this right to the people (29) #151; and try as hard as they might, it was difficult to argue that a free person of color, in the words of the court, was not one of the people. It is one of the great ironies that, in much the antonia cather essay same way that the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized a right to bear arms in 1843 #151; then a year later declared that free blacks were not included #151; the Georgia Supreme Court did likewise before the close of the decade. The Georgia Supreme Court found in Nunn v. State that a statute prohibiting the sale of concealable handguns, sword-canes, and daggers violated the good Second Amendment: The right of the whole people, old and antonia cather willa, young, men, women and boys, and not militia only, to keep and bear arms of every description, and not such merely as are used by the militia , shall not be infringed , curtailed, or broken in upon, in the smallest degree; and all this for the important end to be attained: the rearing up and qualifying a well-regulated militia, so vitally necessary to the security of a free State. Exercises Writing Good? Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is antonia cather willa, repugnant to the Constitution, and void, which contravenes this right , originally belonging to our forefathers, trampled under foot by Charles I. and his two wicked sons and 95 thesis luther, successors, reestablished by the revolution of 1688, conveyed to this land of liberty by the colonists, and antonia cather willa, finally incorporated conspicuously in schism our own Magna Charta! And Lexington, Concord, Camden, River Raisin, Sandusky, and antonia cather essay willa, the laurel-crowned field of New Orleans, plead eloquently for this interpretation! (30) Finally, after this paean to liberty #151; in a state where much of the population remained enslaved and forbidden by law to pattern possess arms of any sort #151; the court defined the valid limits of laws restricting the bearing of arms: We are of the opinion, then, that so far as the act of willa, 1837 seeks to suppress the practice of carrying certain weapons secretly , that it is valid, inasmuch as it does not deprive the citizen of michel sparknotes, his natural right of self-defence, or of his constitutional right to keep and cather essay, bear arms.

But that so much of it, as contains a prohibition against bearing arms openly , is in conflict with the Constitution, and void . . . . (31) Citizen? Within a single page, the court had gone from right of the whole people, old and michel essays sparknotes, young, men, women and boys to the much more narrow right of a citizen. The motivation for this sudden narrowing of the right #151; that blacks were not citizens #151; appeared two years later. Cooper and willa, Worsham v. Mayor of Savannah was not principally a right to keep and bear arms case.

In 1839, the city of Savannah, Georgia, in an admitted effort to prevent the increase of free persons of color in our city, had established a one hundred dollar per year tax on rieckhoff essay, free blacks moving into Savannah from other parts of Georgia. Samuel Cooper and Hamilton Worsham, two free persons of color, were convicted of failing to pay the tax and essay, were jailed. (32) On appeal, counsel for Cooper and Worsham argued that the schism ordinance establishing the tax was deficient in essay a number of technical areas. (33) Of most interest to mfa creative low residency us is counsel's assertion that [i]n Georgia, free persons of color have constitutional rights. . . . (34) Cooper and Worsham's counsel argued that these included the cather right to writ of habeas corpus, the right to own real estate, the right to be subject to taxation, and the right to sue and be sued. Their counsel cited a number of low residency, precedents under Georgia law in defense of their position. (35) Justice Warner delivered the court's opinion. One portion of the opinion shows the fundamental relationship between citizenship, arms, and elections, and why gun control laws were an essential part of defining blacks as non-citizens: Free persons of color have never been recognized here as citizens; they are not entitled to bear arms, vote for cather, members of the legislature, or to hold any civil office. (36) The Georgia Supreme Court did agree that the ordinance jailing Cooper and writing low residency, Worsham for nonpayment was illegal and ordered their release, (37) but the comments of the court make it clear that their brave words in Nunn v. Antonia Cather Willa? State about the right of the writing good thesis statement people really only meant white people. (38) Finally, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, the U.S.

Supreme Court showed that it shared this understanding that citizenship excluded blacks and antonia cather essay, explained the relationship between citizenship and the carrying of arms: It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and writing statement, without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of cather willa, speech in by martin luther public and in private upon antonia cather essay willa all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to writing good keep and carry arms wherever they went . And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and endangering the antonia cather essay peace and writing good thesis statement, safety of the State. (39) While settled parts of the cather willa South were in great fear of armed blacks, concerns about Indian attack often forced relaxation of these rules on the frontier. The 1798 Kentucky Comprehensive Act allowed slaves and free blacks on frontier plantations to keep and use guns, powder, shot, and weapons, offensive and defensive. (40) Unlike whites, however, free blacks and slaves were required to have a license to carry weapons. (41) Blacks needed to carry arms for self-defense not only against criminal attacks that any person, white or black, might worry about, but they also needed arms for protection against the additional hazard of being kidnapped and sold into slavery. (42) A number of states, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, passed laws specifically to prohibit kidnapping of free blacks. These states were concerned that the Federal Fugitive Slave Laws would be used as cover for re-enslavement. (43) The end of slavery in 1865 did not eliminate the problems of racist gun control laws. The various Black Codes adopted after the Civil War required blacks to essays sparknotes obtain a license before carrying or possessing firearms or bowie knives. These Codes are sufficiently well-known that any reasonably complete history of the Reconstruction period mentions them. These restrictive gun laws played a part in antonia provoking Republican efforts to get the Fourteenth Amendment passed. (44) Republicans in Congress apparently believed that it would be difficult for night riders to provoke terror in freedmen who were returning fire.

It appears that the Fourteenth Amendments requirement to treat blacks and whites equally before the law led to the adoption of restrictive firearms laws in the South that were equal in the letter of the the great essay law, but unequally enforced. It is clear that the vagrancy statutes adopted in 1866, the same year the arms control laws were adopted, were intended to antonia essay be used against blacks, even though the language was race-neutral. (45) The former states of the Confederacy, many of which had recognized the right to carry arms openly before the Civil War, developed a greater willingness to qualify that right after the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. One especially absurd example of how far a state was willing to go to mfa creative writing low residency qualify the right to bear arms, and essay, one that includes strong evidence of the racist intentions behind gun control laws, is the great schism, a decision made in Texas. In 1859 in Cockrum v. State, the Texas Supreme Court recognized that there was a right to carry defensive arms and antonia essay, that this right was protected under both the Second Amendment and Section Thirteen of the Texas Bill of Rights. (46) The outer limit of the state's authority (in this case, attempting to discourage the carrying of bowie knives) was that it could provide an enhanced penalty for manslaughters committed with bowie knives, but could not prohibit their being carried. Writing Statement? (47) Yet, by 1872 in antonia cather essay English v. State, the Texas Supreme Court denied that there was any right to carry any weapon for individual self-defense under either the state or federal constitutions. (48) Rather than explaining or justifying why the Cockrum decision was no longer valid, the court merely explained that the issue of the right to mfa creative programs bear arms was not fairly before the court in Cockrum . (49) What caused the dramatic change? The following excerpt from the antonia cather essay willa English decision reveals how racism permeated legal thinking: We will not say to what extent the early customs and habits of the people of mfa creative low residency programs, this state should be respected and essay willa, accommodated, where they may come in conflict with the ideas of intelligent and michel de montaigne essays, well-meaning legislators. A portion of antonia willa, our system of good thesis, laws, as well as our public morality, is derived from a people the most peculiar perhaps of any other in the history and antonia, derivation of its own system . The Great Schism Essay? Spain, at different periods of the world, was dominated over by the Carthagenians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Snovi, the Allani, the Visigoths, and Arabs; and to this day there are found in the Spanish codes traces of the laws and customs of antonia cather essay, each of these nations blended together in schism essay a system by cather essay willa no means to mfa creative low residency programs be compared with the sound philosophy and pure morality of the common law. (50)

Throughout the South during the post-war period, the existing precedents that recognized a right to cather willa openly carry arms under state constitutional provisions and the Second Amendment were being narrowly construed or simply ignored. (51) The apparent goal of the gun control and essay pattern in world history, vagrancy laws was to intimidate the freedmen into willa, an economically subservient position. By making the freedmen defenseless, employers could be more confident that intimidation would keep their hired hands in line. Nor was the intent that led to these laws lost on judges in the North. In 1920, the Ohio Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a Mexican for carrying a concealed handgun #151; while he was asleep in essay his own bed. Antonia Cather? (52) Justice Wanamaker's scathing dissent criticized the the great schism precedents cited by the majority in antonia essay defense of by martin, this absurdity: I desire to give some special attention to some of the authorities cited, supreme court decisions from Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Kentucky, and one or two inferior court decisions from New York, which are given in support of the doctrines upheld by this court. The southern states have very largely furnished the precedents. It is cather essay willa, only necessary to observe that the race issue there has extremely intensified a decisive purpose to entirely disarm the negro, and this policy is evident upon reading the exercises writing thesis statement opinions . (53)

There are other examples of remarkable honesty from the state supreme courts on this subject. Antonia Cather? The finest is probably Florida Supreme Court Justice Buford's concurring opinion in Watson v. Stone. In Watson , a conviction for carrying a handgun without a permit was overturned because the handgun was in the glove compartment of by martin luther, a car. (54) Justice Buford wrote: I know something of the history of essay, this legislation. The original Act of 1893 was passed when there was a great influx of negro laborers in this State drawn here for the purpose of the great, working in turpentine and lumber camps. The same condition existed when the Act was amended in 1901 and the Act was passed for the purpose of disarming the negro laborers and to thereby reduce the unlawful homicides that were prevalent in turpentine and antonia cather willa, saw-mill camps and to give the white citizens in sparsely settled areas a better feeling of security. The statute was never intended to be applied to the white population and in practice has never been so applied. (55) There is paul rieckhoff essay, a shortage of such forthright statements of racist intent behind modern gun control laws. But has the racist intent disappeared, or simply been recast into cather willa, a more acceptable form? Robert Sherrill, at one time a correspondent for The Nation and a supporter of restrictive gun control laws, argued in his book The Saturday Night Special that fear of armed blacks was the major provocation of the Gun Control Act of 1968.

He argues: The Gun Control Act of 1968 was passed not to control guns to but control blacks, and inasmuch as a majority of Congress did not want to 95 thesis by martin do the former but were ashamed to show that their goal was the antonia willa latter, the result was that they did neither. In World? Indeed, this law, the first gun-control law passed by Congress in thirty years, was one of the cather willa grand jokes of writing low residency, our time. (56) Sherrill failed to provide smoking gun evidence for his claim, but there is no shortage of evidence of the level of fear that gripped white America in antonia the late 1960s. The California Legislature adopted a major new arms law in 1967, for essay, the first time prohibiting the open carrying of antonia, firearms in cities. (57) This law easily passed after the Black Panthers demonstrated against sparknotes it #151; by walking into the Assembly Chamber carrying pistols, rifles, [and] at least one sawed-off shotgun. (58) This demonstration of course pushed the law through, in spite of significant opposition from conservative Republicans such as State Senator John G. Schmitz. (59) Another piece of evidence that corroborates Sherrills belief that both liberals and conservatives intended the Gun Control Act of 1968 as race control more than gun control has recently been found.

There are strong similarities between the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the 1938 weapons law adopted by Nazi Germany. Antonia Willa? (60) This similarity is no coincidence; one of the the great schism essay principal authors of the Gun Control Act of 1968 was Senator Thomas Dodd of Connecticut. After World War II, Dodd was assistant to the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crime trials. (61) Shortly before the Gun Control Act of 1968 was written, Dodd asked the Library of Congress to translate the 1938 German weapons law into English. Antonia Cather Essay? Dodd supplied the German text. (62) Dodd was not a Nazi; he had a reputation as an aggressive federal prosecutor of civil rights violations. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that any sort of American Holocaust was intended. Nonetheless, it would not be surprising if Dodd found it convenient to adapt a law that had already proven its efficacy at 95 thesis by martin luther disarming a minority group. Today is not 1968.

When proponents of restrictive gun control insist that their motivations are color-blind, there is a possibility that they are telling the truth. Nonetheless, there are some rather interesting questions that should be asked today. The most obvious is, Why should a police chief or sheriff have any discretion in issuing a concealed handgun permit? Here in California even the state legislature's research arm #151; hardly a nest of pro-gunners #151; has admitted that the vast majority of permits to carry concealed handguns in California are issued to white males. Antonia Cather Essay Willa? (63) Even if overt racism is not an issue, an official may simply have more empathy with an applicant of a similar cultural background and consequently more closely relate to the applicant's concerns. As my wife pointedly reminded a police official when we applied for concealed weapon permits, If more police chiefs were women, a lot more women would get permits, and would be able to defend themselves from rapists. The warrantless searches of private residences for guns in Chicago housing projects in the great early 1994 is another reminder of how racism and gun control remain intertwined. (If there are white people living in these projects, they are remarkably invisible in news media coverage). While these warrantless searches were finally blocked by a judge, the popular press was remarkably neutral in essay its coverage of the Clinton administrations advocacy of such an the great obvious violation of the Fourth Amendments protections against unreasonable searches.

President Clinton, after his warrantless search policy was struck down, explained his goals: Finally, we're going to work with residents in cather willa high-crime areas to essay in world history permit the full range of searches that the Constitution does allow in antonia cather essay common areas, in vacant apartments, and in circumstances where residents are in immediate danger. We'll encourage more weapons frisks of de montaigne, suspicious persons, and we'll ask tenant associations to put clauses in antonia essay willa their leases allowing searches when crime conditions make it necessary. (64) The frisks of suspicious persons are a longstanding tradition used against black Americans. Requiring housing project tenants to give up their constitutional protections against warrantless searches is astounding. Can you imagine the mfa creative programs reaction if tenants were required to antonia essay give up their right to free speech when crime conditions make it necessary? It is hard to imagine the government attempting something similar in a white suburb #151; at least until the courts first find it constitutional in a black ghetto. The case might be made that the government attempted to make the tenants safe by unconstitutional means #151; that the intentions were good even if the methods were wrong. But even for the special case of housing projects, there are profound inconsistencies in the policy. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Henry Cisneros in a press conference on February 4, 1994, attempted to rieckhoff justify the warrantless searches as protecting the antonia essay willa tenants of these crime-ridden projects. Cisneros, however, admitted that [c]rime statistics . . . show that public housing residents are not to blame for the reign of terror. (65) A large majority of those arrested in housing projects were nonresidents. (66) It is essay on migration pattern in world history, therefore all the more amazing that the residents , who would presumably have much to fear from cather willa, these armed nonresident criminals, are the ones that the Clinton administration seeks to disarm.

If we examine these Clinton administration policies as a pragmatic response to crime, we must ask: why disarm the likely victims of the criminals? But if we consider these inexplicable policies as the latest symptom of racist attitudes about violence, then these policies make much more sense. Gun control advocates today are not so foolish as to promote openly racist laws, but it is paul essay, important to consider the relevance of racist gun control laws of the past. My concern is that past motivations for cather essay willa, disarming blacks are really not so different from the motivations behind disarming law-abiding citizens today. In the last century, the rhetoric in schism support of such laws was that they (i.e., blacks) were too violent and too untrustworthy to be allowed weapons. Today, the same elitist rhetoric regards law-abiding Americans the same way, as children in need of essay willa, guidance from the paul essay government. While never openly admitted, one of the goals of disarming blacks was to antonia cather willa make them more willing to accept various forms of economic oppression, such as the exercises good sharecropping system, in which free blacks were kept in antonia an economic state not dramatically superior to slavery.

Even today, with open racism unacceptable in the mainstream of American politics, gun control still looks suspiciously concerned with issues of on migration, race. The Crime Bill of 1994, passed after a bruising fight in Congress, was opposed by an unlikely coalition in the House: most Republicans, some conservative Democrats, and many black Democrats. The primary concern of the first two factions appears to have been the assault weapon ban. Black Democrats were concerned that the death penalty provisions would disproportionately affect blacks. The assault weapon ban provisions of the willa Crime Bill certainly reflected a widespread fear of luther, armed inner-city blacks.

Much of its rhetoric was devoted to the dangers of these guns in the hands of gang members and other code phrases for poor blacks. But as a number of careful studies have found, assault weapons are seldomly misused criminally. (67) A Wall Street Journal editorial chided Congress for passage of a ban that, under the most charitable assumptions, would reduce murder and other violent crimes by a tiny fraction of 1%. (68) The Trenton, New Jersey assistant chief of police testified before Congress that his officers were more likely to confront an escaped tiger than a criminal with an assault weapon. (69) Crime control was not the motivation for antonia willa, the assault weapon ban. Supporters of the the great schism essay ban continually emphasized that hunting rifles would not be affected by the ban. Was this a subtle way of saying that the cather essay willa sort of guns owned by white Americans would not be affected? Hunting is a heavily rural activity in America, and not surprisingly, black hunters are relatively rare.

Similarly, an essay on migration history argument advanced by some pro-ban members of the Congress (notably Senator Campbell of Colorado) was that the antonia cather essay law would only affect new manufacturing #151; existing owners could keep their guns. If the effect of a similar 1986 ban on new machine gun manufacturing is any indication, the net effect of michel essays, such an assault weapon ban will be to dramatically increase the price of existing weapons. A price increase further removes assault weapons from the financial reach of the poor, who are disproportionately black. What are the antonia cather essay policy implications of restrictive gun control today? Increasingly, they are not aimed just at black people, or at the poor, but at the middle class. The forces that push for gun control are heavily (though not exclusively) allied with political factions that are committed to dramatic increases in taxation on the middle class. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes? While it would be hyperbole to compare higher taxes on the middle class to the suffering and cather willa, deprivation of sharecropping or slavery, the analogy of disarming those whom you wish to economically disadvantage has a certain worrisome validity to it.

Another point to consider is that under the American legal system certain classifications of governmental discrimination are considered constitutionally suspect, and these suspect classifications are subject to a strong presumption of invalidity ( e.g ., a law that made distinctions based on race, even if the distinction was nominally race-neutral in its effect). Luther? (70) These classifications are suspect because there is antonia willa, a long history of schism, governmental discrimination based on them, and because laws based on antonia essay, these classifications often impinge on fundamental rights. (71) In much the same way, gun control historically has been a tool of racism and associated with racist attitudes about black violence. Essay? Similarly, many gun control laws impinge on willa, that most fundamental of rights: self-defense. Racism is so intimately tied to the history of gun control in America that we should regard gun control aimed at law-abiding people as a suspect idea and rieckhoff, require that the courts use the same demanding standards when reviewing the constitutionality of cather essay willa, a gun control law that they use with respect to a law that discriminates based on race. Throughout the history of the United States, our courts have often avoided directly answering questions about the constitutional limits of gun control. As we have seen, this was sometimes done by insisting that the right of the people didn't include black people. Another strategy popular in writing low residency the slave states was to claim that as long as openly carrying a firearm was legal, then the state could prohibit or regulate concealed carrying of a firearm. Yet another strategy was to essay willa dispute what arms were protected. Rieckhoff Essay? The New York courts upheld the Sullivan Act, which licensed the possession of essay, handguns at home, on essay on migration pattern in world history, the basis that handguns were not a constitutionally protected arm #151; unlike a rifle or a shotgun. Antonia Cather Essay Willa? Such decisions have usually insisted that only arms of the michel essays soldier are protected by the Second Amendment, or the state constitutions equivalent provision.

In United States v. Cruikshank (a decision that emasculated the Ku Klux Klan Act), the cather essay willa U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment is de montaigne sparknotes, a limitation on cather, the federal government only, not on the state governments. (72) This argument has been accepted by most (but not all) state supreme courts. Writing Good? (73) These sorts of question-begging approaches will not be available to the U.S. Supreme Court in the cases that will come before it shortly. The assault weapon ban in the 1994 Crime Bill prohibits new manufacture of a category of antonia cather, weapons that is more clearly protected by essay on migration pattern in world history original intent and existing precedents than any other category of common privately owned arm: arms with a primarily military function and appearance.

Unlike Morton Groves handgun ban, (74) or California's Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act, (75) this law is federal, not state. Fourteenth Amendment incorporation is cather essay willa, not necessary for the Crime Bills ban to be contrary to the Second Amendment. Similarly, the Administrations gun control policies with respect to public housing will create differential treatment between whites and blacks, simply because blacks are so overwhelmingly the 95 thesis luther residents of antonia, urban public housing projects. Will the Supreme Court apply the writing programs same reasoning to the Second Amendment that they have with the First Amendment? Or will they continue a tradition of winking at antonia cather essay willa the Second Amendment because the underlying policy of gun control is based on racist assumptions? 1. Thomas N. Writing? Ingersoll, Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812 , 48 Wm. Mary Q. Antonia Cather Essay Willa? 173, 178-79 (1991). 3. Daniel H. Usner, Jr., Indians, Settlers, Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783, 165, 187 (1992). 4. Michael C. The Great Schism Essay? Meyer William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History 216 (4th ed. Cather? 1991).

5. Luther? Edmund S. Morgan, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox , in Colonial America: Essays in antonia cather essay Politics and Social Development 280 (Stanley N. Katz et al. eds., 4th ed. 1993) 7. Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in writing the Making of America 81 (3rd ed. 1987). 8. Ingersoll, supra note 1, at 198-200. 10. Antonia Essay? Stanley Elkins, Slavery 220 (3rd ed. 1976). 11.

Nat Turner 115 (Eric Foner ed., 1971). 13. Harriet Jacobs [Linda Brant], Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), in The Classic Slave Narratives 333, 395-96 (Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ed., 1987). 14. Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South 30 (1965). 16. 6 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of essay pattern history, America, 3424 (Francis Newton Thorpe, ed., 1909) [hereinafter The Federal and State Constitutions]. 17. Id . at 3428 (emphasis added).

18. Simpson v. State, 13 Tenn. 292, 295 (5 Yer.) (1833). 19. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 20. State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 203 note (5 Ired.) (1844). 24. 5 The Federal and essay, State Constitutions, supra note 16, at essay history 2788.

25. State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 206 (5 Ired.) (1844). 26. Antonia Willa? State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 27. Newsom , 27 N.C. at 206. 28.

1 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at essay 538 (1818 Connecticut, Art. I, Sec. Antonia Essay? 17); 3 Id . at 1275 (1792 Kentucky, Art. XII, Sec. 23) and at 1290 (1799, Art. The Great Essay? IX, Sec. 23); 3 Id . at 1648 (1819 Maine, Art. I, Sec. Antonia Cather Essay? 16); 4 Id . at 2034 (1817 Mississippi, Art.

I, Sec. 23); 5 Id . at 3101 (1790 Pennsylvania, Art. IX, Sec. 21, but see 5 Id . at 3083, 1776 Constitution, That the people have a right to luther bear arms. . . .); 6 Id . at 3543 (1836 Republic of Texas Declaration of Rights, Sec. 14) and at 3548 (1845 Texas Constitution, Art. I, Sec.

13). 30. Cather Essay Willa? Nunn v. State, 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846). 32. Cooper v. Mayor of Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 68 (1848). 38. 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846) (upholding the right to bear arms). 39.

Dred Scott v. Paul? Sandford, 60 U.S. 393, 417 (19 How.) (1857) (emphasis added). 40. Juliet E. K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier 21 (1983) (quoting the statute). This is an inspiring biography of a slave who, through hard work moonlighting in the production of saltpeter and land surveying, saved enough money to buy his wife, himself, and eventually all of his children and antonia cather essay willa, grandchildren out of slavery #151; while fighting against oppressive laws and vigorous racism. Most impressive of all, is that he did it without ever learning to read or write.

42. In World? See id . at 73 (describing precautions free black families took to protect themselves from antonia cather essay willa, kidnappers). 43. 95 Thesis By Martin Luther? Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws in antonia willa the Old Northwest: A Documentary History, 27-32, 227-40, 309-14, 353-7, 403-4 (1993) (quoting statutes from Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin). 44. Michael Les Benedict, The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives to Restoring the mfa creative writing low residency programs Union, 1865-1877, 87 (1975) (quoting Louisiana statute); Francis L. Broderick, Reconstruction and the American Negro, 1865-1900, 36-37 (1969); Dan T. Carter, When The War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in cather the South, 1865-1867, 219-21 (1985) (describing confiscation of the great essay, arms from cather essay willa, blacks after the Civil War); Eric Foner, Reconstruction 258-9 (1988). 45. See Foner, supra note 44, at 198-201. 46. 24 Tex.

394, 401-02 (1859). 48. 35 Tex. Essay On Migration Pattern History? 473, 476-77, 478 (1872). 49. Id . at 476 (citing Cochrane [sic.] v. The State, 24 Tex. Antonia? 394.) 50. Id . at 479-80 (emphasis added). 52. State v. Nieto, 130 N.E.

663, 663, 665 (1920). 53. Low Residency? Id . at 669 (emphasis added). 54. 4 So. 2d 700, 702-03 (1941). 56. Robert Sherrill, The Saturday Night Special 280 (1973). 57. Assembly Office of Research, Smoking Gun: The Case For Concealed Weapon Permit Reform, 6 (1986). 58.

Capitol Is Invaded , Sacramento Bee, May 2, 1967, A1, A10. 59. Bill Barring Loaded Weapons In Public Clears Senate 29-7 , Sacramento Bee, July 27, 1967, A6. 60. Jim Simkin Aaron Zelman, Gun Control: Gateway to cather Tyranny 83 (1992) (providing the full text in German and English of the various weapons laws and regulations adopted by the Weimar Republic and the Nazis from 1928 to 1938 and comparing them to the Gun Control Act of mfa creative programs, 1968). 61. Sherrill, supra note 56, at 67. 62.

Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, The War on Gun Ownership Still Goes On! , Guns Ammo, May 1993, at 30-31. 63. Assembly Office of Research, supra note 57, at 5. 64. The President's Radio Address of Apr. 16, 1994, 30 Weekly Comp.

Pres. Doc. 823 (Apr. 16, 1994). 65. The Vice President, Secretary Henry Cisneros, Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, Attorney General Janet Reno and Director of antonia cather, Drug Policy Lee Brown, Press Briefing (Feb.

4, 1994) (transcript available from the 95 thesis luther White House Office of the Press Secretary). 67. Gary Kleck, Point Blank: Guns and cather essay, Violence in America 75 (1991). 68. What Is an michel de montaigne Assault Weapon? , Wall St.

J., Aug. 25, 1994, at A12. 70. Thomas G. Antonia? Walker, Suspect Classifications , in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States 848 (Kermit L. Hall et al. eds., 1992). 72. Pattern In World? 92 U.S. 542, 553 (1875).

73. See generally Clayton E. Cramer, For The Defense of Themselves And The State: The Original Intent Judicial Interpretation of the Right To Keep And Bear Arms 221-67 (1994) (surveying a number of state court decisions where gun restrictions were reviewed). 74. Morton Grove, Ill., Ordinance 81-11 (June 8, 1981). 75. Cal. Penal Code §§ 12275-90 (West 1992 Supp.


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How to Write a Functional or Skills-Based Resume (With Examples + Templates) Every job applicant knows how to write a resume. Few know how to essay willa, do it well. Fewer still are candidates who know how to strategically format a resume to their advantage. After all, a resume is writing low residency, a resume, right? Not quite. There are three types of resumes, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

Chronological resume : Highlights your work history and most recent job title first. It’s the most commonly used format for resumes. Functional or Skill-based resume : List your skills and accomplishment first, while shifting focus from your employment history. Antonia Cather Willa! Combination resume : A qualifications summary or achievements summary highlights the most notable parts of your career, but your work history will still include details of schism, your job description, skills, and other accomplishments not included in the summary. Whether you choose to use a professional resume template, or start from scratch, today we'll teach you some key considerations to figure out when to go with a functional resume versus a chronological or combination resume. First, let's look at antonia willa, what the writing good thesis statement, benefits of functional resumes are. The Unsung Merits of Functional Resumes.

Functional resumes highlight your skills and accomplishments, regardless of the length of your career, the job titles you held, and the industries you’ve worked in. Antonia Cather! In short, it gives applicants with limited experience, or non-traditional career paths a better fighting chance. 5 Situations Where a Functional Resume Works Best. Functional resumes are great for michel essays, highlighting transferable skills that will be applicable to your new line of work. Your job title and job description as a UX designer might not translate to an impressive resume for an Android/iOS Developer position. Antonia Cather Essay Willa! But your experience in software development and knowledge of different programming languages will. “Functional resume are great when a candidate is either going back to where they were earlier in on migration history, their career, or if there is antonia cather essay willa, a gap in 95 thesis by martin luther, their employment, such as if they’re taking care of an ill parent or child ”, says Bill Humbert, Recruiter and antonia willa, Talent Acquisition Consultant.

It’s also good for discreetly presenting work histories with employment gaps due to layoffs. You can do this by listing employment dates without the months, as compared below: Graphic Designer, XYZ Productions, May 2009 - October 2012. Graphic Designer, ABC Web Design LLC , April 2013 - Present. Graphic Designer, XYZ Productions, 2009 - 2012.

Graphic Designer, ABC Web Design LLC, 2013 - Present. In the example above, the five to essay on migration in world, six month gap is less obvious because only the years are listed. Unfortunately, this isn’t a fool-proof strategy, as recruiters who read hundreds of resumes a day are used to cather, this tactic. It’s just a band-aid strategy to paul rieckhoff essay, downplay employment gaps enough for essay, recruiters to 95 thesis by martin luther, see your potential. To avoid any confusion and conclusion jumping on the part of recruiters, include a brief cover letter explaining the employment gaps. Cather! Don’t’ be afraid to mfa creative writing low residency, tell the truth. Cather Essay Willa! Recruiters are humans, too, so they understand layoffs, restructuring, and the need to essay, take care of ailing parents. 3. Fresh Graduates with Limited Work Experience. Chronological resumes aren’t the best fit for fresh graduates because they don’t have much experience in antonia essay willa, the first place. Exercises Thesis Statement! And in antonia cather willa, many cases, whatever work history they have is michel de montaigne, either unrelated to the job they’re applying for, or not considered as ‘on-the-job experience’ by recruiters because it’s part of college, and not an antonia, ‘ actual job’ . It’s better for fresh grads to start their resume with a list of michel de montaigne, skills learned through course-related projects, volunteer experience, extra-curricular activities and internships, and then briefly list their academic achievements and antonia, employment history.

Listing ‘photography skills’ under work history then citing the school’s newspaper as ‘ employer’ won’t hold much weight in the eyes of employers. Maybe you were lucky to land a good job in a solid company that knows how to take care of writing good statement, its employees. So you stayed with them for years. But that doesn’t mean you didn’t grow in your field. You might have held different positions, worked in different departments and acquired a diverse set of skills, even if you stayed put in one company. Because you’ve had only antonia cather essay one employer, a chronological format that relies on career progression and mention of de montaigne sparknotes, different companies in cather essay willa, the employment history won’t do you justice.

A skill-based resume, on the other hand, emphasizes your achievements and skills. By Martin! It also helps you side skirt hesitations about what you ‘ might have missed, ’ as a result of working solely for one company. 5. Candidates that Rely on their Portfolio. Marissa Klein, founder of antonia cather essay willa, Choice Personnel Inc staffing agency, describes why designers should use a functional resume and essays sparknotes, not over-rely on their portfolio alone: If you’re sending a resume and portfolio straight to a hiring manager — not a recruiter who hires for multiple positions in antonia essay, different industries — there’s a huge possibility that hiring manager is 95 thesis, experienced in antonia, hiring on the basis of a portfolio’s merit. De Montaigne Sparknotes! But if you’re applying online, uploading onto a platform, or submitting to recruiters, you MUST have a functional resume in order to antonia essay willa, be seen and reviewed correctly Functional resume for designers should look more corporate — with roles, skills, and dates as HR would traditionally expect to see them. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes! And not just a list of random projects thrown together.

The recruiters I talked to for this tutorial are split when it comes to cather essay, functional resumes. Some recruiters said using this format, especially when you’re not changing jobs or field of work isn’t to the applicant’s advantage. Others say it’s a less than usual format in some circumstance but just the right format for some high level positions. Bill Humbert, Recruiter and Talent Acquisition Consultant says: Generally, I am not impressed with a functional resume since it is the great schism essay, so difficult to determine when the candidate performed specific tasks. But then, most managers like chronological resumes for the same reason. Functional resumes work well for senior management positions, where what you can do is more important than what you have done. Obviously your employment background is an important foundation, so you must include enough detail to bolster your application. Michelle Riklan, former Senior HR Manager and current Resume Writer, agrees: Job descriptions for willa, CEOs and senior executives are varied and good, extensive.

Functional resumes are preferred for senior roles because it gives them freedom to essay willa, display achievements front and center of the resume – be it a 25% increase in sales, a 1M to 1B growth, or opening a new office abroad – so it’s not lost and buried in their extensive job description. Writing Your Own Functional Resume. Now we get into the nitty-gritty of resume writing. In this section, I’m going to schism essay, break down the cather, basic parts of a skill-based resume then explain its purpose and typical approach to michel essays, content. Antonia Cather Essay! When available, I’ll also show you snippets of how these elements look like in real skill-based resumes. Names and other private information are either blurred out or changed. Includes your name, mobile number, professional email address—no usernames like partygirl_21 please. You can also include your website URL and portfolio here. It’s the second part of essay, your resume, positioned directly below your name and antonia willa, contact details. It’s also called “Professional Summary”, “Career Highlights” or even “Personal Profile” in some cases. Because you only have six seconds to catch a recruiter’s attention, the summary should describe the most attention grabbing and impressive tidbits about you as an employee.

You can go with a bulleted list, a first-person narrative, or write it from de montaigne essays sparknotes, a third person’s point of view. Antonia Essay Willa! The latter is recommended for managerial and pattern history, executive positions. Catch the recruiter's attention with a question. Notice how the above example draws your attention by cather essay, asking a question, something many resumes don’t do. According to Riklan, the resume writer mentioned earlier, Ned managed to secure a more senior level position with the help of michel essays, this resume. Resume summary for an IT professional written in the first-person. Casual, first-person summary for a fashion and graphic designer. Skills can be categorized into three types: Job-related: Learned at school or on antonia cather essay willa, the job, and de montaigne essays, are relevant to your target position. For example, a Web Designer’s skills might include knowledge of Adobe Creative Suite, understanding cross-browser compatibilities, and fluency in HTML and CSS. Antonia Cather Willa! Transferable Skills: Applicable to by martin luther, different roles and industries, and are generally emphasized when you’re in career transition.

Transferable skills could be people-related, such as managing a team, communicating well, or negotiating. But it can also be general tasks, such as gathering information, working with vendors, and antonia, change management. Check this guide if you’re not sure what your transferable skills are. Adaptive or Personal Skills: Include character traits that are hard to prove on paper but is in world history, important in showing the kind of employee you are, such as ‘an honest, team player with a can-do attitude’ . You might think adaptive skills are only essay important if you’re a beginner with not much job-related skills to boast of. But in reality, many employers look for candidates with a good mix of all three skill sets. After all, for most positions it’s not hard to find candidates with the right job-related skills. What’s hard is finding people who can work well with their team and understand the company’s corporate culture. Functional cv/resume template, to good statement, showcase your skills to potential employers.

Below is an antonia cather, example of a skill-based resume for an IT Director position, which was customized to focus on the candidate’s leadership, negotiation, and IT skills. All his transferable and IT-related leadership skills are at pattern, the top, while his technical skills are itemized and grouped below it. Skills section of a functional resume for an IT Director. Your resume has to be tailored to the job you’re applying for so make sure the skills listed in the ad are also in your resume. Antonia! And if you can, back it up with specific experience and ‘power words’ so it doesn’t look like you just copied the job ad. Here is a job description example: “Expert knowledge of Adobe Creative Suite, InVision, Sketch, or similar tools.” Now modified with personal experience and ‘power words ’ in your resume: Created graphics and designs for pattern in world, restaurant flyers, travel brochures, and marathon events using Adobe Creative Suite, Sketch and InVision.” Only include accomplishments relevant to your target position. Antonia Cather Essay! Employers won’t care if you’ve won a hotdog eating contest in a previous job, but they care about awards for leadership, great service to the company and other job-specific matters. If you’re in transition, say from healthcare to paul rieckhoff, tourism, I suggest replacing industry specific words with general terms.

Words like ‘ patient’ and ‘ doctor’ can be replaced with ‘ clients’ so recruiters won’t think your achievements are only cather essay applicable to the healthcare industry. Don’t forget to quantify your achievements through percentages, time saved, or a monetary amount. Common Formulas for essay, Writing Accomplishments: Situation + What you did + Result Work challenge + Action + Result End result + Why it was needed (situation) + Action. Ask these Questions to Determine Your Accomplishments:

Have I received awards or special recognition for my job? Have I increased the antonia cather essay willa, efficiency of certain procedures in michel sparknotes, my work? Did I help my team save money or accomplish more with fewer expenses? Have I won new clients or projects for the team? Have I led or managed a team for a certain project? Did I identify a problem no one realized? Have I prevented an antonia cather, issue from escalating? Have I been promoted?

Have I ever taught my team mates new skills? Put your accomplishments in a bullet list, and if necessary, group it according to the top three to paul rieckhoff essay, four skills for your job. Antonia Essay Willa! Your accomplishments can also be used to essay on migration pattern history, prove the skills listed in antonia cather essay willa, your resume. Here’s an example from schism essay, a fresh graduate with a couple of freelance projects under his belt. If you’re in transition or have limited work experience, don’t forget to antonia, include internships, personal projects and volunteer work in this section. No one said your work history should be limited to 95 thesis by martin luther, paid roles. Functional resume template, which emphasizes your skills, experience, and projects broadly, rather than your work history. If you’re a freelancer or have worked on cather essay willa, multiple part-time or project-based jobs, you can list your employment history chronologically. Just write the statement, name of the cather essay willa, organization you worked with, the work duration, and a short description of each project or job. List the luther, degree you got, major and where you studied. Include seminars, online courses, and training, too.

If you speak another language, you can add it here or in antonia cather essay, the skills section. Education and training section example. Whether you put a graduation date or not is up to you. If you graduated more than 20 years ago, some recruiters say not listing the date minimizes your risk of encountering ageism. Education section example without dates. Your functional resume is exercises writing thesis statement, complete. You can send it as is, or jazz it up with these extra credibility-boosters. Don’t be scared to get creative. Antonia Essay Willa! Just remember that everything you add should improve your image to potential employers.

Consider the following: Portfolio : Thumbnails of pattern, your portfolio or a link to your website. Testimonials : References are usually ‘available upon request’ and only asked for when you’re at the last stages of the application process. But no one said you can’t put in a good word about yourself, in advance . Links : Add a link to your Github, LinkedIn, or other professional networking site. Download our free PDF worksheet on Power Words for Writing a Functional Resume, which includes a resume checklist to make sure you're hitting all the right points. Use a Professional Resume Template. We have a number of professional resume templates available for purchase on GraphicRiver. They have numerous features to build a chronological resume, functional resume, or combination resume. Many of these templates also have additional creative options for displaying your portfolio, include a well-branded cover letter template, and cather essay willa, more. All these features can help you stand out visually and land that job you're applying for! Mono Resume: A functional resume template that features skills, available on GraphicRiver.

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